Articles

'Sub rosa' council meetings

'Sub rosa' council meetings



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Wiktionary's etymology of the term sub rosa reads:

The rose's connotation for secrecy dates back to Greek mythology. Aphrodite gave a rose to her son Eros, the god of love; he, in turn, gave it to Harpocrates, the god of silence, to ensure that his mother's indiscretions (or those of the gods in general, in other accounts) were kept under wraps. In the Middle Ages a rose suspended from the ceiling of a council chamber pledged all present - those under the rose, that is - to secrecy.

Does anybody know which part of the world the above-mentioned council chamber used to be in? I'm also interested in any other related information.


I saw one in Germany - can't remember which city. I had the impression that it was not uncommon. I've also heard this in connection with Cosa Nostra.


I wouldn't be at all surprised if the term originates from the Tudor period of Henry the VIII whose emblem of the House of Tudor was the red rose.

This excerpt from the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) does indeed point to it:

under the rose: privately, in secret, in strict confidence; = sub rosa adv. Also in extended and allusive use.

[The origin of the phrase is uncertain. Compare post-classical Latin sub rosa (see sub rosa adv.), and also early modern Dutch onder de roose (1599 in Kiliaan), Middle Low German under der rosen, early modern German unter der rose.]

Earliest known usage from OED:

1546 in State Papers Henry VIII (1852) XI. 200 The sayde questyons were asked with lysence, and that yt shulde remayn under the rosse, that is to say, to remayn under the bourde, and no more to be rehersyd.


About National Council for the Social Studies

Founded in 1921, National Council for the Social Studies is the largest professional association in the country devoted solely to social studies education. NCSS engages and supports educators in strengthening and advocating social studies. With members in all the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and 35 countries, NCSS serves as an umbrella organization for elementary, secondary, and college teachers of history, civics, geography, economics, political science, sociology, psychology, anthropology, and law-related education. The NCSS membership represents K-12 classroom teachers, college and university faculty members, curriculum designers and specialists, social studies supervisors, and leaders in the various disciplines that constitute the social studies.

Membership in National Council for the Social Studies is open to any person or institution interested in the social studies.


'Sub rosa' council meetings - History


Though the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15 and Galatians 2) was the first Church Council, attended by the Apostles, the first Ecumenical (world-wide) Council was called by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great with Pope Saint Sylvester I sitting on the Throne of Peter as the 33rd successor of Christ 's appointed Apostle. The site was the city of Nicaea, just south of Constantinople in Asia Minor. The greatest periti was the Bishop of Alexandria, Saint Athanasius who, amidst his struggles with the Arians, argued convincingly for condemning Arius and, as a deacon, St. Athanasius was at the forefront in defining the Consubstantiality of the Son with the Heavenly Father . For the full documents see NICAEA ONE

The First Council Constantinople


Fifty-six years after Nicaea, the Roman Emperor of the East Theodosius I convened the second General Council. Because of friction between the emperor who was headquartered in Constantinople and Pope Saint Damasus I , located in Rome, neither the Holy Father or his papal legates attended. Already the split between East and West was manifesting itself. 186 bishops did attend. Most notable were Doctors of the Chur Saint Gregory Nazianzen and Saint Cyril of Jerusalem , who with the Council Fathers, reaffirmed the First Council of Nicaea and defined the Consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit with the Father and the Son , thereby condeming the heresy of Macedonius . For the full documents see CONSTANTINOPLE ONE


Fifty years after the First Council of Constantinople, Theodosius' son Theodosius II ruled as emperor. He was much more inclined to hear the Church, influenced by his saintly sister Saint Pulcheria and, in harmony with Pope Saint Celestine I , a third General Council was called in Ephesus in the southern tip of Asia Minor. Over 200 bishops attended, declaring the Divine Maternity Dogma of the Blessed Virgin Mary as the Mother of God . Also, led by Saint Cyril of Alexandria , the Council defined that Christ has two natures - Divine and human , but only one Person which is Divine. This affirmation condemned Nestorianism and deposed Nestorius , who was the bishop of Constantinople. The Council also affirmed the Council of Carthage held for the local Church in 416, thus condemning Pelagius and his teachings. For the full documents see EPHESUS


Twenty years after Ephesus, Saint Pulcheria played a key role in the fourth General Council this time influencing her husband Marcian , then the Roman Emperor of the East, to coordinate with Pope Saint Leo the Great in convening it at Chalcedon in Thessalonica just northwest of Constantinople. Once again a false teaching was at the heart of the meeting. This time Monophysitism (the false teaching that Christ had only one nature) was at the forefront of controversy. It was taught by the Abbot Eutyches who also sought discord, causing confusion so that the Council asserted that Constantinople should be on an equal basis with Rome ecclesiastically. Vigorously opposing this and Eutyches, Pope Leo determined in his Dogmatic Epistle of October 10, 451 that the See of Peter in Rome is and always shall be the Seat of Primacy with no equal and that Eutyches was a heretic. Leo was proclaimed the 'Soul of Chalcedon' and the Council agreed unanimously that through Leo, Peter had spoken and Eutyches was condemned. For the full documents see CHALCEDON

Second Council of Constantinople


Just over a century after Chalcedon, heresy was running rampant and the Roman Emperor in Constantinople Justinian I decided it was time for another General Council. The Second Council in Constantinople condemned the "Three Chapters" which was a collection of statements by three deceased disciples of the deposed Nestorius . The Council determined that the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrrhus , and Ibas of Edessa were soundly condemned. This Council also affirmed the condemnations declared at the Council of Carthage in 416 and previous condemnations by Popes of heresies. For the full documents see CONSTANTINOPLE TWO

Third Council of Constantinople


117 years after the Second Council of Constantinople, the Emperor Constantine IV decided it was time to call another General Council, especially in light of the growing threat of Islamism. In agreement with Pope Saint Agatho , the Council was convened with again over 200 bishops. The heresy of the time was Monothelitesism which falsely taught that Christ only had a Divine will, rather than a Divine and human will. It denied the perfect harmony of the two wills within the one Divine Person. Pope Agatho died during this Council and his successor Pope Saint Leo II continued it, approving the decrees of past Councils and taking to task one of his predecessors Pope Honorius I for not keeping the heresy of Monothelites in check, specifically not challenging the Patriarch of Constantinople Sergius who was spreading the heresy. St. Leo's actions set a precedence for calling into question error by previous Pontiffs and confirmed that a Pope can be in error when not speaking from the Chair of Peter - ex cathedra . For the full documents see CONSTANTINOPLE THREE


