Reindeer II YT-115 - History

Reindeer II YT-115 - History

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Reindeer II

(YT-115: dp. 270; 1. 94'6"; b. 24'9"; dr. 11'11"; s. 12 k.)

Reindeer (YT-115), a coal-burning harbor tug that developed 450 horsepower, was built in 1920 for the U.S. Shipping Board by Chanee Marine Construetion Co., Eastport, Md.

Taken over from the Shipping Board 9 December 1929 at Norfolk, Va., she was allocated to the 5th Naval District. Through her active naval career she provided harbor tug service in the port of Norfolk. She was redesignated YTM115, medium harbor tug, 15 May 1944.

Plaeed out of service at Little Creek, Va., 9 June ]945, she was struck from the Navy list 25 July 1945 and transferred to the Maritime Commission 17 January 1947 for disposal.

The Magical History Behind Vintage Christmas Ornaments

If you are fortunate enough to have boxes of decorations from your childhood Christmases, you will probably find a number of charming vintage ornaments among the mercury-glass balls and tin stars. There was a resurgence of interest in crafts following World War II, thanks in part to a wealth of kits and instruction books on such techniques as mosaic tiling, china painting, fanciful frosting, and pipe-cleaner ornaments. Especially at holiday time, novelty craft showed up in abundance at school fund-raisers and bake sales and as decorations at children's birthday celebrations and their parents' cocktail parties.

Today, such vintage Christmas decorations are in great demand among modern ornament makers looking for shapes and patterns to reproduce. Many of these collectible keepsakes can be found in your home. Endearing figures&mdasha debonair top-hat snowman, an amiable reindeer, or a workshop elf&mdashas well as your own favorite holiday characters are a delight to display.

Pictured here: this cardboard snowman, possibly intended for placement under a tree, was one of many traditional ornaments made in Japan in the 1950s. "They were first brought to America in the 19th century," says Fritz Karch, an antiques dealer based in Hopewell, New Jersey, and an avid collector of ornaments, who curated this story. "At that time, F. W. Woolworth had great success with German factories creating them for his stores in the States." With his monocle and pipe-cleaner mustache, this dapper fellow has personality to spare.

No holiday figure is as instantly recognizable as Kris Kringle, the jovial, red-suited icon who has inspired a whole world of Christmas decorations. Among the most delightful Santa ornaments are playful miniatures made of celluloid, an early plastic, sold at five-and-dimes in the '20s and '30s. For less than a dollar, you can buy a handful of these treasured reminders of Christmas past. These cheerful ornaments will inspire you to keep them in the family for years to come.

10 brr-illiant reindeer facts!

2) As the name suggests, reindeer are a species of deer. They are the only deer species in which both the male and female can grow antlers. In fact, males’ antlers can grow up to a whopping 1.4 metres in length and have as many 44 points, called ‘tines‘.

3) Reindeer can live for up to 15 years in the wild, although domesticated reindeer (reindeer that are cared for by humans), can live for as long as 20 years.

4) When grazing, a reindeer’s preferred food is a lichen – a fungi, moss-like plant that’s often found in high, open spaces. In fact, it’s so popular with reindeers that it’s now become known as ‘reindeer lichen!’

5) Humans have hunted reindeer for thousands of years for their meat, milk, fur and antlers – which can be fashioned into tools. For groups of people in Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden and Finland), Russia, China and Mongolia, reindeer herding is an ancient and important part of their culture.

6) Male reindeer can grow up to 1.2 metres tall at the shoulder and weigh up to 250 kilograms – that’s over three times the weight of an average person! Females are a little smaller than males.

7) These beautiful beasts may be big, but they are still the target of hungry predators! Wolverines, bears, and even eagles are just some of the animals that prey on reindeer.

8) Reindeer spend up to 40% of their lives in snow, so they’ve developed special adaptations to help them survive the chilly conditions. Their cloven hooves (divided into two) spread their weight, helping them stand on snow and soft ground. Their hollow fur helps to trap heat, and they’re good swimmers, too!

