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Pitchlynn YTB-283 - History

Pitchlynn YTB-283 - History


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Pitchlynn

(YTB-283: dp. 510 (f.); 1. 110'; b. 29'; dr. 11'4"; s. 12 k.; cpl.
10; a. 2 mg.; cl. Onockatin)

Pitchlynn (YTB-283), a large harbor tug originally designated YT-283, was laid down 26 August 1943 by Westergard Boat Works, Biloxi, Miss., redesignated YTB-283 on 15 May 1944, launched 23 May 1944, completed 31 October 1944; and delivered to the Navy 3 November 1944.

Assigned duties as a shipyard tug at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Pitchlynn served through war's end there and operated in the 4th Naval District for the next fifteen years.

The faithful tug was struck from the Navy List in April 1960, and sold 31 August 1960 to Rodney H. Dann at Philadelphia.


APL-2 Class: Photographs

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

Probably shown just after completion at Nashville, Tennessee, in August 1944.

Photo No. NH 105940
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Under tow on 8 October 1944 about two weeks after completion at Tampa, Florida.

Photo No. 19-N-73817
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

At the Boston Navy Yard on 9 October 1944 one day before completion.

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Probably shown soon after completion at Tampa, Florida, in July 1945.

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

At Shanghai, China, circa November 1945.
She was known there as Casa Marina , and this name, although informal, made its way onto her bow and into some Navy correspondence. This tiny print was pasted into a handmade Shanghai Christmas card.

Photo No. None
Source: Shipscribe

At the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., on 23 April 1947 with the former Spanish cruiser Reina Mercedes (IX-25) on the far side of the pier.
Reina Mercedes , captured in 1898 when already obsolescent, served as a barracks ship at the Academy from 1912 to 1957.

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command (UA-283)

At the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., on 26 March 1959.
APL-32 had recently replaced the old Spanish cruiser Reina Mercedes .

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command (UA-283)

In reserve at Norfolk, Va., between 1954 and 1959.
The sister to the left is APL-41 , which had been in reserve at Norfolk since 1946.

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Shown in South Vietnam shortly after arriving there under tow with another APL in early 1966.
This craft had spent much of the 1950s as barracks ship for the large floating dock AFDB-1 .

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

In the Mekong River in South Vietnam circa 1967 surrounded by converted LCM's and monitors whose crews lived aboard the barracks barge.
APL-26 was attached to Task Force 117, the Army/Navy Mobile Riverine Force patrolling the rivers of the Mekong Delta and the Rung Sat Special Zone. She also served as home for elements of the Army's 9th Infantry Division. This photo was released by U.S. Naval Forces, Vietnam, on 18 October 1967.

Photo No. Unknown
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

At the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 31 October 1973.

Photo No. NH 83850
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

A recent view of the MARAD barge FB-62, ex USS APL-24 , serving as the barracks support ship for the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Suisun Bay, Calif.
She had probably been employed as such since the Navy transferred her to MARAD in 1962. The tug might be the former Winnemucca (YTB-785), which was in the Suisun Bay NDRF from 1996 until sold by the Navy for commercial use in January 2004. The derrick barge bears a strong resemblence to the Navy's numerous seaplane wrecking barges (YSD), which were only five feet shorter than Winnemucca . The Navy disposed of four of these in the 1990s including YSD-53 , transferred to MARAD on 20 April 1992.

Photo No. MARAD 5492_FB-62.jpg
Source: MARAD PMARS website (now gone)


Ask Rufus: A conversation with Charles Dickens

I have often written about the many people who have lived in the Columbus, Starkville, West Point area and left their footprints across history or the arts. One such individual was Peter Pitchlynn. Pitchlynn was a Choctaw mixed-blood son of John Pitchlynn and was born on the Noxubee River in 1806. In 1810, he moved with his family to Plymouth Bluff at the mouth of Tibbee Creek. About 1824 he moved to just southwest of Artesia and the prairie that runs from south of Artesia to northwest of the Golden Triangle airport became known as Peter Pitchlynn’s Prairie.

In late 1832, he removed with Choctaws from the North East District to the western Indian Territory (Oklahoma). There, George Catlin painted his portrait in 1834. During the early 1840s Pitchlynn encountered two of that era’s greatest figures on steamboats on the Ohio River. In 1840 he was said to have defeated Henry Clay in a friendly public debate on the virtues of marriage. Two years later he had a lengthy conversation with Charles Dickens onboard another boat.

In the 1850s Pitchlynn served as the Choctaw Nation’s delegate-representative in Washington and then became Chief of the Choctaw Nation in 1864. The Choctaw Nation sided with the Confederacy during the Civil War and as Chief (governor) of the Nation, Pitchlynn surrendered the Choctaw Confederate Army division on June 19th 1865. Pitchlynn died in 1881.

Charles Dickens’ meeting with Pitchlynn in 1842 made such an impression on Dickens’ that he wrote of the encounter. The account of their conversation appeared in the November 18, 1842, New York Tribune, several other newspapers and in Dickens’ book, “American Notes,” where he wrote:

“Leaving Cincinnati at eleven o’clock in the forenoon, we embarked for Louisville in the Pike steamboat, which, carrying the mails, was a packet of a much better class than that in which we had come from Pittsburg…There chanced to be on board this boat, in addition to the usual dreary crowd of passengers, one Pitchlynn, a chief of the Choctaw tribe of Indians, who sent in his card to me, and with whom I had the pleasure of a long conversation.

He spoke English perfectly well, though he had not begun to learn the language, he told me, until he was a young man grown. He had read many books and Scott’s poetry appeared to have left a strong impression on his mind: especially the opening of The Lady of the Lake, and the great battle scene in Marmion… He was dressed in our ordinary everyday costume, which hung about his fine figure loosely, and with indifferent grace. He told me that he had been away from his home, west of the Mississippi, seventeen months: and was now returning. He had been chiefly at Washington on some negotiations pending between his Tribe and the Government… He had no love for Washington tired of towns and cities very soon and longed for the Forest and the Prairie. I asked him what he thought of Congress? He answered, with a smile, that it wanted dignity, in an Indian’s eyes…

[We spoke] of Mr. Catlin’s gallery, which he praised highly: observing that his own portrait was among the collection, and that all the likenesses were ‘elegant.’

He was a remarkably handsome man some years past forty, I should judge with long black hair, an aquiline nose, broad cheek-bones, a sunburnt complexion, and a very bright, keen, dark, and piercing eye. There were but twenty thousand of the Choctaws left, he said, and their number was decreasing every day…

When we shook hands at parting … He took his leave as stately and complete a gentleman of Nature’s making, as ever I beheld and moved among the people in the boat, another kind of being. He sent me a lithographed portrait of himself soon afterwards very like, though scarcely handsome enough which I have carefully preserved in memory of our brief acquaintance.”