Just over a century after the Third Council of Constantinople, a 7th General Council was necessary in 787 to deal with the heresy of Iconoclasm. The Council was called by the Empress Irene - the widow of the late Emperor Leo IV and mother of the Emperor Constantine IV - to head off the growing unrest with the Eastern Bishops who were spreading the heresy of Iconoclasm fostered by Emperor Leo III . The latter had been fiercely condemned by Pope Hadrian I , as well as his predecessors Popes Gregory II and Pope Gregory III . A great Doctor of the Church Saint John Damascene had also defended images as a means of reverence. At the core was the growing split and resentment between East and West. For the full documents see NICAEA TWO

Fourth Council of Constantinople

The issue of declaring Photius a heretic was paramount for the Fourth Council of Constantinople which was called jointly by the Emperor Basil and Pope Hadrian II in 869. Photius had openly criticized clerical celibacy, challenged Pope Saint Leo III 's crowning of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas of 800, and questioned the Filioque of the Creed. Photius was condemned by the Council. 200 years later the Great Eastern Schism became official when Michael Cerularius closed the Latin churches in Constantinople and was excommunicated by Pope Saint Leo IV in 1054. Also of concern at the Council was the growing Saracen threat. For the full documents see CONSTANTINOPLE FOUR


The first General Council after the Great Eastern Schism was held in Rome for the first time at the Lateran Basilica in 1123 and convened by Pope Callistus II . At issue was the Lay Investiture controversy between secular power and ecclesial power. The Council confirmed the Concordat of Worms that had been signed the year before between Emperor Henry V and Pope Callistus II . This assured all elections of prelates and abbots would be made by ecclesial authorities solely with the Emperor having approval only in Germany. The Council declared priests in the Latin rite must remain celibate. For the full documents see LATERAN ONE


It was necessary to call a second General Council just 16 years later because of the Papal schism in which Pope Innocent II declared null and void all acts and decrees by the deceased antipope Anicletus II . The Council also condemned the heresies of Peter Bruys and Arnold of Brescia as well as enacting reforms suggested by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux who also preached a crusade against the threat of the Crescent Moon of Islam. For the full documents see LATERAN TWO


Pope Alexander III called the third Council at the Lateran Basilica because once again a General Council had to be called to undo the damage done by antipopes Victor IV and others. The Council also set the election of the Roman Pontiff must be by two-thirds of the majority of cardinals voting, establishing the Sacred Conclave as the voting body. The Council condemned the heresies of Albigenses and Waldenses . For the full documents see LATERAN THREE


In 1215 Pope Innocent III called the Fourth Lateran Council 36 years after Lateran III had closed. This Council was the most absolute and most impacting of all ecumenical councils to date. Nearly 500 prelates, as well as the Patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem, and close to a thousand abbots including Saint Dominic attended. Here Innocent, trying to recover from the immense sadness three years earlier of the failed Children's Crusade (5th Crusade) , successfully regained his power. It marked the pinnacle of papal power in medieval times. It was Innocent who defined ex cathedra - from the chair of Peter and who declared in that position that "There is but one Universal Church, outside of which there is no salvation." The Council officially set in stone the term 'Transubstantiation' for the mystery of the bread and wine confected into the body and blood of Jesus Christ and reformed disciplines of ecclesiastical life, as well as directing all Catholics to partake in the Sacraments of Penance and the Holy Eucharist no less than once a year. Lateran IV also condemned as anathema once more the heresies of Albigensianism, which taught marriage and the sacraments were not needed, and Waldensianism, which taught that the laity could perform the same duties as a priest when said priest was in mortal sin. For the full documents see LATERAN FOUR


30-years after Lateran IV, Pope Innocent IV called the First Council of Lyons in 1245, having been forced to flee Rome for the refuge of Lyons France at the invitation of the holy French Monarch King Saint Louis IX . The latter was designated to lead the Seventh Crusade against the infidel Saracens. Though only 140 bishops were at Lyons, it had the support of the Patriarchs of Antioch, Constantinople, Venice and the Emperor of the East. The Council reinforced the excommunication Pope Gregory IX had imposed on Frederick II , the slacker emperor who had betrayed the trust placed in him. He was deposed. Great concern was also given to the Mongol hordes invading Europe and the loss of Jerusalem to the infidel, as well as problems with lax clergy. For the full documents see FIRST COUNCIL OF LYONS


In 1274 Blessed Pope Gregory X called the Second Council of Lyons, which teemed with 15 cardinals, 500 prelates and well over a thousand clerics and dignitaries including Saint Bonaventure . Another great Doctor of the Church, Saint Thomas Aquinas passed to his Heavenly reward enroute to the Council. This Council's main docket was the attempt to reunite with the Eastern Church, but it was only temporary and the schism grew wider after the solidification of the Dogmatic Filioque in which it was reaffirmed emphatically that the Holy Ghost proceeds from both the Father and the Son . Also addressed were regulations for Papal election and how to recover Palestine from the Turks. For the full documents see SECOND COUNCIL OF LYONS


Six years into the 'Avignon Exile' (1305-1377), the Council of Vienne lasted two years. It was called in 1311 by the first of the Avignon Popes Pope Clement V in the city of Vienne just south of Lyons. Though the Patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria joined the Pope, it was a noticable difference from the last Council for far fewer bishops and dignitaries attended. Nevertheless, the council suppressed the Knights Templars and Jacques de Molay , the one who laid the satanic seeds of Freemasonry. They had abused their privileges after the Crusades. Politics also played a huge role in this council with King Philip IV ruler of France being reinstituted in the Church after his legendary excommunication battle with Clement's predecessor Pope Boniface VIII who had issued his famous ex cathedra bull Unam Sanctam . The Council also condemned various heresies. For the full documents see COUNCIL OF VIENNE


Just over a century after the Council of Vienne the 16th Ecumenical Council was called in the French area of Switzerland in 1414. Because of the Great Western Schism the legitimate Pope Gregory XII abdicated the Papal throne during the Council at the Emperor Sigismund 's request for the sake of unity so that the Council could sort out the mess and end the Schism amid the confusion of the multi-popes which included the anti-popes of Avignon - Benedict XIII and John XXIII . The latter had called a Council in Pisa in 1403 which was not recognized because of its illegality. The Council took control and elected Pope Martin V to the seat of Peter in 1417, three years after the Council was opened. It brought to an end the Great Schism and opened a whole new can of worms with the struggle between papal power and conciliar power. Condemned were the heresies of John Wycliffe and John Hus , the tip of the iceberg that would erupt a century later. For the full documents see COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE


Though it is called the Council of Florence, it began in Basel, Switzerland, called by Pope Martin V . But Martin V did not live to open it. Instead his successor Blessed Pope Eugene IV opened it and met open resistance from many of the bishops. Therefore he dissolved the Council, moving to Ferrara, Italy in 1438 because of the schismatic bishops who elected the antipope Felix V . In 1439 the bubonic plague forced the entire Council to move again, this time to Florence where it was closed eight years later in 1447 by the Eugene IV. Though the Greek Church agreed to accept Filioque , it was shortlived for the infidels conquered Constantinople six years after the Council closed and, demoralized, the Eastern Church stuck to their stubborn agenda. The most stunning aspect of this Council was that Papal Authority triumphed over conciliar authority. Pope Eugene IV, backed by the Council proclaimed infallible the dogma of no salvation for anyone outside the Church in his noted Papal Bull Cantate Domino . For the full documents see COUNCIL OF FLORENCE


Despite Blessed Pope Eugene IV 's Papal Bull Cantate Domino problems abounded less than a century later. Thus Pope Julius II , trying to recoup the scandals caused by previous pontiffs - specifically the Borgia Pope Alexander VI - called the 18th Ecumenical Council, returning to the Lateran for the Fifth Synod in 1512. When Julius died, his successor Pope Leo X carried on the Council. No doctrine was proclaimed with all decrees primarily disciplinary in trying to stem the tide of Martin Luther and others who were outwardly rebelling against the Church. Though the idea of a Crusade against the Turks was brought up, the problems with the growing Protestant Reformation occupied the agenda. The Council reaffirmed the superiority of the Pope over conciliar powers. For the full documents see FIFTH LATERAN COUNCIL

The greatest and longest of all the major ecumenical councils was convened by Pope Paul III on December 13, 1545 in the mouintain village of Trent in northern Italy. There were 25 major sessions that spanned eighteen years under five popes - Pope Julius III, Marcellus II, Paul IV and Pope Pius IV who closed the last session on December 4, 1563 with Pius IV issuing a Papal Bull on February 7, 1564 confirming all that was declared at Trent. Pope Saint Pius V completed the commission of Trent, reforming the Roman Missal with his De Defectibus and Quo Primum writing the Catechism of Trent based on all the decrees of Trent and also set up a commission to issue a more exact edition of the Latin Vulgate Bible. The Council issued the most dogmatic and reformatory decrees ever, specifically on the Holy Eucharist, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and the Sacraments plus reinstating traditions always held 'Catholic.' Trent was the ideal Counter-Reformation to the Protestant Reformation where Protestantism was condemned as anathema along with Martin Luther and other reformers who had bolted the Church. Moral discipline was emphasized and reinforced in order that Holy Mother Church regain the respect and authority intended for the Church Christ founded and passed down through His infallible, perennial Magisterium of the Church, preserving the Truths and Traditions of Holy Mother Church in the Sacred Deposit of the Faith. For an overview to the full documents see COUNCIL OF TRENT

Many consider the First Vatican Council as the longest ever because, in truth, it has never been closed. Convened by Pope Pius IX on December 8, 1869 with 803 of the hierarchy present from the universal Church, it only had four sessions, all reaffirming the course of Trent. In the 4th Session on July 18, 1870 the Council affirmed the dogma of infallibility of the Sovereign Pontiff. For the full, simple, concise documents see FIRST VATICAN COUNCIL

The turning point where Modernists usurped the true Church with a council they hijacked. Since then the true Chruch founded by Christ is in eclipse, forgotten by a world intent on instant gratification and political correctness where everything is topsy turvy today. It will take a miracle to right the ship. Yet we know the true Barque of Peter cannot capsize and, when this interminable interregnum is finally terminated and we have a true Pope again, then the restoration of the Roman Catholic Church can begin. Until that time, faithful Catholics perpetuate the Faith and persevere in the catacombs throughout the world.

The last of the Ecumenical Councils was, indeed, not only the most controversial but the very portal for allowing the ambiguous language of the documents to open a Pandora's Box that has proven over the past 40 plus years that there are no fruits per Our Lord's words in St. Matthew 7: 15-20. Because of the heresies promoted so subtly, we have the ruin today, not of the Roman Catholic Church per se, but of the man-made church that began in 1962 and broke away from the one true Church founded by Christ in order to join the over 33,000 false sects that have rejected what the Son of God mandated, thinking man knows better than the Divine. This has resulted in so-called church leaders and others to interpret dogma and doctrine in a Protestant light with an emphasis on humanism, ecumenism, religious liberty, and collegiality in an effort to conform to the modern world rather than the world adhering to what the Church had always taught. This is, in effect, The Great Apostasy foretold in sacred scripture and by saints, and Our Lady, most notably at Quito and LaSalette. From this council came the realization of the abomination of desolation Jesus warned of. This council convened by John XXIII on October 11, 1962 and, despite the latter's pleas to "Stop the Council!", it was carried on by his successor Paul VI for three more years, closing on December 8, 1965 and unleashing, by Paul's own admission, the "Smoke of satan into the sanctuary." Since then errors have spread universally and the Church has been in turmoil, hurtling more souls toward the darkness thanks to the heretical administrations of Bishop Karol Wojtyla from 1978 to 2005 and since then Father Joseph Ratzinger . The Daily Catholic is dedicated to exposing these heresies so that all Catholics will truly KNOW THE FAITH in order to KEEP THE FAITH. For an overview to the documents of this modernist council in which the elect were truly deceived just as Christ prophesied in St. Matthew 24: 24, see MODERNIST COUNCIL CALLED VATICAN TWO


2014-2017 Strategic Plan

Redlands City Council, Clerk, and Treasurer, plus all other City employees and volunteers, commit to these values:

We Strive for Excellence and are Innovative

We aim to deliver the best service possible and measure quality outcomes and results. We strive to exceed expectations and to bring out the best in each other. We are flexible and adapt to the ever changing needs of our community. We seek traditional as well as nontraditional solutions and embrace creativity.


NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom The Civil Rights Era

The NAACP’s long battle against de jure segregation culminated in the Supreme Court’s landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision, which overturned the “separate but equal” doctrine. Former NAACP Branch Secretary Rosa Parks’ refusal to yield her seat to a white man sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the modern civil rights movement. In response to the Brown decision, Southern states launched a variety of tactics to evade school desegregation, while the NAACP countered aggressively in the courts for enforcement. The resistance to Brown peaked in 1957–58 during the crisis at Little Rock Arkansas’s Central High School. The Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups targeted NAACP officials for assassination and tried to ban the NAACP from operating in the South. However, NAACP membership grew, particularly in the South. NAACP Youth Council chapters staged sit-in demonstrations at lunch counters to protest segregation. The NAACP was instrumental in organizing the 1963 March on Washington, the largest mass protest for civil rights. The following year, the NAACP joined the Council of Federated Organizations to launch Mississippi Freedom Summer, a massive project that assembled hundreds of volunteers to participate in voter registration and education. The NAACP-led Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, a coalition of civil rights organizations, spearheaded the drive to win passage of the major civil rights legislation of the era: the Civil Rights Act of 1957 the Civil Rights Act of 1964 the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968.

Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr., “101st U.S. Senator.”

Baltimore native Clarence Mitchell (1911–1984) attended Lincoln University and the University of Maryland Law School. He began his career as a reporter. During World War II he served on the War Manpower Commission and the Fair Employment Practices Committee. In 1946 Mitchell joined the NAACP as its first labor secretary. He served concurrently as director of the NAACP Washington Bureau, the NAACP’s chief lobbyist, and legislative chairman of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights from 1950 to 1978. Mitchell waged a tireless campaign on Capitol Hill to secure the passage of a comprehensive series of civil rights laws: the 1957 Civil Rights Act, the 1960 Civil Rights Act, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the 1965 Voting Rights Act, and the 1968 Fair Housing Act. His invincible determination won him the accolade of “101st U.S. Senator.”

Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr., Director NAACP Washington Bureau, February 28, 1957. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (100.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # ppmsca.23839]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj0

Herbert Hill, Authority on Race and Labor

Born in Brooklyn, Herbert Hill (1924–2004) studied at New York University and the New School for Social Research. He then worked as an organizer for the United Steelworkers before joining the NAACP staff in 1948. He was named labor secretary in 1951. In this capacity, he filed hundreds of lawsuits against labor unions and industries that refused integration or fair employment practices. He also used picket lines and mass demonstrations as weapons. Recognized as a major authority on race and labor, Hill testified frequently on Capitol Hill and served as a consultant for the United Nations and the State of Israel. He left the NAACP in 1977 to accept a joint professorship in Afro-American studies and industrial relations at the University of Wisconsin, from which he retired in 1997.

Herbert Hill, between 1950 and 1960. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (101.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # cph.3c26947]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj1

Harry Tyson Moore, Florida Leader

Harry T. Moore (1905–1951) began his career as a teacher in Brevard County, Florida, where he founded the local NAACP. With NAACP support, he filed a pay equalization lawsuit in 1937. He became the president of the NAACP’s statewide branches in 1941, and in 1945 formed the Florida Progressive Voters League, which registered more than 100,000 black voters. When these activities cost Moore his job in 1946, the NAACP hired him as Florida’s executive director. In 1951 Moore helped win appeals for two black teenagers convicted of raping a white woman in Groveland. When a white sheriff shot the defendants en route to a new trial, he called for his indictment. On Christmas night in 1951, Moore and his wife, Harriette, were killed by a bomb placed under their house by the Ku Klux Klan.

Harry Tyson Moore, ca. 1950. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (102.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # cph.3c28702]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj2

“Fight for Freedom” Campaign

In 1953 the NAACP initiated the “Fight for Freedom” campaign with the goal of abolishing segregation and discrimination by 1963, the centennial of Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. The NAACP vowed to raise one million dollars annually through1963 to fund the campaign. The concept recalls the Lincoln Day “Call” that began the NAACP. The NAACP has affirmed this connection to Abraham Lincoln throughout its history with annual Lincoln Day celebrations, related events, and programs which evoke Lincoln’s basic ideas of freedom and human brotherhood. The NAACP adopted “Fight For Freedom” as a motto.

Minutes of Committee Meeting to Implement the Annual Conference Resolution on the Fighting Fund for Freedom, October 8, 1953. Typescript. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4 - Page 5 - Page 6. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (103.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
Digital ID # na0103p1

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj3

NAACP Fundraiser, Marguerite Belafonte

Marguerite Byrd met entertainer Harry Belafonte in 1944 while she was a student at Hampton Institute and he was stationed at a naval base in Norfolk, Virginia. They married in 1948 and had two daughters. During the 1950s Belafonte worked as women’s editor of the New York Amsterdam News, an educational director in early childhood training, and a radio commentator. From 1958 to1960, she cochaired the NAACP’s Fight for Freedom Fund campaign with Duke Ellington and Jackie Robinson. To meet the annual one million dollar fundraising goal, she traveled nationwide presenting her benefit fashion show, “Fashions for Freedom.” In September 1960 she joined the NAACP staff as special projects director.

Marguerite Belafonte and little boy holding NAACP Freedom Fund balloons, between 1950 and 1960. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (118.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # ppmsca.23841]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj4

Robert L. Carter, Legal Expert

Thurgood Marshall hired Robert L. Carter (b. 1917) as a legal assistant at the Inc. Fund in 1944 and promoted him to assistant counsel in 1945. Carter graduated from Lincoln University and Howard Law School, and earned a Master of Law degree from Columbia University. He helped prepare briefs in the McLaurin and Sweatt cases, and argued McLaurin in Oklahoma and before the Supreme Court. Carter later became Marshall’s key aide in the Brown v. Board of Education case. He recommended using social science research to prove the negative effects of racial segregation, which became a crucial factor in the Brown decision. He also wrote the brief for the Brown case and delivered the argument before the Supreme Court. He served as the NAACP’s General Counsel from 1956 to 1968. In 1972 President Nixon appointed Carter to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, where he still presides as judge.

Robert L. Carter, between 1940 and 1955. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (105.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # cph.3c26948]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj5

Earl Warren’s Reading Copy of the Brown Opinion

Chief Justice Earl Warren’s reading copy of Brown is annotated in his hand. Warren announced the opinion in the names of each justice, an unprecedented occurrence. The drama was heightened by the widespread prediction that the Court would be divided on the issue. Warren reminded himself to emphasize the decision’s unanimity with a marginal notation, “unanimously,” which departed from the printed reading copy to declare, “Therefore, we unanimously hold. . . .” In his memoirs, Warren recalled the moment with genuine warmth: “When the word ‘unanimously’ was spoken, a wave of emotion swept the room no words or intentional movement, yet a distinct emotional manifestation that defies description.”
“Unanimously” was not incorporated into the published version of the opinion, and thus exists only in this manuscript.

Earl Warren’s reading copy of the Brown v. Board opinion, May 17, 1954. Printed document with autograph annotations. Earl Warren Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (106.00.00)
Digital ID # na0106

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj6

Attorneys for Brown v. Board of Education

The Supreme Court bundled Brown v. Board of Education with four related cases and scheduled a hearing for December 9, 1952. A rehearing was convened on December 7, 1953 and a decision rendered on May 17, 1954. Three lawyers, Thurgood Marshall (center), chief counsel for the NAACP’s Legal Defense Fund and lead attorney on the Briggs case, with George E. C. Hayes (left) and James M. Nabrit (right), attorneys for the Bolling case, are shown standing on the steps of the Supreme Court congratulating each other after the Court’s decision declaring segregation unconstitutional.

