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Recreation of Pompeii

Recreation of Pompeii



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Mount Vesuvius erupts

On August 24, after centuries of dormancy, Mount Vesuvius erupts in southern Italy, devastating the prosperous Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing thousands. The cities, buried under a thick layer of volcanic material and mud, were never rebuilt and largely forgotten in the course of history. In the 18th century, Pompeii and Herculaneum were rediscovered and excavated, providing an unprecedented archaeological record of the everyday life of an ancient civilization, startlingly preserved in sudden death.

The ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum thrived near the base of Mount Vesuvius at the Bay of Naples. In the time of the early Roman Empire, 20,000 people lived in Pompeii, including merchants, manufacturers, and farmers who exploited the rich soil of the region with numerous vineyards and orchards. None suspected that the black fertile earth was the legacy of earlier eruptions of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum was a city of 5,000 and a favorite summer destination for rich Romans. Named for the mythic hero Hercules, Herculaneum housed opulent villas and grand Roman baths. Gambling artifacts found in Herculaneum and a brothel unearthed in Pompeii attest to the decadent nature of the cities. There were smaller resort communities in the area as well, such as the quiet little town of Stabiae.

At noon on August 24, 79 A.D., this pleasure and prosperity came to an end when the peak of Mount Vesuvius exploded, propelling a 10-mile mushroom cloud of ash and pumice into the stratosphere. For the next 12 hours, volcanic ash and a hail of pumice stones up to 3 inches in diameter showered Pompeii, forcing the city’s occupants to flee in terror. Some 2,000 people stayed in Pompeii, holed up in cellars or stone structures, hoping to wait out the eruption.

A westerly wind protected Herculaneum from the initial stage of the eruption, but then a giant cloud of hot ash and gas surged down the western flank of Vesuvius, engulfing the city and burning or asphyxiating all who remained. This lethal cloud was followed by a flood of volcanic mud and rock, burying the city.

The people who remained in Pompeii were killed on the morning of August 25 when a cloud of toxic gas poured into the city, suffocating all that remained. A flow of rock and ash followed, collapsing roofs and walls and burying the dead.

Much of what we know about the eruption comes from an account by Pliny the Younger, who was staying west along the Bay of Naples when Vesuvius exploded. In two letters to the historian Tacitus, he told of how “people covered their heads with pillows, the only defense against a shower of stones,” and of how 𠇊 dark and horrible cloud charged with combustible matter suddenly broke and set forth. Some bewailed their own fate. Others prayed to die.” Pliny, only 17 at the time, escaped the catastrophe and later became a noted Roman writer and administrator. His uncle, Pliny the Elder, was less lucky. Pliny the Elder, a celebrated naturalist, at the time of the eruption was the commander of the Roman fleet in the Bay of Naples. After Vesuvius exploded, he took his boats across the bay to Stabiae, to investigate the eruption and reassure terrified citizens. After going ashore, he was overcome by toxic gas and died.

According to Pliny the Younger’s account, the eruption lasted 18 hours. Pompeii was buried under 14 to 17 feet of ash and pumice, and the nearby seacoast was drastically changed. Herculaneum was buried under more than 60 feet of mud and volcanic material. Some residents of Pompeii later returned to dig out their destroyed homes and salvage their valuables, but many treasures were left and then forgotten.


Studies reveal gruesome last moments of Pompeii volcano’s victims

Most of the Roman occupants of Herculaneum were doomed the moment Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 C.E. Within hours, a cloud of hot volcanic ash swept down the side of the famous Italian volcano, raced over the countryside, and smothered the town, along with nearby Pompeii. Hundreds died. Two new studies reveal, in gruesome detail, what happened to their bodies when the hot ash arrived.

Excavations of Herculaneum in the 1980s and ’90s uncovered the remains of more than 300 people killed by the volcano, mostly in a dozen stone structures next to the town’s beach where boats were stored. Perhaps, says biological anthropologist Tim Thompson at Teesside University, people gathered near these vaults in the ultimately futile hope they could launch boats into the Bay of Naples and escape.

The individuals in the boat houses died relatively quickly: The volcanic ash blocked the entrance to each structure, and the temperature of the air within probably rose to about 400°C—even hotter than a wood-fired oven.

At nearby Pompeii, archaeologists have found bodies preserved as eerie 3D casts that in some cases even reveal people’s final facial expressions. But at Herculaneum, just skeletons remain. Because of this, researchers had thought that immediately after death, the hot ash caused body fluids and tissue to vaporize rapidly, exposing the skeleton to direct burning.

But one new study contradicts that idea. Thompson and his colleagues analyzed rib samples from more than 150 skeletons in the Herculaneum boat houses. Surprisingly, the bones still contained high levels of collagen, a protein that breaks down relatively readily when bones are burned. So it was unlikely that these bones experienced much or even any burning. “That forced us to have another think, to re-evaluate how these individuals died,” Thompson says.

He and colleagues speculate that the people trapped inside the boat houses did indeed die quickly, either from heat exposure or suffocation. Afterward, their bodies began to cook. Skin and muscles swelled, driving moisture from soft tissue inward toward the bone. As the team argues today in Antiquity , this would have baked the skeleton without burning it.

It may seem that making such a distinction is of only ghoulish interest, but Thompson says there is real value in understanding the ways in which bodies respond to heat. Doing so could, for instance, provide new information for forensic scientists attempting to identify bodies in the aftermath of a modern volcanic disaster.

