Pyrrhus Timeline

Pyrrhus Timeline

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  • 306 BCE - 302 BCE

    First reign of King Pyrrhus of Epirus.

  • 301 BCE

    Pyrrhus of Epirus fights at the Battle of Ipsos.

  • 297 BCE - 272 BCE

    Second reign of King Pyrrhus of Epirus.

  • 288 BCE

    Pyrrhus of Epirus becomes ruler of Macedon.

  • 284 BCE

    Lysimachus drives Pyrrhus out of Macedon.

  • 280 BCE - 275 BCE

    King Pyrrhus of Epirus wages the Pyrrhic War against the Romans in Italy, defence of Tarentum being the pretext.

  • Jul 280 BCE

    Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the Battle of Heraclea.

  • 279 BCE

    Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at the Battle of Asculum.

  • 275 BCE

    The Romans defeat Pyrrhus of Epirus at the Battle of Maleventum.

  • 273 BCE

    Pyrrhus of Epirus attacks Macedon and Sparta.

  • 272 BCE

    Death of Pyrrhus of Epirus in a street battle in Argos.

Funny things that happened today in history

Taken From Our This Day In History From
May 14th to May 20th
1921 The Emergency Quota Act was passed into law which limits the number of immigrants admitted into the US.
1927 Charles Lindbergh who many called the “flying fool” sets off from Roosevelt Field in Long Island, NY, flying the “Spirit of St. Louis” on an epic flight from New York to Paris. He completed the 33-hour, 30-minute flight and landed at Le Bourget Airport, Paris on the evening of 21 May.
1927 Following the floods in Louisiana rescue workers have so far found over 20 people dead with more coming as they continue to check homes flooded due to the flooding
1929 The First ever Academy Awards of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Awards were handed out at a banquet held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
1940 The British Secretary of State for War Anthony Eden announced the creation of the Local Defence Volunteers ( LDV ) name changed in July of to “The Home Guard”.
1940 Nylon stockings from DuPont ( Nylon invented in 1935 by Wallace Carothers ) went on general sale for the first time in the United States.
1941 The Gloster-Whittle E 28/39 Jet aircraft flies successfully over Cranwell, England, ( First Jet Aircraft Flight )
1942 Congress creates the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps ( WACS )
1942 Gas rationing goes into effect across 27 US states as part of the war effort.
1943 Lancaster bombers use the revolutionary bomb designed to bounce on the water to bypass dam defences ( immortalised in a 1954 war film Dambusters ) .
1943 Resistance in the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw has ended as SS Police and Wehrmacht units using tanks and other armoured vehicles take back control of the ghetto crushing resistance after 1 month of fighting.
1948 The independent state of Israel is proclaimed as British rule in Palestine came to an end.
1954 The United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education , ruling that racial segregation in public educational facilities is unconstitutional.
1957 Petrol rationing, which has been in force in Britain and France for five months following the Suez crisis ends.
1957 Britain tests first hydrogen bomb on the Christmas Island area in the Pacific Ocean,
1961 An angry mob consisting of all white’s attacked a busload of “Freedom Riders” ( Freedom Riders were testing the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, that gave them a legal right to disregard local segregation ordinances regarding interstate transportation facilities. ) in Montgomery, Ala.
1962 Marilyn Monroe performed a rendition of “Happy Birthday” for President John F. Kennedy for his forty-fifth birthday during a fund-raiser at New York’s Madison Square Garden.
1964 Large numbers of Mods and Rockers involved in violent clashes at a number of seaside resorts on the south coast of England
1969 Rioting and protests against the war in Vietnam continue on campuses throughout California with local National Guardsman patrolling Berkeley campus of the University of California area with fixed bayonets to keep peace and order.
1972 Alabama Governor George Wallace is shot and left paralyzed while campaigning for President of the United States
1973 The investigation of Watergate by the Senate begins televised hearings on the Watergate scandal.
1973 The British Royal Navy Frigates the Cleopatra, the Plymouth and the Lincoln are sent to the disputed Icelandic 50-mile zone to protect British trawlers fishing inside the zone as the COD WAR between Britain and Iceland escalates.
1980 Mount St. Helens located in the Cascade Range erupted and blasted 1,300 ft off it’s top that sent hot mud, gas and ashes running down it’s slopes
1991 Winnie Mandela, the wife of Nelson Mandela, is given a six-year prison sentence for her part in the kidnap of four youths suspected of being police informers, one of the kidnapped boys later died of his injuries.
2005 Army Specialist Sabrina Harman was convicted at Fort Hood, Texas, for her role in the mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib.
Celebrating Birthdays Today
Joey Ramone
Born: Jeffrey Hyman, May 19th, 1951, Forest Hills, New York
Died: April 15th, 2001, New York City
Known For : The lead singer of the Ramones, who are said to have initiated the punk rock era. The titles of the band’s songs were somewhat derogatory, and boisterous. There is some debate on how well Joey Ramone can sing (if it can be called ‘singing’). He founded the Ramones with John Cummings and Douglas Colvin. Their debut album was released in 1976. Joey was badly dressed with long hair and glasses. The band ceased performing in 1996, and Joey died of cancer in 2001.

The audience couldn’t even check if the news was trending on Twitter in those days, so word of the alien attack spread from person to person. Even though there had been a notice about the fictional show at the start, those listeners who tuned in half-way through had no idea that the news bulletins about the Martians were fake.
By Cassie Fairy

U.S. planes bomb Hanoi for the first time.
The Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal.

“Napoleon was attacked by a horde of bunnies while hunting.” snowzua

“The founding fathers wouldn’t let Benjamin Franklin work on the Declaration Of Independence because they were afraid he would slip a joke into it.” JasonYaya

19. King Pyrrhus of Epirus was killed in 272 BC during a battle in a city when an old woman threw a tile at him, which knocked him out and allowed an enemy soldier to finish him. – Source
5. In 1821, Greece was under the control by the Turks. In Greece’s fight for independence, a Turkish garrison was besieged by Greek fighters on the Acropolis. When the Turks were running short on bullets, they began to dismantle the marble columns to use the lead within as bullets. The Greeks sent them ammunition with the message: “Here are bullets, don’t touch the columns.” – Source

Didacus Pyrrhus

PYRRHUS, DIDACUS (originally Diogo Pires also known as Pyrrhus Lusitanus and, from his birthplace, Évora, as Flavius Eborensis 1517�), Portuguese Marrano poet. He is not to be confused with the more famous Diogo Pires ( Solomon *Molcho ) who was martyred in 1532. In order to escape the Portuguese Inquisition, Pyrrhus left Évora for Salamanca in Spain, where he began to study medicine in 1535 and eventually qualified as a physician. His movements during the following two decades are relatively confused, but he is known to have fled to Antwerp in about 1540. From there he made his way to Venice and Ferrara, and then lived for a time in Ancona but the persecution of the local Marrano colony in 1555 obliged him to take refuge in the Dalmatian town of Ragusa (Dubrovnik), where he formally reverted to Judaism under the name of Isaiah Kohen. Pyrrhus, who had first achieved literary distinction with his volume of Carmina (Ferrara, 1545), spent about 50 years of his life in Ragusa, then a center of Neo-Latin poetic culture, and was mainly active as a teacher and writer. According to some authorities, Pyrrhus made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in his last years before returning to Ragusa, where he died.

He published two humanistic works in praise of his new home: De illustribus familiis quae hodie Rhacusae exstant (Venice, 1582 1709 2 ) and Excerpta ex Flavii Jacob Eborensis Carminibus ad Historiam Sacram Rachusinam aliquo modo facientibus (1596) Cato Minor (Venice, 1592), moralizing verse for children and Jacobi Flavii Eborensis seu Didaci Pirrhi Lusitani Elegiarum Libri Tres… (Venice, 1596). Pyrrhus ranks among the outstanding Neo-Latin poets of the Renaissance. One of his rare works of Jewish interest was a Latin elegy composed for the tombstone of ʪmatus Lusitanus in Salonika, but unfortunately no trace of it survives.


A. Ribeiro, Portugueses das sete partidas (1950), 223� M. Gruenwald and A. Casnacich, Didacco Pyrrho… ein Lebensbild (1883) JE, S.V. Flavius Eborensis Roth, England, 137𠄸 Roth, Marranos, 298 idem, Jewish Contribution to Civilization (1940), 113 (1956 3 ), 82n. idem, Jews in the Renaissance (1959), 109�.