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj7

Roy Wilkins, Longest-Serving NAACP Leader

Roy Wilkins (1901–1981) was born in St. Louis, the son of a minister. While attending the University of Minnesota, he served as secretary of the local NAACP. After graduation he began work as the editor of the Kansas City Call, a black weekly. The headline coverage Wilkins gave the NAACP in the Call attracted the attention of Walter White, who hired him as NAACP assistant secretary in 1931. From 1934 to 1949, Wilkins served concurrently as editor of The Crisis. In 1950 he became NAACP administrator and cofounded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. He succeeded Walter White as NAACP executive secretary in 1955. Under his leadership the NAACP achieved school desegregation and major civil rights legislation, and reached its peak membership. Wilkins retired in 1977 as the longest-serving NAACP leader.

Warren K. Leffler. Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary of the NAACP, April 5, 1963. Photograph. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (100.01.00)
[Digital ID # ppmsc.01273]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj8

The Lynching of Emmett Till

On August 20, 1955, Emmett Till, a fourteen-year-old black boy from Chicago, boarded a southbound train to visit his uncle in Leflore County, Mississippi, near the town of Money. For purportedly whistling at a white woman in a grocery store, he was kidnapped, brutally beaten, and shot to death. His mangled corpse, with a seventy-five-pound cotton gin fan tied to the neck, was pulled from the bottom of Tallahatchie River on August 31. NAACP Southeast Regional Director Ruby Hurley, Mississippi Field Secretary Medgar Evers, and Amzie Moore, president of the Bolivar County branch in Mississippi, initiated the homicide investigation and secured witnesses. Hurley sent her reports to the FBI and The Crisis. The NAACP issued this press release the day after Till’s body was found.

Press release concerning the lynching of Emmett Till, September 1, 1955. Typescript. Page 2. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107.01.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0107_01]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj9

Justice for Emmett Till Flyer

On September 23, 1955, an all-white jury acquitted Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam, the two white men accused of Emmett Till’s lynching. The verdict aroused international protest. The NAACP organized mass demonstrations nationwide under the auspices of local branches with Mamie Bradley, Emmett Till’s mother, as the featured speaker. Mrs. Bradley was sometimes accompanied by Ruby Hurley. Medgar Evers, Thurgood Marshall, and Congressman Charles Diggs (D-Michigan), an observer at the trial, also served as speakers. In the aftermath of the trial, growing public demand for federal protection of civil rights led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957.

Mass Meeting Protesting Emmett Till Lynching and Trial [in Mississippi] 8:00 P.M., Friday, October 21, 1955 at Community A.M.E. Church. . . , [1955]. Flyer. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107.02.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0107_02]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj10

Rosa Parks’s Arrest

On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, age forty-three, was arrested for disorderly conduct in Montgomery, Alabama, for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger. Her arrest and fourteen dollar fine for violating a city ordinance led African American bus riders and others to boycott the Montgomery city buses. It also helped to establish the Montgomery Improvement Association led by a then-unknown young minister from Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Martin Luther King, Jr. The boycott lasted for one year and brought the Civil Rights Movement and Dr. King worldwide attention.

Mrs. Rosa Parks being fingerprinted in Montgomery, Alabama, 1956. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram and Sun Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (109.00.00)
Digital ID # cph-3c09643

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj11

Rosa Parks’s Arrest Record

Rosa Parks was a leader in the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott, which demonstrated that segregation would be contested in many social settings. A federal district court decided that segregation on publicly operated buses was unconstitutional and concluded that, “in the Brown case, Plessy v. Ferguson has been impliedly, though not explicitly, overruled.” The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the district court without opinion, a common procedure it followed in the interim between 1954 and 1958.

Rosa Parks’s arrest record, December 5, 1955. Typed document. Page 2. Frank Johnson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (108.00.00)
Digital ID # na0108p1

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj12

Efforts to Ban the NAACP

After the Brown decision, several Southern states initiated lawsuits to ban the NAACP statewide as a strategy to evade desegregation. On June 1, 1956, Alabama attorney general John M. Patterson sued the NAACP for violation of a state law requiring out-of-state corporations to register. A state judge ordered the NAACP to suspend operations and submit branch records, including membership lists, or incur a $100,000 fine. In NAACP v. Alabama (1958) a unanimous Supreme Court ruled that the NAACP had the right, by freedom of association, not to disclose its membership lists. The case was remanded to the Alabama court, which refused to try it on its merits. After three additional appeals to the Supreme Court, the NAACP was finally able to resume operations in Alabama in 1964.

J.L. Leflore to Thurgood Marshall concerning the Alabama State Attorney General’s efforts to ban the NAACP in Alabama, June 4, 1956. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (110.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0110]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj13

Ruby Hurley, Southeast Region Director

Ruby Hurley (1909–1980) was born in Washington, D.C., where she attended Miner Teachers College and Robert H. Terrell Law School. She began her NAACP work in 1939 by organizing a youth council in Washington, D.C. In 1943 she was named national youth secretary. During her tenure the number of youth units grew from 86 to 280. In 1951 Hurley was sent to Birmingham, Alabama, to coordinate membership drives in the Deep South. As a result, she organized the Southeast Regional Office, becoming its first director. Under her leadership the Southeast Region became the NAACP’s largest region with more than 500 branches. When Alabama banned the NAACP in 1956, Hurley moved to Atlanta. There she defended the NAACP in disputes with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. She retired as regional director in 1978.

Ruby Hurley, Youth Secretary of NAACP, between 1943 and 1950. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (113.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # ppmsca.23840]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj14

Civil Rights Act of 1957

In 1957 Clarence Mitchell marshaled bipartisan support in Congress for a civil rights bill, the first passed since Reconstruction. Part III, a provision authorizing the Attorney General to sue in civil rights cases, was stripped from the bill before it passed. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 created a new Commission on Civil Rights to investigate civil rights violations and established a Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice headed by an assistant attorney general. It also prohibited action to prevent citizens from voting and authorized the attorney general to seek injunctions to protect the right to vote. Although the act did not provide for adequate enforcement, it did pave the way for more far-reaching legislation.

U.S. Congress. Public Law 85-315, 85th Congress, H.R. 6127 (Civil Rights Act of 1957), September 9, 1957. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (111.00.00)
[Digital ID # na0111p1]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj15

Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine

Daisy Bates, publisher of The Arkansas State Press and president of the Arkansas State Conference of NAACP Branches, led the NAACP’s campaign to desegregate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Thurgood Marshall served as chief counsel. The school board agreed to begin the process with Central High School, approving the admission of nine black teenagers. The decision outraged many white citizens, including Arkansas governor Orval Faubus, who ordered the Arkansas National Guard to surround Central High School. When the black students tried repeatedly to enter, they were turned away by the guardsmen and an angry white mob. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock to force Governor Faubus to uphold the Supreme Court’s ruling and ensure the protection of black students. On September 25, 1957, federal troops safely escorted the students into Central High School. In the midst of the crisis, Daisy Bates wrote this letter to Roy Wilkins to report on the students’ progress.