A fragment of glassy residue found inside one human skull, which may be the remains of the brain

Bioarchaeologist Christopher Schmidt at the University of Indianapolis agrees with Thompson’s conclusions. He has also examined Herculaneum skeletons in the past. “I was surprised how good a condition they were in,” he says. “I expected most of the bones to be really charred and in bad shape. But most show really limited signs of thermal alteration.”

Pierpaolo Petrone, a physical and forensic anthropologist at the University of Naples Federico II, has advocated the vaporization idea. But he says he never meant the term to imply the stripping away of flesh within seconds. A body would need at least 20 minutes of exposure to hot volcanic ash to be reduced to a skeleton, he says—and potentially far longer in cases where people are huddled together as they were in the boat houses. In those situations, the effects of the heat may well have been less severe, he says.

But Petrone argues that some bodies elsewhere at Herculaneum do show signs of dramatic thermal trauma. Over the years, he has noticed that a few of the remains he has helped excavate at the site have skulls showing starlike patterns of fractures radiating from a central point. He concludes the fractures are evidence that, after death, these skulls “exploded” in response to the heat from the volcanic ash, as the brains inside boiled and pressure built up within the skull.

Inside one such skull, Petrone and colleagues have now discovered a glassy black substance that contains chemical signatures of enzymes that are expressed in the human brain. He thinks the black substance is the gloopy residue of the person’s molten brain, solidified into a tough “glass” after cooling. This may then have been protected from decay by the volcanic ash that entombed the body.

“I never saw [anything like this] before in 25 years of excavation and study of this site: It’s astonishing,” says Petrone, who, with colleagues, describes the black substance today in The New England Journal of Medicine .

Thompson agrees: “It’s a great find and the analysis seems really thorough.” It’s possible that the two studies are compatible, he says. His analysis focused on a group of individuals huddled together in stone boat houses, whereas Petrone’s individual was buried alone, apparently as they lay on a wooden bed in a building in Herculaneum that was built from volcanic rock and bricks. “[Petrone’s individual] possibly experienced the heat more directly,” Thompson says.

But Schmidt would like more time to digest Petrone’s ideas. “I don’t want to be critical. If nothing else these are new ideas we can think about,” he says. “But I have colleagues who watch videos of commercial cremations, where the temperatures are [hundreds of degrees Celsius] above what was experienced at Herculaneum—and heads don’t explode.”


Fresco showing a woman so-called Sappho holding writing implements, from Pompeii, Naples

Occupations that were available to freeborn women consisted of the work of weavers, laundresses, midwives, vegetable sellers, butchers, doctors, fullery workers and fish-sellers. One inscription in Pompeii mentions occupations such as a �n-dealer, nail-seller, brick-marker, even stonecutter”. A few women would create a business partnership with their husband and would normally take over the business if the husband were to pass away. A painting in the shop of M. Vesuvius Verecundus (a manufacturer of cloth and felt) shows his wife sitting at the counter while a young man chooses a pair of slippers from the shelves.

Even though the occupation of weaving was dominated by males in factories, some women were able to work independently in their households making and mending clothes. However, these women would earn minimal money, while having a low status within society. The highest paying occupation for both freedwomen and slaves was spinning wool. Those who specialised in this were called �sket-women’. Women could also enjoy economic emancipation Pliny the Younger mentions his friend Ummidia Quadratilla (an old lively lady), who was rich enough to own a private company of entertainers for herself.


Lava Bombs and Tsunamis! How Accurate Is 'Pompeii' Movie?

As flaming balls of lava and ash rain down on the streets of Pompeii, the renegade gladiator Milo gallops on horseback after a chariot ridden by his beloved Cassia, who has been kidnapped by an evil Roman senator. Meanwhile, a massive tsunami floods the harbor, sending a ship careering through the city's streets.

The new 3D "Pompeii" movie, in theaters tomorrow (Feb. 21), provides a front-row seat to one of the worst catastrophes in history: the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79, which entombed the city and its residents in mammoth mounds of volcanic ash.

Excepting the lava bombs and titanic tsunami raging in Pompeii's harbor, the dramatic depiction of the historic and horrific disaster stays relatively true to reality, scientists say. In fact, laser technology and aerial photos (digitally enhanced) ensured an impressive recreation of the city of Pompeii, from the lavish villas down to the paving stones. [See Clip from POMPEII Movie]

The film, produced by TriStar Pictures, tells the fictional story of a slave-turned-gladiator named Milo (played by Kit Harington) who falls in love with the daughter of a wealthy merchant, Cassia (Emily Browning), and their struggle to escape a villainous Roman senator (Kiefer Sutherland) amid the devastation of Pompeii.

"Obviously, it's a movie, not a documentary," said the movie's director Paul Anderson, "but the story of Pompeii is so remarkable you don't need to embellish it."

Eruption of Vesuvius

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius buried Pompeii, Herculaneum and other surrounding cities in 13 to 20 feet (4 to 6 meters) of volcanic ash. Pliny the Younger witnessed the eruption from across the Bay of Naples, and recorded the destruction in a letter.

The movie's depiction of the eruption, loosely based on Pliny's description and artifacts collected from the site, realistically captured the earthquakes that preceded the eruption, the explosions and the pyroclastic flows of hot ash and gas that buried the city and its residents, according to Rosaly Lopes, a volcanologist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. (Lopes was not a consultant on the film.)