Sources: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.

The defeat of Pyrrhus

Pyrrhus suffered a painful defeat, after which he returned to Epirus. Only 8,000 infantry and 500 horsemen remained under his command. Plutarch says the ruler had no money to support them, so he had to look for a new war. He decided to “visit” Macedonia, which had been captured by Antigonus Gonatas. At that time, there were Gauls in southern Europe, whose advantage was that they did not require high wages, so although they posed a threat to Greek civilization, they were hired by Greek chiefs. Pyrrhus and Antigonus were no exception. Pyrrhus defeated the army of Antigonus, who fled Macedonia, failing. However, the Macedonian people soon became estranged from the ruler of Epirus. So, one could say that the tradition would be followed, he left the problem unfinished and, responding to another invitation, got involved in the political conflict in Sparta.

Meanwhile, in Puglia, the garrison left by Pyrrhus in Taranto resisted the Romans until 272 BCE, when it decided to surrender. The Romans allowed him to go on honorary terms, and they did not avenge too much on the people of Italy who supported Pyrrhus. The greatest leaders usually died with such a sublime, perhaps even poetic death. Philip II was murdered, his son Alexander died exhausted by disease, Hannibal (about him in the next part of the cycle, if any) took poison, Caesar was stabbed to death. Pyrrhus may not have been one of the most outstanding commanders, but the circumstances of his death are simply bizarre. On his way to Sparta, he must have thought he would become lord of the Peloponnese, but meanwhile, he found himself in Argos during the riots. And our Pyrrhus, unfortunately, died. But in what way? He was hit in the head… with a tile thrown by some woman. Do you sometimes remember the Polish proverb “ where the devil can’t succeed, he’ll send a woman “?


Note: Due to all ghost warriors being identical in appearance, it is impossible to determine who is who in the television series. As such, any appearances of a ghost warrior will be cataloged here, regardless if they are in fact Pyrrhus.

Stiix and Stones

During Morro's confrontation with the ninja, he summoned several more ghost warriors to attack them. However, the ninja quickly obtained Aeroblades and defeated the ghosts with ease.

Curseworld, Part I

Finally free, the Ghost Warriors take over Stiix, turning all light sources green. The Ghosts revel in their victory, unaware the ninja are trying to get the Realm Crystal. When they see Nya in Lloyd's gi, the Ghosts try to stop them.

Curseworld, Part II

The Ghost Warriors flies around Stiix when the Preeminent is released. When the ninja took out the stilts, the Ghosts helped by making a shield of houses. They later dissolved in the Endless Sea after Nya unlocked her True Potential to drown their boss.

Timeline of world history

Start of the Mayan calendar. The Mayans had 20 days in their month starting with day 0 and ending with day 19. They understood zero not only as a place holder, but as a true counting number.

Work begins on Stonehenge in England. Some of the stones came from 240 miles away, the Preseli Mountains in southwestern Wales. What possessed the Neolithic people to build such a momument is still unknown.

First Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptians build first known dam called the Sadd el-Kafara 37 ft tall, 348 ft wide of rubble masonry filled with 100,000 tons of gravel and stone.

Egyptians create 365 day calendar with new year starting in June.

Work begins on the Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt.

Minoan Bronze age culture on Crete develops hieroglyphic script and extensive palace complex at Knossos.

Minoan "Linear A" asyllabic script created - still undeciphered.

Minoan "Linear B" script created.

Minoan culture destroyed perhaps by the Mycenaeans

Invasion of the Sea Peoples destroys Mycenaean civilization. Greece enters a 400 year "Dark Age" writing was forgotten cities abandoned. Linear B would not be read again until modern times.

Iron used for weapons and tools.

Magnetic compass invented

Phoenicians develop alphabetic script

Chinese develop gunpowder by mixing saltpeter, charcoal, and sulfur and grinding carefully

Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey

Hesiod writes Theogony, ("Birth of the Gods"), which details a version of Greek mythology.

Olympic games start in Greece.

Lycurgus gives laws to the Spartans which included the banning of silver and gold, redistribution of all land, creation of a senate, eating at public mess (so no dainty desire for expensive food would develop), and forbidding all useless occupations.

According to legend, Rome is founded by Romulus. Twelve birds circled overhead during the founding ceremonies and legend had it that the city would survive for 12 centuries.

Sparta conquers Messenia and forms Helot slavery. Having slaves to do all the tedious work of farming allows the Spartans to spend all their time in military training.

Earliest coins appear. Later, Lydian kingdom produces the first true coins with guaranteed quality and weight.

Earliest writing in the Americas by the Olmec culture.

Draco publishes his harsh laws for Athens. Many crimes punishable by death (hence the term 'Draconian').

Anaximander theorizes that humans arose from other species.

Wide reaching reforms of Solon in Athens.

Greek philosopher Thales predicts an eclipse.

Cyrus the Great becomes king and will lead Persia to form a great empire that will stretch from Egypt to India.

The Greek engineer Eupalinos designs a water tunnel 1036 meters long through a solid limestone mountain to bring water to the ancient city of Samos. Work started on both ends and met in the middle, an extraordinary feat of ancient mentioned by Herodotus.

Pythagoras starts his school in Croton Greece. He founds a brotherhood which sees the world through numbers.

Cleisthenes reforms enacted in Athens. Attica divided into demes.

Cleisthenes starts what will become democracy in Athens

The concept of the wheel roles into Britain, but not the Americas .

Twenty-six miles from Athens on the plain of Marathon, 11,000 Athenians fight 100,000 Persians. If the Greeks lose the battle, the city of Athens will flee to the hills. If the Athenians win the battle at Marathon, the Athenians will stay and try to hold the city against the Persian navy. While the battle rages the Athenians waited for the word, to flee or to fortify. A lone runner, Eucles, runs 26 miles and brings the much awaited news. According to legend, he utters "Nike" (victory) and then dies from exhaustion. 6,400 Persians are killed but only 192 Greeks.

Spartan King Leonidas, 300 Spartans, and their allies make a sacrificial last stand at Thermopylae against Xerxes and the Persians. King Xerxes demands the surrender of the Greeks weapons, to which King Leonidas replies, "Molon Labe", or "Come and take them." (See: Texas Independence, "Come and Take It" flag).

Athenian navy is victorious over the Persian Navy at battle of Salamis.

110,000 Greek hoplites defeat 300,000 Persians at the battle of Plataea . The Persians suffered 257,000 casualties, the Greek only 159 .

Anaxagoras of Clazomenae arrives in Athens. He taught the philosophy of Ionia to the Athenians sparking the flowering of Western philosophy.

Protagoras of Abdera (485-415) is born. He states that truth, goodness, and all other values are relative, depending solely on the person or society.

Herodotus of Halicarnassus aka, the first Historian. Oddly enough, for being a Historian, we know practically nothing about him. He writes The Histories about the Persian War with Greece creating the genre of historical writing.

Birth of Thucydides who writes The Peloponnesian War and builds upon Herodotus's work of recording history . Thucydides though, is more direct and rigorous in his writing, leaving out extraneous stories and dubious material. He also omits references to the gods as causing events in human affairs.

Second Persian War. The Athenians retreat, and the Persian forces led by Xerxes destroy Athens, but Greek forces win a major naval battle at Salamis.

The Theban commander Epaminondas defeats the reigning champs of the Peloponnese, the Spartans, in the Battle of Leuctra. This is the beginning of the end of the Spartans as a Greek superpower.

Twelve Tables of Roman law are published.

The Parthenon in Athens is completed after 40 years of work. This stunning piece of architecture was the crowning achievement of Pericles.

Democritus theorizes that matter is composed of tiny grains that cannot be subdivided. He calls them "atomos".

The disastrous Athenian invasion of Sicily. Before his death, Pericles warned the Athenians not to try to expand their empire until the war with Sparta was completed. They knew better and destroyed two fleets trying to win new territory. Although not the final blow in the war with Sparta, this disaster started the decline of Athens.

Sparta finally defeats Athens in the Peloponnesian War with a navy financed by the Persians.

Socrates is put on trial. He is arrogant and antagonistic during the proceedings. Had he been more gracious he might have escaped the hemlock. The vote was 281 to 220.

Rome defeats the Etruscan city of Veii after 80 years of war and starts the eventual rise of Rome. The Etruscans were skilled engineers and craftsmen. Many of the "Roman" innovations, like their numerals, were really taken from the Etruscans.