Daisy Bates to NAACP Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins on the treatment of the Little Rock Nine, December 17, 1957. Typed letter. Page 2. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (112.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
Digital ID # na0112p1

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj16

Ella Baker, Director of Branches

Ella Baker (1903–1986) grew up in Littleton, North Carolina, and was educated at Shaw University in Raleigh. During the 1930s she worked as a community organizer in New York. She joined the NAACP staff in 1940 as a field secretary and served as director of branches from 1943 to 1946. Baker traveled throughout the South, recruiting new members and registering voters. In 1957 she cofounded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference after advising the Montgomery Improvement Association, which organized the bus boycott. As SCLC executive director, she organized the 1960 conference that created the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). She remained a key advisor, helping SNCC organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which challenged Mississippi’s all-white delegation to the 1964 Democratic National Convention.

Ella Baker, between 1943 and 1946. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (114.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # cph.3c18852]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj17

“50 Years: Freedom, Civil Rights, Progress”

The NAACP marked its Golden Anniversary with this issue of The Crisis magazine and commemorative services at the Community Church of New York on February 12, 1959. The keynote speaker for the ceremony was Lloyd K. Garrison, Chairman of the Legal Committee and great grandson of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. Roy Wilkins and Channing H. Tobias, Chairman of the Board of Directors, also delivered remarks. Anna Strunsky, the widow of NAACP founder William English Walling, read the Lincoln Day Call. Other relatives of founders were presented to the audience of more than 500 by Robert C. Weaver, Vice Chairman of the Board.

The Crisis. “50 Years: Freedom, Civil Rights, Progress,” June-July 1959. New York: NAACP, 1959. General Collections, Library of Congress (115.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0115]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj18

Beginning of the Student Sit-in Movement

On February 1, 1960, four students from North Carolina Central Agriculture and Technical College sat down at a segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. All were members of NAACP youth councils. Within weeks, similar demonstrations spread across the South, and many students were arrested. The NAACP provided attorneys and raised money for fines or bail bonds. At a conference at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina, in April 1960, the students formed their own organization, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). This pamphlet recounts the beginning of the student sit-in movement organized by NAACP youth councils.

The Day They Changed Their Minds. New York: NAACP, March, 1960. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4 - Page 5 - Page 6 - Page 7. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (117.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0117p1]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj19

Federal Government Protection for James Meredith

In September 1962, a federal court ordered the University of Mississippi to accept James Meredith, a twenty-eight-year-old Air Force Veteran, after a sixteen-month legal battle. Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett disobeyed the decree and had Meredith physically barred from enrolling. President Kennedy responded by federalizing the National Guard and sending Army troops to protect Meredith. After days of violence and rioting by whites, Meredith, escorted by federal marshals, enrolled on October 1, 1962. Two men were killed in the turmoil and more than 300 injured. Because he had earned credits in the military and at Jackson State College, Meredith graduated the following August without incident.

John A. Morsell, Assistant to NAACP Executive Secretary, to President John F. Kennedy requesting the assistance of the Federal government in the case of James Meredith, September 21, 1962. Typed letter. Page 2. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (123.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0123p1]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj20

Medgar W. Evers, Field Secretary

Medgar W. Evers (1925–1963), the son of a farmer, was born in Decatur, Mississippi. After graduating from Alcorn Agriculture and Mechanical College in 1952, he went to work for a black insurance company in the Mississippi Delta. At the same time he began organizing for the NAACP. In 1954 he became the NAACP’s first field secretary in the state. His main duties were recruiting new members and investigating incidents of racial violence. He also led voter registration drives and mass protests, organized boycotts, fought segregation, and helped James Meredith enter the University of Mississippi. In May 1963 Evers’s home was bombed. On June 11, he was assassinated. His killer, white supremacist Byron De La Beckwith, was tried twice in 1964, resulting in hung juries. He was convicted at a third trial in 1994.

Medgar W. Evers, between 1950 and 1963. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (120.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # cph.3c19120]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj21

CoChairs for the March on Washington, August 28, 1963

This photograph shows civil rights attorney Joseph Rauh, founder of the Americans for Democratic Action and general counsel to the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, with cochairs of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The march program called for the ten cochairs to lead the procession from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial for a mass rally. Each of the cochairs delivered a speech as part of a formal presentation that included appearances by other dignitaries and entertainers.

Roy Wilkins with a few of the ca. 250,000 participants on the Mall heading for the Lincoln Memorial in the March on Washington, August 28, 1963. (2nd row, left to right). Civil rights attorney Joseph Rauh, National Urban League Executive Director Whitney Young, Jr., NAACP Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters President and AFL-CIO Vice President A. Philip Randolph, and United Automobile Workers President Walter Reuther. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (119.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # cph.3b24324]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj22

March on Washington, 1963

In 1962 A. Philip Randolph proposed a mass march on Washington during the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation. Randolph and his colleague Bayard Rustin invited civil rights, religious, and labor leaders to participate. Roy Wilkins and UAW President Walter Reuther provided the principal funding and member support. On August 28, 1963, a diverse crowd of more than 250,000 people assembled at the Lincoln Memorial in a peaceful demonstration to draw attention to employment discrimination and a pending civil rights bill. During the rally, Roy Wilkins announced the death of W.E.B. Du Bois and urged the passage of the bill. As a climax, Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. Afterward the march leaders met with President John F. Kennedy at the White House.

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom—Lincoln Memorial Program, August 28, 1963. Program. Page 2 - Page 3. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (122.00.00)
[Digital ID # na0122p1]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj23

A Civil Rights Act of 1964 Pamphlet

In June 1963, President John Kennedy asked Congress for a comprehensive civil rights bill, induced by massive resistance to desegregation and the murder of Medgar Evers. After Kennedy’s assassination in November, President Lyndon Johnson pressed hard, with the support of Roy Wilkins and Clarence Mitchell, to secure the bill’s passage the following year. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and federally funded programs. It banned discrimination in employment and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce compliance. It also strengthened the enforcement of voting rights and the desegregation of schools.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964. What’s in it: Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, 1964. Pamphlet. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4 - Page 5. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (125.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP [Digital ID # na0125p1]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj24

Washington Attorney J. Francis Pohlhaus

Baltimore native J. Francis Pohlhaus (1918–1981) studied at Western Maryland College and Georgetown University Law School. He began a private law practice in 1949 and served as an advisor for the Baltimore Urban League. In 1951 he moved to Washington and joined the Department of Justice as an attorney in the Civil Rights Section. He joined the NAACP Washington Bureau in 1954. Pohlhaus served as the Bureau’s only counsel and Clarence Mitchell’s key legislative assistant. He shared lobbying duties and worked with congressional staff in drafting civil rights bills. Mitchell considered his legislative contributions invaluable. Pohlhaus died shortly after his retirement in 1981.