The filmmakers captured the sequence of events &mdash earthquakes, followed by explosions, and then ash flows &mdash quite well, Lopes told Live Science. "It wasn't like suddenly it went bang and then they died," she said. [The 10 Biggest Earthquakes in History]

Although records suggest many people escaped before the city was destroyed, most of those who died were probably killed by heat shock from the pyroclastic flows, Lopes said. The flows entombed bodies, which later decomposed and left behind casts. When archaeologists excavated Pompeii, they filled these casts with plaster to produce the famous molds of people frozen in their dying poses.

The characters in the movie are based on some of these plaster casts. The lovers in the film are based on a cast of two people embracing (though in reality, the pair may have been embracing in terror rather than love), and the character of an African gladiator was based on a cast of a large man who may have been from North Africa.

But Anderson definitely took some artistic license. The film depicts lava bombs raining down on the city, but "that type of eruption didn't have lava bombs," Lopes said. If it had, the damage the bombs would have caused to the city would be evident.

The movie also depicts a giant tsunami surging into Pompeii's harbor, carrying a ship through the streets on a torrent of water. Studies suggest there may have been a small tsunami, Lopes said, but there is no evidence it was powerful enough to bring ships into the city.

City of Pompeii

The film's depiction of the city of Pompeii was fairly impressive, according to Sarah Yeomans, an archaeologist at USC who has spent much of her life studying the city (but was not a consultant on the film). As the film showed, Pompeii was a resort town for the Roman elite, and gladiator games were a big part of life.

The filmmakers used lidar, a laser remote-sensing technique, to re-create the city's topography on the set. The aerial shots of Pompeii in the movie were real helicopter shots with computer graphics projected over them, Anderson told Live Science.

The buildings, streets and items in the market were based on real ones preserved in the ash, while the characters' costumes were based on paintings and mosaics of real people.

"I thought Anderson did a pretty good job approximating what the city may have looked like," Yeomans told Live Science, praising the attention to details such as the raised paving stones in the streets and the political graffiti on the buildings. The amphitheater where the film's gladiator scenes take place was also well done, she said.

The film departed from historical record in its depiction of women, however. "Upper-class women would not have been roaming around the streets on their own, and would certainly not have been involved in political activities," Yeomans said &mdash "nor would they have had bare arms and slits up their dresses."

However, the film reasonably depicted the tensions between citizens of Pompeii and the Roman government, she said. Rome annexed Pompeii in the first century B.C., and written accounts suggest that tensions persisted around the time of the eruption.

Another Pompeii?

If Anderson has a message for audiences, it's that an event like Pompeii could happen again.

Anderson believes the film has relevance to a contemporary audience. "It speaks very much to the hubris of the human condition," he said.

Eruptions like the one that buried Pompeii have occurred throughout history, such as the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa or the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Mount Vesuvius erupted again in 1631, killing at least 3,000 people, and today, more than a million people live in the vicinity of the volcano.

Although the movie is fictional, it humanizes the disaster in a way that historical accounts don't, Yeomans said. "When you let yourself watch the movie, you make the human connection that these were real people in a real tragedy."


Exploring the Art and Architecture of Ancient Pompeii

Pompeii, situated in southern Italy, is well known for the vicious eruption of Mount Vesuvius on the 29th August 70 A.D. The eruption led to the entirety of the city being buried beneath a 6 metre thick layer of volcanic ash that solidified and preserved everything that lay beneath for 17 long centuries. Today, archaeologists, architects and even artists are being inspired by ancient Rome anew.

Since being discovered by excavators in 1748, Pompeii has captured popular imagination. Today it is one of the most popular and intriguing excavation sites in the world tourists from across the globe travel to this site to witness the ancient ruins of a Roman city that once flourished and bustled with life.However Pompeii attracts intrigued visitors for something even more unusual than its 2000 year old history, caught forever in ash.

The remains of ancient Pompeii have given us an exceptional understanding of the life of ancient Romans. There are many cultural aspects of Roman lives that we have adapted for our own modern way of living, and the discovery of Pompeii has deepened our understanding of our connection to the art and culture of the Bay of Naples.

There is much evidence of the grand scale of art and magnificent architecture that once existed in the city as some of its ruins still remain today, such as the Arch of Caligula, as well as buildings of great political social and commercial significance, including as the Forum that once stood central in this city.

Pompeii and many other Roman cities also owned a different genre of grand buildings. The primary purposes of such buildings were to provide entertainment for the Romans who belonged to a society that craved excitement and thrived from thrilling entertainment experiences. Buildings known as amphitheatres were built exactly for the purpose of entertaining a grand Roman audience.

Today, modern architects favour the Ancient Roman design of the amphitheatre a circular shape with tiered seating situated around a central performance area, the original amphitheatre design is used today with only slight adjustments. However, the performance that take place in modern amphitheatres are somewhat different from Roman favourites such as gladiator fighting, animal slaying and public executions.

As Pompeii was uncovered by excavators it became clear that this city was once steeped with rich art and culture. Most noteworthy are the magnificent villas and houses that attract many of Pompeii’s tourists. These buildings are unique in the way that they are so well preserved that even artwork can still be seen clearly on many of the walls of such buildings. These findings accurately reflect the lifestyle of many Romans that would choose to vacate to this area of Naples during the spring and summer months in the hope of escaping from the pressures of everyday working life. Even famous emperors such as Augustus, Caesar and Nero all took a liking to this area of Italy.

The most famous of all the houses in Pompeii is the Villa of Mysteries (Villa dei Misteri). One particular room situated within the villa exhibits many paintings of great beauty and oddness. Though nobody is exactly certain as to what these strange paintings represent, interpretations have led to the belief that these paintings depict a religious rite. As well as the theme of religion, another theme that was commonly found during the excavations around the bay of Naples is the eroticism in art. Even household items that were uncovered during excavations belonged to this nature.