How fascinating to come upon a window into time and see through the eyes of one of the greatest writers of the Victorian Age the image of one who lived here two centuries ago.

Rufus Ward is a Columbus native a local historian. E-mail your questions about local history to Rufus at [email protected]


The Rise and Fall and Rise of Civilizations: Indian Intellectual Culture during the Removal Era

Ultimately, Indian removal forced about 100,000 Indians to leave their homelands and relocate west. Although American history textbooks highlight removal—especially Cherokee experiences—many lose track of those peoples thereafter. Despite the trauma of removal, however, those nations survived and rebuilt their nations. In removal treaties, the United States agreed to set aside Indian Territory for native nations “to the end of time,” but, within a generation, renewed assaults on native land and sovereignty. In the late 1840s, for example, the U.S. Congress proposed to dissolve tribal boundaries in Indian Territory. How did Choctaw diplomat Peter Pitchlynn respond? His speech swayed Congress: Why do you think it was successful?

Today, there are two federally recognized Choctaw nations—the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma and the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (composed of the ancestors of those who evaded removal). How does each nation describe sovereignty today? What roles do education and technological innovation play in Indian country today?


—Originally published in The Missouri Review, Volume 14, Number 3: A Man Between Nations: The Diary of Peter Pitchlynn 1828 – 1837

This issue’s “History as Literature” manuscript provides a look at the forced removal of Native Americans from their homelands.

Expulsion and relocation of Native Americans in this country was a consistent governmental policy executed throughout most of the nineteenth century. The protagonists of removal, both white and Indian, portrayed it to be a kind of universal solution for tribal problems. The cost of this policy was thousands of lives. By the 1870s, when Indian Territory (later Oklahoma) was being overrun by whites, a growing body of Indian “philanthropists,” “experts,” government officials, and some tribal members began to push the next grand solution: the policy of serverality, which would abolish tribes as landholding institutions and allot land to individuals.

White philanthropists passionately believed that allotment was the last chance to salvage some justice for Indians. In their minds, the woes of the heathens derived from their habits of slothfulness, profligacy, sociability, and communism. Ending communal land ownership was seen as the key to fixing everything else. It was the magic bullet for the “Indian problem.” Government panaceas have a way of turning into their own opposites, and severality was exactly that—the antithesis of the previous grand solution. Instead of creating safe “reserves” of tribal land, they would abolish the tribes and parcel out their land. The Indian governments, particularly the Seminole, Cherokee, and Choctaw, fiercely resisted allotment, as they had resisted removal sixty years before, and again they lost.

Because of the strength of their resistance, the original Dawes Act excluded the Five Civilized Tribes from allotment, but a few years later the Dawes Commission was set up specifically to enforce allotment among these tribes. The Dawes Commission employed five hundred bureaucrats and took twelve years, but by the turn of the century it had succeeded in breaking down tribal resistance, determined the tribal rolls, and had taken possession of the largest estate known in western history, 31,000 square miles of Indian lands. A fraction of this land was allotted to tribal members and the rest was disposed of in various ways. Native Americans were now thrown into the rough and tumble of the great American real estate game. In effect, what remained of their lands was put into the hands of individuals many of whom were poor and could ill afford to hold on.

Peter Pitchlynn was a mixed-blood Choctaw whose life would span both eras born and raised in the Mississippi homelands, influential throughout his life, he first became involved in tribal affairs at the beginning of the removal period. Pitchlynn would live to see the craze for allotment take hold, although he had died before the tribe finally gave up resistance, in 1898.

As a young man, Peter Pitchlynn went on a journey of exploration, set up in 1828 by federal negotiators, to the land which had been designated to be the Indian Territory. He kept a diary of this journey and continued to write in it sporadically during the Choctaw removal itself in 1832 and again in 1837. Later Pitchlynn would become the Principal Chief of the Choctaw Tribe.

A few years after the last entry in Pitchlynn’s diary, Charles Dickens happened to meet him on a riverboat in Ohio, and he characterized him at some length in his American Notes. Dickens’ portrait of Pitchlynn is tinted by the myth of the innocent embattled in a lost paradise, the wise and dignified representative of a doomed, idealized race—an emblem of the Native American that predated The Last of the Mohicans and will live on beyond Dances with Wolves. Something of the real Pitchlynn peeks through Dickens’ mythical haze, but the diary here presented, and the story it tells, affords a more complex portrait.

In this year of memorializing the half-millennium since Columbus’ arrival, we would be well served by learning more of the true chronicles of Native Americans, rather than casually turning them into symbols of this or that—brutal savages or helpless sufferers, idealized ecologists, or dwellers in Eden cast out by some inevitable force. Out of the gritty stuff of history we can perhaps carve a finer monument.


Pitchlynn YTB-283 - History

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and do not imply any endorsement of the web sites or their contents by The USGenWeb Project."

Members of the Historic Pitchlynn Family
This material is donated by people who want to communicate with and help others. Every effort is made to give credit and protect all copyrights. Presentation here does not extend any permissions to the public. This material can not be included in any compilation, publication, collection, or other reproduction for profit without permission.

Emma Curry Pitchylnn

This is photo of Emma Curry wife of Garvin County Pioneer George Pitchlynn, Chickasaw Roll number 3687.
Emma Curry was born in Dublin, Montgomery County, Alabama in 1885. She was the daughter of Arthur and Fannie Shaver Curry.
Emma's mother was of Choctaw Descent. Her grandmother was named Caroline Shaver (1/2 Choctaw)
and her great-grandfather was named John Ochiltree (full-blood Choctaw). Emma Curry was a pioneer of Garvin County.
She came to Wynnewood, Indian Territory in 1900 and married George Pitchlynn on December 10, 1902.
She was a very religious person who cared dearly for all of her many children: Georgiann, roll no. 518, (born 1904),
William, roll no. 114, (born 1905), Bertha (born 1907) and Theodore Pitchlynn (born 1908).

Fannie Shaver Curry was born 1855 in the State of Alabama, she died around 1897.
She was married to Arthur Curry and the mother of eleven children: Berry, Maggie, Jeannie,
Clark, Thomas (photo & info), Edward, Mary,
Emma, Irene, Fred (Photo & info) and Zebedee Curry.
She was the mother of
Emma Curry (Pitchlynn), pioneer of Garvin County.
In testimony before the Dawes Commission in 1902, family members stated that
Fannie's mother was named
Caroline Shaver, born in 1827.
They also related that Caroline's father was named
John Ochiltree,
and that he was a full-blood Choctaw Indian from Mississippi.


Bertha Pitchlynn Nelson Bruner

Photo of Bertha Pitchlynn, a member of the Chickasaw Nation,
and a member of the historical Pitchlynn family,
who was born in Pauls Valley, OK in 1907.
She was the daughter of George Pitchlynn, a Garvin County Pioneer.
Bertha married first to Charles Nelson Jr. and then to Calvin Bruner,
a Seminole Freedman.
Bertha died in 1973.


