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Country Index: Hungary

Country Index: Hungary



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The most important sectors of Hungary’s economy in 2018 were industry (25.9%), wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services (18.5%) and public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (16.8%).

Intra-EU trade accounts for 82% of Hungary’s exports (Germany 27%, Romania, Slovakia, Austria and Italy all 5%), outside the EU 2% go to both the United States and Ukraine.

In terms of imports, 75% come from EU Member States (Germany 25%, Austria 6% and Poland and the Netherlands 5%), while outside the EU 6% come from China and 5% from Russia.


Standard parameters

Parameter nameValueMeaning
alias ꯍꯪꯒ꯭ꯔꯤ Main article name (ꯍꯪꯒ꯭ꯔꯤ)
flag alias Flag of Hungary.svg Image name (File:Flag of Hungary.svg, shown on right)

Flag variants

LabelFlag image (40px)Image name
1848 Flag of Hungary (1848-1849, 1867-1869).svg
1849 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg
1867 Flag of Hungary (1848-1849, 1867-1869).svg
1869 Flag of Hungary (1869-1874).svg
1874 Flag of Hungary (1874-1896).svg
1896 Flag of Hungary (1896-1915 angels).svg
1915 Flag of Hungary (1915-1918 angels).svg
1918 Flag of Hungary (1918-1919).svg
1919 Flag of Hungary (1919).svg
1920 Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg
1946 Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957 1-2 aspect ratio).svg
1949 Flag of Hungary (1949-1956 1-2 aspect ratio).svg
1956 Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957 1-2 aspect ratio).svg
1957 Flag of Hungary.svg
state Flag of Hungary with arms (state).svg
civil Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg
naval Naval Ensign of Hungary.svg
military Flag of the Hungarian Defence Forces.svg
army War Flag of Hungary.svg

Military ensigns

This template includes a naval ensign flag variant that can be used with Template:Navy:

Hungary|Flagicon/core|variant=naval|size=>> This nation's air force ensign is the same as its national flag, so Template:Air force produces the following:

This template includes a marine ensign flag variant that can be used with Template:Armed forces:


This template includes an army ensign flag variant that can be used with Template:Army:


Contents

Prior to World War I, Hungary was divided into 64 counties (according to Statoids) or 71 counties (according to Wikipedia). After World War I, the old counties were abolished and Hungary was divided into 19 counties. At WeRelate the pre-WWI counties are called "former counties" and the post-WWI counties are called "counties".

The standard at WeRelate is to title Hungarian place pages according to their former county when the former county is known, with also-located-in links to the modern county when it is known.


Diplomatic Relations

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1921 .

A Treaty Establishing Friendly Relations was signed between the Republic of Austria and the United States Government in Vienna on August 24, 1921. It was proclaimed to be in effect on November 8, 1921.

Establishment of American Legation in Austria 1921 .

Arthur Hugh Frazier was appointed Chargé d’Affaires to Austria and presented his credentials on November 26, 1921. The first U.S. Minister, Albert Henry Washburn, was appointed on February 10, 1922, and presented his credentials on June 19, 1922. He served until his death on April 29, 1930.

The Austrian Republic’s first diplomatic representative in the United States was Edgar L. G. Prochnik , who presented his credentials on December 27, 1921. Prochnik was promoted to Minister and presented his new credentials on May 7, 1925.

The Anschluss, Closure of the American Legation in Vienna , and post-World War II Revival of Austrian Independence, 1936-48 .

Nazi Germany annexed Austria in March 1938. The senior U.S. representative in Vienna was Chargé d’Affaires John C. Wiley (Minister Grenville T. Emmett had died September 26, 1937). He closed the Legation on April 30, 1938, and it became a Consulate General, a step that Secretary of State Cordell Hull noted had to be taken “as a practical measure.” On November 1, 1943, at the end of the Moscow Conference, the Foreign Ministers of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed that Austria’s annexation by Germany was “null and void,” and that they favored the re-establishment of “a free and independent Austria.”

A provisional government was established in Austria on April 25, 1945, and a Democratic Republic of Austria was proclaimed on May 14. On August 8, 1945, Austria and Vienna were divided into four occupation zones, with an Allied Council for Austria assuming authority over matters affecting the whole country. On January 7, 1946, the Four Powers recognized the Austrian Republic within its 1937 boundaries.

Re-establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1946 .

John G. Erhardt was appointed as the U.S. Political Representative to the Austrian Government on January 21, 1946. He was appointed Minister to Austria on August 3. He presented his credentials on September 7, and served until June 27, 1950.

Ludwig Kleinwaechter was recognized as Austria’s first postwar representative to the United States on January 21, 1946. He was promoted to Minister and presented his new credentials on December 4, 1946. He was promoted to Ambassador and presented his new credentials on December 19, 1951.

