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Indus Script Timeline

Indus Script Timeline



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The Story of India’s Many Scripts

While India’s scripts are ancient, technology and modernity are changing their usage patterns.

Only a few years ago, things did not seem to be going well for India’s various alphabets, often known as the Indic or Brahmic scripts after the historical Iron Age script that is the ancestor of modern South and Southeast Asian writing systems. Digitalization and the widespread proliferation of Roman-alphabet keyboards in India meant that Indian users would often transcribe Indian languages using ad hoc Romanizations on the internet and via text.

Yet today, one can’t follow the Indian Twittersphere or Indian content on social media and the rest of the internet without noticing the recent proliferation of Indic script material, particularly Devanagari (the script used for Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali). Technology and innovation helped this process along, and instead of shrinking the sphere of Indic script usage, they allow Indic scripts to be used more broadly, especially at the popular level. The use of Unicode, and the spread of Indic script transliteration and typing interfaces on Google, and on phones—which is how most Indians access the Internet—have all made it much easier to publish online in Indic scripts. Many phones and computers in India are not specifically designed with Indic script keyboards and instead use the Roman alphabet keyboards common in the West. Transliteration software renders this moot. The increased use of Indic-language scripts has also lead to newer and more artistic fonts for Indian languages.

In short, this is a golden age for Indic language script usage, due to technology and increased literacy. This is despite both the proliferation of English-language education in India, and the shoddy quality of public schools in that country. The very nature of modernity, with its mass communication, advertisements, social platforms, and the spread of information and entertainment to everyone with a smartphone, means that everyone will eventually gain and utilize basic literacy, even if by osmosis and not formal education. And most of this literacy in India will be in local languages. This will be the first time in India’s recorded history that its scripts are being used so widely.

India has a long history of writing. While India has been a literate culture for millennia, it has also greatly valued oral knowledge. The ancient Hindu scriptures, the Vedas, the oldest of which dated to around 1500 BCE were memorized verbatim for at least a thousand years, if not more, before being committed to writing. The oldest writing found in the subcontinent is the as yet undeciphered script of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), which seems to have been somewhat logo-syllabic in nature. The script fell out of use by 1500 BCE.

The Indus Valley Script. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The linguistic landscape of the subcontinent changed dramatically during the 2nd millennium BCE, so that is is impossible to determine if there is a connection between the IVC script and the next clearly attested script in India, the Brahmi script found in the inscriptions of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (ruled 268-232 BCE), especially since they probably represented vastly different, unrelated languages.

The sudden appearance of the Brahmi writing system is one of the great mysteries of writing in India, as there is no evidence of inscriptions beforehand. Another script, the (extinct, childless) Kharosthi of northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan seems to be clearly derived from the imperial Aramaic script used by the Persians who ruled over parts of the Indus Valley for two centuries until the arrival of Alexander the Great. It is unclear if the fully developed Brahmi script was invented by the Mauryan Empire as a result of exposure to Aramaic, but this seems unlikely, particularly since there were advanced states in the Ganges valley and a corpus of Vedic literature dating from before the Mauryan period.

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It is more likely that pre-Mauryan inscriptions may still be discovered, and in fact, some Brahmi inscriptions have been found in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka dating to the 6th century BCE. Is it possible then, that writing spread from the south to the north, countervening the traditional notion that the Indic scripts originate in the Ganges valley? This may quite possibly be the case, especially since the coasts of southern India were more exposed to foreign trade from the Middle East than northern India, and scripts from traders could have been brought to India this way (the same way the Phoenicians brought their script to Greece). This long gestation period and overland route from southern to northern India may explain why the Brahmi script, even if it is vaguely derived from Middle Eastern alphabets, is so different and nativized, especially relative to the more obviously Middle Eastern-inspired Kharosthi.

The Possible Evolution of Brahmi from Middle Eastern Scripts. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Once the Brahmi script was spread throughout India by the subcontinent-wide Mauryan Empire, it was used by the subcontinent’s elites.However, unlike imperial China with its unified central government and bureaucratic exam system, and Christian and Muslim societies that were united by a written scripture, oral culture and regional differences in India led to the Brahmi script differentiating and evolving into different scripts in various regions of India, a phenomenon that was already occurring by the end of the Maruyan period in the 2nd century BCE. This phenomenon—each literary language having a particular and unique script—is not actually that unique to India, as the various languages of the ancient Near East and Mediterranean also evolved their own scripts from a common source.

The increased need for quicker, daily writing, versus use for monumental inscriptions may have led to the predominance of cursive styles that evolved into India’s modern scripts. Various other factors may have been at play, such as the material used for writing: in South India, scripts became more rounded, as a result of writing on palm leaves, while in North India, cloth and birch bark allowed for more angular lines, and indeed the major division amongst Brahmic scripts is between the southern Indian/Southeast Asian scripts and the northern Indian and Tibetan scripts.

The Differentiation of Brahmi Letter Shapes. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Regional linguistic differences also helped Indic writing proliferate into many scripts in both South and Southeast Asia. It became prestigious for every major language to have its own script, though what evolved into today’s Devanagari (which began to emerge by the 7th century CE) script retained a special prestige due to its close association with Sanskrit. It is unclear if the evolution of Indic scripts into new forms would have ever stopped had it not been for the standardization process that is necessary for a print-oriented mass modern society. Relatively recently, for example, Devanagari spawned new, regional variations such as the Gujarati script, indicating that there was no real “final form” in the evolution of letter shapes in Indic writing. This seems to have remained the case, even when Indic-script users were exposed to the more unchanging Roman and Arabic alphabets.

The Evolution of Letter Shapes. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The change in letter forms leading to new scripts was probably so slow, generation by generation, that the process did not necessarily involve conscious change from one script to another, but a slow evolution of differences in letter formation as texts were copied throughout the ages. A similar development occurred in medieval Europe with the Latin script, but the development of the printing press, and Renaissance ideas about how the Latin script ought to look like led to a typographical convergence.

Brahmi and Devanagari found together on a pillar. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The evolution of Brahmi into so many scripts over time in India does however raise the question of what individuals and scribes thought about the changes upon becoming aware—and they were aware, as inscriptions in multiple different Indian scripts have been found together, like Kannada with Devanagari—of the fact that their contemporary writing systems were divergent in separate regions, and were also vastly different from the forms found in inscriptions and ancient documents. While 19th century scribes of Indian scripts were unable to tell the British what was written on ancient pillars from the Mauryan Era (the British deciphered Brahmi in 1837), this inability to read ancient forms of writing does not always seem to be the case. In fact, there have been examples of Mauryan, Gupta, and early Nagari inscriptions found together, with each subsequent script alluding to the content of what was written before it in a predecessor script.

But that fact that this knowledge was lost over time and that Indian scripts differentiated into so many forms does seem to indicate that literacy was not widespread and was limited to pockets of individuals, a trend which probably accelerated due to the eclipse of a pan-Indian literary culture after the 12th century. Before the emergence of a modern, mass culture throughout India, writing styles and scripts were particular to regions, and even castes, with scribes and merchants often utilizing their own scripts, which were usually simpler forms of the more formal monumental alphabets used for official or religious purposes.

However, modern trends such as the emergence of a politically unified, subcontinent-wide state in India, new scholarship, and technology seem to be reversed the differentiation that has characterized Indian scripts for past 2,000 years. The literacy of hundred of millions of people in native scripts makes it unlikely that the shapes of letters used by millions of people everyday for communication will change anytime soon, as that would lead to confusion and a lack of communication. The standardization and use of some scripts for mass print and online have also led to the decline of caste and trade based scripts, as well as many local variations. Many hitherto unwritten modern languages are now written in established scripts, usually the script most prevalent in that particular state of India’s, instead of evolving a new script for the language.

While India’s scripts are ancient, technology and modernity are changing their usage patterns, and are in fact allowing them to thrive as never before in standardized and widely used forms, as more people gain literacy and access to the internet.


Indus script

How consistent do you think these models are? The 2nd one seems to show Sanskrit and Dravidian relationships.

1991sudarshan

How consistent do you think these models are? The 2nd one seems to show Sanskrit and Dravidian relationships.

Illumanation

S. M. Sullivan

The link on the Sanskrit one is no good any more, so here's the sign list:

If you can't get it to be legible, there's a more readable version at 'Indus Script Dictionary' on Facebook.

Attachments

Sokar Rostau

Have you ever seen the earliest Egyptian inscriptions? They are tiny labels for things like wine jars and only consist of a couple of hieroglyphs each. IIRC the same holds true for proto-Sumerian. In both cases we can read them because we have later, much longer, examples. No doubt the Indus script is similar.

For all we know, this, which is arguably the most reproduced example of Indus script anywhere, says "Fish Sauce" and the bull represents the family/clan/farm that produced it.

S. M. Sullivan

Have you ever seen the earliest Egyptian inscriptions? They are tiny labels for things like wine jars and only consist of a couple of hieroglyphs each. IIRC the same holds true for proto-Sumerian. In both cases we can read them because we have later, much longer, examples. No doubt the Indus script is similar.

For all we know, this, which is arguably the most reproduced example of Indus script anywhere, says "Fish Sauce" and the bull represents the family/clan/farm that produced it.


Decoding the mysterious ancient Indus Valley script will shed light on powerful ancient civilization

Linguists have cracked many tough scripts, from Mesopotamian cuneiform to Egyptian hieroglyphic to Central American Mayan glyphs, but there are a few ancient, mysterious scripts still in the field today, including the Indus Valley Civilization script of over four millennia ago, that are yet to be deciphered.

The Indus Valley civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BC) that extended from what is today northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. It is one of the three oldest urban civilizations, along with Egypt and Mesopotamia, but it is the least understood. As well as its unknown script, the knowledge of social structures and life during that period is scant.

The undeciphered Indus script is carved in part with human and animal depictions and pictographic signs on soapstone seals, terracotta tablets and some on metal. Linguists do not know how many characters or syllables it has (estimates ranging from dozens to 958), they are not sure whether it is an alphabet (probably not), a syllabary (again, probably not) or a logographic-syllabic script that has words, concepts such as & and % and a small number of syllables (probably). Researchers are unsure which language was being written down in the Indus script, or even if it would be possible for such brief inscriptions to represent a complete language system.

An example of Indus Valley script with swastikas (World Imaging photo/ Wikimedia Commons )

In an article on Nature.com , Andrew Robinson, an author on lost languages, writes: “As for the language, the balance of evidence favours a proto-Dravidian language, not Sanskrit. Many scholars have proposed plausible Dravidian meanings for a few groups of characters based on Old Tamil, although none of these 'translations' has gained universal acceptance.”

The carvings have an average of only five characters per set. The longest has 26. In 2004, a team of researchers compared the Indus script to a system of non-phonetic symbols like the Neolithic Vinča culture of southeast and central Europe and the heraldry of medieval Europe. Robinson said that theory is unlikely.

Other scripts that have yet to be deciphered include Linear A of ancient Greece, Etruscan from Italy, the signs on the Phaistos Disc from Crete and the Rongorongo script from Easter Island.

The brevity of the Indus writings, if they are that, may mean they express only small bits of the language of the Indus Valley civilization, Robinson writes, similar to early types of Mesopotamia’s cuneiform that recorded only officials’ names and calculations of products, including grain.

Researchers into the Indus script hope someday to find a thunderbolt similar to the Rosetta Stone, which had both previously undeciphered hieroglyphics and their translation into ancient Greek, which helped a great deal in unraveling the ancient Egyptian script. Trade is known to have happened between Indus and Mesopotamia, so it’s possible a dual-script seal will be found, making decipherment easier. (Photo by Matija Podhraški/ Wikimedia Commons )

It is possible the script can be at least partly deciphered. Less than 10 percent of the known Indus Valley sites over 800,000 square miles in northwest India and Pakistan have been excavated, so there is still much to discover about the civilization and decoding its script may help unravel much of the mystery surrounding this large and powerful culture.

What the script could teach us about the Indus Valley civilization would be invaluable. Scholars say the apparent first Indian civilization left no evidence of having made war and compare the civilization to ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt in complexity. For some reason, the civilization flourished from just 2600 BC to 1900 BC and then declined and ended. It was not until almost 4,000 years later, when Indian and British archaeologists discovered ruins that it came to be known again. Hinduism possibly had its genesis in the Indus Valley of so many centuries ago.

A view of the ruins at Mohenjo-daro (Photo by Quratulain/ Wikimedia Commons )

At least two of the Indus settlements were large, complex cities. Today we know them by the names Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, on the Indus River and one of its tributaries, respectively. These cities had planned streets and drainage systems. The people made fine jewelry and had a complex system of weights and measures. They also had toilets before any other known civilization in the world.

An electronic collection of Indus texts, though not complete, can be seen at www.archaeoastronomie.de.

Featured image: A collection of tablets displaying Indus Valley script. ( Machimon)


Ancient India's Vedic Period

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Around 1500 BCE, Indo-European people migrated to India. These people came from the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea (purple on the map on the left). Between 4000 and 1000 BCE, Indo-Europeans migrated all over Europe and Asia. Some went to Europe and influenced the Romans and the Greeks some settled in Turkey and became the Hittites, others migrated southeast instead. Some stopped in Iran, later becoming Persian, while others continued southeast to Pakistan and India. The slow migration did not arrive in northern India until about 1500 BCE. In India, the Indo-Europeans are sometimes called the Aryans.