Jefferson known as "Jeff" Pitchlynn roll no. 4934 (Chickasaw), born 1885 and died: 1934.
Jeff was killed in a hit and run automobile accident on High Hill in Ada, Oklahoma.
Jeff was the son of Garvin County Pioneer George Pitchlynn and his first wife, Angeline (Kimble) Pitchlynn (Chickasaw).
Jeff was married to Miss Lucy Perry (Chickasaw).
Jeff is buried in Muskogee, Oklahoma.
Historically, Jefferson was the grandson of the Chickasaw Constable Jefferson Pitchlynn
and his wife Judy, and the great-grandson of Senator Thomas Jefferson and Mary Susan (Allen) Pitchlynn.

Alice Pitchlynn Brown Bynum

Alice Pitchlynn Brown Bynum (Chickasaw) was born in 1863. Alice died sometime before 1893.
She as the daughter of Garvin County Pioneer John T. and his second wife: Susan (Fraizier) Pitchlynn.
John T. Pitchlynn is buried in the Shirley Family Cemetery behind the Wynnewood refinery.
John T's first wife was Elizabeth Harris (Aunt of Chickasaw Governor Robert Harris).
Alice was first married to E. W. Brown, and then to Chickasaw Judge Joseph Bynum.
Alice was the first cousin to Garvin County Pioneer George Pitchlynn.
Alice had several sisters and brothers: Susan, Daniel (died as a child), Thomas Jefferson (died in infancy),
Joseph (died as a child), Henry (died as a child), Sallie Leona (died as a child) and William Pitchlynn (died a as a teenager).
Historically, Alice was the granddaughter of Senator Thomas Jefferson and Mary Susan (Allen) Pitchlynn,
and the great-granddauther of Major John and Sophia (Folsom) Pitchlynn.
Alice is buried under a Tree on the old Bynum Farm.


Welcome to Pitchlynn

Someday, if time is ever spare enough, I’ll get around to a daydream project of mine: a fictional map of Mississippi, its towns and counties drawn not from actual geography but instead from the many novels and stories the state has hosted. Just think of the imaginary road trip you could take with such a map: from Jesmyn Ward’s Bois Sauvage and Kiese Laymon’s Melahatchie, down on the Gulf coast up through Eudora Welty’s Morgana and Lewis Nordan’s Arrow Catcher and Ellen Douglas’s Philippi in the Delta then into the northern Hill Country to John Grisham’s Clanton and, of course, to the unofficial capital of Mississippi Lit, William Faulkner’s Jefferson and its surrounding Yoknapatawpha County. You’d be tracing a two-lane route through some of the most arresting landscapes in all of literature.

Some Go Home, Odie Lindsey’s first novel, adds a new exit ramp to that storied highway. His fictional town of Pitchlynn sits somewhere, so far as I can tell, north of Oxford and Tupelo, where kudzu blankets “the rolling expanses like some topographical quilt.” Pitchlynn’s claim to fame is Bel Arbre, a 130-foot-tall magnolia tree, “a record-setter, a marvel” that looms over a Greek Revival mansion known as the Wallis House. Its claim to infamy, however, is the 1964 murder of an African American farmer on the grounds, just before the estate, as with Faulkner’s Compson plantation, was converted to golf greens and the house relocated to town. As the novel opens, the suspect in that killing, an unrepentant white supremacist named Hare Hobbs, is being retried for the decades-old murder, and the Wallis House, now in the possession of a Chicago real-estate speculator, is undergoing a radical makeover under the direction of Hobbs’s estranged son.

Questions and concepts about restoration, then, go spreading through this novel like thorny vines, entangling Lindsey’s sprawling cast of Pitchlynnites. Chief among them is Colleen, Hobbs’s daughter-in-law, a “small-town redneck Mississippi girl,” according to her understated self-appraisal, “turned small-town redneck Mississippi woman.” Colleen, a combat veteran of the Iraq War and an unlikely beauty pageant queen, has twins on the way and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. She’s also not new to print. Lindsey devoted a story to her in his searing debut collection, We Come to Our Senses (2016), and it’s easy to see why he felt compelled to give her more pages on which to smoke, fuss, fight, flail, and try to figure what it all means. She’s knotty, sharp elbowed, and unpredictable, and she has legitimate beefs against life. She’d hold her own against Larry Brown’s Fay and Faulkner’s Lena Grove.

Lindsey’s stories had the right kind of chip on their shoulders, and for the most part, at novel length, he sustains the tautness that gave those stories their hard snap. His thematic terrain may be, per one character’s formulation, “myth, history, fact, dream,” but the prose mostly avoids windiness or bombast or the equivalent of canned slide-guitar dirges. It’s lavish in just the right places. “The sun now struck them from a near-horizontal hover,” goes one interlude, “its maize-orange smoldering into rose. Twenty or so miles later, they came upon a community cast in the thinnest green of new evening, and a cluster of small farm homes un-choked by stoplight or grocery or gas station. In front of the homes was a hum of activity, from barbecue pit smoke to driveway basketball games to folks who simply hung around porches rocking, or folks who hung around yards with neighbors, their forearms at rest on defunct cars…installed on the property like sculpture.”

Pitchlynn, Mississippi, is an unwieldy place, full of hidden motives and buried griefs, and Some Go Home can also be unwieldy at times. Lindsey occasionally seems to struggle to corral his characters, plots, and themes. A climactic scene—gunfire, blood, mass casualties—arrives too fast, as though the characters, impassioned and impatient, got ahead of their creator (it happens). But a wild, overgrown novel is like a wild, overgrown garden: glutted with color, abundant with rewards, and, most important, teeming with life. Rich soil is what yields such a garden, and maybe it’s the same for novels. Pitchlynn is a vital new locale on that Mississippi map, an exit worth taking.


I have read the YouTuBe API documentation regarding requests on playlists and they don't provide such functionality, however you could use this npm module to achieve that:

The way to use it is something like this on javascript:

Or you can also take a look here where I'm using it with React, the code it will be something like:

For doing full-text search in closed captions (CC) in a Youtube channel you may download all the subtitles from the channel and do local text search in it:

that will download about 160 .vtt text files

Note: Option --write-auto-sub should be used when author of videos didn't upload text. Otherwise use --write-sub .

Unfortunately youtube data API 3 does not support searching inside a playlist, but as a work around we can add a string to user's search so that the results will be near to what is needed, in my case for example I have prefixed all the video titles in a specific playlist with the name of that playlist and then I had to prefix users search query with the specified playlist name, the only drawback is that I had to rename all of the videos to include the prefix.

playlist name: exotic cars

search query: exotic cars + user input

And don't forget to search channel videos only.