NAACP Counsel J. Francis Pohlhaus with President Lyndon B. Johnson, 1964. Photograph. (125.01.00) Courtesy of Christopher J. Pohlhaus
[Digital ID # na0125_01]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj25

Mississippi Freedom Summer

The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of civil rights groups, was formed in 1962 to coordinate civil rights activities in Mississippi. Robert Moses of SNCC served as director and Aaron Henry of the NAACP as president. In 1964 Moses led COFO’s Freedom Summer project, a major voter registration campaign that recruited hundreds of white college students to work with black activists. Freedom volunteers registered black voters and set up schools. Violence pervaded the summer. Three civil rights workers were murdered, and scores were beaten and arrested. Churches and homes were bombed or burned. The project focused national attention on the plight of Mississippi’s blacks and led to the 1965 Voting Rights Act.

Robert Moses, Program Director, Council of Federated Organizations to NAACP Executive Secretary Roy regarding the Mississippi Freedom Summer project, March 1, 1964. Typed letter. Page 2. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (124.00.00) Courtesy of Robert Moses
[Digital ID # na0124p1]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj26

Literacy Tests

After the Civil War, many states enacted literary tests as a voting requirement. The purpose was to exclude persons with minimal literacy, in particular poor African Americans in the South, from voting. This was achieved by asking these prospective voters to interpret abstract provisions of the Constitution or rejecting their applications for errors. This sample voter registration application, featuring a literacy test, was used by W.C. Patton, head of the NAACP voter registration program, to educate black voters in Alabama.

Sample Application for Registration, Questionnaire and Oaths, Alabama Board of Registrars, 1964. Typescript. Page 2 - Page 3. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (124.01.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0124_01]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj27

Voting Rights Act of 1965

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 provided direct federal enforcement to remove literacy tests and other devices that had been used to disenfranchise African Americans. It authorized the appointment of federal registrars to register voters and observe elections. It also prevented states from changing voter requirements and gerrymandering districts for a period of five years without federal review. The poll tax, a point of dispute, was fully banned in 1966. The sweeping provisions of the act were greatly due to the persistent diplomacy of Clarence M. Mitchell, Director of the NAACP Washington Bureau, and his associates.

Senator Walter Mondale to NAACP Executive Director Roy Wilkins acknowledging the NAACP’s appreciation of his support of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, August 17, 1965. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (126.00.00) Courtesy of Walter F. Mondale
Digital ID # na0126

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj28

NAACP’s position on “Black Power”

In June 1966 James Meredith was wounded by a sniper during a solitary voter registration march from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi. In the aftermath SNCC chairman Stokely Carmichael popularized the slogan “Black Power,” urging self-defense and racial separatism. Some blacks and whites perceived hints of violence and reverse racism in the call for Black Power. At the NAACP annual convention in July, Roy Wilkins denounced Carmichael’s advocacy, saying Black Power “can mean in the end only black death.” He summarized the NAACP’s position on Black Power in this open letter to supporters.

Roy Wilkins to NAACP supporters concerning the NAACP’s position on “Black Power,” October 17, 1966. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (127.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0127]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj29

The Civil Rights Act of 1968

In 1966 President Lyndon Johnson failed to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill with a fair housing provision. The assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., generated the support needed to pass the bill two years later. The 1968 Fair Housing Act banned discrimination in the sale and rental of 80 percent of housing. It also contained anti-riot provisions and protected persons exercising specific rights--such as attending school or serving on a jury—as well as civil rights workers urging others to exercise these rights. It included the Indian Bill of Rights to extend constitutional protections to Native Americans not covered by the Bill of Rights. For his pivotal role in the bill’s passage, Clarence Mitchell received the Spingarn Medal.

Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Chairman Roy Wilkins to United States Senators concerning the Civil Rights Act of 1968, January 15, 1968. Typed letter. Page 2. Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (128.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0128p1]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj30

NAACP: Here Today, Here Tomorrow

In 1969 the NAACP reached another milestone: its 60th anniversary. The NAACP held the 60th annual convention in Jackson, Mississippi, a first for Mississippi—a battleground of the civil rights movement. The convention preceded the inauguration of NAACP Mississippi Field Director Charles Evers as Mayor of Fayette, the first black to be elected Mayor of a biracial town in the State since Reconstruction. The NAACP noted this progress, as well as the problems posed by the Nixon Administration’s policy on civil rights and a dispirited black community. NAACP delegates left the historic session with renewed determination to fight on. This poster reflects that resolve.

NAACP. NAACP: Here Today, Here Tomorrow, 1969. Poster. Yanker Poster Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (116.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # yan.1a38612]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj31

Businessman Kivie Kaplan

Kivie Kaplan (1904–1975), a Boston businessman and philanthropist of Lithuanian-Jewish descent, joined the NAACP in 1932 and was elected to the National Board in 1954. As Chairman of the Life Membership Committee he increased life memberships from 221 in 1953 to 53,000 in 1975. In 1966 he was elected to succeed Arthur Spingarn as NAACP president. Kaplan visited Abraham Lincoln’s tomb with a NAACP delegation in 1969 to mark the NAACP’s 60th anniversary. He expressed his personal admiration for Lincoln by constructing a study hall at Brandeis University in memoriam, the Emily R. and Kivie Kaplan Lincoln Hall.

NAACP President Kivie Kaplan (center) with NAACP members at Abraham Lincoln’s tomb for a memorial service, Springfield, Illinois [1969]. Photograph. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (104.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP
[Digital ID # na0104]

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/naacp/the-civil-rights-era.html#obj32

The Nomination of Judge Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr.

In August 1969 President Richard Nixon nominated Judge Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr., of the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals to the Supreme Court. The NAACP and labor groups opposed the nomination because of the judge’s negative record on civil rights and labor unions. Further probing revealed that Haynsworth had ruled in several cases in which he had a financial interest. The fight against the confirmation was similar to the one waged against Judge John Parker in 1930. In November the Senate rejected the South Carolinian’s nomination 55 to 45. President Nixon promptly nominated another anti-black, anti-labor judge to the Supreme Court, G. Harrold Carswell of Florida. The NAACP launched another campaign, and in April 1970 the Senate rejected Carswell’s nomination 51 to 45.