The Thebans defeat of a Spartan Army at Leucrra. This marks the end of the centuries-old Spartan reputation of being unbeatable.

The Gallic Senones tribesmen sack Rome and occupy it for seven months. The Romans never forgot this.

Plato starts "The Academy" in Athens.

Epaminondas leads the Thebans to war against the Spartans again, and wins again. He is killed in the battle. The war between Thebes and Sparta leaves Greece weaken just in time for the upstart Macedonians to enter the stage.

Herostratus burns the temple of Artemis in Ephesus to ground in an attempt to immortalize his name. Alexander the Great was born the same night.

Philip of Macedon conquers Greece in the battle of Chaeronea.

Aristotle starts "The Lyceum" in Athens .

Alexander the Great defeats Persia under Darius at battle of Issus. Alexander was the fourth in a line of great men and scholars: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Darius escapes and gathers his forces for the next battle.

Alexander's 35,000 troops fight Darius's 200,000 in the battle of Gaugamela . Darius has leveled the wide plain to allow better use of his chariots and superior numbers. Alexander leads his troops off to the edge of the prepared field. This tatic opens a gap in the Persian lines that Alexander drives into, threatening King Darius himself. In panic Darius flees. Seeing their king depart, some in the Persian army scatter.

Alexander the Great conquers Egypt. The Greeks bring coinage into Egypt for the first time.

At the Hyphasis river, Alexander's army refuses to march further into India and he is forced to turn back.

Alexander dies near Babylon and is reported to have left kingdom, "to the best". Four of his generals carve up the empire and usher in the Hellenistic period.

Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos born. He was one of the first to suggest the earth moved about the sun.

Strato of Lampsacus (ca. 340-ca. 270 BC) becomes the third head of the Aristotle's school, the Lyceum. Strato correctly theorizes that objects accelerate when falling. He notes this by observing water flows from a roof as a solid stream at first and then breaks into droplets as it is getting faster. Another demonstration is that stones dropped from higher heights have larger craters in sand.

The Pharos Lighthouse built by the Ptolemies

"One more such victory and we are lost," said the Greek King Pyrrhus after the battle of Asculum in Italy with the Romans.

King Pyrrhus of Epirus wins a battle against the Romans, but his casualties are very high.

First Punic War between Rome and Carthage (called "Punic" from "Phoenician"). Hamilcar Barca commands the army and never loses a major battle. Hamilcar feels betrayed when the politicians of Carthage surrender. He feels they can still win the war. Hamilcar makes his son Hannibal swear an oath to hate Rome.

Alexandrian Librarian Eratosthenes of Cyrene calculates dimensions of the earth to within a 5 percent. After reading that on the summer solstice the sun is directly overhead at Aswan and shines straight down into a well, one the same day of the year, he calculates the angle of a shadow at noon in Alexandria to be 7 degrees. Knowing the distance to Aswan was 5,000 stadia, the circumference must be 360/7 times larger or about 250,000 stadia (25,000 miles).

Qin Shi Huang dies - first emperor to unite all of china.

Second Punic War - Hannibal Barca crosses the Alps to attack Rome. (Hannibal is praised by Machiavelli for being brutal in visible examples, thereby gaining order in his army, so the amount of true cruelty to his soldiers was less than if he had been softer). Hannibal is wildly successful militarily, but cannot pry the Italian cities away from Rome.

Hannibal has one of the greatest military victories at Cannae . About 70,000 men from the Roman forces are killed, only 6,000 of Hannibal's.

Hannibal defeated at the battle of Zama by Scipio Africanus.

Tiberius Gracchus has Marcus Octavius physically ejected from the Assembly to prevent Octavius from vetoing one of Tiberius's laws. This egregious violation of ancient law and custom starts a series of events that will eventually destroy the Republic. Ironically, Plutarch claimed Marcus Octavius was an ancestor of Emperor Augustus.

Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla fight over Rome. Sulla makes himself dictator and resigns in 80 BC.

Spartacus, a former Roman soldier and gladiator fights against Rome.

Julius Caesar assassinated.

Battle of Alesia - Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, retreats to a natural fortress at Alesia. Caesar orders his men to build fortifications all around the fortress so Vercingetorix is trapped inside. Reinforcements for the Gauls start to arrive, and Caesar orders his men to build fortifications on the other side. The Romans are now trapped inside a "donut" with Gauls on the inside and outside. Caesar narrowly wins the battle through a personal charge with his German cavalry.

Cleopatra & Ptolemy XII inherit Egypt. Ptolemy was the name of Alexander the Great's general who "inherited" Egypt. Cleopatra was the name of Alexander the Great's sister. Almost three centuries later, the Greek influence in Egypt was still strong.

Against all odds, Octavian defeats Antony at battle of Actium. (His soldiers lose heart when Antony leaves the fight to follow Cleopatra who is fleeing the battle).

Caesar Augustus made Roman Emperor.

Unfortunately, since the scholars designing the new calendar didn't have the concept of zero, the new date system is calculated to start at year 1.

Approx. Time

Events & People

Unfortunately, since the scholars designing the new calendar didn't have the concept of zero, the new Gregorian calendar is calculated to start at year 1.

Battle of Teutoberg Forest - 20,000 Roman soldiers under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus in Germany are ambushed while in a long convoy line through the Teutoberg Forest. Many years later Emperor Augustus, desperately needing those legions, went around the palace late at night muttering, "Varus, give me back my legions."

The Romans under Titus destroy Jerusalem, after a long siege 1.5 million Jews die. The gold taken from the temple finances the Colosseum in Rome.

Claudius Ptolemy devises a framework of Astronomy which will last for 1400 years. He also calculates pi as 3+8/60+30/602 which in decimals is "3.1416666. ", not too bad an estimate for the time.

Rome has several consecutive "Good Emperors": Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius and Marcus Aurelius .

Roman Emperor Hadrian begins the impressive 73 mile long defensive wall in the north of England to keep out the Picts and other warring tribes.

Beginning of the Classic period for the Maya.

Edict of Milan is issued. Christians are now tolerated in the Roman Empire.

Emperor Julian, "The Apostate," tries to return the Empire back to the Pagan religions.

The Battle of Adrianople (Hadrianopolis) - the beginning of the end of Roman military power. Not waiting for reinforcements becasue he wanted all the glory for himself, Emperor Valens gives the order to his weary men to attack the circled wagons of the Goths. In a surprise to all, the absent Gothic Cavalry happens to return just as the battle is about to begin. The heavy Cavalry routes the light horsemen of the Romans and is victorious over the Roman infantry. Some scholars think this was a historic turning point in the tactics of warfare when the Cavalry gained supremacy over infantry. Others counter that the Roman infantry could have withstood the Cavalry if they had been properly rested, trained, and had a better commander. In either case, the Battle of Adrianople shook the confidence of the Roman Empire. From this point onward the Romans will deal in a defensive manner with the Goths. The Goths were originally glad to be allowed to enter the Empire, but were treated very badly and abused by corrupt Roman administrators. This treatment angered the Goths and they turned against the Romans.

Rome sacked by Visigoths under Alaric

Odovacar, a Germanic chieftain, removes the last western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus. His name is ironic since Romulus founded Rome and Augustus was its first emperor.

Clovis converts to orthodox Christianity

Justinian's Plague starts and kills 40% of Constantinople by 544 and 25% of Europe south of the Alps. By the Eighth century this bubonic plague disappears mysteriously not to return to Europe until the Fourteenth century.

Persians use windmills to power irrigation pumps.

Mohammad born. Syria, Jerusalem, Egypt, Persia, & N. Africa fall to Muslim armies many decades later.

A vastly superior army of Iranian Sassanians is defeated by determined Arab Muslims in the battle of Qadisiyya.

The beginning of the Mississipian Cahokia culture in America, the most advanced of the plains people. The Cahokia people will build the largest earthen mound structure in North America, Monk's Mound and create an astronomic observatory now known as Woodhenge, and trade from the Great Lakes to the Gulf coast. They decline in 1400, a century before the Europeans arrive.

The earliest poem written in English, Caedmon's Hymn, is composed.

Battle of Tours, Charles Martel stops a Muslim army and the Muslim advance into Western Europe.

Vikings start raiding Ireland.

The "Medieval Warming Period" starts and lasts until 1315 or 1350. The Vikings settle Greenland. English farmers grow grapes for wine. Temperatures rise in Europe and farming does well. The population on Europe swells.