Pitchlynn YTB-283 - History

The Hancock County Seat was at Sheildsboro which was the only American Town in Hancock County, Mississippi on December 14, 1819. (Shieldsboro is now Bay Saint Louis).

ARTICLE I.

Perpetual peace and friendship is pledged and agreed upon by and between the United States and the Mingoes, Chiefs, and Warriors of the Choctaw Nation of Red People and that this may be considered the Treaty existing between the parties all other Treaties heretofore existing and inconsistent with the provisions of this are hereby declared null and void.

ARTICLE II.

The United States under a grant specially to be made by the President of the U.S. shall cause to be conveyed to the Choctaw Nation a tract of country west of the Mississippi River, in fee simple to them and their descendants, to inure to them while they shall exist as a nation and live on it, beginning near Fort Smith where the Arkansas boundary crosses the Arkansas River, running thence to the source of the Canadian fork if in the limits of the United States, or to those limits thence due south to Red River, and down Red River to the west boundary of the Territory of Arkansas thence north along that line to the beginning. The boundary of the same to be agreeably to the Treaty made and concluded at Washington City in the year 1825. The grant to be executed so soon as the present Treaty shall be ratified.

ARTICLE III.

In consideration of the provisions contained in the several articles of this Treaty, the Choctaw nation of Indians consent and hereby cede to the United States, the entire country they own and possess, east of the Mississippi River and they agree to move beyond the Mississippi River, early as practicable, and will so arrange their removal, that as many as possible of their people not exceeding one half of the whole number, shall depart during the falls of 1831 and 1832 the residue to follow during the succeeding fall of 1833, a better opportunity in this manner will be afforded the Government, to extend to them the facilities and comforts which it is desirable should be extended in conveying them to their new homes.

ARTICLE IV.

The Government and people of the United States are hereby obliged to secure to the said Choctaw Nation of Red People the jurisdiction and government of all the persons and property that may be within their limits west, so that no Territory or state shall ever have a right to pass laws for the government of the Choctaw Nation of Red People and their descendants and that no part of the land granted them shall ever be embraced in any Territory or State but the U. S. shall forever secure said Choctaw Nation from, and against, all laws except such as from time to time may be enacted in their own National Councils, not inconsistent with the Constitution, Treaties, and Laws of the United States and except such as may, and which have been enacted by Congress, to the extent that Congress under the Constitution are required to exercise a legislation over Indian affairs. But the Choctaws, should this treaty be ratified, express a wish that Congress may grant to the Choctaws the right of punishing by their own laws any white man who shall come into their nation and infringe any of their national regulations.

ARTICLE V.

The United States are obliged to protect the Choctaws from domestic strife and from foreign enemies on the same principles that the citizens of the United States are protected, so that whatever would be a legal demand upon the U.S. for defense or for wrongs committed by an enemy, on a citizen of the U.S. shall be equally binding in favor of the Choctaws, and in all cases where the Choctaws shall be called upon by a legally authorized officer of the U.S. to fight an enemy, such Choctaw shall receive the pay and other emoluments, which citizens of the U.S. receive in such cases, provided, no war shall be undertaken or prosecuted by said Choctaw Nation but by declaration made in full Council, and to be approved by the U.S. unless it be in self defense against an open rebellion or against an enemy marching into their country, in which cases they shall defend, until the U.S. are advised thereof.

ARTICLE VI. Should a Choctaw or any party of Choctaws commit acts of violence upon the person or property of a citizen of the U.S. or join any war party against any neighbouring tribe of Indians, without the authority in the preceding article and except to oppose an actual or threatened invasion or rebellion, such person so offending shall be delivered up to an officer of the U.S. if in the power of the Choctaw Nation, that such offender may be punished as may be provided in such cases, by the laws of the U.S. but if such offender is not within the control of the Choctaw Nation, then said Choctaw Nation shall not be held responsible for the injury done by said offender.

ARTICLE VII.

All acts of violence committed upon persons and property of the people of the Choctaw Nation either by citizens of the U.S. or neighbouring Tribes of Red People, shall be referred to some authorized Agent by him to be referred to the President of the U.S. who shall examine into such cases and see that every possible degree of justice is done to said Indian party of the Choctaw Nation.

ARTICLE VIII.

Offenders against the laws of the U.S. or any individual State shall be apprehended and delivered to any duly authorized person where such offender may be found in the Choctaw country, having fled from any part of U.S. but in all such cases application must be made to the Agent or Chiefs and the expense of his apprehension and delivery provided for and paid by the U. States.

ARTICLE IX.

Any citizen of the U.S. who may be ordered from the Nation by the Agent and constituted authorities of the Nation and refusing to obey or return into the Nation without the consent of the aforesaid persons, shall be subject to such pains and penalties as may be provided by the laws of the U.S. in such cases. Citizens of the U.S. traveling peaceably under the authority of the laws of the U.S. shall be under the care and protection of the nation.

ARTICLE X.

No person shall expose goods or other article for sale as a trader, without a written permit from the constituted authorities of the Nation, or authority of the laws of the Congress of the U.S. under penalty of forfeiting the Articles, and the constituted authorities of the Nation shall grant no license except to such persons as reside in the Nation and are answerable to the laws of the Nation. The U.S. shall be particularly obliged to assist to prevent ardent spirits from being introduced into the Nation.

ARTICLE XI.

Navigable streams shall be free to the Choctaws who shall pay no higher toll or duty than citizens of the U.S. It is agreed further that the U.S. shall establish one or more Post Offices in said Nation, and may establish such military post roads, and posts, as they may consider necessary.

ARTICLE XII.

All intruders shall be removed from the Choctaw Nation and kept without it. Private property to be always respected and on no occasion taken for public purposes without just compensation being made therefor to the rightful owner. If an Indian unlawfully take or steal any property from a white man a citizen of the U.S. the offender shall be punished. And if a white man unlawfully take or steal any thing from an Indian, the property shall be restored and the offender punished. It is further agreed that when a Choctaw shall be given up to be tried for any offense against the laws of the U.S. if unable to employ counsel to defend him, the U.S. will do it, that his trial may be fair and impartial.

ARTICLE XIII.

It is consented that a qualified Agent shall be appointed for the Choctaws every four years, unless sooner removed by the President and he shall be removed on petition of the constituted authorities of the Nation, the President being satisfied there is sufficient cause shown. The Agent shall fix his residence convenient to the great body of the people and in the selection of an Agent immediately after the ratification of this Treaty, the wishes of the Choctaw Nation on the subject shall be entitled to great respect.

ARTICLE XIV.