Some people have disputed this arrival of the Indo-Europeans, however, the spoken language that these Indo-European people brought to India, recorded in early writings, is very similar to other Indo-European languages such as Greek and Latin. There are many examples of similar words between the languages spoken in these areas. In addition, some DNA evidence supports the arrival of the Indo-Europeans to these regions. However, this is a theory of history that some historians don&rsquot agree with. There could be other explanations for the similarities in the development of languages and culture.

In addition to their spoken language, the Indo-Europeans may have brought their religious beliefs with them to India. The stories and beliefs of Hinduism were recorded in a collection of stories and songs called the Vedas . There are many historians that believe the Hindu religion actually began in the Indus River Valley civilization, but other historians believe the Indo-Europeans may have brought some of these beliefs that eventually formed what we think of as Hinduism. The Vedas were first written down in a language called Sanskrit . Early Sanskrit was a spoken language that was written down in different writing systems that developed later on such as Devanagari --the early form of Hindi (picture on right), India's main language today. Indo-Europeans also brought the domesticated horse into South Asia&mdashthis suggests the Indo-Europeans were at least semi-nomadic.

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The Indo-Europeans first settled along the Indus River, in the same place where the Indus Valley people had lived. They settled down and mixed with the local Indian people. They lived there and eventually expanded throughout the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It was at this time that the caste system got started in India. It is believed that the Indo-Europeans had a similar division of their society, but historians don&rsquot agree about how the caste system originated. The caste system is the permanent division of people into certain levels within society. Each level or caste has particular jobs such as merchant, warrior, or priest.

Castes were very important to people's identities. There were four major castes, but there was another group below the four castes known as Dalits or Untouchables . Untouchables usually did the worst jobs, like cleaning up people's poop from the gutters, collecting garbage, and dealing with dead bodies. The lowest of the castes was the Sudras - the servants and farmhands who did not own their own business or their own land, and who had to work for other people. The largest number of people belonged to this caste. Above them were the Vaisyas, or farmers and traders, who owned their own farms or businesses. Above these people were the Kshatriyas, or warriors. The most powerful caste was the Brahmins (pictured below), the priests and other leaders. Many historians believe that when the Indo-Europeans arrived they treated the native Indus Valley people as the Untouchables.

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There were also dozens of smaller groups within each castes. Different areas of South Asia also had different local castes. There were very strict rules about how people from different castes had to interact. People who came from different castes could not eat together. Usually people from one caste did not marry or make friends with people from another caste.

Untouchables were not even allowed inside temples. They were viewed as being &ldquopolluted&rdquo compared to Brahmins who were &ldquopure&rdquo. People literally didn't want to touch them since they were so "polluted". They were often not allowed to live near other groups or drink from the same well as others. If a Dalit broke these rules, they could be beaten in the streets or even killed. This horrible treatment often pushed them to the edges of society.

Today, the caste system is outlawed by the modern Indian constitution, and in urban areas most people ignore the caste traditions. However, in traditional rural areas caste divisions still exist. The developing Indian culture of the Indo-European mixed with native Indus Valley people began to grow quickly. Their civilization spread from the Indus River Valley to the Ganges River. Similar to other civilizations, kingdoms developed as the territory expanded.

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Indus Script Timeline - History