The Six Most Common Types of Meetings

The first step towards planning a meeting is defining what type of meeting it is. While every meeting is unique, being familiar with the six most common types of meetings will help you better identify the goals, structure, and activities best suited for your meetings.

The six general types of meetings:

  • Status Update Meetings
  • Information Sharing Meetings
  • Decision Making Meetings
  • Problem Solving Meetings
  • Innovation Meetings
  • Team Building Meetings

Here is a break-down of the six general types of meetings with examples of the main activities involve in each type. Knowing what type of meeting you are planning will increase the success of your meeting.

Meeting Type 1: Status Update Meetings

Status update meetings is one of the most common meeting types. This category includes regular team and project meetings, where the primary goal is to align the team via updates on progress, challenges, and next steps. Commonly found group activities in these kinds of meetings are problem solving, decision making, prioritization, and task assignment.

Meeting Type 2: Information Sharing Meetings

Presentations, panel debates, keynotes, and lectures are all examples of information sharing meetings. The primary goal of these meeting is for the speakers to share information with the attendees. This could be information about things like upcoming changes, new products and techniques, or in depth knowledge of a domain. Visual communication tools, like slides and videos, are powerful tools for making the shared information more memorable.

At information sharing meetings the attendees have historically been passive listeners. With new technologies like MeetingSift they can use their smart devices to go from passive spectators to active participants, making the meeting more engaging and productive for all.

Meeting Type 3: Decision Making Meetings

The vast majority of business decisions are made by groups in meetings. While small decisions are made in all kinds of meetings, the more important decisions often get their own dedicated meetings. There are different types of group decision making processes, and care should be taken to choose a process that best matches the situation. A decision making process can include group processes like information gathering and sharing, brainstorming solutions, evaluating options, ranking preferences, and voting.

Meeting Type 4: Problem Solving Meetings

Problem solving meetings are perhaps the most complex and varied type of meetings. Whether the meeting is addressing an identified problem, or it is focusing on creating strategies and plans to navigate the future, there are a rich arsenal of group processes that can be used. Scopes and priorities need to be defined, opportunities and threats need to be identified, and possible solutions should be brainstormed, evaluated, and agreed upon.

Meeting Type 5: Innovation Meetings

Innovation meetings and creative meetings often start with thinking outside the box, by brainstorming, associating, and sharing ideas in a broad scope. Meeting participants can then use various techniques and processes to reduce the diverse pool of ideas to a more focused short list. Through ranking, evaluations, and decision making the most suitable idea, or ideas, are identified, and recommendations and tasks can be assigned based on this.

Meeting Type 6: Team Building Meetings

All meetings should contribute to team building, strengthening relationships and corporate culture. However, now and then team building activities should be the main focus for a meeting. This category include meetings like include all-hands meetings, kick-off meetings, team building outings, and corporate events. Have participants feel like essential parts of their unit, team, department, branch, and company has all kinds of positive impact on their engagement, performance, and satisfaction.


'Sub rosa' council meetings - History

PHONE: 301-475-9791

Commissioners of Leonardtown


Tyler Alt


Christy Hollander


Mary Slade


Nick Colvin

Leonardtown LIVE
Downtown Webcam
Click to view

(Links Open In A New Window)

Property Tax Collectors/Payments
The Town of Leonardtown utilizes an online service called Auto Agent Software to provide information on property taxes, the amount, in the process of being paid or have been paid to avoid duplication.

BoardDocs
Digital public access to Town government
Click here for more information about BoardDocs

Town Meetings on YouTube

Leonardtown Resident Emergency Notification
Click Here To Subscribe

Mark Your Calendar!
View Upcoming Town Events

Downtown Strategic Plan
The Commissioners of Leonardtown adopted the Downtown Strategic Plan prepared by Mahan Rykiel Associates at their February 11, 2019 Town Council meeting. This plan is a product of many stakeholder sessions and public meetings. The plan will serve as a visionary document that shapes the future of downtown Leonardtown. The scope of the plan includes both economic and urban development strategies. Please take some time to read the plan found at the link below.
Downtown Strategic Plan

Take a virtual tour of Leonardtown, complete with business and service information, via our new 3D map. The map features both street and aerial views for your convenience.
Click to Visit Leonardtown!

Resources for Town Businesses


Follow us on Facebook and Twitter!


Maryland Tourism Information


A Message From the Mayor

First Fridays In Leonardtown
First Friday of Every Month, 5pm - 8pm
Many shops, galleries and restaurants have joined together to celebrate First Fridays in Leonardtown. New businesses are joining the party every month! Join us for Art, food, shopping and socializing while exploring the nooks and crannies of Leonardtown. Visit the First Fridays website for detailed information.


Block Reason: Access from your area has been temporarily limited for security reasons.
Time: Wed, 16 Jun 2021 18:55:12 GMT

About Wordfence

Wordfence is a security plugin installed on over 3 million WordPress sites. The owner of this site is using Wordfence to manage access to their site.

You can also read the documentation to learn about Wordfence's blocking tools, or visit wordfence.com to learn more about Wordfence.

Generated by Wordfence at Wed, 16 Jun 2021 18:55:12 GMT.
Your computer's time: .


The National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998

On October 9, 1998, President Clinton signed into law the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact (Compact) Act of 1998, establishing an infrastructure by which states can exchange criminal records for noncriminal justice purposes according to the laws of the requesting state and provide reciprocity among the states to share records without charging each other for the information. The Compact became effective April 28, 1999, after Montana and Georgia became the first two states to ratify it, respectively. To date, 34 states have ratified the Compact.

The National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 establishes a Council to promulgate rules and procedures for the effective use of the Interstate Identification Index (III) System for noncriminal justice purposes.

The Goal: To make available the most complete and up-to date records possible for noncriminal justice purposes.

The Mission: To enhance public safety through noncriminal justice background checks based on positive identification, while protecting individual privacy rights.

Compact Council Chairman:
Leslie Moore
Kansas State Bureau of Investigation


Commissioner Lawrence "Jabbow" Martin invites you to celebrate your magnificent milestones! Let's celebrate our great residents of Lauderhill's birthdays and anniversaries. Read More >>

In 2016, residents voted to approve a GO Bond for improvements to Parks, Public Safety and Roadways. Keep up with all the exciting projects here. .

The City of Lauderhill Educational Advisory Board announces their High School Scholarship opportunity for the Class of 2021. This award will provide a $500 scholarship for (2) graduating seniors residing in the City of Lauderhill. .

Recently, Lauderhill Vice Mayor Denise D. Grant put forth a Resolution that the month of May be considered Lauderhill Small Business Month. This was unanimously approved by the Lauderhill City Commission, and a full calendar of outreach events has been planned. .


Watch the video: September Council Meetings (August 2022).