Fall of the Mayan Classic period. Cities deserted all over Mesoamerica.

Gerbert (940-1003) becomes Pope Sylvester II and writes about "Arabic" numerals. Unfortunately the new numbering system doesn't really take hold in Europe until the 14th century. From Paul Gans "It should be noted that the Arabic numerals were neither invented by nor used by the Arabs. They were developed in India by the Hindus around 600 AD." (I dimly remember reading about "counting boards" being used with roman numerals in US Colonial times. Does anyone else remember hearing that?)

An army led by Caliph al-Hakim destroys the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. This desecration will be a rallying point for the Crusades to come.

Pope Urban II calls for the First Crusade to protect the Christian pilgrims from attack. In 1099 they succeed.

The Chinese issue the first paper money.

Harold Godwinson wins the Battle of Stamford Bridge and a second battle at Fulford against the Viking invaders of England lead by Harold Hardraada. Harold then marched his weary army to Hastings to meet yet another invader, Duke William of Normandy. Harold Godwinson was defeated, and the period of Norman domination began. William brought with him the French practice of building stone castles. Few stone castles had been in England before, but by only 1100 England had 84.

The Doomsday Book is written for William the Conqueror to detail the wealth and property of England.

The first crusade captures Jerusalem.

Angkor Wat, a huge temple complex, is built in Cambodia.

Second Crusade started by Bernard of Clairveaux after the Christian kingdom of Edessa falls to Muslims.

Oxford University is founded in Oxford England.

The Toltec civilization collapses in Mexico.

The magnetic compass becomes common for ocean going ships.

The Mayan culture revives after it's collapse in 900ad and survives until the 1450s when it falls shortly before the Europeans arrive.

Leonardo Fibonacci publishes "The Book of the Abacus" and revolutionizes mathematics in Europe.

Genghis Khan leads the Mongol armies. 30 to 60 million people are killed in their campaigns building the largest known land empire. It stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea.

On the way to the holy land for the Fourth Crusade, the Crusaders get a little confused and take over Constantinople instead.

King John of England and his nobles sign the Magna Carta .

Genghis Kahn invades Russia.

The Battle of Liegnitz is fought between Prince Henry and the Mongols commanded by Batu Khan for control of Poland. The Mongols successfully defeated another European army.

Florence Italy mints the florin, the first gold coin in Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire. It is a sign that stability, trade, and wealth are returning to Europe. The florin would remain a popular coin for five centuries.

European sailors now begin to use the magnetic compass.

Marco Polo starts on his alleged trip to China. He returns in 1295 to Venice.

After conquering most of Asia, Kublai Khan invades Japan with 4,400 ships and 140,000 soldiers, but a Typhoon, a "Divine wind", (Kamikaze) destroys most of the fleet. 70,000 troops die in the storm - the worst naval disaster in history.

Spectacles for the farsighted are invented in Italy.

Eyeglasses are common in Rome for scholars.

After 1,500 years, the Anasazi of Arizona abandon their cliff dwellings for unknown reasons.

Gunpowder is being used for warfare in England after being introduced to Europe in 1242.

Great Famine of 1315-1317 Torrential rains and cool weather devastate crops in Europe. Millions die. Criminal activity increases. Acts of cannibalism, infanticide, and child abandonment abounds. The Medieval Warming Period is waning.

Pope Clement V moves papacy to Avignon, starting the 70 year "Babylonian Exile" in France.

The Aztec tribe is forced to flee their homeland to a remote island in a lake because they sacrificed a young Colhua princess from the neighboring tribe to their god instead of marrying her to a prince. In their new island home they see an eagle perched on a cactus which the Aztecs, or Mexica as they are called, take for a divine sign that this is their home.

Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane) a Muslim conqueror of Mongol descent, is born. Through a savage campaign, he wins a huge territory in the middle east and Asia. Some think his feats rival Alexander the Great. 17 million people may have died from his conquests.

The Bubonic plague starts in China and moves westward aided by the ease of travel in the Mongol empire. The Mongols laid siege to the port of Kaffa on the Crimean peninsula and catapulted plague corpses into the beseiged city. The Mongol army withdraws, but has succeeded in bringing the plague to Europe.

The Black Plague (aka Bubonic) enters Sicily. Contemporary accounts place the death toll at one third of inhabitants. Vast social changes result. Workers become a scarce commodity, increasing their bargaining power with employers. Farm land reverts back to forests as the number of farmers decrease.

English defeat the French at battle of Crecy.

Using the Welsh longbow, the English devastate the French at Agincourt.

Joan of Arc burned at the stake. She is credited with leading the French in victory over the English. The English had been dominating France since Agincourt. The Welsh Longbow was a major reason. Joan of Arc was helped by artillery that could now damage castle walls.

First documented black African slaves imported into Europe.

The Christian kingdom of Constantinople finally falls to the Muslims. Mahomet II using European artillery mercenaries destroys the walls. This is the first use of a forward observer to direct artillery fire whose crews cannot see their targets. In a sense this is the final fall of the Roman Empire.

German inventor Johann Gutenberg revolutionizes knowledge transfer. He improves or invents three items: the printing press, movable metal type, and an oil-based ink. His first work is the 42-line Bible.

Ivan III finally overthrows the mongol overlords and declares Russia the third Rome which is why the title 'Czar' sounds so much like 'Ceasar'.

The Chimu civilization in Peru is defeated by the rising power of the Inca. The Chimu started around 1100.

Aztec ruler Ahuitzotl sacrifices 20,000 prisoners to the Aztec war god Huitzilopochtli.

Instead of using abbreviated words to indicate addition and subtraction, German mathematician Johann Widmann starts the practice of using the symbols "+" and "-".

Queen Isabella's advisers correctly state that China could be visited by going West since they knew the earth was round, but that a ship would run out of supplies first since it was so far. Chistopher Columbus uses some creative math and Fortunately for Christopher Columbus the Americas got in the way. He lands in the Bahamas. He dies in 1506 still thinking he had landed in Asia.

Charles VIII invades Italy with new bronze cannons. In only eight hours, the French break through the fortress walls of Monte San Giovanni, which had previously withstood a siege of seven years. The arrival of the mobile cannon greatly reduces the value of fortresses and had wide political impact - mostly increasing the power of kings over their nobles, since nobles could no longer defy the king and hide behind their castle walls.

Captain Vasco da Gama becomes the first European to travel to India via sea.

Portuguese trader Cabral swings to far West in his route to India and accidently discovers Brazil. If Columbus had not been successful eight years earlier, this is when the New World would be discovered.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa is the first European to see the Pacific ocean. Jealous of his fame, members of the Spanish court convince the King that Balboa is guilty of treason. Balboa is beheaded in 1519.

After studying in Italy, Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) returns to Poland convinced that the earth revolves around the sun. He dedicates his work to his friend Pope Paul III.

An Augustinian monk, Martin Luther, nails his 95 theses to the church door in Wittenberg unknowingly initiating the Protestant revolution.

Ferdinand Magellan starts what will be the first circumnavigation of the globe. He is killed in 1521, but 15 of his sailors will continue back to Europe.

Hernando Cortez conquers the Aztec empire by turning its neighbors against it.

The Constable of France, Charles de Bourbon, attacks Rome. He is killed early by a crossbow dart, but his army sacks the treasures of ages from the eternal city.

Inca ruler Atahuallpa mets Francisco Pizarro. Atahuallpa wanted to impress the Spanish and the Inca by coming to the meeting with 4,000 unarmed men showing that he was so powerful he needed no soldiers to protect the royal personage. The Spanish slaughter the Incas and hold Atahuallpa hostage. With 150 men, Pizarro conquers the Inca empire of six million people. Moral to the story: Don't trust strangers wanting gifts.

John Calvin writes The Institutes of the Christian Religion .

The Little Ice Age strikes Europe. After the Medievel Warming Period, when climate was ideal for raising grains in Europe, temperatures start to fall, and with them the fortunes of many in Europe. Crops fail and many starve and freeze to death.

Earthquake in China kills 830,000.

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew. Tens of thousands of Huguenots (French Protestants) are killed in France.

In Japan two armies meet. The side with guns wins for the first time, yet by mutual agreement, guns are outlawed 100 years later.

Thomas Hariot first writes about an amazing herbal remedy introduced to him by the local peoples of America called tobacco. (It's really the revenge of the indigenous peoples of America - its killed more Europeans than they could have imagined).