Research numerous resources on the world history topics!
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • A computer visualization of the ancient Indus Valley city of Harappa in based on M.S. Vat's excavations at the site in the late 1920s.
  • Archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of blocks in a variety of standard sizes that conform to the binary weight system favored in the Indus Valley.
  • Harappa, Pakistan of the Indus Valley civilizations: View of brick and rammed earth homes and streets.
  • The major events in the timeline of the Indus Valley are given below: Early Harappan Phase (3300 BC to 2600 BC) The early Harappan Phase lasted for approximately 700 years, starting with the Ravi Phase.
  • Users can explore the ancient Indus Valley city of Mohenjo-Daro and look at some of the artefacts found by archaeologists from this excavation."
  • Ancient History/Indian subcontinent/Indus Valley Civilization.
  • A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley civilization.
  • The Indus Valley people left behind an extensive set of cities and towns, the most notable of which are Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and Lothal, and through these sites it is clear that they were well organized with planned streets, elaborate bathes, covered sewage systems, water and drainage to individual homes, and even large port facilities.
  • Some scientists have suggested that women must have been respected as people among Harappans, because so many of the surviving statues from the Indus Valley cultures are of women.
  • A refutation of some of the so-called "factoids" about the ancient Indus Civilization, from an Aryan invasion to the violent overrunning of Mohenjo-daro in an essay that describes the various cultural and societal systems that underlie this Bronze Age culture.
  • While there is no clear evidence that the Indus Valley settlements were destroyed by earthquakes, there is evidence that a number of sites were destroyed or damaged by floods.
  • This mysterious culture emerged nearly 4,500 years ago and thrived for a thousand years, profiting from the highly fertile lands of the Indus River floodplain and trade with the civilizations of nearby Mesopotamia.
  • The Indus River Valley Civilization is a Theocracy government and a Theocracy is run by a priest so there government and religion were combined.
  • Articles on inscriptions, the script or sign system, iconography and writing in the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • When someone comes along claiming that the Indus Valley script isn't a script, or that it was used to write a Dravidian-family language instead of an Indo-European one, or some other lost language, it is an insult to the people of modern India and Pakistan.
  • In this article, let us learn about 20 interesting Indus Valley Civilization facts.
  • Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus Valley cities had a level of architectural planning that was unparalleled in the ancient world.
  • Slideshow on the Rohri Flint mines used by the ancient Indus Valley peoples to excavate and gather natural resources and raw materials for use and trade.
  • Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir, evidence for hydraulic sewage systems in the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script ) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system.
  • Who/what they worshiped is uncertain because we haven't been able to translate the Indus Valley script.
  • Questions about the religion (faith, beliefs, and practices) of the ancient Indus Valley civilization as well as the religious practices of these ancient practitioners.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir, evidence for hydraulic sewage systems in the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • Seals such as these date from between c.2500-1500 BCE and were found in considerable numbers in sites such as the ancient city of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley.
  • A computer visualization of the ancient Indus Valley city of Harappa in based on M.S. Vat's excavations at the site in the late 1920s.
  • Insight into Indus Valley Civilization arts and culture provide only various sculptures, pottery, jewelry, and terra-cotta, gold and stone figurines.
  • Ancient History/Indian subcontinent/Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Seals such as these date from between c.2500-1500 BCE and were found in considerable numbers in sites such as the ancient city of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley.
  • Mohenjo Daro, or "Mound of the Dead" is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BCE. The site was discovered in the.
  • A computer visualization of the ancient Indus Valley city of Harappa in based on M.S. Vat's excavations at the site in the late 1920s.
  • Several periodisations are employed for the periodisation of the IVC. The most commonly used classifies the Indus Valley Civilisation into Early, Mature and Late Harappan Phase.
  • Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and western India, and Mesopotamia.
  • Ancient History/Indian subcontinent/Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The Indus Valley people lived from 3500 to 1700 BCE in the Indus Valley in modern day Pakistan and India and other countries of the region.
  • Architecture Great Bath Examples The Indus Valley Civilization had developed skills in pottery, painting and sculpture amongst others.
  • Harrapan sites were built on man made raised mounds perched above the Indus Valley flood plain and in the majority of cases conform to a standard plan, which juxtaposes high status public spaces to the west with lower status residential areas to the east (Heitzmann 2008).
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • The first important civilization advancement was the advent of religious ceremonies and practices that date back as far as 5000 BCE, this did much to organize the population of the Indus River Valley Civilization.
  • Some of the scholars who accept this hypothesis advocate changing the name of the culture to the "Saraswati Valley Civilization".
  • Because so many towns and cities have been discovered in the Indus Valley since Harappa was unearthed, each bearing similarities to the others, the ancient towns and cities of the Indus Valley are now referred to as the Indus Valley civilization.
  • An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda,Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus Valley cities had a level of architectural planning that was unparalleled in the ancient world.
  • At the present time, this is still a hot area of discussion and no matter what the various groups try to show, without a clear deciphering of the Indus Valley script there is still not enough evidence to link the Indus Valley Civilization to Hinduism or even to conclusively show that it is not apart of ancient Hinduism.
  • The probable truth about the Indus Valley Civilization, the Aryans, and early Indian civilization is a mix of every leftist, nationalist, and ethnic pet theory, but not fully satisfactory to anyone.
  • The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear.
  • Various settlement of Indus Valley Civilization has been discovered along and inside the river beds of the ______ rivers.
  • Despite the relative lack of knowledge surrounding the IVC (mostly due to our inability to decipher the Harappan language), there are certain characteristics we know that set it apart from other river valley civilizations.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • Harappan social inequalities indicate that the Indus Valley civilization was indeed a relatively primitive, ancient civilization.
  • This civilization advanced in tool technology since the river trade route allowed them to gather copper, tin, and wood to make bronze.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
  • This Valley civilization existed from approximately 3300 BC to about 1300 BC. Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa have been extensively explored and both cities provide examples of a culture technologically advanced beyond what one would expect.
  • A slideshow on Lothal - an ancient Indus site in Gujarat on the Gulf of Combay where trade once flourished with other ancient civilizations including the.
  • The Indus Valley civilization was located primarily in what is now Pakistan, India, Iran, and Afghanistan.
  • Indians are Gangetic peoples, and they should claim their non existent Ganges Valley Civilization rather than claiming IVC due to their inferiority complex.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization is a Bronze Age civilization that encompassed the area of modern-day Pakistan, as well as parts of southeastern Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and northwestern India.
  • The Aryans - nomadic northerners from central Asia, begin to migrate into the Indus Valley.
  • Period of the Harappan/Indus Valley Civilization: 2500BC-1750BC (by carbon-14 dating).
  • Indus Valley Civilisation 1- The town planning and urbanism are the most important feature of Harappan civilization.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • An alternative approach by Shaffer divides the broader Indus Valley Tradition into four eras, the pre-Harappan "Early Food Producing Era," and the Regionalisation, Integration, and Localisation eras, which correspond roughly with the Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, and Late Harappan phases.
  • The discovery of Indus valley civilization brought the Indian subcontinent into limelight as home to one of the most ancient human civilizations and gave scope to many scholars to present an argument that the Indian subcontinent, as a land of racial, ethnic and linguistic diversity from time immemorial and as a land that stood in the way of waves of migrating prehistoric nomads and adventurers of stone age, might be the cradle of human civilization.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
  • Ever since the excavation of the ancient site, Harappa, in the 1920s, the Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) has intrigued archeologists and history lovers alike.
  • This book presents an archaeological survey of the Indus Valley civilization, with a focus on it's Harappan Phase (c.2600-1900 BC), a period of high cultural expression during which the entire valley shared the same cultural horizon.
  • After reading this book, one thing is for sure, your perspective on Indus Valley especially Mohenjo-Daro would change.
  • "It is generally assumed that most trade between the Indus Valley (ancient Meluhha?)
  • We do not know which beliefs and practices or the religious traditions of the Indus Valley Civilization found their way into present day Hinduism.
  • Some of the religions that the Indus River Valley civilization influenced were Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism.
  • Indus Valley Civilization The cities are noted for: •urban planning, •baked brick houses, •elaborate drainage systems, •water supply systems, •clusters of large non-residential buildings.
  • The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
  • The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large, non-residential buildings.
  • Next, using just your chart in hand to complete this step, challenge yourself by l ooking at the archaeologist's sketch in the chart and recording in the appropriate boxes both what you think the object is AND what you think the artifact tells us about the people of the ancient Indus Valley.
  • Archeologists have found signs of decay in the cities of the Indus Valley civilization.
  • In ancient times it had a better climate, which is why it was the cradle of the Indian civilization.
  • Lampang is situated in the valley of the Wang River, east of Chiang Mai in the heart of Northern Thailand bordered by Khuntan Range on the west and the Pi Pan Num range on the east and the river which is a major tributary of the Chao Phraya, flows directly through the city.
  • Out of the lot, Mohenjo-daro became the largest city of the Indus Valley Civilization and holds the multiple distinction of being one of the world's first major urban centers, as well as, at the time, one of the most sophisticated cities in the world and a global architectonical and engineering masterpiece.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
  • Ancient History/Indian subcontinent/Indus Valley Civilization.
  • If we accept that the Vedic people had some historic affinity with the Indus Valley Civilization which some believe to be true, it lends credence to the possibility that Indus people might have practiced some rudimentary or even elaborate forms of sacrificial ceremonies to propitiate their gods.
  • This Civilization belongs to Metal Age aslso known as Bronze Age.
  • Period of the Harappan/Indus Valley Civilization: 2500BC-1750BC (by carbon-14 dating).
  • There is also the existence of the first urban sanitation systems in the world. the sewerage and drainage system found in the each and every city of Indus Valley comes across as even more efficient than those in some areas of Pakistan and India today.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization among all (over 100) towns and villages which have been discovered so far.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
  • It is justified to think that there is an organic relationship between the ancient culture of the Indus Valley and the Hinduism of today.
  • John teaches you the who, how, when, where and why of the Indus Valley Civilization, and dispenses advice on how to be more successful in your romantic relationships.
  • THIS BUNDLE INCLUDES A RESOURCE FOR EACH OF THE ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY EPISODES (1 through 11) This download includes a 10-question handout (in both PDF and fully-editable MS WORD format) to accompany John Green's popular Crash Course videos on YouTube.
  • This map shows a cluster of Indus Valley Civilization cities and excavation sites along the course of the Indus River in Pakistan.
  • Some scientists have suggested that women must have been respected as people among Harappans, because so many of the surviving statues from the Indus Valley cultures are of women.
  • Next, using just your chart in hand to complete this step, challenge yourself by l ooking at the archaeologist's sketch in the chart and recording in the appropriate boxes both what you think the object is AND what you think the artifact tells us about the people of the ancient Indus Valley.
  • Archaeological evidence shows that the site, which had been a major city before the downfall of the Indus Valley Civilization, continued to be inhabited by a much smaller population after the collapse.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
  • The ensuing drought may have led to the collapse of the advanced Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • I mention it here merely to emphasize our impression that flooding was the principal enemy of the Mohenjo-darians, and of all the Harappan period inhabitants of the lower Indus Valley.
  • The Indus Valley civilization of ancient India was one of the earliest civilizations in world history.
  • Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization in what today is Pakistan and some parts of Western India prior to 1500 BCE. Excavations at Lothal (2400 BCE) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch--less than 2 millimeters.
  • If a lack of monsoons did spell the end of the Indus Valley civilization, says Hodell, "it is an example -- and there are other examples of this -- of how ancient societies have had to contend with climate.
  • Northwestern winds sweep the upper Indus valley in winter and bring 4 to 8 inches (100 to 200 mm) of rainfall--vital for the successful growing of wheat and barley.
  • Paleo-environmental and geoarchaeological evidence from extensive studies on the Beas River, provides critical and complementary evidence for climate change and the human ecology of the Late Holocene in the Upper Indus Valley.
  • Others include ornaments, necklaces, fillets, armlets as well as finger rings. mean of jwellery Jwellery in indus valley civilization is most amongst the most commonly found relics and artifacts of harrapan society the traditional art of india recommends a richness and profusion in the jewelery adorned by both men and women clothing The clothing of the people who lived in the Indus Valley civilizations tended to be quite simple.
  • Occupations/ Division of Labor The main social classes of the Indus River Valley Civilization are the Gods, Brahmins (priests and academics), Kshatryia (warriors and kings), Vaishya (merchants and landowners), Sudra (commoners,peasants, and servants), and then the Untouchables (the outcasts of the Caste system).
  • A major part of the Aryan religion, and of major consequence for the future of India to the present day, was the introduction of strict class divisions, which is known as the caste system.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • By the start of the 4th millennium farming communities dotted the flood plain of the river Indus and from the mid-4th millennium, proto-urban settlements had appeared which shared traits which would later appear in Indus Valley cities: rigid city planning, massive brick walls and bull motifs in their art.
  • INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Also referred to as the Harappa culture, the Indus Valley civilization was the earliest urban, state-level society in South Asia (2600-1900 b.c.) and was contemporaneous with state-level societies in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  • In our ongoing attempt to understand how the now vanished people of the Indus culture ordered their society and to determine the sources of political, economic, military and ideological (religious) power in this remarkably extensive and urbanized state, my co-workers and I have to draw clues from the miscellaneous material we dig up and from the layout and architecture of the cities and settlements we excavate.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilisation making them the first urban centre in the region.
  • The team concluded that these swastikas are "the oldest ever discovered", they apparently pre-date the Harappan civilization who lived in the Indus Valley between about 3,300 and 1,300 BC. The Indus Valley civilization flourished in the Indian Subcontinent between 3300 BC to 1300 BC and at its peak the civilization covered most of the north-western part of the subcontinent.
  • Users can explore the ancient Indus Valley city of Mohenjo-Daro and look at some of the artefacts found by archaeologists from this excavation."
  • It is concluded the Indus Valley Civilization was all Haplogroup L and R2?
  • The non-discovery of R1a and the discovery of haplogroups with West Asian affinities would suggest that when the Indus Valley civilisation was thriving, Indo-European language speakers were not present on location.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • This would mean that the arrival of the Indo-European speakers and the cause of the decline of Indus Valley have to be treated as mutually exclusive phenomena separated by time.
  • The Indus civilization was predated by the first farming cultures in south Asia, which emerged in the hills of what is now called Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus Valley.
  • That could make the Indus Valley settlements, which were spread across Pakistan and northern India, even older than the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilisations.
  • Indian daily life in Mohenjo Daro The significance of Mohenjo Daro The Mohenjo Daro was built around 2600 BCE. The Mohenjo Daro was one of the largest settlements of the Ancient Indus Valley civilization.
  • Using the reading, draw pictures that capture what Harappan daily life must have been like.
  • Artifacts from the Indus Valley region have been found at sites in Mesopotamia though their precise point of origin in India is not always clear.
  • Enter the world of the ancient Greeks and discover what daily life was really like.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • While the Indus Valley Civilisation is generally characterised as a literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions, this description has been challenged by Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel (2004) who argue that the Indus system did not encode language, but was instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used extensively in the Near East and other societies, to symbolise families, clans, gods, and religious concepts.
  • Seals such as these date from between c.2500-1500 BCE and were found in considerable numbers in sites such as the ancient city of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley.
  • There is evidence of importation of raw materials, exotic stones, gold, copper and tin, but very few manufactured or prestige goods from outside are found in the ancient Indus Valley.
  • Indus valley civilization had sanitary sewer lines in 3000 2000 BCE. It is really very difficult to believe that Indus valley people constructed a scientific drainage system 2000 year ago.
  • By examining the teeth and bones of the Indus Valley people, archaeologists can tell what the Indus valley people ate from the bodies they discover.
  • Drainage System : The drainage system of the Harappan cities was the best known to the world in ancient times.
  • THINGS STILL FOUND IN MODERN TIMES The elaborate drainage system was a remarkable feature of the civilization.Various sculptures, pottery, gold jewellry, terracotta figures are still used in modern times.As well as double storey building are still found in modern times.Streets,ventilation in houses and sanitation system are also found in modern times.
  • What: site of 1 of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the 3rd millennium BCE Where:the sister city of Mohenjo Daro When: around 2000 BCE Significance: they had indoor plumbing, private wells, 2 or 3 story houses,& a sewage system.
  • These seals displayed animals, Indus script, male figures and were often used for either religious purposes or trade The Indus Valley civilization possessed a flourishing urban architecture.
  • Agriculture was so important to the people of the Indus valley.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • By the start of the 4th millennium farming communities dotted the flood plain of the river Indus and from the mid-4th millennium, proto-urban settlements had appeared which shared traits which would later appear in Indus Valley cities: rigid city planning, massive brick walls and bull motifs in their art.
  • The excavation of the sites of Indus valley civilization has brought to our notice the prevalence of written script that suggests people of that time had sufficient knowledge and education must have played a huge part in shaping up their lives.
  • This bundle includes 4 amazing PowerPoint lessons on each of the ancient River Valley Civilizations of Mesopotamia - covers the civilizations that arose in the Fertile Crescent and Mesopotamia from Ancient Sumer through the rise of the Persian Empire.
  • All these discoveries point to the existence of an advanced civilisation in pre-historic India which is now popularly known as Indus Valley Civilization or Harappa Culture.
  • Articles concerned with regional climate, geology, rivers, land formations, environmental conditions and the effects the environment itself had on the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.
  • …great urban culture of the Indus civilization, a society of the Indus River valley that is thought to have been Dravidian-speaking, thrived from roughly 2500 to 1700 bce.
  • The Indus civilization (also known as the Harappan Civilization, the Indus-Sarasvati or Hakra Civilization and sometimes the Indus Valley Civilization) is one of the oldest societies we know of, including over 2600 known archaeological sites located along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers in Pakistan and India, an area of some 1.6 million square kilometers.
  • The region in which the river's waters formerly arose is known to be geologically active, and there is evidence of major tectonic events at the time the Indus civilization collapsed.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization BCE mature period BCE) that was located in the northwestern of the Indian consisting of what is now mainly present-day Pakistan and northwest India File:CiviltàValleIndoMappa.
  • The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear.
  • How would you explain the presence of those elements in Indian culture and civilization which are found to have existed in the Indus Valley period?
  • Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir, evidence for hydraulic sewage systems in the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • Indians are Gangetic peoples, and they should claim their non existent Ganges Valley Civilization rather than claiming IVC due to their inferiority complex.
  • Throughout the Indus Valley people still race oxcarts, especially in the regions around Mohenjo-daro where on-track betting ends with large sums of money or land changing hands." ( Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, p. 130.)
  • Evidently the people of the Harappa period, like the Indians of today, paid attention to the enjoyment of the younger population and, though the children of the ancient Indus valley often amused themselves by making their own simple toys in clay, they had many playthings that could have been made only by skilled craftsmen."
  • The Indus Valley Civilization covered a large area - from Balochistan ( Pakistan) to Gujarat (Republic of India).