Romans favoured outdoor living, and for this reason much of the artwork that was uncovered in Pompeii actually has been found on outside walls of buildings. A popular style of painting that existed during this time was the fresco, large paintings that often covered entire walls to give the illusion of an extensive garden area. We know these frescos today as murals, and the idea of covering an entire wall with an image still remains popular in modern society.

Frescos proved to be a popular genre of Pompeiian art and were also used on the interior walls of houses to reduce the claustrophobic interior that was often triggered by the absence of windows. Architects, artists and potters have taken much inspiration from the art of Pompeii: the neoclassicism style itself is said to be mostly inspired by the excavations and rediscovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, the aesthetic values of neoclassical paintings are almost indistinguishable from the frescos found in Pompeii and Herculaneum. This interest in classical art continued from the 18th century right through to early 19th century due to the rediscovery of the beautiful art and architecture in Pompeii.

Pompeii may be best known for its destruction rather than its creativity but, perhaps surprisingly, the art and culture of the Roman city continues to influence us today. Whether in the form of neoclassicism, eroticism or grandiose architecture, Pompeii remains a tangible force in modern life, even from a distance of 2000 years.


Ancient catastrophe brought to life: How accurate Is Hollywood's "Pompeii"?

As flaming balls of lava and ash rain down on the streets of Pompeii, the renegade gladiator Milo gallops on horseback after a chariot ridden by his beloved Cassia, who has been kidnapped by an evil Roman senator. Meanwhile, a massive tsunami floods the harbor, sending a ship careering through the city's streets.

The new 3D "Pompeii" movie, in theaters Friday, Feb. 21, provides a front-row seat to one of the worst catastrophes in history: the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79, which entombed the city and its residents in mammoth mounds of volcanic ash.

Excepting the lava bombs and titanic tsunami raging in Pompeii's harbor, the dramatic depiction of the historic and horrific disaster stays relatively true to reality, scientists say. In fact, laser technology and aerial photos (digitally enhanced) ensured an impressive recreation of the city of Pompeii, from the lavish villas down to the paving stones.

The film, produced by TriStar Pictures, tells the fictional story of a slave-turned-gladiator named Milo (played by Kit Harington) who falls in love with the daughter of a wealthy merchant, Cassia (Emily Browning), and their struggle to escape a villainous Roman senator (Kiefer Sutherland) amid the devastation of Pompeii.

"Obviously, it's a movie, not a documentary," said the movie's director Paul Anderson, "but the story of Pompeii is so remarkable you don't need to embellish it."

Eruption of Vesuvius

Trending News

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius buried Pompeii, Herculaneum and other surrounding cities in 13 to 20 feet (4 to 6 meters) of volcanic ash. Pliny the Younger witnessed the eruption from across the Bay of Naples, and recorded the destruction in a letter.

The movie's depiction of the eruption, loosely based on Pliny's description and artifacts collected from the site, realistically captured the earthquakes that preceded the eruption, the explosions and the pyroclastic flows of hot ash and gas that buried the city and its residents, according to Rosaly Lopes, a volcanologist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. (Lopes was not a consultant on the film.)

The filmmakers captured the sequence of events &mdash earthquakes, followed by explosions, and then ash flows &mdash quite well, Lopes told Live Science. "It wasn't like suddenly it went bang and then they died," she said. [The 10 Biggest Earthquakes in History]

Although records suggest many people escaped before the city was destroyed, most of those who died were probably killed by heat shock from the pyroclastic flows, Lopes said. The flows entombed bodies, which later decomposed and left behind casts. When archaeologists excavated Pompeii, they filled these casts with plaster to produce the famous molds of people frozen in their dying poses.

The characters in the movie are based on some of these plaster casts. The lovers in the film are based on a cast of two people embracing (though in reality, the pair may have been embracing in terror rather than love), and the character of an African gladiator was based on a cast of a large man who may have been from North Africa.

But Anderson definitely took some artistic license. The film depicts lava bombs raining down on the city, but "that type of eruption didn't have lava bombs," Lopes said. If it had, the damage the bombs would have caused to the city would be evident.

The movie also depicts a giant tsunami surging into Pompeii's harbor, carrying a ship through the streets on a torrent of water. Studies suggest there may have been a small tsunami, Lopes said, but there is no evidence it was powerful enough to bring ships into the city.

City of Pompeii

The film's depiction of the city of Pompeii was fairly impressive, according to Sarah Yeomans, an archaeologist at USC who has spent much of her life studying the city (but was not a consultant on the film). As the film showed, Pompeii was a resort town for the Roman elite, and gladiator games were a big part of life.

The filmmakers used lidar, a laser remote-sensing technique, to re-create the city's topography on the set. The aerial shots of Pompeii in the movie were real helicopter shots with computer graphics projected over them, Anderson told Live Science.

The buildings, streets and items in the market were based on real ones preserved in the ash, while the characters' costumes were based on paintings and mosaics of real people.

"I thought Anderson did a pretty good job approximating what the city may have looked like," Yeomans told Live Science, praising the attention to details such as the raised paving stones in the streets and the political graffiti on the buildings. The amphitheater where the film's gladiator scenes take place was also well done, she said.

The film departed from historical record in its depiction of women, however. "Upper-class women would not have been roaming around the streets on their own, and would certainly not have been involved in political activities," Yeomans said &mdash "nor would they have had bare arms and slits up their dresses."