Each Choctaw head of a family being desirous to remain and become a citizen of the States, shall be permitted to do so, by signifying his intention to the Agent within six months from the ratification of this Treaty, and he or she shall thereupon be entitled to a reservation of one section of six hundred and forty acres of land, to be bounded by sectional lines of survey in like manner shall be entitled to one half that quantity for each unmarried child which is living with him over ten years of age and a quarter section to such child as may be under 10 years of age, to adjoin the location of the parent. If they reside upon said lands intending to become citizens of the States for five years after the ratification of this Treaty, in that case a grant in fee simple shall issue said reservation shall include the present improvement of the head of the family, or a portion of it. Persons who claim under this article shall not lose the privilege of a Choctaw citizen, but if they ever remove are not to be entitled to any portion of the Choctaw annuity.

ARTICLE XV.

To each of the Chiefs in the Choctaw Nation (to wit) Greenwood Laflore, Nutackachie, and Mushulatubbe there is granted a reservation of four sections of land, two of which shall include and adjoin their present improvement, and the other two located where they please but on unoccupied unimproved lands, such sections shall be bounded by sectional lines, and with the consent of the President they may sell the same. Also to the three principal Chiefs and to their successors in office there shall be paid two hundred and fifty dollars annually while they shall continue in their respective offices, except to Mushulatubbe, who as he has an annuity of one hundred and fifty dollars for life under a former treaty, shall receive only the additional sum of one hundred dollars, while he shall continue in office as Chief and if in addition to this the Nation shall think proper to elect an additional principal Chief of the whole to superintend and govern upon republican principles he shall receive annually for his services five hundred dollars, which allowance to the Chiefs and their successors in office, shall continue for twenty years. At any time when in military service, and while in service by authority of the U.S. the district Chiefs under and by selection of the President shall be entitled to the pay of Majors the other Chief under the same circumstances shall have the pay of a Lieutenant Colonel. The Speakers of the three districts, shall receive twenty-five dollars a year for four years each and the three secretaries one to each of the Chiefs, fifty dollars each for four years. Each Captain of the Nation, the number not to exceed ninety-nine, thirty-three from each district, shall be furnished upon removing to the West, with each a good suit of clothes and a broad sword as an outfit, and for four years commencing with the first of their removal shall each receive fifty dollars a year, for the trouble of keeping their people at order in settling and whenever they shall be in military service by authority of the U.S. shall receive the pay of a captain.

ARTICLE XVI.

In wagons and with steam boats as may be found necessary—the U.S. agree to remove the Indians to their new homes at their expense and under the care of discreet and careful persons, who will be kind and brotherly to them. They agree to furnish them with ample corn and beef, or pork for themselves and families for twelve months after reaching their new homes. It is agreed further that the U.S. will take all their cattle, at the valuation of some discreet person to be appointed by the President, and the same shall be paid for in money after their arrival at their new homes or other cattle such as may be desired shall be furnished them, notice being given through their Agent of their wishes upon this subject before their removal that time to supply the demand may be afforded.

ARTICLE XVII.

The several annuities and sums secured under former Treaties to the Choctaw nation and people shall continue as though this Treaty had never been made. And it is further agreed that the U.S. in addition will pay the sum of twenty thousand dollars for twenty years, commencing after their removal to the west, of which, in the first year after their removal, ten thousand dollars shall be divided and arranged to such as may not receive reservations under this Treaty.

ARTICLE XVIII.

The U.S. shall cause the lands hereby ceded to be surveyed and surveyors may enter the Choctaw Country for that purpose, conducting themselves properly and disturbing or interrupting none of the Choctaw people. But no person is to be permitted to settle within the nation, or the lands to be sold before the Choctaws shall remove. And for the payment of the several amounts secured in this Treaty, the lands hereby ceded are to remain a fund pledged to that purpose, until the debt shall be provided for and arranged. And further it is agreed, that in the construction of this Treaty wherever well founded doubt shall arise, it shall be construed most favorably towards the Choctaws.

ARTICLE XIX.

The following reservations of land are hereby admitted. To Colonel David Fulsom four sections of which two shall include his present improvement, and two may be located elsewhere, on unoccupied, unimproved land.

To I. Garland, Colonel Robert Cole, Tuppanahomer, John Pytchlynn, Charles Juzan, Johokebetubbe, Eaychahobia, Ofehoma, two sections, each to include their improvements, and to be bounded by sectional lines, and the same may be disposed of and sold with the consent of the President. And that others not provided for, may be provided for, there shall be reserved as follows:

First. One section to each head of a family not exceeding Forty in number, who during the present year, may have had in actual cultivation, with a dwelling house thereon fifty acres or more. Secondly, three quarter sections after the manner aforesaid to each head of a family not exceeding four hundred and sixty, as shall have cultivated thirty acres and less than fifty, to be bounded by quarter section lines of survey, and to be contiguous and adjoining.

Third One half section as aforesaid to those who shall have cultivated from twenty to thirty acres the number not to exceed four hundred. Fourth a quarter section as aforesaid to such as shall have cultivated from twelve to twenty acres, the number not to exceed three hundred and fifty, and one half that quantity to such as shall have cultivated from two to twelve acres, the number also not to exceed three hundred and fifty persons. Each of said class of cases shall be subject to the limitations contained in the first class, and shall be so located as to include that part of the improvement which contains the dwelling house. If a greater number shall be found to be entitled to reservations under the several classes of this article, than is stipulated for under the limitation prescribed, then and in that case the Chiefs separately or together shall determine the persons who shall be excluded in the respective districts.

Fifth Any Captain the number not exceeding ninety persons, who under the provisions of this article shall receive less than a section, he shall be entitled, to an additional quantity of half a section adjoining to his other reservation. The several reservations secured under this article, may be sold with the consent of the President of the U.S. but should any prefer it or omit to take a reservation for the quantity he may be entitled to, the U.S. will on his removing pay fifty cents an acre, after reaching their new homes, provided that before the first of January next they shall adduce to the Agent, or some other authorized person to be appointed, proof of his claim and the quantity of it.

Sixth likewise children of the Choctaw Nation residing in the Nation, who have neither father nor mother a list of which, with satisfactory proof of Parentage and orphanage being filed with Agent in six months to be forwarded to the War Department, shall be entitled to a quarter section of Land, to be located under the direction of the President, and with his consent the same may be sold and the proceeds applied to some beneficial purpose for the benefit of said orphans.

ARTICLE XX.

The U.S. agree and stipulate as follows, that for the benefit and advantage of the Choctaw people, and to improve their condition, their shall be educated under the direction of the President and at the expense of the U.S. forty Choctaw youths for twenty years. This number shall be kept at school, and as they finish their education others, to supply their places shall be received for the period stated. The U.S. agree also to erect a Council House for the nation at some convenient central point, after their people shall be settled and a House for each Chief, also a Church for each of the three Districts, to be used also as school houses, until the Nation may conclude to build others and for these purposes ten thousand dollars shall be appropriated also fifty thousand dollars (viz.) twenty-five hundred dollars annually shall be given for the support of three teachers of schools for twenty years. Likewise there shall be furnished to the Nation, three Blacksmiths one for each district for sixteen years, and a qualified Mill Wright for five years Also there shall be furnished the following articles, twenty-one hundred blankets, to each warrior who emigrates a rifle, moulds, wipers and ammunition. One thousand axes, ploughs, hoes, wheels and cards each and four hundred looms. There shall also be furnished, one ton of iron and two hundred weight of steel annually to each District for sixteen years.