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus Valley, where the first remains were found.
  • The results provide the first good explanation for why the Indus valley flourished for two millennia, sprouting large cities and an empire the size of contemporary Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, then dwindled away to small villages and isolated farms.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • Mohenjo Daro sat beneath the soil for thousands of years, a preserved relic of the ancient Indus Valley civilization.
  • McIntosh J (2008) The ancient Indus Valley: new perspectives.
  • We learn about Indus Valley Civilization by what was traded with regions we do know about.
  • Most of the people of the Indus Valley were farmers they were the first people to grow cotton and weave it into cloth.
  • The urban areas of the Indus Valley civilization provided public and private baths, sewage was disposed through underground drains built with precisely laid bricks, and a sophisticated water management system with numerous reservoirs was established.
  • Dales GF (1965) Civilization and floods in the Indus Valley.
  • The earliest evidence of food in ancient India comes from excavated sites in the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • As and when new sites are identified by archaeologists through excavations, we are collecting more and more information about their food habits, lifestyle and social life of people.
  • One of the most advanced and mysterious ancient society, the Indus River Valley civilization, was completely lost to history until the 1920s.
  • Here we covered life styles and food habits and much more about Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Kalibangan, Chanhu Daro, basics of the Harappan Civilization and many of the civilizations.
  • The Indus Valley And The Genesis Of South Asian Civilization Great torrents of water from the world's highest mountain range, the Himalayas, carved out the vast Indus River system that was to nurture the first civilization in the Indian subcontinent.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • By the start of the 4th millennium farming communities dotted the flood plain of the river Indus and from the mid-4th millennium, proto-urban settlements had appeared which shared traits which would later appear in Indus Valley cities: rigid city planning, massive brick walls and bull motifs in their art.
  • To give a different perspective to these board games, this month Peel Art Gallery Museum and Archives (PAMA) is showcasing The Art of Kreeda, which means the art of playing, exhibition featuring chess, snakes & ladders and ludo along with some fascinating pieces from the Indus Valley civilization.
  • At Harrappa (a civilisation of the Indus Valley) archaeologists found dice made from cubes of sandstone and terracotta.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
  • Both geography and climate had a strong effect on the development of civilization in India Physical Geography Monsoons Wet Season QUESTIONS Climate India's Geography Indus River Valley Civilization -Subcontinent spans from Central Asia to Indian Ocean,with the North/South divided by the Himilayas as well as other mountain ranges that made it difficult to enter/exit India.
  • Climate - Our civilization experiences mostly a semi-arid climate because of our geography and location.
  • The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilisations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean.
  • There is now evidence to show that this region was subject to climate change during the period when the Indus Civilization was at its height (c.2500-1900 BC).
  • Steatite seals had images of animals, people (perhaps gods), and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The Great Bath is one of the best known structures among the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro.
  • Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center.
  • …as a temple, but the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro may have been used for ritual purposes, as were the ghats (bathing steps on riverbanks) attached to later Hindu temples.
  • The flow of life - supporting rivers such as the Saraswati and the Indus may have been altered, causing great hardships for the people of the Indus Valley.
  • An ancient settlement in one of the most unique civilisations of the world, Indus Valley Civilisation, Mohenjo-daro is situated in Larkana District which today is in the Sindh province in modern day Pakistan.
  • Most of major structures including the Great Bath, Granary, College and Assembly Hall can be found on citadel mound, which is a massive unbaked mud-brick platform with many buildings constructed and believed to have been a sacred part of this city.
  • Students will read some very basic information about the Great Bath of Mohenjo-Daro and then create a paragraph hypothesizing what the immense structure must have been used for.
  • It is concluded the Indus Valley Civilization was all Haplogroup L and R2?
  • Skeletons from one of the world’s oldest civilizations--the Indus Valley or Harappan Civilization--have been unearthed in India.
  • Whatever the explanation, the brilliant achievements of the Indus Valley civilization gave way to a new chapter in the history of ancient India.
  • Steatite seals had images of animals, people (perhaps gods), and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Some historians question whether the religion of the Indus Valley people can be categorized at all as the earliest known aspect of Hinduism.
  • Indian History The important prehistoric sites and cultures of India, Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures and Neolithic Revolution, Mehrgarh Culture, Indus Valley Civilization-spread, centers, phases of development etc. Common Features of Entire Civilization, Features of some speciãc sites, Life in the Indus Valley and its relations with other civilizations of the world, Decay of Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Horse remains ( even though Indus valley people didn't use horses).
  • The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed.
  • Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient River valley civilizations is complicated.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • Commercial, religious, and artistic connections have been recorded in Sumerian documents, where the Indus valley people are referred to as Meluhhaites and the Indus valley is called Meluhha.
  • Kulli, situated on the southern foothills of the Baluchi mountains near the Makran coast, occupies an important position on the trade route between the Persian Gulf and the Indus Valley.
  • Turn to the second group of ancient Indian communities: the urban people of the Indus Valley.
  • Within the ruins of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, archaeologists have discovered many artifacts of modern Hinduism that were not found in any Vedic civilizations.
  • Which river valley civilization was most completely destroyed by invasion?
  • Almost all the houses in Indus Valley Civilization had bathrooms with access to running water and toilets with sophisticated drainage facilities.
  • Some of the seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods, but they probably had other uses.Although some houses were larger than others, Indus civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent egalitarianism.
  • Built in the valleys of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers and their tributaries, the earliest settlements began to appear about 3300 BC. Termed the Ravi phase (named for the nearby Ravi River), little is known about this ancient period as present-day sites are covered by centuries of deposits nonetheless, archaeologists have uncovered evidence of "mud-bricked houses equipped with hearths," as well as the means to make stone tools and ceramics.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000BC. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600BC along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
  • A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilisation making them the first urban centre in the region.
  • Harappa was settled before what we call the ancient Indus civilization flourished, and it remains a living town today.
  • Evidence supporting this claim includes: the continuity of pre-Aryan traditions practices by many sectors of Indian society and also the possibility that some major gods of the Hindu pantheon actually originated during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization and were kept "alive" by the original inhabitants through the centuries.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
  • What about Danube river valley civilization?
  • C14 Carbon dating has proved conclusively that pre-Indus valley civilization with pottery, cities with drainage existed in Haryana at around 7500 BC. That makes it the oldest "civilization" (as opposed primitive humans making cave drawings).
  • The chronology of the occupation of the site at Surkotada is not the same as other Harappan / Indus Valley Civilization sites.
  • Elements in the story have changed in the last few days as new data have emerged about the broken Harappan (or Indus Valley) seal from which the perpetuator of the hoax, the well-known Indian nationalist writer N. S. Rajaram, manufactured his evidence. (The reason why the real discovery of a 'horse seal' from the time of Indus Valley Civilization would be a major event in India is noted below.)
  • In the Vedic civilization that overtook the sub continent, sometime between 1700-1500 BCE after demise of Indus civilization, horse is the most revered animal.
  • Indus valley civilization Summary Drainage system …  Many houses had distinct toilets, separate from the bath areas.
  • The evidence suggests they had a highly developed city life many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as an elaborate underground drainage system.
  • The Indus Valley civilisation is thought to be the first with an urban sanitation system, again very advanced for their time.
  • The Indus Valley people had well-built, well organised town planning.
  • The cities boasted of well-planned roads wide and straight, houses provided with an efficient drainage system and ventilation.
  • Sanitation and cleanliness as bath rooms were used and proper drainage system was found in all buildings.
  • Harappa History In English: Harrapa an archaeological site on the Ravi river in Punjab Pakistan Mohenjo Daro with, a major prehistoric site Indus Valley Civilization (2500th to 1500th BC).
  • A lecture by Dr. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer which examines and analyzes a variety of artifacts from the Indus Valley people.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • Whatever happened, by 1500 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization had disappeared into the fog of history, not to be rediscovered for many centuries.
  • Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization in what today is Pakistan and some parts of Western India prior to 1500 BCE. Excavations at Lothal (2400 BCE) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch--less than 2 millimeters.
  • Compare with the very different interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp.237-245, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2, and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene South Asian Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425.
  • Images of the Ancient Indus River Valley Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • Indians are Gangetic peoples, and they should claim their non existent Ganges Valley Civilization rather than claiming IVC due to their inferiority complex.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • The Nile valley in Egypt had been home to agricultural settlements as early as 5500 BC, but the growth of Egypt as a civilization began around 3100 BC. A third civilization grew up along the Indus River around 2600 BC, in parts of what are now India and Pakistan.
  • Most likely, irrigation systems began with small springs and in small drainages, and as engineering techniques were developed, they could be applied to larger rivers and to larger areas of plains.
  • "Today the Indus system feeds the largest irrigation scheme in the world, immobilizing the river in channels and behind dams.
  • In order to fully utilize the river water resources, the IBIS has emerged as the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world.
  • The people of Indus prospered on the foundations of an agriculture based system of irrigation and fertility, maintained by silt-bearing floods.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity.
  • The religion and belief system of the Indus Valley people have received considerable attention, especially from the view of identifying precursors to deities and religious practices of Indian religions that later developed in the area.
  • Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient seacoast, for example, Balakot, and on islands, for example, Dholavira.
  • Those cultures form a material bridge between the end of the Indus civilization proper and the developed Iron Age civilization that arose in India about 1000 bce.
  • The earliest traces of civilization in the Indian subcontinent are to be found in places along, or close, to the Indus river.
  • Indus Valley Civilization- Sentence: My mother was apart of the Indus Valley Civilization because she developed along the Indus River.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization may have met its demise due to invasion.
  • The Aryans - nomadic northerners from central Asia, begin to migrate into the Indus Valley.
  • This is one of the reasons why the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the least known of the important early civilizations of antiquity.
  • Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus Valley cities had a level of architectural planning that was unparalleled in the ancient world.
  • Ancient History/Indian subcontinent/Indus Valley Civilization.
  • This is one of the most important factors of a society developing to such an advanced point, and helped unify the civilization under a single resource that sponsored constant improvement of thought.
  • In this article, let us learn about 20 interesting Indus Valley Civilization facts.
  • Here are 10 interesting facts about the advanced features of the Harappan Civilization as well as its famous structures, artifacts, society, and its discovery in modern times.
  • Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus Valley cities had a level of architectural planning that was unparalleled in the ancient world.
  • ScienceStruck gives you some interesting facts about this river.
  • The fact that the Indus civilization was located on a floodplain meant that there was poor availability of raw materials resources nearby.
  • It is for this reason that the economic history of India is presumed to have actually begun in the Indus Valley civilization itself.
  • The beginnings of metal work and manufactured jewellery in India can be traced in the Indus Valley civilization in a distant time that can be situated in the Neolithic age culture known as Mehrgarh (7000-5500 B.C.)
  • Others include ornaments, necklaces, fillets, armlets as well as finger rings. mean of jwellery Jwellery in indus valley civilization is most amongst the most commonly found relics and artifacts of harrapan society the traditional art of india recommends a richness and profusion in the jewelery adorned by both men and women clothing The clothing of the people who lived in the Indus Valley civilizations tended to be quite simple.
  • The Indus Valley civilization (also called the Harappan era) was one of the earliest known cultures of the Old World, dating from approximately 3,300 to 1,900 BCE, and spanning widely across Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, covering 1.25 million km 2 at its height.
  • Skeletons from one of the world’s oldest civilizations--the Indus Valley or Harappan Civilization--have been unearthed in India.
  • Sir John Hubert Marshall, (born March 19, 1876, Chester, Cheshire, Eng. --died Aug. 17, 1958, Guildford, Surrey), English director general of the Indian Archaeological Survey (1902-31) who in the 1920s was responsible for the large-scale excavations that revealed Harappā and Mohenjo-daro, the two largest cities of the previously unknown Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The discovery of Indus civilization proved to the Europeans that India had a rich civilization as old as the Egyptian and Mesopotamian ones, but then there was a rush to prove that the people of Indus Valley did nothing important and whatever we hold as sacred came from Noah's children.
  • The next year, now 54 years old, he retired from the Army to become Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India, exploring in detail the remains of the Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjodaro.
  • It started in large scale in the 20th century thanks to Lord Curzon who appointed a young archaeologist named John Marshall as the Director General of the Archaeological Survey.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan culture) has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.
  • As the date of main cultural period of the Sumerian civilizations is fixed 3250-2750 B. C. Sir John Marshall likes to fix the upper date of the Indus civilization as the same.
  • Though finds at Harappa were reported, it was not until 1920 that proper excavations began at Harappa under John Marshall, the then director of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
  • It was only in the 1920s that the excavations of Sir John Marshall & his colleagues opened the eyes of the world to an additional 2000 years of rich Indian prehistory.
  • Sukhalalji, Prof. Vidyalankara, Acarya Tulasi, Prof. G.C.Pandey and others believe that Jainism is one of the earliest known religious systems prevailing in India amongst the non-Aryan races which belonged to Indus valley civilization.
  • Although religious practices were of Hindu basis, the Indus valley added and developed new traditions and elements of their religion making something particularly traditional their own.
  • Indus Valley Civilization In which John Green teaches you about the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the largest of the ancient civilizations.
  • John Green presents Mesopotamia, and the early civilizations that arose around the Fertile Crescent.
  • John Green teaches you the history of Islam, including the revelation of the Qu'ran to Muhammad, the five pillars of Islam, how the Islamic empire got its start, the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and more.
  • Evidence of indecipherable seals indicates the peaceful Indus Valley inhabitants traded with Mesopotamians.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization BCE mature period BCE) that was located in the northwestern of the Indian consisting of what is now mainly present-day Pakistan and northwest India File:CiviltàValleIndoMappa.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • Surprisingly, the archaeological record of the Indus civilization provides practically no evidence of armies, kings, slaves, social conflict, prisons, and other oft-negative traits that we traditionally associate with early civilization, although this could simply be due to the sheer completeness of its collapse and subsequent disappearance.
  • An alternate view holds that the nomadic Aryans were assimilated by the more advanced Indus Valley culture as the Aryans spoke Sanskrit, the language of the oldest Hindu sacred texts, the Vedas, and the ancestor of all the main modern languages of Northern India and Pakistan.
  • It is difficult to find any names for the gods of the ancient Indus Valley.
  • "The Indus Valley civilization of ancient India was one of the earliest civilizations in world history.
  • Ancient Egypt: You will use the following information from Khan Academy to complete three column notes over Egypt.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • A computer visualization of the ancient Indus Valley city of Harappa in based on M.S. Vat's excavations at the site in the late 1920s.
  • Historians call this discovery the Indus Valley civilization and tell us that it was founded about 3300 BCE, when some farming settlements grew into sophisticated cities.
  • Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s.
  • There is another artefact which has become a symbol for the Indus, Seated male sculpture(18cm tall), the so-called "Priest King" (even though there is no evidence that either priests or kings ruled the city).
  • Kalibangan, ancient site of the Indus valley civilization, in northern Rajasthan state, northwestern India.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • Compare with the very different interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp.237-245, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2, and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene South Asian Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425.
  • The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script ) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system.
  • Harappan culture seal, Brahma Bull, ca BC, Indus Valley, present-day Pakistan.
  • Ancient History/Indian subcontinent/Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Indus River Valley Civilization Government Religion Art Social Structure Cities Writing The Indus Valley peoples made various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry,and anatomically detailed figures in terracota, bronze, and steatite.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • Indians are Gangetic peoples, and they should claim their non existent Ganges Valley Civilization rather than claiming IVC due to their inferiority complex.
  • This focus on standardizing a legal system was one of the features of early river valley civilizations.
  • As written by S.R. Rao, the eminent archaeologist and Indologist, "the Indus Valley civilization could not have survived for five centuries in its pristine form enforcing uniform laws and ensuring the proper distribution of goods over a vast territory of 1.5 million square kilometres had it not been a culturally and politically advanced society with a state that was effective, but not ruthless."
  • Use this lesson plan to teach your students about the Indus Valley civilization.
  • Visit the Ancient World History: Lesson Plans & Resources page to learn more.
  • The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script ) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system.
  • The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script ) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system.
  • There are also examples of this script being used on clay tags attached to bundles of goods that were traded between merchants some of these clay tags have been found in the Mesopotamia region, well outside the Indus Valley, a testimony of how wide goods travelled in ancient times.
  • The main corpus of writing dated from the Indus Civilization is in the form of some two thousand inscribed seals in good, legible conditions (seals are used to make impressions on malleable material like clay).
  • The social and economic life of the people of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was systematic and organised.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, discovered that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto- dentistry.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • In ancient times, climate change may have caused Indus Valley cities to have been abandoned.
  • Located in what's now Pakistan and western India, it was the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. (1) The Indus Valley Civilization, as it is called, covered an area the size of western Europe.
  • Another big question that has historians stumped about this great civilization is if the two major cities and many villages were actually part of a single civilization or rather many different city states all living together and working in harmony.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • Facts about the civilisation have been accounted for from the vast excavations made by archaeologists, which explains about the way of life of the people of Indus valley.
  • In the Southern jungles were the Dravidian kingdoms, these indigenous people of India had created the Indus Valley Civilization and formed India's oldest kingdoms.
  • The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear.
  • Featured Image: Artifact on display at the National Museum in Delhi featuring jewelry and adornment of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Map of the Indus Valley Civilization (Illustration) - Ancient History Encyclopedia Map of the Indus Valley Civilization Dbachmann Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The map shows the extent of the Harappan or Indus Civilization along with the various neolithic sites in the region.
  • The Indus Valley civilization was entirely unknown until 1921, when excavations in what would become Pakistan revealed the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (shown here).
  • Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • Was Mohenjo Daro home to an unknown advanced civilization far ahead of its time?
  • An ancient settlement in one of the most unique civilisations of the world, Indus Valley Civilisation, Mohenjo-daro is situated in Larkana District which today is in the Sindh province in modern day Pakistan.