9) In Frozen II, the make-believe Northuldra tribe you see in the Enchanted Forest are based on the Sámi people – the famous reindeer herders of northern Norway. The Sámi really do use reindeer to pull sleighs through the snow, just like Sven does in the movie (and Santa does on Christmas Eve)!

10) Believe it or not, reindeer actually do have red noses like Rudolph! Well, sort of… Lots of tiny veins circulate warm blood around their nose, heating up the air they breathe in so they don’t get cold – clever!

St. Matthew Island — Overshoot & Collapse

The story of St. Matthew Island’s reindeer population from 1944 (29) to 1966 (42), featured in today’s Anchorage Daily News, is a potential metaphor for our times.

For many generations of reindeer, St. Matthew Island was literally a land of plenty. The reindeer population on the island exploded following its introduction. By 1963, the population had grown to more than 6000 reindeer. Two years later, 99% of that herd had died of starvation, having destroyed the environment that sustained them, depleting their primary energy source.

Fossil fuels are the lichen that has sustained the global human population explosion and the parallel growth of industrial throughput and consumption of the last 400 years.

After 1859, when Colonel Drake successfully drilled and produced oil in Pennsylvania, oil entered the human scene to compete with whale oil and coal. By the end of WWI, oil had begun to eclipse coal. By the 1960s, natural gas significantly entered the commercial scene as yet another primary energy source.

Globally, we humans have benefited from more than a hundred years of increasing abundance of high quality primary energy sources. Now, people like Bush-Cheney advisor Matthew Simmons at are saying we are entering an era of increasing high quality energy scarcity (read his speeches). Others blithely believe in the beneficent magic of human ingenuity. Who knows?

At any rate, here’s the story of reindeer on St. Matthew Island, Alaska:

During World War II , while trying to stock a remote island in the Bering Sea with an emergency food source, the U.S. Coast Guard set in motion a classic experiment in the boom and bust of a wildlife population.

The island was St. Matthew, an unoccupied 32-mile-long, four-mile-wide sliver of tundra and cliffs in the Bering Sea, more than 200 miles from the nearest Alaska village.

In 1944, the Coast Guard installed a loran (long range aids to navigation) station on St. Matthew to help captains of U.S. ships and aircraft pilots pinpoint their locations. The Coast Guard put 19 men on the island to operate the station.

In August 1944, the Coast Guard released 29 reindeer as a backup food source for the men. Barged over from Nunivak Island, the animals landed in an ungulate paradise: lichen mats 4 inches thick carpeted areas of the island, and the men of the Coast Guard station were the reindeer’s only potential predators.

The men left before they had the chance to shoot a reindeer. With the end of World War II approaching, the Coast Guard pulled the men from the island. St. Matthew’s remaining residents were the seabirds that nest on its cliffs, McKay’s snow buntings and other ground-nesting birds, arctic foxes, a single species of vole and 29 reindeer.

St. Matthew then had the classic ingredients for a population explosion: a group of healthy large herbivores with a limited food supply and no creature above them in the food chain. That’s what Dave Klein saw when he visited the island in 1957.

Klein was then a biologist working for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. He is now a professor emeritus with the University of Alaska Fairbanks’ Institute of Arctic Biology. The first time he hiked the length of St. Matthew Island in 1957, he and field assistant Jim Whisenhant counted 1,350 reindeer, most of which were fat and in excellent shape. Klein noticed that reindeer had trampled and overgrazed some lichen mats, foreshadowing a disaster.

Klein did not get a chance to return to the island until summer 1963, when a Coast Guard cutter dropped him and three other scientists off on the island. As their boots hit the shore, they saw reindeer tracks, reindeer droppings, bent-over willows, and reindeer after reindeer.

“We counted 6,000 of them,” Klein said. “They were really hammering the lichens.”

The herd was then at a staggering density of 47 per square mile. Klein noted the animals’ body size had decreased since his last visit, as had the ratio of yearling reindeer to adults. All signs pointed to a crash.

Other commitments and the difficulty of finding a ride to St. Matthew kept Klein away until summer 1966, but he heard a startling report from men on a Coast Guard cutter who had gone ashore to hunt reindeer in August 1965. The men had seen dozens of bleached reindeer skeletons scattered over the tundra.