ARTICLE XXI.

A few Choctaw Warriors yet survive who marched and fought in the army with General Wayne, the whole number stated not to exceed twenty. These it is agreed shall hereafter while they live, receive twenty-five dollars a year a list of them to be early as practicable, and within six months, made out, and presented to the Agent, to be forwarded to the War Department.

ARTICLE XXII.The Chiefs of the Choctaws who have suggested that their people are in a state of rapid advancement in education and refinement, and have expressed a solicitude that they might have the privilege of a Delegate on the floor of the House of Representatives extended to them. The Commissioners did not feel that they can under a treaty stipulation accede to the request, but at their desire, would present it in the Treaty, that Congress may consider of, and decide the application. Done, and signed, and executed by the commissioners of the United States, and the Chiefs, Captains, and Head Men of the Choctaw nation, at Dancing Rabbit Creek, this 27th day of September, Eighteen and Thirty.

SUPPLEMENTARY ARTICLES TO THE PRECEDING TREATY. Sept. 28, 1830. | 7 Stat., 340.

Various Choctaw persons have been presented by the Chiefs of the nation, with a desire that they might be provided for. Being particularly deserving, an earnestness has been manifested that provision might be made for them. It is therefore by the undersigned commissioners here assented to, with the understanding that they are to have no interest in the reservations which are directed and provided for under the general Treaty to which this is a supplement.

As evidence of the liberal and kind feelings of the President and Government of the United States the Commissioners agree to the request as follows, (to wit) Pierre Juzan, Peter Pitchlynn, G. W. Harkins, Jack Pitchlynn, Israel Fulsom, Louis Laflore, Benjamin James, Joel H. Nail, Hopoynjahubbee, Onorkubbee, Benjamin Laflore, Michael Laflore and Allen Yates and wife shall be entitled to a reservation of two sections of land each to include their improvement where they at present reside, with the exception of the three first named persons and Benjamin Laflore, who are authorized to locate one of their sections on any other unimproved and unoccupied land, within their respective districts.

ARTICLE II.

And to each of the following persons there is allowed a reservation of a section and a half of land, (to wit) James L. McDonald, Robert Jones, Noah Wall, James Campbell, G. Nelson, Vaughn Brashears, R. Harris, Little Leader, S. Foster, J. Vaughn, L. Durans, Samuel Long, T. Magagha, Thos. Everge, Giles Thompson, Tomas Garland, John Bond, William Laflore, and Turner Brashears, the two first named persons, may locate one section each, and one section jointly on any unimproved and unoccupied land, these not residing in the Nation The others are to include their present residence and improvement.

Also one section is allowed to the following persons (to wit) Middleton Mackey, Wesley Train, Choclehomo, Moses Foster, D. W. Wall, Charles Scott, Molly Nail, Susan Colbert, who was formerly Susan James, Samuel Garland, Silas Fisher, D. McCurtain, Oaklahoma, and Polly Fillecuthey, to be located in entire sections to include their present residence and improvement, with the exception of Molly Nail and Susan Colbert, who are authorized to locate theirs, on any unimproved unoccupied land.

John Pitchlynn has long and faithfully served the nation in character of U. States Interpreter, he has acted as such for forty years, in consideration it is agreed, in addition to what has been done for him there shall be granted to two of his children, (to wit) Silas Pitchlynn, and Thomas Pitchlynn one section of land each, to adjoin the location of their father likewise to James Madison and Peter sons of Mushulatubbee one section of land each to include the old house and improvement where their father formerly lived on the old military road adjoining a large Prairie.

And to Henry Groves son of the Chief Natticache there is one section of land given to adjoin his father's land.

And to each of the following persons half a section of land is granted on any unoccupied and unimproved lands in the Districts where they respectively live (to wit) Willis Harkins, James D. Hamilton, William Juzan, Tobias Leflore, Jo Doke, Jacob Fulsom, P. Hays, Samuel Worcester, George Hunter, William Train, Robert Nail and Alexander McKee.

And there is given a quarter section of land each to Delila and her five fatherless children, she being a Choctaw woman residing out of the nation also the same quantity to Peggy Trihan, another Indian woman residing out of the nation and her two fatherless children and to the widows of Pushmilaha, and Pucktshenubbee, who were formerly distinguished Chiefs of the nation and for their children four quarter sections of land, each in trust for themselves and their children.

All of said last mentioned reservations are to be located under and by direction of the President of the U. States.

ARTICLE III.

The Choctaw people now that they have ceded their lands are solicitous to get to their new homes early as possible and accordingly they wish that a party may be permitted to proceed this fall to ascertain whereabouts will be most advantageous for their people to be located.

It is therefore agreed that three or four persons (from each of the three districts) under the guidance of some discreet and well qualified person or persons may proceed during this fall to the West upon an examination of the country.

For their time and expenses the U. States agree to allow the said twelve persons two dollars a day each, not to exceed one hundred days, which is deemed to be ample time to make an examination.

If necessary, pilots acquainted with the country will be furnished when they arrive in the West.

ARTICLE IV.

John Donly of Alabama who has several Choctaw grand children and who for twenty years has carried the mail through the Choctaw Nation, a desire by the Chiefs is expressed that he may have a section of land, it is accordingly granted, to be located in one entire section, on any unimproved and unoccupied land.

Allen Glover and George S. Gaines licensed Traders in the Choctaw Nation, have accounts amounting to upwards of nine thousand dollars against the Indians who are unable to pay their said debts without distressing their families a desire is expressed by the chiefs that two sections of land be set apart to be sold and the proceeds thereof to be applied toward the payment of the aforesaid debts. It is agreed that two sections of any unimproved and unoccupied land be granted to George S. Gaines who will sell the same for the best price he can obtain and apply the proceeds thereof to the credit of the Indians on their accounts due to the before mentioned Glover and Gaines and shall make the application to the poorest Indian first.

At the earnest and particular request of the Chief Greenwood Laflore there is granted to David Haley one half section of land to be located in a half section on any unoccupied and unimproved land as a compensation, for a journey to Washington City with dispatches to the Government and returning others to the Choctaw Nation.

Done, and signed, and executed by the commissioners of the United States, and the chiefs, captains, and head men of the Choctaw nation, at Dancing Rabbit creek, this 27th day of September, eighteen and thirty.