  • With no evidence of kings or queens, Mohenjo Daro was likely governed as a city-state, perhaps by elected officials or elites from each of the mounds.
  • Only a handful of archaeologists have excavated here, described in the introduction and illustrated essay Mohenjodaro: An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis.
  • The Harappan civilization dominated the Indus River valley beginning about five thousand years ago, many of its massive cities sprawling at the edges of rivers that still flow through Pakistan and India today.
  • Perhaps the Indus Valley style of marriage was one way that Harappan cities were able to attract so many immigrants.
  • Considering those fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro served as an administrative center.
  • The majority of artifacts recovered at Harappa and Mohenjo Daro have been that of crafted objects.
  • Next, using just your chart in hand to complete this step, challenge yourself by l ooking at the archaeologist's sketch in the chart and recording in the appropriate boxes both what you think the object is AND what you think the artifact tells us about the people of the ancient Indus Valley.
  • Though the Indus Valley civilization may not have deployed nuclear weapons, it is arguable that, in other ways, they were the most advanced civilization of their day by far.
  • It was built around 2500 BCE. It was the largest settlements of ancient Indus valley until it's abandonment in 19th century.
  • Outposts of the Indus Valley civilization were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Baluchistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, Surat Dist., India.
  • The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
  • As the excavations at Harappa began in 1920s, during the era of British Indian Empire, merely 20 odd years before independence of both India and Pakistan, India can not claim the Indus Valley Civilization which mainly remained centered around the Indus River Valley, which entirely lay in Pakistan.
  • This is how National Geographic explorer Vasant Shinde of Deccan College opened his talk at the Dialogue of Civilizations in Guatemala on Monday.
  • According to University of Wisconsin, Madison, archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, also a National Geographic grantee, the mounds grew organically over the centuries as people kept building platforms and walls for their houses.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • According to the Genographic Project conducted by the National Geographic Society, Haplogroup R2a arose about 25,000 years ago in Central Asia and its members migrated southward as part of the second major wave of human migration into India.
  • For many anthropologists worldwide, nothing is more important than the inhabitants of the Harappan (Indus Valley) civilization.
  • Our study of Rakhigarhi site, India is reported by National Geographic News.
  • The ruins of a pre-Aryan civilization have been discovered at Mohenjodaro (Sind) and Harappa (Montgomery Distt. of Punjab) in Pakistan and, as the places lie in the valley of the river Indus, the discovery has been christened the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • PROTOHISTORY : Indus valley civilization belongs to Bronze Age also called Harappan civilization.
  • History notes for ssc : harappan civilization/ indus valley civilization the stone age ended as soon as the first metal "copper" was discovered.
  • Most important Ancient HISTORYindus valley civilization Harrappa mohen jo daro buddhism Jainism vedic era Maurya empire G.K for SSC.
  • The famous Indus Valley Civilization thus never collapsed its large structures were only expedient buildings reflecting a wheat-based culture.
  • Pushing back the origin of major crops, like rice recently, or silk previously, suggests that while some agricultural practices may have spread east to the Indus valley, others, like rice and perhaps cotton and crops that could rotate with other crops may have spread westwards from the Indus region.
  • Some of those who accept this hypothesis advocate designating the Indus Valley culture the "Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization," Sindhu being the ancient name of the Indus River.
  • After 1900 BC, the cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation were gradually abandoned.
  • McIntosh J (2008) The ancient Indus Valley: new perspectives.
  • Map showing the Indus Valley Civilization - Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Mehrgarh and Lothal with current countriy boundaries.
  • In today's lesson, we're going to talk about a few of these early river valley civilizations and place them on the world map.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • In the 1980s, important archaeological discoveries were made at Ras al-Jinz ( Oman ), demonstrating maritime Indus Valley connections with the Arabian Peninsula.
  • By the end of the Neolithic Era, a few civilizations such as Egypt and Mesopotamia in the West/Middle East, and the Indus Valley and China in the East, began to develop as people began to depend on each other for physical, psychological, and cultural means.
  • Based on these broad classifications, let us look at two major civilizations of India Indus Valley Civilization / The Harappan Civilization and Vedic Civilization.
  • Based on various calculations and periods of times mentioned in ancient Hindu scriptures, many modern Hindu nationalists have come to believe that the Vedic civilization is thousands of years old and that Sanskrit is indigenous to India.
  • The Indus-Saraswati Valley civilization is now found to be a collection of nearly 2,500 settlements of various periods along the Saraswati and other rivers, some of which date earlier than 6000 bc.
  • It is likely that the Indus Valley tradition and Vedic gods and beliefs combined to form the foundations of Hinduism.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization was rich with culture and tradition, revealed in its wealth of beautiful, intricate, and elaborate ornaments, jewelry and artifacts.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • The importance that has been attached in Indus studies to the regions west of Baluchistan as the main areas from which the Indus civilization procured its raw materials, (whether it is copper from Oman or carnelian of Persian Gulf origin) is somewhat misplaced.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture.
  • The first-known sanitation system, whereby waste-water was directed into covered drains that lined major streets and where clean water was obtained from wells in a designated room in the home, was employed in the ancient Indus Valley.
  • Around the same time, the river valley civilizations flourished in many other parts of the world.
  • Ruins of this ancient city show that high brick walls surrounded the city in order to defend it against floods and hostile neighbors.  The Indus River Valley Map Questions Use the map on page 105 in your text, as needed, to answer the questions below. 1.
  • Answer Egyptian civilization-in the valley of Nile, in the Valley of the Desert of Mesopotamia, in the valley of the river Dujala and the river Furat, the civilization of China-in the valley of the Hwangho river.
  • A Time Line of Ancient History : When did the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, the ancient Greeks and the Romans live?
  • Answer : It is located at Mohenjo-daro of Indus civilization.
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, a similarly-planned city situated further south, near the banks of the Indus River, are considered part of the same vast civilization, the Indus Valley Civilization, which thrived from 2600 to 1900 BCE.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
  • A computer visualization of the ancient Indus Valley city of Harappa in based on M.S. Vat's excavations at the site in the late 1920s.
  • The picture below shows the size of an average Indus Civilization seal.
  • Indus Valley Civilization has an ancient tradition of pottery making.
  • A group of Indus Valley terracotta figures from Harappa, North Pakistan millenium BC) via Christies.
  • According to remains extracted from the Indus Va lley Civilization, archaeologists have noted that there is continuity between pottery of third millennium Baluchistan with the hunter is noticed on a pot shreds from the cemetery.
  • Indus Valley Civilization PPT - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online.
  • Compare with the very different interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp.237-245, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2, and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene South Asian Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425.
  • Ruins of the city of Lothal: Archaeological evidence shows that the site, which had been a major city before the downfall of the Indus Valley Civilization, continued to be inhabited by a much smaller population after the collapse.
  • At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million.
  • Indoor plumbing was first invented by the Indus Valley civilization.
  • Seals such as these date from between c.2500-1500 BCE and were found in considerable numbers in sites such as the ancient city of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley.
  • An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda,Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.
  • The Indus Valley civilization was started in 3300 BC. The Dravidians were native people that established the civilization.
  • Present day Pakistan and Northwest India is where Indus Valley was once located.
  • It is difficult to find any names for the gods of the ancient Indus Valley.
  • The Indus River Valley quiz Question 2: What were the 4 main cities in the in the Indus River Valley?
  • The essential reason for this could very well be that the Indian Caucasoids who were non-Indo European speakers spread R2 aas the males mixed with the indigenous peoples of India there for bringing the Dravidian Race into existence which started the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • This quote shows that in ancient times, the decline of the Indus River Valley civilization led to the Aryans coming into the valley.
  • People of the Indus Valley Civilisation (also called Harappan Civilisation after the major city of Harappa) were mainly farmers, although recent finds are indicating a well developed culture.
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were thought to be the two great cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, emerging around 2600 BCE along the Indus River Valley in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan.
  • The society of the Indus River Valley has been dated from the Bronze Age, the time period from approximately 3300-1300 BCE. It was located in modern-day India and Pakistan, and covered an area as large as Western Europe.
  • Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin).
  • Known as the Indus-Sarasvati Civilization, its zenith lasted about thirteen centuries and flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Sarasvati or Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once flowed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan.
  • The people of this Indus Valley civilization did not build massive monuments like their contemporaries, nor did they bury riches among their dead in golden tombs.
  • Indus Valley - Early Cities and Artifacts One of the cities located in the Indus Valley is Harappa, and a neighboring city 350 miles away, Mohenjo-Daro.
  • The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
  • Though the lack of elaborate tombs or shrines to rulers has led many to suggest that the Indus simply didn’t have kings, Neil MacGregor, former director of the British Museum, says that this may be because the residents of this ancient civilization cremated rather than buried their dead.
  • Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus Valley cities had a level of architectural planning that was unparalleled in the ancient world.
  • The Great Bath is one of the best-known structures among the ruins of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, Pakistan.
  • Enlarge / Ruins of Mohenjo-daro, one of the biggest cities of the Indus civilization.
  • At their peak during the Bronze Age, the Indus Valley people are believed to have numbered up to five million, with Mohenjo Daro their largest and most advanced settlement.
  • Harappa is the name of the ruins of an immense capital city of the Indus Civilization, and one of the best-known sites in Pakistan, located on the bank of the Ravi River in central Punjab Province.
  • Between the fall of the Indus Valley civilization and the rise of new civilizations in India, there was a formative period during which the Aryans learned to live off of agriculture.
  • Describe and analyze the cross-cultural influences in a Mediterranean and Indus Valley context.
  • Following a year of patchy DLC releases, Civilization VI is preparing to deliver its first full expansion, entitled Rise and Fall.
  • The Aryans (Indo-Europeans) were a hunting and herding people from Central Asia who settled in the Indian subcontinent approximately 500 years after the fall of the Indus River civilization.
  • The Indus valley civilization was essentially an urban civilization, characterized by well planned cities, built according to the needs of the people who inhabited them and the geographical and climatic challenges they faced.
  • They wore little to no armor The fallen warriors often went unburied Education - Many of the mathematical concepts we use today were developed by civilizations in the Indus valley and predate the number systems of virtually all other cultures by several centuries.
  • An ancient stepwell has reportedly been found in Dholavira, one of the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • That could make the Indus Valley settlements, which were spread across Pakistan and northern India, even older than the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilisations.
  • All these discoveries point to the existence of an advanced civilisation in pre-historic India which is now popularly known as Indus Valley Civilization or Harappa Culture.
  • Record Keeping of the Indus River Valley Civilization Here is an example of some of their inscriptions.
  • Traits of Civilization: The five traits that characterize civilization are: specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, advanced technology, and advanced cities.
  • Most writing, as we talked about in class, comes from seals likely used for trade or record keeping purposes.
  • An even bigger indication towards this is that this writing system was soon adopted by the population of the Indus Valley in more creative ways than coinage or political records.
  • A form of culture characterized by advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping and advanced technology.
  • The valley of the Indus River is considered to be the birthplace of Indian civilization.
  • A recent discovery suggests that the Indus Valley Civilization is at least 8,000 years old, not 5,500 as previously believed.
  • "Discoveries at Mehrgarh changed the entire concept of the Indus civilization", according to Ahmad Hasan Dani, professor emeritus at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad.
  • The Pashupati Seal is the name of a steatite seal that was discovered at the Mohenjo-daro archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Marshall's analysis of the Indus Valley religion, and the Pashupati seal in particular, was very influential and widely accepted for at least the next two generations.
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were the two great cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, emerging around 2600 BCE along the Indus River Valley in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan.
  • The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
  • In the Indus Valley Civilization, priests ranked a little bit higher on the social pyramid than rulers.
  • The caste system of the Indus Valley greatly affected the daily lives of civilians.
  • RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS- EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION SOCIAL STRUCTURE • The population of ancient Egypt was divided into groups of people with different jobs and responsibilities to society. • These social classes were structured as a pyramid. • This social pyramid shows the levels of each social class in terms of importance.
  • They had many similarities, such as characteristics of early civilizations and social structures, but they also had their differences.
  • The high degree of homogeneity in Harappan products, the uniform planning of Indus towns, the rigorous enforcement of trade and municipal regulations and the efficient Harappan distribution system all confirm that there was a highly effective and efficient administration in the ancient Indus Valley civilization.
  • The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear.
  • By the time the next strata of literature emerges in India during the Vedic period, this form of social structure is evident.
  • Linguists have cracked many tough scripts, from Mesopotamian cuneiform to Egyptian hieroglyphic to Central American Mayan glyphs, but there are a few ancient, mysterious scripts still in the field today, including the Indus Valley Civilization script of over four millennia ago, that are yet to be deciphered.
  • " (Parpola, 1986) Sidenote: "Vedic" means from the time of the Vedas, the earliest text in India, and the Vedic culture is from around 1500 to 500 BC. However, no depiction of horses on seals nor any remains of horses have been found so far before 2000 BC. They only appear after 2000 BC. Very likely there were no Aryan speakers present before 2000 BC in the Indus Valley.
  • The Indus Valley people left behind an extensive set of cities and towns, the most notable of which are Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and Lothal, and through these sites it is clear that they were well organized with planned streets, elaborate bathes, covered sewage systems, water and drainage to individual homes, and even large port facilities.
  • This is the name given to a collection of symbols found on artefacts from the Indus valley civilisation, which flourished in what is now eastern Pakistan and western India between 2500 and 1900 BC.
  • Cities like Harappa, which lie on the periphery of the known Indus Valley Civilization, served as gateway cities.
  • It is justified to think that there is an organic relationship between the ancient culture of the Indus Valley and the Hinduism of today.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
  • "It is generally assumed that most trade between the Indus Valley (ancient Meluhha?)
  • Occupations/ Division of Labor The main social classes of the Indus River Valley Civilization are the Gods, Brahmins (priests and academics), Kshatryia (warriors and kings), Vaishya (merchants and landowners), Sudra (commoners,peasants, and servants), and then the Untouchables (the outcasts of the Caste system).
  • People were born into social classes that could not be changed.
  • The well-developed ancient urban civilization of the Indian subcontinent, the Indus Valley civilization or Harappan culture dominated parts of.
  • Evidence supporting this claim includes: the continuity of pre-Aryan traditions practices by many sectors of Indian society and also the possibility that some major gods of the Hindu pantheon actually originated during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization and were kept "alive" by the original inhabitants through the centuries.
  • It is considered a Bronze Age society, and inhabitants of the ancient Indus River Valley developed new techniques in metallurgy--the science of working with copper, bronze, lead, and tin.
  • Almost all figurines were crafted from terra-cotta, but a few sculptures towards the end of the Indus Valley Civilization have been cast of bronze.
  • …the musical culture of the Indus valley civilization of the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce.
  • Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir, evidence for hydraulic sewage systems in the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • By 2600 b.c. a fully developed Indus script was being used throughout the Indus Valley in an area that was twice the size of ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt.
  • Technology of The Indus Valley Civilization The Sewer System Description- The sewer system was a way to organize sewage and water supply for the people of the Indus river valley civilization.
  • This Prezi is meant to explain the Trade and Commerce that took place during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • This mysterious culture emerged nearly 4,500 years ago and thrived for a thousand years, profiting from the highly fertile lands of the Indus River floodplain and trade with the civilizations of nearby Mesopotamia.
  • Evidence supporting this claim includes: the continuity of pre-Aryan traditions practices by many sectors of Indian society and also the possibility that some major gods of the Hindu pantheon actually originated during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization and were kept "alive" by the original inhabitants through the centuries.
  • The mature phase of the Harappan civilisation lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures -- Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively -- the entire Indus Valley Civilisation may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. It is part of the Indus Valley Tradition, which also includes the pre-Harappan occupation of Mehrgarh, the earliest farming site of the Indus Valley.
  • A few thousand seals have been discovered in Indus Valley cities, showing some 400 pictographs: too few in number for the language to have been ideographic, and too many for the language to have been phonetic.
  • A computer visualization of the ancient Indus Valley city of Harappa in based on M.S. Vat's excavations at the site in the late 1920s.
  • The Harappan civilization dominated the Indus River valley beginning about five thousand years ago, many of its massive cities sprawling at the edges of rivers that still flow through Pakistan and India today.
  • The ruins of the cities, so far unearthed, show remarkable town planning, and excellent system of drainage and sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The open court was the basic feature of house planning in the Indus valley as in Babylon.
  • Apart from Town planning other important characteristics of Harappan Civilization includes exclusive style of Arts and Crafts.
  • The Indus civilization is known to have consisted of two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, often of relatively small size.
  • For this reason, the Indus civilization is recognized to be the first to develop urban planning.
  • The scientific construction of building using baked brick in indus valley is an ingredient to modern day urbanization planning.
  • Much has been known about the town planning and architecture of the Harappan civilization.
  • Advanced Harappan art indicates that the people of the ancient Indus Valley had fine artistic sensibilities.
  • What one may consider the degenerate phase ofHarappan which is characterized by the absence of monumental architecture, large sized settlement, town planning and chert blades.
  • Throughout the Indus Valley people still race oxcarts, especially in the regions around Mohenjo-daro where on-track betting ends with large sums of money or land changing hands." ( Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, p. 130.)
  • Harappan Culture: Over 4,000 years ago, the Indus Valley cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two busy places with populations of about 35,000 people each.
  • As Mark Kenoyer writes in Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, "The earliest inhabitants of South Asia belonged to the hominid species Homo erectus, the ancestor of modern Homo sapiens.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization BCE mature period BCE) that was located in the northwestern of the Indian consisting of what is now mainly present-day Pakistan and northwest India File:CiviltàValleIndoMappa.
  • The Harappan trade routes showing how their wealth of resources was traded along rivers and eventually into the Arabian Sea and beyond.
  • There is nothing to suggest that people from Mesopotamia reached the Indus, so it is clear that the Harappans conducted the trade between the two civilizations.
  • Trade routes linked urban centres with their hinterlands, sources of materials such as lapis Lazuli, carnelian, steatite, tin, copper and gold.
  • Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and central India, and Mesopotamia.
  • One of these routes turns northwest along the Amu Darya (river) including Bukhara and Samarkand the center of Silk Road trade to the Aral Sea, through ancient civilizations under the present site of Astrakhan, and on to the Crimean peninsula.
  • The Indus script (also known as the Harappan script ) is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization during the Kot Diji and Mature Harappan periods between 3500 and 1900 BCE. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system.
  • A seal found during excavations in Anaicoddai in Eelam contained both Indus Valley letters and brahmic script.
  • The perception of origins of Indus valley civilization was altered dramatically with the discovery of the extraordinary complex of culture sites on the Bolan river around Mehrgarh which was discovered and excavated under the direction of French Arhchaeologist J.F.Jarriage in 1975.