However, the film reasonably depicted the tensions between citizens of Pompeii and the Roman government, she said. Rome annexed Pompeii in the first century B.C., and written accounts suggest that tensions persisted around the time of the eruption.

Another Pompeii?

If Anderson has a message for audiences, it's that an event like Pompeii could happen again.

Anderson believes the film has relevance to a contemporary audience. "It speaks very much to the hubris of the human condition," he said.

Eruptions like the one that buried Pompeii have occurred throughout history, such as the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa or the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Mount Vesuvius erupted again in 1631, killing at least 3,000 people, and today, more than a million people live in the vicinity of the volcano.

Although the movie is fictional, it humanizes the disaster in a way that historical accounts don't, Yeomans said. "When you let yourself watch the movie, you make the human connection that these were real people in a real tragedy."


The term recreation appears to have been used in English first in the late 14th century, first in the sense of "refreshment or curing of a sick person", [3] and derived turn from Latin (re: "again", creare: "to create, bring forth, beget").

Prerequisites to leisure Edit

Humans spend their time in activities of daily living, work, sleep, social duties and leisure, the latter time being free from prior commitments to physiologic or social needs, [4] a prerequisite of recreation. Leisure has increased with increased longevity and, for many, with decreased hours spent for physical and economic survival, yet others argue that time pressure has increased for modern people, as they are committed to too many tasks. [5] Other factors that account for an increased role of recreation are affluence, population trends, and increased commercialization of recreational offerings. [6] While one perception is that leisure is just "spare time", time not consumed by the necessities of living, another holds that leisure is a force that allows individuals to consider and reflect on the values and realities that are missed in the activities of daily life, thus being an essential element of personal development and civilization. [1] This direction of thought has even been extended to the view that leisure is the purpose of work, and a reward in itself, [1] and "leisure life" reflects the values and character of a nation. [6] Leisure is considered a human right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. [7]

Play, recreation and work Edit

Recreation is difficult to separate from the general concept of play, which is usually the term for children's recreational activity. Children may playfully imitate activities that reflect the realities of adult life. It has been proposed that play or recreational activities are outlets of or expression of excess energy, channeling it into socially acceptable activities that fulfill individual as well as societal needs, without need for compulsion, and providing satisfaction and pleasure for the participant. [8] A traditional view holds that work is supported by recreation, recreation being useful to "recharge the battery" so that work performance is improved.

Work, an activity generally performed out of economic necessity and useful for society and organized within the economic framework, however can also be pleasurable and may be self-imposed thus blurring the distinction to recreation. Many activities in entertainment are work for one person and recreation for another. Over time, a recreational activity may become work, and vice versa. Thus, for a musician, playing an instrument may be at one time a profession, and at another a recreation.

Similarly, it may be difficult to separate education from recreation as in the case of recreational mathematics. [9]

Health and recreation Edit

Recreation has many health benefits, and, accordingly, Therapeutic Recreation has been developed to take advantage of this effect. The National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification (NCTRC) is the nationally recognized credentialing organization for the profession of Therapeutic Recreation. Professionals in the field of Therapeutic Recreation who are certified by the NCTRC are called "Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists". The job title "Recreation Therapist" is identified in the U.S. Dept of Labor's Occupation Outlook. Such therapy is applied in rehabilitation, psychiatric facilities for youth and adults, and in the care of the elderly, the disabled, or people with chronic diseases. Recreational physical activity is important to reduce obesity, and the risk of osteoporosis [10] and of cancer, most significantly in men that of colon and prostate, [11] and in women that of the breast [12] however, not all malignancies are reduced as outdoor recreation has been linked to a higher risk of melanoma. [11] Extreme adventure recreation naturally carries its own hazards.

Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped naturally by individual interests but also by the surrounding social construction. [2] Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, and useful for society or detrimental.Some recreational activities – such as gambling, recreational drug use, or delinquent activities – may violate societal norms and laws. A list of typical activities could be almost endless

Hobby Edit

A significant section of recreational activities are designated as hobbies which are activities done for pleasure on a regular basis. A hobby is considered to be a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time, not professionally and not for pay. Hobbies include collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or pursuing other amusements. Participation in hobbies encourages acquiring substantial skills and knowledge in that area. A list of hobbies changes with renewed interests and developing fashions, making it diverse and lengthy. Hobbies tend to follow trends in society, for example stamp collecting was popular during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as postal systems were the main means of communication, while video games are more popular nowadays following technological advances. The advancing production and technology of the nineteenth century provided workers with more availability in leisure time to engage in hobbies. Because of this, the efforts of people investing in hobbies has increased with time.

Bricolage Edit

Bricolage and DIY are some of the terms describing the building, modifying, or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals. Academic research has described DIY as behaviors where "individuals engage raw and semi-raw materials and parts to produce, transform, or reconstruct material possessions, including those drawn from the natural environment (e.g., landscaping)". [13] DIY behavior can be triggered by various motivations previously categorized as marketplace motivations (economic benefits, lack of product availability, lack of product quality, need for customization), and identity enhancement (craftsmanship, empowerment, community seeking, uniqueness). [14] They could involve crafts that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. Typical interests enjoyed by the maker culture include engineering-oriented pursuits such as home improvement, electronics, robotics, 3-D printing, and the use of Computer Numeric Control tools, as well as more traditional activities such as metalworking, woodworking, and, mainly, its predecessor, traditional arts and crafts. The subculture stresses a cut-and-paste approach to standardized hobbyist technologies, and encourages cookbook re-use of designs published on websites and maker-oriented publications. [15] [16] There is a strong focus on using and learning practical skills and applying them to reference designs. [17] There is also growing work on equity and the maker culture.