Jno. H. Eaton,
Jno. Coffee,
Greenwood Leflore,
Musholatubbee, his x mark,
Nittucaebee, his x mark,
Holarterhoomah, his x mark,
Hopiaunchahubbee, bis x mark,
Zishoniingo, his x mark,
Captainthalke, his x mark,
James Shield, his x mark,
Pistiyubbee, his x mark,
Yobalarunehahubbee, his x mark,
Holubbee, his x mark,
Robert Cole, his x mark,
Mokelareharhopin, his x mark,
Lewis Perry, his x mark,
Artonamarstubbe, his x mark
Hopeatubbee, his x mark,
Hoshahoomah, his x mark,
Chuallahoomah, Iiis x mark,
Joseph Kincaide, his x mark,
Eyarhocuttubbee, his x mark,

Iyacherhopia, his x mark,
Offahoomah, his x mark,
Onnahubbee, his x mark,
Pisinhocuttubbee, his x mar,
Tullarbacher, his x mark,
Little leader, hisx mark,
Maanhutter, his x mark,
Cowehoomah, his x mark,
Tillamoer, his x mark,
Imnullacha, his x mark,
Artopilachubbee, his x mark,
Shupherunchahubbee, his x mark,
Nitterhoomah, his x mark
Oaklaryubbee, his x mark,
Pukumma, his x mark,
Arpalar, his x mark,
Holber, his x mark,
Hoparmingo, his x mark,
Isparhoomah, his x mark,
Tieberhoomah, his x mark,
Tishoholarter, his x mark,
Mahayarchubbee, his x mark,
Artooklubbetushpar, his x mark,
Metubbee, his.x mark,
Arsarkatubbee, his x mark,
Issaterhoomah, his x mark,
Chohtahmatahah, his x mark,
Tunnuppashubbee, his x mark,
Okocharyer, his x mark,
Hoshopia, his x mark,
Warsharshahopia, his x mark,
Maarshunchahubbee, his x mark,
Misharyubbee, his x mark
Daniel McCurtain, his x mark,
Tushkerharcho, his x mark,
Hoktoontubbee, his x mark,
Nuknacrahookmarhee, his x mark,
Mingo hoomah, his x mark,
James Karnes, his x mark,
Tishohakubbee, his x mark
Narlanalar, his x mark,
Pennasha, his x mark
Inharyarker, his x mark,
Mottubbee, his x mark,
Narharyubbee, his x mark,
Ishmaryubbee, his x mark,
James McKing,
Lewis Wilson, his x mark,
Istonarkerharcho, his x mark,
Hohinshamartarher, his x mark,
Kinsulachubbee, his x mark,
Emarhinstubbee, his x mark,
Gysalndalra, bm, his x mark,
Thomas Wall,
Sam. S. Worcester,
Arlartar, his x mark,
Nittahubbee, his x mark,
Tishonouan, his x mark,
Warsharchaboomah, his x mark,
Isaac James, his x mark,
Hopiaintushker, his x mark,
Aryoshkermer, his x mark,
Shemotar, his x mark,
Hopiaisketina, his x mark,
Thomas Leflore, his x mark,
Arnokechatubbee, his x mark,
Shokoperlukna, his x mark,
Posherhoomah, his x mark,
Robert Folsom, his x mark,
Arharyotubbee, his x mark,
Kushonolarter, his x mark,
James Vaughan, his x mark,
Phipliop, his x mark,
Meshameye, his x mark,
Ishteheka, his x mark
Heshohomme, his x mark,
John McKolbery, his x mark,
Benjm. James, his x mark,
Tikbachahambe, his x mark,
Aholiktube, his x mark,
Walking Wolf, his x mark,
John Waide, his x mark,
Big Axe, his x mark,
Bob, his x mark,
Tushkochaubbee, his x mark,
Ittabe, his x mark,
Tishowakayo, his x mark,
Folehommo, his x mark,
John Garland, his x mark,
Koshona, his x mark,
Ishleyohamube, his x mark,
Jacob Folsom,
William Foster,
Ontioerharcho, his x mark,
Hugh A. Foster,
Pierre Juzan,
Jno. Pitchlynn, jr.,
David Folsom,
Sholohommastube, his x mark,
Tesho, his x mark,
Lauwechubee, his x mark,
Hoshehammo, his x mark,
Ofenowo, his x mark,
Ahekoche, his x mark,
Kaloshoube, his x mark,
Atoko, his x mark,
Ishtemeleche, his x mark,
Emthtohabe, his x mark,
Silas D. Fisher
Isaac Folsom,
Hekatube, his x mark
Hakseche, his x mark,
Jerry Carney, his x mark
John Washington, his x mark,
Panshastubbee, his x mark,
P. P. Pitchlynn,
Joel H. Nail, his x mark,
Hopia Stonakey, his x mark,
Kocohomma, his x mark,
William Wade, his x mark,
Panshstickubbee, his x mark,
Holittankchahubbee, his x mark,
Oklanowa, his x mark,
Neto, his x mark,
James Fletcher, his x mark,
Silas D. Pitchlynn,
William Trahorn, his x mark,
Toshkahemmitto, his x mark,
Tethetayo, his x mark,
Emokloshahopie, his x mark,
Tishoimita, his x mark,
Thomas W. Foster, his x mark,
Zadoc Brashears, his x mark,
Levi Perkins, his x mark,
Isaac Perry, his x mark,
Isblonocka Hoomah, his x mark,
Hiram King, his x mark,
Ogla Enlah,- his x mark,
Nu1tlahtubbee, his x mark,
Tuska Hollattuh, his x mark,
Kothoantchahubbee, his x mark,
Eyarypulubbee, his x mark,
Okeintahubbe, his x mark,
Living War Club, his x mark,
John Jones, his x mark,
Charles Jones, his,x mark,
Isaac Jones, his x mark,
Hocklucha, his x mark,
Muscogee, his x mark,
Eden Nelson, his x mark,

E. Breathitt secretary to the Commission, Luke
William Ward, agent for Choctaws, Howard
John Pitchlyn, United States Interpreter, Sam S.
M. Mackey, United States Interpreter, Worcester
Geo. S. Gains, of Alabama, Jno.N
R. P. Currin Byrm

SUPPLEMENTARY ARTICLES TO THE PRECEDING TREATY

Various Choctaw persons have been presented by the Chiefs of the nation, with a desire that they might be provided for. Being particularly deserving. an earnestness has been manifested that provision might be made for them. It is therefore by the undersigned commissioners here assented to, with the understanding that they are to have no interest in the reservations which are directed and provided for under the general Treaty to which this is a supplement.

As evidence of the liberal and kind feeling of the President and Government of the United States the Commissioners agree to the request as follows,, (to wit) Pierre Juzan, Peter Pitchlynn, G. W. Harkins, Jack Pitchlynn. Israel Fulsom, Louis Laflore, Benjamin James, Joel H. Nail, Hopoynjahubbee, Onorkubbee, Benjamin Laflore, Michael Laflore and Allen Yates and wife shall be entitled to a reservation of two sections of land each to include their improvement where they at present reside, with the exception of the three first named persons and Benjamin Laflore, who are authorized to locate one of their sections ,on any other unimproved and unoccupied land, within their respective districts.