  • An Indus Valley site has been found in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda, Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.
  • The Town Planning System of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was city based.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
  • They have to leave their dwelling places and it is thought that drying up of Sarasvathi is one of the reasons for decline all these dwelling places, (cities and villages) which contributed to decline of Indus Civilization.  It was observed that this ancient city was very similar to Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in several aspects like town planning, building layout etc.  For building houses, bakes bricks were used extensively at Channu Daro.
  • The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
  • Another water source that gave life to Indus Valley was the Ghaggar-Hakra River that passes through the northwest point of India and eastern section of Pakistan.
  • This kind of careful planning of cities is referred to as urban planning.
  • The dichotomy of Harappan towns and cities into a citadel or Acropolis and a "Lower Town" was deliberately introduced in the Indus Valley in order to enhance the prestige of the ruler of the town, or rajah.
  • Between 2600 to 1700 BC Harappa was one of the largest cities in the Indus Valley Civilization with a population of up to 40,000 people.
  • Ahar-Banas culture is a Chalcolithic archaeological culture on the banks of Ahar River of southeastern Rajasthan state in India, lasting from c. 3000 to 1500 BCE, contemporary and adjacent to the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • Unlike other different civilisation that took place either in Europe or China, Indus Valley Civilisation is one of the biggest and unique civilisation.
  • Tracing our historical routes, we travel throught the time from pre-historical era and discuss in relevant details the mother of all civilization, the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) Video by Unacademy for IAS Preparation.
  • Discuss the pattern of trade during the Indus Valley civilization.
  • Compare the economic, social and religious life of the Indus Valley (Harappan) people with that of the early Vedic people and discuss the relative chronology of the Indus and the early Vedic cultures.
  • The Ancient Indian History, as you all aspirants know that it is an important area from which some Ancient Indian History Questions are regularly given in UPSC prelims and mains, SSC, TET and many other competitive exams.
  • Harappan civilization SSC also known as Indus Valley Civilization SSC is a very important chapter for SSC, Railways, RRB, UPSC. Many questions are asked from the chapter Harappan Civilization in SSC. So it is important chapter of SSC History.
  • The details and findings of various sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation also give us a broad understanding about the Indian culture.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • In Pakistan, Kot Diji in the central Indus Valley was excavated by F.A. Khan, and great attention was paid to the Hakra and pre-Hakra cultures by M.R. Mughal.
  • Historians call this discovery the Indus Valley civilization and tell us that it was founded about 3300 BCE, when some farming settlements grew into sophisticated cities.
  • McIntosh J (2008) The ancient Indus Valley: new perspectives.
  • Spatiotemporal distribution of Harappan sites We used the Indus Google Earth Gazetteer (version August 2008) compiled by Law (2007) for the geolo- cation of artifacts relating to the Indus valley.
  • Between 2600 to 1700 BC Harappa was one of the largest cities in the Indus Valley Civilization with a population of up to 40,000 people.
  • Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations have long been compared throughout history and were both some of the earliest civilizations in the world.
  • What about Danube river valley civilization?
  • Kate ward per 3 9/11/13 river valley civilizations were the first to occur throughout time two of the most advanced were egypt and mesopotamia.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India.
  • Read story comparing and contrasting four river valley civilization by cormat48 (cori) with 22,229 reads river, valley, civilaztion topic: comparing and cont.
  • While many people around the globe consider the Ancient Egyptian and Sumerian civilization as one of the most complex civilization to have developed in the distant past, the truth is that the Indus Valley Civilization might predate them by some 2,500 years.
  • Comparing two civilisations Indus Valley and Egyptian civilisation Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
  • Chinese and Indus Valley Civilization: The Chinese civilization developed in the Yellow river valley.
  • Early Writing System  The Chinese civilizations made achievements in early writing systems that include both pictographs and ideographs and is now as one of the earliest writing systems.
  • There are four settled societies that each developed agriculture independently along major rivers that are traditionally considered the early river valley civilizations.
  • Further there is unanimity among scholars that the Dravidians who were the chief architects of the Indus valley civilization participated in building up the Vedic culture, particularly that of the later Vedic age.
  • Indus & Vedic Civilizationkms apart, were a part of one civilization older than Vedic.
  • The Punjab region of the upper Indus Valley remained the seat of Vedic/Hindu learning and of ancient Vedic heritage.
  • The Indus Script is the writing system developed by the Indus Valley Civilization and it is the earliest form of writing known in the Indian subcontinent.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • They also brought war as well as the caste system, and erased all traces of the writing system of the Harappan civilization.
  • After their position on the script was published, Sproat wrote two papers that examined the conditional entropy techniques used by Rao and colleagues as well as similar techniques used by a different group examining Pictish symbols, another ancient writing system.
  • Much like how the Sumerians started their writing system by making clay seals to mark their possessions and transactions, I think the Harappans, who would certainly need to mark each other’s stores if they were amassing trade goods for long distance shipping, left this "script" as a proto seal to signify ownership.
  • The Indus people were contemporaries of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations, inhabiting the Indus river valley in present-day eastern Pakistan and northwestern India from about 2600 to 1900 B.C. This was an advanced, urbanized civilization that left written symbols on tiny stamp seals, amulets, ceramic objects and small tablets.
  • It was used extensively in Asia: the Indus Valley Civilization flourished as a result of improved metallurgy.
  • Of course, the present science does not admit that a prehistoric culture has used ufos to drop nuke bombs, although there is very convincing evidence in pakistan and in india, in the indus valley, lie the ruins of several ancient cities, which were brutally destroyed they are not mentioned in history: we can.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River in present-day Pakistan.
  • Scientists now believe the Harappan people fled their cities en masse and headed east in response to a natural climate change cycle of declining monsoon rains that stopped feeding rivers, which were key to keeping soil fertile for Indus Valley crops.
  • Some artifacts have also shown images of the swastika being portrayed however, very little evidence has been found to help historians understand why and how this symbol was used by the people of the Indus Valley civilization.
  • Some scientists have suggested that women must have been respected as people among Harappans, because so many of the surviving statues from the Indus Valley cultures are of women.
  • Archaeologists have found seals from the Indus Valley, like those shown to the right, as far away as Mesopotamia.
  • Several steatite seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300-1700 BCE) sites depict figures in a yoga- or meditation-like posture, "a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga", according to Indus archeologist Gregory Possehl.
  • The people of the Indus Valley also appear to have worshipped a male god.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • These findings prove once and for all that the ancient urban civilizations in the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and Egypt developed independently.
  • "When Marshall excavated the Indus Valley Civilization, he gave it the date of about 3000 BC," said Dikshit.
  • They wanted to prove that the Indus Valley civilization spread to other Indian sites like Bhirrana and Rakhigarrhi in Haryana, apart from the known locations of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan.
  • The Bronze Age village and urban societies of the Indus Valley are some-thing of an anomaly, in that archaeologists have found little indication of local defense and regional warfare.
  • C14 Carbon dating has proved conclusively that pre-Indus valley civilization with pottery, cities with drainage existed in Haryana at around 7500 BC. That makes it the oldest "civilization" (as opposed primitive humans making cave drawings).
  • The world had to wait 2000 years more, till the rise of the Roman civilization for sanitation and town planning to reach a comparable level.
  • The oldest Chinese civilization in the Yellow River Valley is traditionally considered to be the Xia dynasty from around 2,000 - 1,600 BC, though some historians doubt it existed.
  • The previous set of excavations done in 1920 at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro showed Indus Valley Civilisation to be almost as old as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  • In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • This work led to the the first excavations in the early 20th century at Harappa by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, and by R.D. Banerji at another Indus Civilization city, Mohenjo Daro.
  • In 2600 B.C.E., the Indus Valley was verdant, forested, and teeming with wildlife.
  • Our discovery in 2001 of a workshop that manufactured seals and inscribed tablets at Harappa, combined with the past 16 years of excavation at the site, has provided a new chronology for the development of the Indus writing.
  • The ancient Indus Valley cities, such as Harappa, obtained their copper from western Baluchistan, probably as smelted but unrefined copper, to judge by the small accumulations of slag at that city.
  • Indus Valley Civilization UPSC CSE in Hindi Indus Valley Civilization is very important from our Prelims as well as from our Mains point of view as well.
  • PP Design of T. Loessin Akins H.S. Three theories about why the Indus Valley civilization ended around 1500 BCE?
  • After c. 1900 BCE, all the major Indus Valley cities were abandoned.
  • The civilization arose as river valley that reached at maturity by the year of 2600 BC. Indus Valley’s existence and ruins spread all over Pakistan, Southern Afghanistan, and Northern India.
  • One hypothesis is that between about 2000 and 1500 bce not an invasion but a continuing spread of Indo-Aryan speakers occurred, carrying them much farther into India, to the east and south, and coinciding with a growing cultural interaction between the native population and the new arrivals.
  • The ancient center uncovered there rises 40 feet above the surrounding plain over what is believed to be 100 feet of stratified settlement debris dating from the period of occupation between about 2500 and 1500 BCE. The highest point of the center rests atop on an artificial platform of mud and mudbricks.
  • The region encompassed by modern-day Pakistan is home to the oldest Asian civlization (and one of the oldest in the world after Mesopotamia and Egypt), Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC - 1500 BC).
  • In 2500 Bc-1500-Bc several musical instrument like drums and statuettes representing dancing poses found at the Indus Valley civilization statuette of rudra, who is worshipped as the deity of dance music.
  • The ancient Indus Valley cities, such as Harappa, obtained their copper from western Baluchistan, probably as smelted but unrefined copper, to judge by the small accumulations of slag at that city.
  • The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
  • People of the Indus Valley also traded with other cultures in Mesopotamia and with Egypt.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization BCE mature period BCE) that was located in the northwestern of the Indian consisting of what is now mainly present-day Pakistan and northwest India File:CiviltàValleIndoMappa.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization was located in the floodplain of the Indus and Sarasvati rivers, and it was about the best place in the world to have an ancient civilization, because the rivers flooded very reliably twice a year, which meant that it had the most available calories per acre of pretty much anywhere on the planet.
  • THIS BUNDLE INCLUDES A RESOURCE FOR EACH OF THE ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY EPISODES (1 through 11) This download includes a 10-question handout (in both PDF and fully-editable MS WORD format) to accompany John Green's popular Crash Course videos on YouTube.
  • Give John Green 40 weeks, and Green will give you a playful and highly visual crash course in world history, taking you from the beginning of human civilization 15,000 years ago through to our modern age.
  • Flash animated and interactive, investigate artifacts of the city to learn about the culture and lifestyle of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.
  • This download includes a 10-question handout (in both PDF and fully-editable MS WORD format) to accompany John Green's popular Crash Course videos on YouTube.
  • The videos on Crash Course are incredibly humorous, informative, entertaining and colorful.
  • Anywho, the production value is awesome and the overall world history is awesome because it brings up the BIG questions and connections that world history is suppose to focus on.
  • All these discoveries point to the existence of an advanced civilisation in pre-historic India which is now popularly known as Indus Valley Civilization or Harappa Culture.
  • In 2001, while archaeologists were studying remains of two men in Mehrgarh, Pakistan which was the part of Indus valley civilization, proposed that people from early Harappan period perhaps had the knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  • Before jumping into the list let's clear one point, Indus valley people were literate and had a language, but for some reason we still can't read their language so, everything we know about them is due to archaeology.
  • By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established, and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak.
  • Among the Indus civilization's mysteries, however, are fundamental questions, including its means of subsistence and the causes for its sudden disappearance beginning around 1900 B.C.E. Lack of information until recently led many scholars to negatively contrast the Indus Valley legacy with what is known about its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, implying that these have contributed more to human development.
  • The civilization of the Indus River at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa arose at about 2500 BCE and ended with apparent destruction about 1500 BCE. It is uncertain whether this civilization had its roots in Sumer or Sumer had its roots in this civilization.
  • Rakhigarhi, in modern the state of Haryana, is the biggest Harappan or Indus Valley Civilization site, bigger even than the famed Mohenjo-daro.
  • In January 2014, the discovery of additional mounds resulted it in becoming the largest Indus Valley Civilization site, overtaking Mohenjodaro (300 Hectares) by almost 50 hectares, resulting in almost 350 hectares.
  • One inconsistency is that the agricultural backbone of the Indus Valley civilisation was barley and wheat, while the Austro-Asiatic language family is spread across regions (such as Southeast Asia) where rice is the most important cultivar.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear.
  • Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization.  This Indus Valley "civilization" flourished around 4000-1000 B.C. Mature Harappan Phase lasted from 2600BC to 1700 BC. Subsequently came the third phase, the late Harappan phase from 1700 BC to 1300 BC. 2800 BC - Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.
  • Outposts of the Indus Valley civilisation were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Pakistani Balochistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus ) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, in modern-day Surat, Gujarat, India.
  • The civilization, which is known for its superior urban planning, is believed to have flourished in the period between 3300 BC to 1300 BC in what is today Pakistan, northwest India and parts of Afghanistan and Balochistan.
  • Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are generally characterized as having differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, the weights and measures of the Indus Valley Civilization, on the other hand, were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilisation appear in later cultures, the Cemetery H culture may be the manifestation of the Late Harappan over a large area in the region of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture its successor.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • Dozens of towns and cities are established in the Indus Valley.
  • This was when the Harappans started noticing the decline of the Indus River Valley Civilization.
  • The great Indus Valley Civilization, located in modern-day India and Pakistan, began to decline around 1800 BCE. The civilization eventually disappeared along with its two great cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
  • The Indus seals at Ur showed the Indus Valley Civilization to be contemporaneous with the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations, subjecting Moen jo Daro to an unworthy comparison of its utilitarian architectural remains with the monumental structures of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  • Indus valley civilization or Harappa Civilization 3000 BC to 1500 BC: India is one of the greatest countries in the world due to its great Vedic culture.
  • It is one of the few Harappan sites which has an unbroken history of settlement--Early Harappan farming communities from 6000 to 4500 BC, followed by the Early Mature Harappan urbanization phase from 4500 to 3000 BC, and then the highly urbanized Mature Harappan era from 3000 BC to the mysterious collapse of the civilization around 1800 BC. That’s more than 4,000 years of ancient human history packed into its rich soil.
  • India boasts some of history's most ancient and complicated societies, some of them dating back almost to 3000 BC. Yet the study of Indian history presents a major problem: until at least the sixth century BC we have relatively little idea when things happened.
  • The two main civilizations discussed here are Mesopotamia and Indus River Valley.
  • The list of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization refers to the technological and civilizational achievements of the Indus Valley Civilization, an ancient civilization which flourished in the Bronze Age around the general region of the Indus River and Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is today Pakistan and northwestern India.
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were thought to be the two great cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, emerging around 2600 BCE along the Indus River Valley in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan.
  • Harappan civilization, a huge complex of cities and villages, developed rapidly during the 3rd millennium B.C.E. within the Indus river system.
  • From the Publisher: John relates a condensed history of India, post-Indus Valley Civilization.
  • The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1700 BC), found in sites at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in modern-day Pakistan.
  • During 4300-3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age), the Indus Valley Civilisation area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable mobility and trade.
  • Readers, now we had revised Indus Valley Civilization, but keep in mind that this phase was the successor of Pre-Historic India.
  • While, Daya Ram Sahni supervised the excavation of the Indus Valley site at Harappa in 1921-22.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and the f ringes of Western Uttar Pradesh It extended from Jammu in the North to mouth of River Narmada in the South and from the Makran Coast of Baluchistan in the West to Meerut in the East It covered an area of 1299600 sq.
  • This is a very important topic from which, questions are asked in the GK, GS and GA part of competitive exams.
  • Competition ZENITH notes ssc ssc history Chapter 1- Brief insight of Harappa/Indus Valley civilization.
  • Get important history questions and answers on our portal, if you are preparing for competitive exam like UPSC, SSC CGL, Banking and other exams.Where one can get General Knowledge Indian History questions and answers with description?
  • Historians call this discovery the Indus Valley civilization and tell us that it was founded about 3300 BCE, when some farming settlements grew into sophisticated cities.
  • Compare with the very different interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp.237-245, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2, and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene South Asian Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425.
  • There is evidence of importation of raw materials, exotic stones, gold, copper and tin, but very few manufactured or prestige goods from outside are found in the ancient Indus Valley.
  • Compare with the very different interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp.237-245, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2, and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene South Asian Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425.
  • Situated at a distance of about 28 km noth-west of Jammu on the right bank of the River Chenab, a tributary of the Indus, on the foothills of Pir Panjal Range this site is northernmost centre of Harappan civilization.
  • In terms of fashion and appearance, we can gather some information about the habits of Indus Valley people by examining artwork from the civilization.
  • The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: there is no osteological evidence of horse remains in the Indian sub-continent before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, horses do not appear.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity.
  • II. Geography A. Indus River - Vital feature of the land now covered by India and Pakistan.
  • A new study by scientists from IIT-Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India which shows that the Indus Valley Civilization is at least 8,000 years old, and not approximately 5,000 years old as previously believed demands a fundamental and objective rethink of old assumptions about the antiquity of Indian civilisation and its role in world history.
  • The civilization is believed to have existed during the period 3300 to 1700 BCE. It flourished during 2600 - 1900 BCE in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys primarily in what is now Pakistan and western India, extending westward into Balochistan.
  • The skeletons were dated to about 5,000 years old and were unearthed in a cemetery in Rakhigarhi, a city of the ancient civilization.
  • Around 5000 years from now, in the plain of Indo-Gangetic basin, the great cities of Indus civilization flourished.
  • C14 Carbon dating has proved conclusively that pre-Indus valley civilization with pottery, cities with drainage existed in Haryana at around 7500 BC. That makes it the oldest "civilization" (as opposed primitive humans making cave drawings).
  • An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda,Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.
  • This meant that 3,000 years later when the Indus people settled the area, there was only an abandoned river valley. (Credit: DailyMail) This study unequivocally showed that Sutlej river once flowed in the Ghaggar-Hakra region.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization extended from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach from east of River Jhelum to Rupar on the upper Sutlej.
  • At the most, the Indus Valley civilization may have been populated with more than 5 million inhabitants.
  • Present day Pakistan and Northwest India is where Indus Valley was once located.
  • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned.
  • In this article, let us learn about 20 interesting Indus Valley Civilization facts.
  • Here are 10 interesting facts about the advanced features of the Harappan Civilization as well as its famous structures, artifacts, society, and its discovery in modern times.
  • In this article, let us learn about 20 interesting Indus Valley Civilization facts.
  • Although the intricate details of the early Indus Valley culture might never be fully known, many pieces of the ancient puzzle have been discovered.