Games Edit

Any structured form of play could become a game. Games are played sometimes purely for recreation, sometimes for achievement or monetary rewards as well. They are played for recreation alone, in teams, or online by amateurs. Professionals can play as part of their work for entertainment of the audience. The games could be board games, puzzles, computer or video games.

Outdoor recreation Edit

Recreation engaged in out of doors, most commonly in natural settings. The activities themselves — such as fishing, hunting, backpacking, and horseback riding — characteristically dependent on the environment practiced in. While many of these activities can be classified as sports, they do not all demand that a participant be an athlete. Competition generally is less stressed than in individual or team sports organized into opposing squads in pursuit of a trophy or championship. When the activity involves exceptional excitement, physical challenge, or risk, it is sometimes referred to as "adventure recreation" or "adventure training", rather than an extreme sport.

Other traditional examples of outdoor recreational activities include hiking, camping, mountaineering, cycling, canoeing, caving, kayaking, rafting, rock climbing, running, sailing, skiing, sky diving and surfing. As new pursuits, often hybrids of prior ones, emerge, they gain their own identities, such as coasteering, canyoning, fastpacking, and plogging.

Performing arts Edit

Dance Edit

Participatory dance whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, circle, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken primarily for a common purpose, such as entertainment, social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers. The many forms of dance provide recreation for all age groups and cultures.

Music Creation Edit

Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from recreation, religious or ceremonial purposes, or for entertainment. When music was only available through sheet music scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras in Europe, music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite pieces and songs so that they could perform them at home on their instruments.

Visual arts Edit

Woodworking, photography, moviemaking, jewelry making, software projects such as Photoshopping and home music or video production, making bracelets, artistic projects such as drawing, painting, Cosplay (design, creation, and wearing a costume based on an already existing creative property), creating models out of card stock or paper – called papercraft fall under the category visual arts. many of these are practised for recreation.

Drawing Edit

Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus, often depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases, initially geometric, later developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. [18]

With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. [19]

Literature Edit

Writing may involve letters, journals and weblogs. In the US, about half of all adults read one or more books for pleasure each year. [20] About 5% read more than 50 books per year. [20]

Painting Edit

Like drawing, painting has its documented origins in caves and on rock faces. The finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown, yellow and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle, horses and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, Nefertari, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis. [21] Greek and Roman art like the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits and Battle of Issus at Pompeii contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Models of aeroplanes, boats, cars, tanks, artillery, and even figures of soldiers and superheroes are popular subjects to build, paint and display.

Photography Edit

An amateur photographer practices photography as a hobby/passion and not for monetary profit. The quality of some amateur work may be highly specialized or eclectic in choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the Hand-held camera. [22] Nowadays it has spread widely through social media and is carried out throughout different platforms and equipment, including the use of cell phone. Clear pictures can now be taken with a cell phone which is a key tool for making photography more accessible to everyone.

Many recreational activities are organized, typically by public institutions, voluntary group-work agencies, private groups supported by membership fees, and commercial enterprises. [23] Examples of each of these are the National Park Service, the YMCA, the Kiwanis, and Walt Disney World. Public space such as parks and beaches are essential venues for many recreational activities and Tourism has recognized that many visitors are specifically attracted by recreational offerings. [24] In particular, beach and waterfront promenades such as the beach area of Venice Beach in California, the Promenade de la Croisette in Cannes, the Promenade des Anglais in Nice or the lungomare of Barcola with Miramare Castle in Trieste are important recreational areas for the city population on the one hand and on the other also important tourist destinations with all advantages and disadvantages for the locals.

In support of recreational activities government has taken an important role in their creation, maintenance, and organization, and whole industries have developed merchandise or services. Recreation-related business is an important factor in the economy it has been estimated that the outdoor recreation sector alone contributes $730 billion annually to the U.S. economy and generates 6.5 million jobs. [25]

Recreation center Edit

A recreation center is a place for recreational activities usually administered by a municipal government agency. Swimming, basketball, weightlifting, volleyball and kids' play areas are very common. [26] [27]

Recreation as a career Edit

A recreation specialist would be expected to meet the recreational needs of a community or assigned interest group. Educational institutions offer courses that lead to a degree as a Bachelor of Arts in recreation management. People with such degrees often work in parks and recreation centers in towns, on community projects and activities. Networking with instructors, budgeting, and evaluation of continuing programs are common job duties.

In the United States, most states have a professional organization for continuing education and certification in recreation management. The National Recreation and Park Association administers a certification program called the CPRP (Certified Park and Recreation Professional) [28] that is considered a national standard for professional recreation specialist practices.

E-commerce Edit

Since the beginning of the 2000s, there are more and more online booking / ticketing platforms for recreational activities that emerged. Many of them leveraged the ever-growing prevalence of internet, mobile devices and e-payments to build comprehensive online booking solutions. The first successful batch includes tourist recreation activities platform like TripAdvisor that went public. The emergence of these platforms infers the rising needs for recreation and entertainment from the growing urban citizens worldwide.