ARTICLE II. And to each of the following persons there is allowed a reservation of a section and a half of land, (to wit) James L. McDonald, Robert Jones, Noah Wall, James Campbell, G. Nelson, Vaughn Brashears, R. Harris, Little Leader, S. Foster, J. Vaughn, L. Durans, Samuel Long, T. Magagha, Thos. Everge, Giles Thompson, Tomas Garland, John Bond, William'Laflore, and Turner Brashears, the two first named persons, may locate one section each, and one section jointly on any unimproved and unoccupied land, these not residing in the Nation The others are to include their present residence and improvement.

Also one section is allowed to the following persons (to wit) Middleton Mackey, Wesley Train, Choclehomo, Moses Foster, D. W. Wall, Charles Scott, Molly Nail, Susan Colbert, who was formerly Susan James, Samuel Garland, Silas Fisher, D. McCurtain, Oaklahoma, and Polly Fillecuthey, to be located in entire sections to include their resent residence and improvement, with the exception of Molly Nail and Susan Colbert, who are authorized to locate theirs, on any unimproved unoccupied land.

John Pitchlynn has long and faithfully served the nation in character of U. States Interpreter, he has acted as such for forty years, in consideration it is agreed, in addition to what has been done for him there shall be granted to two of his children, (to wit) Silas Pitchlynn, and Thomas Pitchlynn one section of land each, to adjoin the location of their father likewise to James Madison and Peter sons of Mushulatubbee one section of land each to include the old house and improvement where their father formerly lived on the old military road adjoining a large Prerarie.

And to Henry Groves son of the Chief Natticache there is one section of land given to adjoin his father's land.

And to each of the following persons half a section of land is granted on any unoccupied and unimproved lands in the Districts where they respectively life (to wit) Willis Harkins, Jaraes D. Hamilton, William Juzan,Tobias Laflore, Jo Doke, Jacob Fulsom, P. Hays, Samuel Worcester, George Hunter, William Train, Robert Nail and Alexander McKee.

And there is given a quarter section of land each to Delila and her five fatherless children, she being a Choctaw woman residing out of the nation also the same quantity to Peggy Trihan, another Indian woman residing out of the nation and her two fatherless children and to the widows of Pushmilaha, and Pucktshenubbee, who were formerly distinguished Chiefs of the nation and for their children four quarter sections of land, each in trust for themselves and their children.

All of said last mentioned reservations are to be located under and by direction of the President of the U. States.

ARTICLE III. The Choctaw people now that they have ceded their lands are solicitous to act to their new homes early as possible and accordingly they wish that a party may be permitted to proceed this fall to ascertain whereabouts will be most advantageous for their people, to be located.

It is therefore agreed that three or four persons (from each of the three districts) under the guidance of some discreet and well qualified person or persons may proceed during this fall to the West upon an examination of the country.

For their time and expenses the U. States agree to allow the said twelve persons two dollars a day each, not to exceed one hundred days, which is deemed to be ample time to make an examination.

If necessary, pilots acquainted with the country will be furnished when they arrive in the West.

ARTICLE IV. John Donly of Alabama who has several Choctaw grand children, and who for twenty years has carried the mail through the Choctaw Nation, a desire by the Chiefs is expressed that be may have a section of land, it is accordingly granted, to be located in one entire section, on any unimproved and unoccupied land.

Allen Glover and George S. Gaines licensed Traders in the Choctaw Nation, have accounts amounting to upwards of nine thousand dollars against the Indians who are unable to pay their said debts without distressing their families a desire is expressed by the chiefs that two sections of land be set apart to be sold and the proceeds thereof to be applied toward the payment of the aforesaid debts. It is agreed that two sections of any unimproved and unoccupied land be granted to George S. Gaines who will sell the same for the best price be can obtain and apply the proceeds thereof to the credit of the Indians on their accounts due to the before mentioned Glover and Gaines and shall make the application to the poorest Indian first.

At the earnest and particular request of the Chief Greenwood Laflore there is granted to David Haley one half section of land to be located in a half section on any unoccupied and unimproved land as a campensation, for a journey to Washington City with dispatches to the Government and returning others to the Choctaw Nation.

The foregoing is entered into, as supplemental to the treatv concluded yesterday.

Done at Dancing Rabbit creek the 28th day of September, 1830.


Jiao. H. Eaton,
Jno. Coffee,
Greenwood Leflore.
Nittucachee, his x mark,
Mushulatubbee, his x mark,
Offahoomah, his x mark,
Eyarhoeuttubbee, his x mark,
Iyaeherhopia, his x mar,
Holubbee, his x mark,
Onarhubbee, his x mark,
Robert Cole, his x mark,
Hopiaunchahubbee, his x mark
David Folsom,
John Garland, his x mark,
Hopiahoomah, his x mark
Captain Thalko, his x mark,
Pierre Juzan,
Immarstarher, his x mark,
Hoshimhamarter, his x mark

In presence of --

E. Breathitt, Secretary to Commissioners,
W. Ward, Agent for Choctaws,
M. Mackey, United States Interpreter
John Pitchlynn, United States Interpreter
R. P. Currin
Jno. W. Byrn,
Geo. S Gaines.

On February 24, 1831 the Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty including the request for a delegate for 10 years in the Mississippi Legislature was signed into US Law by President Andrew Jackson. Around 16,000 Choctaws signed to be removed to Oklahoma and around 6,000 signed to become Americans and remain on their Homeland according to the Terms of the Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty.

In accordance with Article XV to erect a Council Meeting House for the Nation at some convenient central point, Greenwood Leflore and the Choctaws that became American Citizens began construction of Council Meeting House with the $50,000 allowance for a Council Meeting House on Greenwood LeFlore's reservation beside LeFluer's Bluff that became the near center of Mississippi on February 24, 1831.


Choctaw Indians -- Slaves, Ownership of

Legislation, laws and resolutions (1896-1910) of the Choctaw Nation typescripts of newspaper articles (1868-1936) concerning elections, allotment of tribal lands, and the Dawes Commission and four ledgers containing the journals and minutes (1902-1911) of the Choctaw National Council.

Peter Perkins Pitchlynn Collection

Choctaw Chief. Correspondence of Pitchlynn with prominent citizens and family members in the Choctaw Nation personal journals (1815) and diary (1828-1832) of Pitchlynn official reports (1825-1841) of the Choctaw Academy in Kentucky and Pitchlynn family records (1806-1867). Also includes a signed copy of the articles of surrender and peace negotiated between the Choctaw Nation and the United States at the close of the Civil War, and extensive correspondence reflecting the state of the Choctaw Nation just prior to and during the Civil War years, with special regard to slavery. Peter Pitchlynn Photograph Collection also in repository.


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