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Indus Valley Civilization For Kids, 3000-1500 BCE

In 1922, archaeologists made an exciting discovery - the remains of an ancient city from a previously unknown civilization. They named this city Harappa. Shortly thereafter, and with help from local guides, they found another city. They called this one Mohenjo-Daro. Since that time, archeologists have found over 1400 cities from this same civilization. Most towns and cities in ancient times were built along waterways and rivers. These cities were different, at least, that is what archaeologists thought at first. They soon discovered that the cities were built along a dried out river bed, where once a mighty river had run. That river was probably the Indus River, long ago. Today, the Indus River is one of the world's longest, and winds from the mountains in northern India through India and Pakistan until it reaches the ocean. But once, archaeologists believe, the Indus flowed along a different path to support a very large and very advanced, ancient civilization.

These early people did write things down, but historians still cannot read their writing. And there is not a lot of writing to be read. Perhaps they used paper or another material that did not stand the test of time. But archaeologists have discovered quite a bit from the artifacts left behind. What they have discovered is fascinating!

Over 4,000 years ago, in the Indus Valley, people built huge, planned cities, with straight streets, and brick homes with private baths! Kids played with toys and women wore lipstick! This civilization existed from about 3000 BCE to about 1500 BCE, which means it existed at about the same time as the ancient Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations. Some of their cities had a populations of 35,000 people each. Each city was laid out in pretty much the same way. There is no question that this was a very advanced civilization. How advanced is still under investigation.