Exhibition: Life and death in Pompeii and Herculaneum

The monumental importance of the exhibition Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum lies not least in the staggering number of people it has reached. It can safely be called a blockbuster, having attained its visitor goal for the six-month duration of the show – a quarter million visitors – after only three months.(1) At present the exhibition website warns ‘Advance booking essential’, echoing a ticket calendar sold out over a month in advance. Such a hungry public does not simply exist, of course, regardless of Pompeii’s familiarity or even relative popularity among potential museumgoers such enthusiasm must be made, and is usually hard-won. Herein then the nub that makes this Pompeii show different from numerous others over recent years. While the physical display is indeed spectacular, recreating a Roman house with all the trimmings, this accounts only partially for its wild success. Of greater significance is the canny use of current technologies to allow curious viewers to share, like, tweet, and download various components of the exhibition, encouraging them to engage with the material and spread their enthusiasm as never before. These media extend the show outside the museum walls, as well as enhancing it inside, where they transform the usual gallery experience of encountering tangible objects. In achieving such a sophisticated, effective blend of the digital and the physical, curator Paul Roberts, the British Museum, and the cooperating Italian organizations have done an immensely good turn for the ancient world and its ongoing resonance in the modern one.

Precisely this connection between ancient and modern life in fact underlies the whole exhibition. The curators (Roberts with Assistant Curator Vanessa Baldwin) emphasize ‘day-to-day existence, common practice’ in the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, using this very mundanity to make a bygone world more familiar to inhabitants of the present one. Questions as to the appropriateness and hazards of such a tactic are debated among scholars of classical studies, and are briefly revisited below but it should be said outright (and here I betray my own sympathies) that empathy and familiarity are powerful tools. In this show they are eloquently deployed from the very first display case. Here an ensemble of three objects introduces the visitor to the themes both explicit (‘daily life’ and the titular ‘life and death’) and implicit (ancient life as a mirror for modern): a painting of a couple reclining and drinking, a curving wooden table like that in the painting, and the emblematic plaster cast of a dog who died struggling at his tether. Immediately the viewer is invited to empathize with the human agency behind these things: the portrait of delicious leisure, the pitiable pup, and the uncannily familiar table – ‘it looks like something you could buy off Ikea today’, as Baldwin commented.(2) These objects stand for towns which, because of ‘their very ordinariness,’ reveal a world that ancient scholarly texts (Cicero) and feats of engineering (the Pantheon) cannot.

This apt observation (and the examples) is presented in a video which embodies the exhibition’s marriage of scholarly integrity and popular appeal. It appears on a large screen early in the sequence of rooms, making itself known as the strongly recommended introduction to the galleries to follow. Instead of the dark tone of the promotional video, or the violent pseudo-eruption effects used in other Pompeii exhibition videos, this video rather engages the viewer by energetic ‘kinetic typography’. Pioneered by Hitchcockian movie titles and long popular on YouTube, this text-based art form here shows what it can do in an educational venue – and triumphs. Words are represented on-screen in a font, colour, texture, and most importantly motion that underscores their meaning kinetic typography is the perfect coincidence of verbal and visual communication. In this video, then, we learn about ‘pyroclastic surges’ by seeing these two words slide down an invisible undulating slope. The ‘VOIDS that would become moulds’ for plaster body casts are figured forth in white block letters that gradually fill up with plaster-like granulation. The city walls of Pompeii that ‘INITIALLY’ held back the ‘flows of hot gas and rock’ are conjured by the vertical disposition of the first word, while the landslide of those following tumbles against the word-cum-barrier. Carbonized ‘WOOD, LEATHER, [and] FOOD’ preserved by the eruption each take on the texture of their referent. This video is a brilliant example of how kinetic text can be harnessed for pedagogy: its novelty, showiness, and just plain fun mask what is in fact a valuable learning experience.

The multimedia presentation does not stop there. Leaving the video room, the visitor is thrust fully into the ancient world: walls and even ceilings are erected to recreate the space of a Roman house. Painted wooden panels hung on the walls imitate Third-Style fresco decor. Four massive columns define a typical Corinthian-style atrium, while engaged half-columns line the garden space. Recessed display cases rather than freestanding ones help preserve the illusion of a real house. A carefully coordinated sightline runs from the front door to the back garden, traversing the ‘beware of dog’ mosaic, the herm portrait of a homeowner, the impluvium brimming with digital water, and the marble table set with silver. It is an immersive and erudite delight. Heightening the illusion is a series of soundscapes tailored to each different space: overhead speakers in the ‘Streets and commerce’ gallery ventriloquize churning carts, laughing children, barking dogs, clanging metal, flowing water, singing birds. These last two feature also in the ‘Hortus’ as part of a more relaxing refrain. It is a brilliant move to conjure daily life through sound, a feature integral to human experience yet often overlooked.

A further set of media deployed is digital. Web content of all stripes is available to the visitor before, during, and after his actual entry into the exhibition. The British Museum blog is no new news (a medium used to good effect also by the Getty), but this is just the beginning.(3) A short video on the exhibition website follows an Italian baker tasked with recreating ancient Roman bread in the shape of the carbonized loaf on display in the galleries. The video and recipe can be downloaded or shared via Facebook and Twitter – through which the museum also broadcast a 24-hour, real-time retelling of the Vesuvian eruption ‘using an eyewitness account of the event alongside archaeological evidence’.(4) Cinema showings of a filmed tour through the exhibition continue to play in theatres across the United Kingdom, reaching an estimated 35,000 viewers, and will soon go global in over 1,000 theatres across 60 territories.(5) Finally, an app for Apple and Android devices can be downloaded either in advance or by using the free Wifi at the exhibition.(6) Offering numerous avenues for exploration, grouped into four basic sections, the app is ingeniously crafted for navigating the multifarious material. The best example is the section ‘Explore the cities,’ which offers a map of the cities marked with pins and highlights for various categories (‘Commerce’, ‘Relaxing in luxury’, ‘Food and drink’, etc.). Objects in the exhibition are linked to points on the map. A simple concept, perhaps, but this confluence of data is enough to make a professional Pompeianist swoon – precisely this tying of object to place has been sought by many at the mercy of labyrinthine Bourbon excavation records! The ability to zoom in on the objects and hear the curator and other top scholars speak about them is icing on the cake. Many of these elements are carried over to the rentable audio guide device, now reborn with a visual component: no clunky plastic brick this, but a sleek full-colour touchscreen featuring thumbnails of every object and the capacity to highlight certain details as it narrates.