To correct for the drifting of the equinox from March 21, Pope Gregory XIII decrees that the next day would be October 15. Not all countries obey his edict and many disputes arise over interest to be paid, and wages.

Gerardus Mercator publishes his cylindrical projection of the earth.

Philip II's Spanish Armada of 130 ships attack England, but are defeated.

United East India Company (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie ), or the VOC founded. This was the first multinational joint-stock company, a landmark in economic development. The VOC prospered for centuries, but went bankrupt in 1795 due to corruption and poor management.

Battle at Glenfruin when the MacGregors slaughtered the Colquhouns (my ancestors).

The city of Santa Fe, New Mexico is founded.

John Napier , inventor of logarithms (1614) and Napier's Bones (ivory sticks which foreshadowed the slide rule) dies in Edinburgh.

Johann Kepler finally solves the mystery of the motion of the planets. The early Greeks thought the study of the heavens was the highest calling of mankind and Johann discovered the plan. He stated three laws of planetary motion. His third law states: "The squares of the planets' orbital periods are proportional to the cubes of the semi-major axes of their orbits." I personally think he is one of the most underrated scientist in history.

Pilgrims arrive at Plymouth.

1/4 of Polish Jews are massacred, many move to Jerusalem.

The Edict of Nantes revoked by Louis XIV in France. Many Huguenots are killed and many (like my ancestors) flee France.

Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Isaac Newton writes Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy which shows the laws of the heavens are the same as the laws of earth.

Four British warships lead by Admiral Shovell run aground on the Scilly Islands off the English coast killing 2000 sailors. This intensifies the search for a solution to "The Longitude Problem". Eventually solved by John Harrison with an accurate clock.

Thomas Newcomen creates the first successful steam engine used to evacuate water from mines.

Jethro Tull perfects the seed drill, which produces eight times more wheat from the sown seed. For his efforts, he is vilified.

Carolus Linneaus creates a taxonomic system for naming species

Scottish chemist Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide and later the latent heat of fusion.

The American colonies declare themselves independent of Great Britain.

David Bushnell navigates his primitive submarine, the Turtle, toward a British ship. His attempt at sinking the ship fails, but scares the blockading British ship away.

A British sharpshooter, Major Patrick Ferguson , has an American officer in his sights, but does not fire, since it would be unprofessional to kill an unsuspecting officer. The officer is later revealed to be George Washington.

James Cook is the first European to travel to Hawaii.

General Cornwallis surrenders to the colonists in American while the band plays "The World Turned Upside Down". 25,000 Americans died in the war.

First manned hot air balloon flight in Paris by Jean Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis D'Arlands.

Sir William Jones, Chief Justice of India, proposes that Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and many European languages were all descended from a common Proto-Indo-European language.

The French Revolution begins with the storming of the Bastille to free prisoners. Oddly enough the Bastille was empty of any real prisoners.

Miami Chief 'Little Turtle' inflicts the worst defeat by Native Americans on the US Army under the command of Arthur St. Clair, ninth President of the Continental Congress in the Battle of Wabash. Six hundred soldiers are killed, one-quarter of the US Army.

Based on traveling thouands of miles in England, John McAdam invents a new way to create roads by using crushed stones and gravel to remove water quickly from the roadbed. His improvement allows for faster travel and more trade in England.

The Metric system of measurement was introduced into France.

Thomas Malthus publishes An Essay on the Principle of Population claiming starvation was inevitable for the human race. Oddly enough, 200 years later the world is better feed than ever, but many still believe him.

Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punched cards to create designs in fabric. Workers fearful for their jobs threw their sabots, or shoes, into the machines to destroy them giving rise to our word 'sabotage'.

Napoleon is crowned Emperor of France.

Napoleon's navy defeated at the Battle of Trafalgar by Nelson.

William Eaton leads the first American overseas miltary action on land. Against enormous odds, the Marines and mercenaries take the city of Derna, Tripoli.

Napoleon takes Moscow, but its a hallow victory. The city is burned to the ground and the Tsar does not surrender. Napoleon and whats left of the Grand Armee retreat.

The Battle of Trafalgar. The British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson defeats a combined Spanish-French Fleet. AGAMEMNON was the name of one of his ships (see Babylon5).

During the War of 1812, the British under the command of General Robert Ross attack Washington DC and burned the White House, but not before enjoying a lovely dinner prepared by Dolly Madison before she fled.

Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

The Year Without a Summer. Mount Tambora erupts and throws so much dust in the air that it causes 10 inches of snow to fall in June in New England (US). Crops fail and famine is common. Many blame Benjamin Franklin and his experiments with electricity for the freak weather. Mary Shelley is forced inside and writes Frankenstein .

Jakob Grimm, of Grimm Fairy Tales fame, proposes 'Grimm's Law' - that many consonants have shifted in a consistent way from Non-Germanic languages (like Latin and Greek) to Germanic languages (like English). For example, 'p's become 'f's, as in Latin 'pater' becoming English 'father' Latin 'pisces' becomes English 'fish'.

Charles Babbage designs the Difference Machine - a forerunner of the modern computer. Traditionally it was thought to fail because metallurgy was not yet advanced enough. Recent views blame his machinist for wasting the money and being lazy.

England outlaws slavery and frees 780,993 slaves in its possessions.

Samuel Morse demonstrates the telegraph in public.

The ironclad gunboat, the Nemesis, built by a Scottish shipbuilder John Laird, leaves England bound for China becoming the first ironclad to round the Cape of Good Hope. In China, she destroys nine war-junks, five forts, two military stations and a shore battery in a single day. The technological gap in warfare is widdening between Europe and the rest of the world.

The Great Hunger (aka Potato Famine). Blight causes potato crop to fail. 1.5 million die of starvation and disease. Ireland still exports grain to England to pay rents. Help from England was too little too late.

United States troops enter Mexico City under the command of General Winfield Scott. A treaty ending the Mexican American war was signed in February.

Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels publish a little pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto.

Admiral Perry visits Japan with his Black Ships and opens trade with the West.

During the Crimean War, Lord Cardigan led the British cavalry against the Russians in what would become known as "The Charge of the Light Brigade".

Louis Pasteur shows that disease is spread from tiny, little organisms, instead of bad vapors. Germ theory is born.

Charles Darwin publishes Origin of Species.

George Bissel sees prices for whale oil skyrocketing as the spermicitti whales are overhunted and gambles on hiring Edwin Drake to drill an oil well in Titusville, PA. Progress is very slow and Bissel mails Drake to shut down the well. Fortunately the letter arrives late. Edwin Drake had just stuck the first oil well the day before. Whale oil was selling for 5 dollars a gallon, and kerosene soon sold for 10-25 cents a gallon.

James Clerk Maxwell completes his four equations of electromagnetism.

Herman Hollerith invents an electronic tabulator for the US Census. He starts a company that eventually becomes IBM.

The Confederate H. L. Hunley becomes the first submarine to sink an enemy ship, the Union Housatonic. The Hunley sinks shortly afterwords killing all nine men on board.

The CSS Albemarle , a Confederate ironclad designed by an 19 year old, and built in a corn field, sinks a Union ship and wins the Battle of Plymouth for the South.

Augustinian monk Gregor Mendel lays the foundation for modern genetics

A scout in the Civil War became the first person to be killed by a pressure activated land mine. This novel instrument of war was developed by Southern Gabriel J. Rains . and has been a scourge of the earth ever since. Land mines caused a third of the American injuries in Vietnam War.

Prussia invades Austria. Prussia had smartly sent observers to the American Civil War. They learned of railroads, telegraphs, and new firearms. The Prussians used this newfound knowledge in a war with Austria. They slaughtered the Austrians using their new Needle guns which used a cartridge instead of muzzle loading, and could be reloaded in a prone position. With the railroads they brought fresh troops quickly to battle areas.

The United States and Europe are connected by a 2,500 mile long telegraph cable.

Using their new .50 caliber Springfield breech loading rifles, 26 soldiers from Fort Kearny, Wyoming fend off 1,500 Lakota Indians led by Red Cloud in "The Wagon Box Fight" . The Lakota attacked in waves. The second wave expected to kill the reloading soldiers, but instead were greeted by a round of bullets from the new repeating rifles. Three soldiers and approximately 50 Indians were killed.

Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.

Michelson and Morley fail to verify the existence of the ether.