Homes: Houses were one or two stories high made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical. The flat roof probably acted as a third floor for dining and sleeping. Each home was built around a courtyard, with windows overlooking the courtyard. The outside walls had no windows. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. Clay pipes led from the bathrooms to sewers located under the streets. These sewers drained into nearly rivers and streams.

Clothing: Men and women dressed in colorful robes. Women wore jewelry of gold and precious stone, and even wore lipstick! Among the treasures found was a statue of a woman wearing a bracelet. (Bracelets with similar designs are worn today in India.)

Entertainment: A beautiful small bronze statue of a dancer was found, which tells us that they enjoyed dance and had great skill working with metals. In the ancient city of Mohenjo-Daro, scientists have found the remains of a large central pool, with steps leading down at both ends. This could have been a public swimming pool, or perhaps have been used for religious ceremonies. Around this large central pool were smaller rooms that might have dressing rooms, and smaller pools that might have been private baths.

Food: Dinner might have been warm tasty wheat bread served with barley or rice. It would appear they were very good farmers. They grew barley, peas, melons, wheat, and dates. Farms raised cotton and kept herds of sheep, pigs, zebus (a kind of cow), and water buffalo. Fish were caught in the river with fishhooks!

Toys : Children in the Indus Valley loved toys. Archaeologists have found clay cows with heads that moved and toy monkeys that could slide down ropes. They found little toy carts and all kinds of clay animals and whistles shaped like birds.

Art: This ancient civilization must have had marvelous craftsmen, skilled in pottery, weaving, and metalworking. The pottery that has been found is of very high quality, with unusually beautiful designs. Several small figures of animals, such as monkeys, have been found. These small figures could be objects of art or toys. There are also small statues of what they think are female gods. So far, scientists have found no large statues. They have found bowls made of bronze and silver, and many beads and ornaments.

Transportation: The people used camels, oxen and elephants to travel over land. They had carts with wooden wheels. They had ships, with one mast, probably used to sail around the Arabian Sea. Seals with a pictographic script, which has not as yet been deciphered, were found at the Indus Valley sites. Similar seals were found in Mesopotamia, which seems to indicate possible trade between these two civilizations.

Himalayan Mountains: One of the advantages of the Indus Valley civilization was the Himalayan Mountains. The Himalayas acted as a natural barrier, offering protection from other people in the ancient world. Water ran down from the Himalayas and fed the Indus River, keeping it full of clean fresh water. The Himalayas provided important timber, and minerals like gold, silver, tin, and semi-precious metals. Cedar was used for building and for coffins.

The Riddle of the Indus : What does it take to build a city with straight streets and well-designed sewers? It takes smart engineers and a lot of planning! These well-organized cities suggest a well-organized government and probably a well-developed social life.

What is amazing is that it appears the Harappan cities did not develop slowly, which suggests that whoever built these cities learned to do so in another place. As the Indus flooded, cities were rebuilt on top of each other. Archaeologists have discovered several different cities, one built over the other, each built a little less skillfully. The most skillful was on bottom. It would appear that builders grew less able or less interested in perfection over time. Still, each city is a marvel, and each greatly advanced for its time.

So far, scientists have found no wall carvings or tomb paintings to tell us about their life. We do know they had a written language, but only a few sentences, on pottery and amulets, have been found. Although scientists cannot yet read the language, they are beginning to believe these people had a common language! As well, scientists have found artifacts at different sites (towns) with the same or similar picture of a unicorn on them. The newspaper, India Today, suggested humorously that perhaps it was a logo - like Pepsi and Coke, only this one was Unicorn!

Scientists remain very curious about these people who lived at about the same time in history as the ancient Mesopotamians and the ancient Egyptians. Did these ancient civilizations know each other in ancient times? The Ancient Mesopotamians, whose cuneiform language scholars can read, talk about a special place with an aquatic culture, where water and bathing played a central role. The ancient Mesopotamians might have been talking about the people in the Indus Valley region. (The Great Bath)

As scientists continue to unravel the riddle of the Indus, we may find we will have to rewrite history! Was it the ancient Mesopotamians who first invented the sailboat, or was it perhaps the people in the Indus Valley?

Another mystery is why the people who lived in these marvelous cities disappeared around 1500 BCE. Perhaps they ran out of wood to hold back flooding, or perhaps their soil gave out and no longer would grow crops. They doubt when the river moved that they moved with it becuase the remains of their distinctive cities been not been found along the banks of the Indus River today. Archaeologists do not know where they people came from or where they went. It's a fascinating riddle. It will be interesting to see what archaeologists "dig up" next!


A majority of the Indus Valley inscriptions were written logographically (by using word signs) and not by using phonograms (speech sounds units), claims a recent research paper published in Palgrave Communications, a Nature group journal.

The paper, titled Interrogating Indus inscription to unravel their mechanism of meaning conveyance, points out that the inscriptions can be compared to the structured messages found on stamps, coupons, tokens and currency coins of modern times.

Discovered from nearly 4,000 ancient inscribed objects, including seals, tablets, ivory rods, pottery shards, etc., the Indus inscriptions are one of the most enigmatic legacies of the Indus Valley civilization which have not been deciphered due to the absence of bilingual texts, extreme brevity of the inscriptions, and ignorance about the language(s) encoded by Indus script.

“This article mainly focuses on understanding how Indus inscriptions conveyed meanings, rather than on deciphering what they conveyed,” Bahata Ansumali Mukhopadhyay, the author of the paper, told The Hindu.

For the study, Ms. Mukhopadhyay has used the digitized corpus of Indus inscriptions compiled by well-known epigraphist and Indus scholar Iravatham Mahadevan. She studied it using computational analyses and various interdisciplinary measures.

Analysing the brevity of the inscriptions, the rigid positional preferences maintained by the signs of the inscriptions, and the co-occurrence of restriction patterns demonstrated by certain classes of Indus signs, she infers that such patterns can never be phonological co-occurrence restrictions. Phonological co-occurrence restrictions refers to two or more sound units that cannot be pronounced together. “A very compelling, nearly unassailable proof of the logographic nature of Indus inscriptions comes from the co-occurrence restriction patterns maintained within them,” the paper states.

In the publication that runs into 37 pages, Ms. Mukhopadhyay classifies the signs into nine functional classes. Based on various archaeological evidence, she further claims: “The inscribed seals and tablets were used in some administrative operation that controlled the commercial transactions prevalent in the trade-savvy settlements of the ancient Indus valley Civilisation. These inscriptions can be compared to the messages found on stamps, coupons, tokens and currency coins of modern times, where we expect formulaic texts that encode certain type of information in some pre-defined ways, rather than freely composed narrative.”

A common perception among some scholars is that the Indus script is logo-syllabic, where one symbol can be used as a word sign at one time and as a syllable-sign at another. This method, where a word-symbol also gets sometimes used only for its sound value, is called the rebus principle. For example, you can combine the pictures of a honey bee and a leaf to signify the word “belief” (bee+leaf). According to Ms. Mukhopadhyay, though many ancient scripts use rebus methods to generate new words, the inscriptions found on the Indus seals and tablets have not used rebus as the mechanism to convey meaning.

The researcher said that the popular hypothesis that the seals were inscribed with Proto-Dravidian or Proto-Indo-European names of the seal-owners does not hold water. It is not that no other Indus scholar has proposed the logographic theory before. Mr. Mahadevan himself tried to read these inscriptions logographically for decades, just that the logographic theory was not articulated well enough. Ms. Mukhopadhyay said her current work could serve as a basis in future for the deciphering of the script.


Excerpts on the decipherment of Indus script

Source: The Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism By Shrikant G. Talageri (Voice of India), 1993.

The discovery of the Indus Civilization by the archaeologists took the academically recognised history of India 3000 years back from the days of Asoka, and about half that number years back from the postulated period of the Aryan Invasion.

But the liguistic identity of the Indus people became a major subject of controversy. The major sites of the Indus Civilization cover roughly the same regions as the Rigveda testifies for its composers. As Sethana puts it, "Rigveda no less than the Harappa culture flourished in the Indus valley." (Karpasa in Prehistoric, A Chronilogical and Cultural Clue, by KD Sethna, 1981). Hence, while protagonists of the invasion theory classified the Indus Civilization as "Dravidian", others classified it as "Aryan".

The identification of the language spoken by the Indus prople is therefore of very crucial significance for Indian History. If they spoke a Dravidian language, it would certainly corroborate the Aryan invasion theory according to shich a Dravidian civilization in the north was destroyed by invading Aryans. If, however, they spoke an Indo-European language, it would certainly demolish the invasion theory, since the Indus civilization is archaelogically dated more than a millenniem and a half - almost two millenniums - before the alleged date (1500 BC) of the invasion, and its roots go even further back by more than a millennium.

But the main problem in identifying the language of the Indus people was that they did not leave behind documents and inscriptions in their language. The only things, in this connection, excavated by archaeologists from the Indus sites were thousands of small seals (used for stamping purposes) made of seatite, terracotta or copper, depicting figures of human beings and animals, and bearing short inscriptions of a few letters each, in an unknown script which has been simply called the Indus or Harappan script.

The major obstacle in deciphering the script was the inadequacy of the available material. The script was an absolutely unknown one, it was not found anywhere in conjunction with another known script and the inscrip- tions on the seals were nowhere of any great length than a few letters each.

. many attempts were made to decipher the Indus script, by individual scholars like Langdon, Hunter, Hronzy, Mahadevan and others, and by teams of Finnish and Soviet scholars. All these attepts, however, met with failure. Moreover, these scholars set out on the exercise of attempted decipherment was based on arbitrary and whimsical methods. Moreover, these scholars set out on the exercise with two preconceived notions: first, that the script could not be an alphabatic one, and could only be pictographic- ideographic one and second, that the language of the inscriptions was a Dravidian one (or, in the case of some Indian scholars, that it was sanskrit).

Having taken two arbitrary steps, in presuming the script to be a pictographic-ideographic one, and in presuming the language to be Dravidian, the scholars then proceeded to set out on a spree of reckless and whimsical interpretations: each individual letter of the Indus script was taken up and arbitrarily presumed to stand for a particular object or concept then the letter was "read" by giving it the sound-value of the particular present-day Tamil or general Dravidian word which was arbit- rarily presumed to be the one word, out of many, which best expressed that object or concept then that letter, on different seals, was variously read with different arbitrary variations of that sound-value, each variation being again arbitrarily connected up with other similar present-day Tamil or general Dravidian words or word-parts.

Using these arbitrary and whimsical methods, it is not very surprising that these scholars came up with a hundred diferent, even diametrically opposite "readings" for any single seal, and ended up tying themselves up into knots and convincing no one but themselves and their committed admirers.

However, Dr. S.R. Rao, the eminent archaeologist, decided to be less speculative in his method. He refused to presume the identity of the Indus language to be either Aryan or Dravidian, and preferred to await the results, if any, to decide its identity.

He noticed two basic facts about the Indus script which had not caught the attention of the earlier scholars. Firstly, he noticed that of the 400 to 500 letters found on the seals, some letters seemed to be basic letters, while most of the other letters seemed to be those same basic letters with some additional signs attached to them. Secondly, he noticed that the script was, as generally believed, absolutely uniform over the entire period of the Indus civilization. Those seals, which were later in time, seemed to have less complicated letters, thereby indicating an evolution.

He, therefore, gathered together all the data on the different inscrip- tions and classified them periodwise. He also separated the basic letters from those with additional signs, and arrived at a small number of basic letters.

Then, he decided to examine, without prejudice, those scripts and alphabates of the world which were closest, in time, to the Indus script, to see whether those scripts or alphabates could give any clue as to the sound-value which could be assigned to these basic letters.

The oldest extant inscription of the Indian Brahmi script dated to around 450 BC or so, while the Indus sites excavated dated down to the mid-2nd millenium BC, leaving a gap of a thousand years.

However, in West Asia, the South Arabic and Old Aramaic alphabetes had come into prominence by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, and the Ahiram Sarcophagus (1300 BC) and Gezer potsherd (1600 BC) provided the earlier stages of these West Asian scripts. And here Dr. Rao struck gold. He found that many of the basic letters of the Indus script bore resemblance to the letters of these two West Asian alphabets.

He decided to assign to each Indus basic letter the same sound-value as the West Asian letter which closely resembled it. After assigning these values to the Indus letters, he proceeded to try to read the inscriptions on the Indus seals. The language that emerged turned out to be a "Aryan" one.

The above is rather simplistic narraration of the procedure adopted by Dr. Rao, which is given in detail in the two relavant books: Lothal and the Indus Civilization, The Decipherment of the Indus Script.

Among the many words yielded by Dr. Rao's decipherment are the numerals aeka, tra, chatus, panta, happta/sapta, dasa, dvadasa and sata (1,3,4,5,7 10,100) and the names of Vedic personalities like Atri, Kasyapa, Gara, Manu, Sara, Trita, Daksa, Druhu, Kasu, etc.

While the direct connection between the late Indus script (1600 BC) and the Brahmi script could not be definitely established earlier, more and more inscriptions have been found all over the country in the last few years, dating 1000 BC, 700 BC, and so on, which have bridged the gap between the two. Now it is evident that the Brahmi script evolved directly from the Indus script.