Elevation of American Legation to Embassy Status, 1951 .

American Minister Walter J. Donnelly was promoted to Ambassador on November 16, 1951. He presented his credentials on November 28, and served until July 19, 1952.

Other U.S. Diplomatic Missions in Vienna

Vienna is the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The United States has had a representative there since 1957.

The United States also appointed a Representative to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in 1968. In 1983, both missions were combined into the U.S. Mission to International Organizations in Vienna.

Treaties and Agreements

The U.S. treaty “establishing friendly relations” with the Austrian Republic was signed in Vienna on August 24, 1921, and entered into force on November 8, 1921. It opened the way for the resumption of diplomatic relations.

Key Diplomatic Events

On May 15, 1955, the Four Powers (the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union) signed the Austrian State Treaty in Vienna , which ended the four-power occupation and declared Austria to be a free, independent, and neutral state.


Country Index: Hungary - History

Hungary ( / ˈ h ʌ ŋ ɡ ər i / ( listen ) Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ] ( listen )) is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. [2] It covers an area of 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi), situated in the Carpathian Basin, and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west, Austria to the northwest, and Ukraine to the northeast. [12] With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. [13] The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world. [14] Hungary's capital and its largest city and metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, classified as a leading global city. [15] Major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.

Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, West Slavs, Gepids and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. [16] [17] His great-grandson Stephen Iascended the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. [18] Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary came under Habsburg rule, and later formed the great power Austro–Hungarian Empire together with Austria. [19]

Hungary's current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. [20] [21] [22] Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. [23] [24] Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades (1947–1989). [25] The country gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. [26] [27] On 23 October 1989, Hungary again became a democratic parliamentary republic. [28]

In the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power [29] [30] and has the world's 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 191 countries measured by IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, [31] it is the world's 35th largest exporter and 34th largest importer of goods. Hungary is an OECD high-income economy with a very high standard of living. [32] [33] It keeps up a social security and universal health care system, and a tuition-free university education. [34] [35] Hungary performs well in international rankings: it is 20th in quality of life, 24th in Good Country Index, 28th in inequality-adjusted human development, 32nd in the Social Progress Index, 33rd in Global Innovation Index and ranks as the 15th safest country in the world.

Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007. [36] Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group and more. [37] Well known for its rich cultural history, Hungary has contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science and technology. [38] [39] [40] [41] Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe, attracting 14.3 million international tourists in 2015. [42] It is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. [43] [44]


Country Index: Hungary - History

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Country Index Volume I

The New Country Index: Making Sense of International CredentialsVolume I (2004) is an essential tool for interpreting the educational backgrounds of people who have studied outside of the United States and who need statements of educational equivalencies in order to enter the U.S. educational environment and work force.

Compiled by current and former staff and board members, Volume I of The New Country Index: Making Sense of International Credentials provides easy-to-follow tables that clearly map the educational structures of 70 foreign countries to their U.S. equivalents. In each country section, you’ll find information on studies at all levels – primary through tertiary as well as technical, vocational, and professional training.

The most reliable, convenient, and practical reference of its kind, The New Country Index is a must-have resource for colleges and universities, state licensing boards, and foreign ministries, as well as for immigration attorneys and individuals hiring or seeking employment in the United States.

The New Country Index:Making Sense of International Credentials(Volume I) is comprised of educational profiles for 70 countries. In particular, it includes the following countries:


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Today we feature each individual country and have abolished the concept of regions simply select the country you are interested in through the WorldGenWeb Country Index.

Landing pages have been implemented for the following countries: see sitemap.

For more information about the countries in the former EastEuropeGenWeb region, see listing.

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Links and references to the Mailing Lists will be updated / deleted in due course.

For more information about the countries in the former EastEuropeGenWeb region, see listing.


Hungary

Hungary is a country located in Central Europe that covers an area of 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world. Hungary's capital and its largest city and metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, classified as a leading global city. Major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.

Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, Germanic people, West Slavs, and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary came under Habsburg rule, and later formed the great power Austro–Hungarian Empire together with Austria.

Hungary's current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades (1947–1989). The country gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary again became a democratic parliamentary republic.

In the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the world's 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 191 countries measured by IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is the world's 35th largest exporter and 34th largest importer of goods. Hungary is an OECD high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a social security and universal health care system, and a tuition-free university education. Hungary performs well in international rankings: it is 20th in quality of life, 24th in Good Country Index, 28th in inequality-adjusted human development, 32nd in the Social Progress Index, 33rd in Global Innovation Index and ranks as the 15th safest country in the world.

Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007. Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group and more. Well known for its rich cultural history, Hungary has contributed significantly to arts, music, literature, sports and science and technology. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe, attracting 14.3 million international tourists in 2015. It is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.