At the Battle of Little Big Horn, the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Crow Indians defeated General George Custer's troops. Many have speculated that if Custer had not split his troops, and kept the cannon, he could have won easily. 25% of the Indians are estimated to have had superior weapons than the US Cavalry. The Indians had Spencers, Winchesters, and Henry repeating rifles. Custer's men were armed primarily with the Springfield single shot rifles.

The island volcano of Krakatoa in Indonesia brilliantly explodes. 36,000 people are killed. The tide is influenced in England and fine volcanic dust settles in New York. The sound of the explosion is heard 3,000 miles away.

The Spanish-American War starts. Newspaper reports of alleged atrocities by the Spaniards against Cubans fanned the flames for the US to intervene to free the Cubans from their Colonial overlords. Ironically after the war, The US was in possession of its own colonies of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.

Boer War. The descendants of the Dutch fight for independence from Britain.

Guglielmo Marconi sends the first wireless transatlantic radio signal from England to Newfoundland.

Orville and Wilbur Wright fly the first heavier than air craft.

Japanese sink half the Russian fleet in the opening move of the Russo-Japanese war. The Russians badly underestimate the modern Japanese fleet which a year later destroys most of the remaining navy. The Japanese used the new Marconi radios to scout for the oncoming Russian Navy.

While working as a patent clerk, Albert Einstein, publishes his theory of relativity and also states energy equals matter (E = mc2). This is his 'miracle year'. He publishes four vastly different papers. Three of them are Nobel prize winning material in their own right.

HMS Dreadnought starts new era in warships. It was unique in some of the following ways: more armor (11 inch plate), larger than predecessors (18,000 tons), used steam turbine engine for smoother, faster, more reliable power, used single caliber guns instead of a mix of large and small guns. The Dreadnought battleship design started a very expensive arms race.

Rutherford proposes the 'Solar System' model of the atom.

Instead of each state's legislature selecting them, United States senators are to be elected by popular vote.

The unsinkable Titanic goes down with over 1,500 souls. A steward from the White Star Line is reported as having said, "Not even God Himself can sink this ship". "Hubris" is what the Greeks called it.

Germany declares war on France starting the "war to end all wars".

Ernest Shackleton, Frank Worsley, and four others begin a treacherous 800-mile ocean crossing from Antarctica to South Georgia Island in what will be, according to many, the greatest sailing journey of all time. Their original ship, the Endurance was crushed in the ice so six of the men set sail in one of the life boats, the James Caird, to get help for the others trapped back in Antarctica.

Einstein publishes his 'General Relativity' paper.

The Battle of Jutland. The first and last great battle of the Dreadnought class ships. Britain and Germany spent untold fortunes to build and man these ship, but battle was inconclusive.

The First Battle of the Somme began. It lasted five months and the death toll of over one million was for the sake of an Allied advance of 125 square miles.

The United States enters World War I against Germany. The tide of the war is already against the Germans. Ten million people will die from the war.

The first true aircraft carrier, the British HMS Argus is launched.

On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month World War I is officially over. The treaty was signed at 5am with hostilities to cease at 11am. During those 6 hours, 2,738 soldiers died, 320 of those were American. American commanders who knew the war was to be over in hours still sent soldiers into battle to "punish" the Germans.

Proving the worth of aircraft carriers, the HMS Illustrious launches an attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto with 21 out-dated Fairey Swordfish biplanes. Three of the six battleships are severely damaged. Some naval officers take note, many still dismiss aircraft carriers as just novelties.

Influenza virus kills 20 million people. About a quarter of the US population catches it and 2 to 3% die from it.

The battle of Midway starts in the Pacific. Japan loses four carriers and more importantly 200 highly trained pilots. This is the turning point in the Pacific war and cements the role of the aircraft carrier as the dominant naval vessel.

DeBroglie proposes the matter-wave theory.

Heisenberg probably stated his uncertainty principle.

First Soviet 5-year Plan. 5 million Ukrainian peasants are deliberately starved to death. Visiting journalists ignore famine and praise Stalin's success.

Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming notices penicillin mold killing a staphylococcus culture. The revolution of antibiotics is started.

The "planet" Pluto discovered

Sir James Chadwick discovers the neutron

Scottish engineer Robert Watson-Watt shows his new invention, Radar, to the British Military. 19 Radar stations are active on the eve of WWII saving countless British lives.

The German airship Hindenburg explodes in New Jersey. Amazingly 61 of the 97 persons aboard survive.

Kristallnacht , a night of terror visited upon the Jews of Germany by the Nazis. Hundreds of Jews are killed and the glass from synagogues and businesses are shattered onto the streets.

The Soviet Union invades Finland and starts the Russo-Finish War. The Soviets do so poorly against such a weaker opponent that Hitler is confirmed in his belief that the political purge eviscerated the Red Army. The Soviets do win the war on March 12, 1940.

Alan Turing with help from Polish sources and Cambridge mathematician, W. G. Welchman breaks the German Enigma code saving countless Allied lives.

Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Russia, is launched 129 years to the day after Napoleon crossed the Niemen into Russia. Stalin did not believe the numerous intelligence reports detailing the German buildup. It was the largest military operation ever mounted.

Japanese attack Wake island. The defenders of the tiny island fight against overwhelming odds and hold the island, providing the first victory for the US in the Pacific. Reinforcements are sent from Hawaii, but later, in a very controversial decision, recalled back to Hawaii. The Wake island defenders push back advancing Japanese soldiers, but the American officers surrender the island on Decmeber 23, in another controversial decision.

At the University of Chicago Enrico Fermi and friends generate the first self-sustained nuclear reaction.

A Japanese submarine shells an oil refinery near Santa Barbara California

Carrier groups of Japanese and Americans fight the Battle of the Coral Sea. This is the first time that the ships fighting never had sight of each other airplanes did the damage. Although the battle is a draw, one carrier loss for both sides, the Japanese invasion plans in the south are thwarted.

The largest tank engagement, the Battle of Kursk, is fought between the Germans and the Russians.

The battleship Roma is attacked by two German Fritz X bombs, becoming the first vessel sunk by a guided weapon.

The largest amphibious landing in history, the invasion of Normandy, starts. This begins the end for the Third Reich (well, unless you talk with the Russians about the Eastern Front).

First fire-bombing of Tokyo.

At 08:16, the B-29 Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets, dropped an atomic bomb containing 60 kg of uranium-235 on Hiroshima Japan, killing an estimated 80,000 civilians outright and perhaps over 200,000 total.

The B-29 named "Bocks Car" dropped a the bomb, "Fat Man", containing 8 kg of plutonium-239 on Nagasaki Japan. (The B-29 program cost 3 million dollars, while the atomic bomb cost less, 2 million).

VJ Day - Japan surrenders in WWII eight days after the second atom bomb is dropped. His subjects hear Emperor Hirohito voice the next day for the first time on the radio as he announces the surrender.

Half of all the gold mined in history, 22,000 tons, is in the United States.

Ushering in the thermonuclear age, the first hydrogen bomb named 'Mike' is detonated by the US. 'Mike' was not a practical weapon since it weighed 70 tons and was a big as a house.

Nautilus, the first nuclear powered submarine, is launched.

Sputnik I becomes the first man-made satellite.

Launching the SSBN George Washington, the world's first nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine, the US moves unknowingly ahead in the cold war.

Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh travel to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the lowest point on earth, in the Bathyscaphe Trieste. Oddly, no one has ever gone back a second time.

An experimental nuclear power plant in Idaho, the SL-1 , goes "prompt critcal" during maintence and kills three Army specialists. The reactor is buried on site.

Yuri A. Gargarin becomes the first human in space and to orbit the earth

Norman Borlaug launches the "Green Revolution" by breeding a strain of wheat that yields three to five times than ordinary wheat. Borlaug saves millions of lives in India, which after much bureaucratic red tape, finally allows the grain to be imported.

Quarks are proposed to be the basic building blocks of most matter.

Neil Armstrong walks on the surface of the moon.

A group of Argentine scrap-metal merchants raise their flag over the island of South Georgia in the opening scene of what will become the Falklands War with Great Britain.

Largest bio-terrorist attack in the United States modern history occurs in The Dalles, Oregon. 751 people become ill with the salmonella bacteria spread by followers of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh.

Hutus massacre 800,000 Tutsis in a few weeks using Machetes and clubs (Why can't we all just get along?)