All this attention to high-tech content has by no means drawn away from the print materials. The exhibition catalogue is gorgeous and glossy, replete with crystal-clear photographs shot specifically for this show – so rich in both quality and number that a separate ‘gift book’ was created in order to showcase a few more, foregoing text almost entirely in favour of ‘page after page of exquisite details’. More souvenir than reference work, the gift book is the popularizing pendant to the full-scale catalogue. This latter, for its part, manages to be a novel contribution to the abundant literature on Pompeii and Herculaneum. As a catalogue it is slightly unusual for being written entirely by a single author, and as a series of chapters without discrete object texts captions are certainly given, but full object information is wisely relegated to an appendix. A cohesive voice is thus maintained throughout, a narrative achieved that remains tied to the objects. The text is unfailingly considered and intelligent, sprinkled with endnote references to both primary and secondary sources. These latter are blissfully up-to-date, nearly all dating from 2002 and later (with the exception of seminal works from the 18th through 20th centuries, largely publications by the site directors). All these factors, combined with a comfortable, at times conversational style of writing, result in an eminently readable book – one that could usefully serve in an introductory undergraduate class.

This exhibition excels on so many levels, from both an academic and popular perspective, that my reservations about it are limited to two – and constitute musings rather than criticisms. The first concerns the place of dead bodies in museum displays. Squeamishness plays no part in my cavil instead, a sense of shyness about gratifying an attraction to the lurid. Certainly the curators intend all due respect to the deceased Pompeians, but my question remains: must we examine their throes of agony in order to value their lives? Perhaps my discomfort stems only from a misplaced sense of propriety. Indeed other exhibitions, not only about Pompeii, have similarly juxtaposed cultural history with forensics.(7) In this show, however, regardless of any personal feelings about displaying human remains, the inclusion of body casts sits uneasily because of aesthetic and thematic considerations. Until the visitor encounters these images of Death, the focus on Life reigns supreme the nearly equal titular billing does not play out in the galleries. Thus the transition is somewhat jarring.(8) A more integrated and, to my mind, successful segue was achieved by various methods in other exhibitions: Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption took the disaster as its eponymous theme, while Pompeii the Exhibit: Life and Death in the Shadow of Vesuvius (9) recreated the fire-and-brimstone event with video, surround sound, fog machine, and shaking floor before allowing the viewer to enter the galleries of casts. Although I certainly do not wish to see such dramatics become the rule for museum exhibitions, there they at least justified displaying the human remains without such a palpable disaster, the dead bodies make an incongruous coda. The strain appears too in the kinetic typography video, where the attempt to intertwine life and death leads to jumping between vivid images of modern street life and dispassionate line drawings of volcanic phases.

The second point of reflection has already been mentioned: the pedagogical method of personal identification. This tack indeed defines this exhibition, focusing on ancient lived experience in order to literally enliven the objects and thereby draw in the visitor. Some may find it unpalatable to think that we must personally identify with the Romans in order to find them and their world worthy of our attention. Highlighting commonalities between the ancient and modern worlds can also risk oversimplification and the promotion of false parallels. Yet it is worth recognizing how astonishingly eager many visitors are to relate to the Romans by drawing on their own experiences: during my visit, one visitor connected the ancient measuring devices to the tabula mensaria in the Pompeian Forum, seen on her own trip there another enthused to her companion that the objects were familiar from ‘those programs we watch’. An attentive mother read aloud to her children several captions from the famous Tavern of Salvius frescoes, laughing, ‘they’re like a cartoon strip!’ Identification and familiarity unquestionably prime the visitor’s engagement with the objects – inevitably so, an empiricist would say, since we necessarily perceive the world through the lens of our own experience. A certain egotism in that perception is therefore unavoidable. In my opinion, then, a pedagogy that conscientiously builds on this phenomenon does not cheapen or betray the material. In the end, if a 21st-century visitor discovers a personal connection to ancient Rome through an iPhone app, we cannot but revel in this bit of magic.


Conclusion

It was in the blood of a Roman to remain fit and exude unparalleled power, which was reflected in their games. Besides those mentioned above, the aristocratic Romans would also engage in obnoxious banquet habits such as consuming most exotic animals. Such gluttony was taken as a form of entertaining the visitors by the host in the vomitorium.

The activities have lent a pass time to those of the ancient era and evolved into more sophisticated versions in modern times. Running, swimming, car racing, horse riding, gambling, chess, etc., are still played today during leisure. Similarly, blood sports and the hidden interest in blood and gore can be seen in today’s horror movies and some countries’ judicial structure. We can say that everything in pop-culture is very much a part of ancient Roman culture.


Watch the video: A Day in Pompeii - Full-length animation (August 2022).