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Anient greece timeline

753 BC Rome founded
According to legend, two brothers descended from the Trojan Prince Aeneas are exposed at birth. Romulus and Remus want to found a city but quarrel over which hill to site it on. Romulus kills Remus and Rome is founded on the Palatine Hill, on the bank of the River Tiber in Latium.

509 BC Republic established
Roman history states that worsening misrule under King Tarqunius Superbus prompts his expulsion by Rome's aristocracy. In its place, nobles establish a Republic ruled by annually elected consuls and guided by a powerful Senate. Citizens vote in popular assemblies weighted in favour of higher-ranking individuals.

406 BC Rome attacks Veii
After centuries of beating back invaders, Rome goes on the offensive against the neighbouring Etruscan city of Veii. The siege of Veii lasts 10 years. It's the first major victory in a campaign of steady expansion into adjacent Latin and Etruscan territory.

390 BC Gauls sack Rome
Roman defenders fail to stop a huge Gallic invasion at the battle of the Allia river. The Gauls sweep into Rome and sack the city. It takes payments of gold to persuade them to leave. The defeat leaves a permanent scar on the collective Roman consciousness.

343-341 BC First Samnite War
Seeking to extend its sphere of influence further into Italy, Rome takes on its toughest enemy yet – the Samnite nation of fierce mountain warriors. Rome wins this conflict, leaving it in control of the fertile Campania region south of Latium. This victory increases Rome's power-base significantly.

340-338 BC Latin War
Frustration at Rome's increasing domination of Latium leads to a revolt by a number of Latin states. Rome swiftly crushes military resistance in Latium but consolidates its hold on power there by extending Roman citizenship to almost all parts of the territory.

326-304 BC Second Samnite War
Rome's second clash with the Samnites is far more arduous. Roman legions take fierce beatings at the battle of the Claudine Forks (321 BC) and Lautulae (315 BC). But superior Roman reserves of men and material take their toll and the Samnites are eventually crushed.

298-290 BC Third Samnite War
The Samnites make a last-ditch effort to shake off Roman domination by allying themselves with the Etruscans, Umbrians and Gauls. But the Roman war machine is stronger than ever, partly due to the construction of new roads. Rome defeats the alliance at the battle of Sentinum (295 BC).

280-275 BC Pyrrhic War
Rome quarrels with the Greek-founded city of Tarentum, which summons assistance from the Greek King Pyrrhus. A gifted general, Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Heraclea (280 BC) and Asculum (279 BC). But the "Pyrrhic" victories have come at too great a cost. Pyrrhus is crushed by Rome at Beneventum (275 BC).

264-241 BC First Punic War
Rome's first conflict with the Phoenician city of Carthage is fought mainly at sea. Until this point, Rome has not been a sea power but it builds its own navy and defeats Carthage in a series of sea battles. Victory in this war leaves Rome in possession of Sicily.

238 BC Rome gains Sardinia and Corsica
Insurgents in Carthage-controlled Sardinia invite Roman forces into the island's garrison. Rome is in clear violation of its peace treaty with Carthage but threatens war when Carthage objects. The Phoenician city is obliged to cede Sardinia and Corsica to Rome.

218-202 BC Second Punic War begins
The Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca marches his forces over the Alps to take on the Romans. He wins a series of spectacular victories and almost defeats Rome. But the Romans hold out and take the fight to Africa, defeating Hannibal at the battle of Zama. Rome now controls Spain.

214-205 BC First Macedonian War
King Philip of Macedonia throws in his lot with Carthage and invades Rome's client states in Illyria (the modern Balkans). Effective Roman retaliation is difficult because resources are needed for the war against Carthage. The conflict ends in stalemate.

200-196 BC Second Macedonian War
Rome gathers Greek allies and then defeats Philip of Macedonia at the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC. Philip keeps his throne but must stay within his borders. Over the next decade, Rome intervenes in Greece on several occasions in order to assert its dominance in the eastern Mediterranean.

171-168 BC Third Macedonian War
King Perseus of Macedonia agitates among the Greek states. Rome sends a force to engage Perseus but, in a sign of a growing trend among Roman nobles abroad, its commander is more interested in collecting booty. Eventually, Perseus is defeated at the battle of Pydna. Macedonia is divided into four separate states.

149-146 BC Third Punic War
After taking advantage of a border dispute, Rome moves to crush Carthage utterly. Its far superior forces besiege the city. When Carthage eventually falls in 146 BC, the Romans level it and enslave 50,000 Carthaginians. This brutal victory leaves Rome in possession of Carthaginian north Africa.

150-146 BC Fourth Macedonian War
Andriscus, a pretender to the throne, attempts to wrest control of the four Macedonian states from Rome. He is defeated in 148 BC. Rome goes on to stamp out any remaining resistance in Greece. The ancient city of Corinth is sacked and completely destroyed in 146 BC.

133 BC Tiberius Gracchus murdered
Tiberius Gracchus, a reform-minded Tribune, proposes the redistribution of public land to peasants. Aristocrats accustomed to profiting from the land object. The row sparks civil disorder and Gracchus is killed at a popular assembly meeting. In 121 BC, Tiberius' brother, Gaius, is murdered amid rioting over more reform proposals.

107 BC Marius elected Consul
A gifted soldier and popular politician, Gaius Marius is elected consul six times between 107 BC and 100 BC. He is responsible for abolishing property qualifications for military service. Crucially, this means that previously poor soldiers in search of future property settlements learn to express more loyalty to their commanders than to the Republic.

91-89 BC Social War
Attempts to grant Italians Roman citizenship founder and several Italian states rise up against Rome. The states declare an independent confederacy called Italia and mint their own coins. Their powerful army is a real threat and Rome agrees to extend citizenship to most Italians.

88 BC Sulla marches on Rome
Lucius Cornelius Sulla, an ambitious consul, marches troops personally loyal to him into Rome when he is stripped of a potentially lucrative military command in Asia. After campaigning in the East, Sulla returns to Rome and rules as dictator, killing many enemies and giving their land to his veterans.

73-71 BC Spartacus leads slave revolt
Spartacus, a Thracian gladiator, leads a slave revolt that recruits at least 90,000 people. After ranging across Italy, the revolt is put down by Marcus Crassus and Spartacus is killed. Remnants of his force are finished off by Pompey. Pompey and Crassus join forces politically and both become consuls in 70 AD.

65 BC Caesar elected aedile
Julius Caesar, after years of steady progression in Roman political life, is elected to this mid-ranking but influential position with responsibility for organising games. While in office, he exploits his knack for populism and spends lavishly. In 63 BC, he is elected Pontifex Maximus, or high priest.

63 BC Catiline conspiracy
Amid steadily increasing political violence, consul Marcus Tullius Cicero accuses Lucius Sergius Catalina (Catiline) of conspiring against the Republic. Cicero orders the ringleaders to be executed but Cataline escapes and raises an army of veterans and other dissidents. He is killed by Republican forces in 62 BC.

59 BC Caesar, Pompey and Crassus strike alliance
Julius Caesar surprises the Senate by pulling off a three-way alliance between himself, Pompey and Marcus Crassus. The accord propels him to the consulship of 59 BC. Renewed in 56 BC, the agreement permits all three men to secure lucrative foreign commands for themselves.

58-50 BC Caesar campaigns in Gaul
Eight years as governor of Gaul brings Julius Caesar great riches and much popularity. By employing harsh tactics against scattered tribes, Caesar extends the frontier of Gaul to the west bank of the Rhine. His stiffest test comes in 52 BC, when he defeats a huge combined force of Gauls at the battle of Alesia.

53 BC Defeat of Romans at Carrhae
Marcus Crassus, eager for a share of the glory won by contemporary rivals like Pompey, embarks on a poorly planned adventure in Parthia, far to the east of his Syrian governorship. The campaign founders in the harsh Parthian desert. Crassus, along with thousands of his men, are cut to pieces at the battle of Carrhae.

49 BC Caesar crosses Rubicon
Julius Caesar commits himself to civil war when he takes his legion across the small Rubicon river separating Gaul and Italy. Caesar sweeps into a Rome abandoned by the coalition of nobles opposed to him and swiftly establishes control of the city.

48 BC Caesar defeats Pompey
Julius Caesar pursues opposition forces commanded by Pompey to north-western Greece, where he defeats them at the battle of Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is murdered. Caesar strikes an alliance – and fathers a son – with Queen Cleopatra before crushing the remnants of the opposition army in north Africa.

44 BC Death of Caesar
Julius Caesar is declared dictator for life. Despite the fact that his rule, by recent standards, has not been bloody, more and more aristocrats feel that he is becoming too king-like and that he threatens their interests. On March 15, a group of nobles surround Caesar in the Senate and stab him to death.

around the time Greece and Rome were around a few other things were happening around the world such as the hitte empire reaches its height in Asia at 1500 BC, and there is the rise of Etruscan civilization in Italy around 800 bc. dont forget the that the great wall of china was built in 221 BC

Nouvelle Génération

/>Archimedes' lever engraving from Mechanics Magazine published in London in 1824. PD Courtesy of Wikipedia .
  • 298-290 - The Third Samnite War.
  • 295 - Sentinum.
  • 283 - Lake Vadimonis.
  • 281-272 - Pyrrhus.
  • 280 - Battle of Heraclea led by King Pyrrhus of Epirus
  • 279 -Battle of Asculum (Pyrrhic Victory).
  • 274 -Battle of Beneventum.
  • 272 - Rome mistress of Italy morality at its height.
  • 264 - Period of foreign conquest begins.
  • 264-241 -First Punic War.
  • 263 - Hiero of Syracuse makes peace with Rome.
  • 262 - Capture of Agrigentum.
  • 260 - Naval victory at Mylae.
  • 257 - Tyndaris.
  • 256 - Ecnomus - Regulus at Clupea.
  • 255 - Defeat of Regulus.
  • 249 - Drepana.
  • 241 - Aegatēs Insulae naval battle with C. Lutatius Catulus. Hamilcar Barca.
  • 240 - Beginning of Roman drama, with Livius Andronicus.
  • 237 - Sardinia and Corsica acquired, and provincial system established.
  • 229-228 - First Illyrian War.
  • 227 - Rome makes Sardinia and Sicily its first provinces.
  • 225-222 - First Gallic War.
  • 222 - Gallia Cisalpina acquired by the battle of Telamon.
  • 220 - Hannibal in Spain.
  • 219 - Second Illyrian War. Saguntum.
  • 218-202 -Second Punic War. Timeline of the 2nd Punic War.
  • 218 - Ticinus - Trebia.
  • 217 - Trasimenus - Casilinum.
  • 216 - Cannae.
  • 212 - Capture of Syracuse. Archimedes.
  • 207 - Baecula - Metaurus.
  • 202 - Zama.
  • 214-205 - First Macedonian War.
  • 204 - Cult of Magna Mater introduced.

Roman Literature Timeline

2nd Century - 100s B.C.

/>Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, by Noel Halle, 1779 (Musee Fabre). Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Pyrrhus Receiving the Honor of Knighthood

BEASONS of considerable force are adduced by M. Jubinal, in his splendid work on Early Tapestries, for believing that the Tapestry from which the accompanying plate is taken, was made in the earlier part of the fifteenth century.

The tapestry itself consists of three compartments, all taken from the then popular subject of the war of Troy. The first compartment represents the city of Troy, with the arrival of Panthesilea queen of the Amazons to succour the Trojans. The second represents a battle, in which Æneas, Polydamas, Diomedes, and Panthesilea, are engaged in combat. In the third, which forms the subject of our plate, we see Pyrrhus the son of Achilles, under a rich tent, receiving the honour of Knighthood, with all the ceremonies practised in the Middle Ages. Ajax and Agamemnon are assisting at the ceremony the former is buckling the belt of the young hero. An esquire is fixing his spur on his foot. Underneath are the following lines, “Loco patris Pirrus statuitur Polidamas per hune succubuit Philimines item comprimitur Diomedes sic morte caruit.”
It is possible that the ornamental work in this tapestry may owe something of its detail to the imagination of the original artist yet a comparison with other monuments of the time is sufficient to convince us that the costume and armour may be considered as very fair specimens of what was worn by sovereigns and princes during the fifteenth century.

The history of this tapestry is remarkable. It is said to have belonged once to the famous Bayard, and remained in the castle in which he was born (an edifice seated on the summit of a hill which commands the banks of the river Isere), until the beginning of the present century. When the castle was ravaged by the democrats in the great revolution, this tapestry was overlooked, and escaped destruction by a mere accident.

In 1807, it was discovered in the Chateau de Bayard by a distinguished artist of Lyon, M. Richard, who bought it of the proprietor of the place, and thus saved it a second time from imminent destruction, threatened in this instance by the neglect of its possessor. From M. Richard it passed, in 1837, to M. Achille Jubinal, who has given a faithful representation of it in his work on Tapestries, and who afterwards presented it to the Bibliothèque du Roi at Paris. It now adorns the wall of one of the stair-cases in that noble establishment. Our initial letter, which represents St. Mark the Evangelist, is taken from the same printed volume which has furnished us with initials representing the three other Evangelists. The wood-cut at the foot of the present page represents an iron knocker of the fifteenth century, in the possession of M. Dugué of Paris. It is seven inches and a half long.

10. The Coming of Age: The Other Again

We need to read A Very Easy Death and Adieux within the context of the analyses of The Coming of Age to fully appreciate Beauvoir&rsquos role as witness. The project of The Coming of Age is similar to that of The Second Sex. Like The Second Sex, it focuses on a group of people designated as Other like The Second Sex it exposes the mythical status of the &ldquofacts&rdquo about aging and the aged and like The Second Sex it indicts society for its dehumanization of those it designates as Other. The Coming of Age also emulates The Second Sex in its method and scope. It trains a phenomenological lens on biological, psychological and sociological factors in order to understand the phenomenon of marginalized otherness. In many ways, however, The Coming of Age corrects what Beauvoir sees as the flaw of The Second Sex.

In reflecting on The Second Sex, Beauvoir says that were she to write it again she would pay less attention to the abstract issue of consciousness and more attention to the material conditions of scarcity. Though it is impossible to say what a revised version of The Second Sex would look like, The Coming of Age gives us some idea of how it might read. There is no talk here of the aged. Reminding us that old age is our universal destiny, Beauvoir tells us that its lived meaning is specific to our historical, class and cultural situations. Where The Second Sex identifies the ways that the myth of woman hides the diversity of women and does not seem to see that the single category of the inessential Other may not capture the diverse meanings of women&rsquos situations, The Coming of Age keeps making the point that if we speak of old age as a universal category we will miss the crucial differences among the aged that the myths and images of aging hide.

Comparing the status of the aged to that of women as woman, Beauvoir notes that both occupy the position of the Other and that as Other both are subject to the powers of mythical, exploitive biologies. Though The Coming of Age pays closer attention to the diversity behind the unifying myths and works with a somewhat different conception of otherness, it sounds remarkably similar to The Second Sex as it traces the sources of the marginal status of the aged. While The Second Sex accused patriarchy of depriving women of their subject status by barring them from the project and devaluating the fleshed experience of the erotic, The Coming of Age argues that the non-subject status of the aged can be traced to the fact that they are barred from their projects and their erotic possibilities. &ldquoThe old man&rdquo, Beauvoir writes, &ldquolooks to active members of the community like one of a &lsquodifferent species&rsquo&rdquo because he is not engaged in a project (1972[1970], 217, cf. 1970, 231).

Like The Second Sex, which attended to the givens of biology without allowing them to determine the meaning of the subject, The Coming of Age also gives biology its due. The lack of engagement of the aged, Beauvoir notes, is in part imposed from without and in part comes from within for as we age, the body is transformed from an instrument that engages the world into a hindrance that makes our access to the world difficult. The point of The Coming of Age, however, is that it is unjust to use these difficulties to justify reducing the aged to the status of the Other. Adieux&rsquos witnessing makes this point clearly. However diminished Sartre&rsquos body became, it never severed him from his projects. He could not have sustained his work by himself, but he was in a situation where others refused to marginalize him. They did not equate his diminished bodily capacities with a diminished humanity. The Coming of Age argues that the situation of a privileged Sartre ought to be our common destiny.

In a world which recognized the phenomenological truth of the body, the existential truth of freedom, the Marxist truth of exploitation and the human truth of the bond, the derogatory category of the Other would be eradicated. Neither the aged nor women, nor anyone by virtue of their race, class, ethnicity or religion would find themselves rendered inessential. Beauvoir knows that it is too much to hope for such a world. She understands the lures of domination and violence. Throughout her career, however, she used philosophical and literary tools to reveal the possibilities of such a world and appealed to us to work for it.

Watch the video: Battle of Heraclea 280 BC - Pyrrhic Wars DOCUMENTARY (August 2022).