When Klein returned in summer 1966, he, another biologist and a botanist found the island covered with skeletons. They counted only 42 live reindeer, no fawns, 41 females and one male with abnormal antlers that probably wasn’t able to reproduce. During a few months, the reindeer population had dropped by 99 percent.

Klein figured that thousands of reindeer starved during the winter after his last visit.

With no breeding population, the reindeer of St. Matthew Island died off by the 1980s. The unintended experiment in population dynamics and range ecology ended as it began — with winds howling over a place where arctic foxes are once again the largest mammals roaming the tundra.

Ned Rozell is a science writer at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. He can be reached at [email protected] .

Coming to America

In the Netherlands, kids and families simply refused to give up St. Nicholas as a gift bringer. They brought Sinterklaas with them to New World colonies, where the legends of the shaggy and scary Germanic gift bringers also endured.

But in early America Christmas wasn't much like the modern holiday. The holiday was shunned in New England, and elsewhere it had become a bit like the pagan Saturnalia that once occupied its place on the calendar. "'It was celebrated as a kind of outdoor, alcohol-fueled, rowdy community blowout," Bowler said. "That's what it had become in England as well. And there was no particular, magical gift bringer."

Then, during the early decades of the 19th century, all that changed thanks to a series of poets and writers who strove to make Christmas a family celebration—by reviving and remaking St. Nicholas.

Washington Irving's 1809 book Knickerbocker's History of New York first portrayed a pipe-smoking Nicholas soaring over the rooftops in a flying wagon, delivering presents to good girls and boys and switches to bad ones.

In 1821 an anonymous illustrated poem entitled "The Children's Friend" went much further in shaping the modern Santa and associating him with Christmas. "Here we finally have the appearance of a Santa Claus," Bowler said. "They've taken the magical gift-bringing of St. Nicholas, stripped him of any religious characteristics, and dressed this Santa in the furs of those shaggy Germanic gift bringers."

That figure brought gifts to good girls and boys, but he also sported a birch rod, the poem noted, that "directs a Parent's hand to use when virtue's path his sons refuse." Santa's thin wagon was pulled by a single reindeer—but both driver and team would get a major makeover the next year.

In 1822 Clement Clarke Moore wrote "A Visit From St. Nicholas," better known today as "The Night Before Christmas," for his six children, with no intention of adding to the fledgling Santa Claus phenomenon. It was published anonymously the next year, and to this day the plump, jolly Santa described therein rides a sleigh driven by eight familiar reindeer.

"It went viral," Bowler said. But familiar as the poem is, it still leaves much to the imagination, and the 19th century saw Santa appear in different-colored clothing, in sizes from miniature to massive, and in a variety of different guises. "I have a wonderful picture of him that looks exactly like George Washington riding a broomstick," Bowler said.

It wasn't until the late 19th century, he added, that the image of Santa became standardized as a full-size adult, dressed in red with white fur trim, venturing out from the North Pole in a reindeer-driven sleigh and keeping an eye on children's behavior.

The jolly, chubby, grandfatherly face of this Santa was largely created by Thomas Nast, the great political cartoonist in an era that featured many. "However, Nast did leave him half-sized," Bowler added, "and in what I think are rather indecent long johns."

Once firmly established, North America's Santa then underwent a kind of reverse migration to Europe, replacing the scary gift bringers and adopting local names like Père Noël (France) or Father Christmas (Great Britain). "What he's done is pretty much tame these Grimm's Fairy Tales-type characters from the late medieval days," Bowler said.

History Of The Radio City Rockettes

For almost a century, the Rockettes have been American icons. They have appeared at Radio City Music Hall in hundreds of stage spectaculars, and have participated in many historic and memorable events—like joining the USO and traveling abroad to entertain the troops and support wartime effort, and performing at the inauguration of the 43 rd president of the United States, George W. Bush, in 2001. Take a trip down memory lane to see how the Rockettes have evolved as an iconic part of American history.

The Rockettes began kicking up their shoes since Russell Markert, the Rockettes’ chief choreographer, image-preserver and resident “father figure” of the famous troupe until he retired in 1971, founded the exemplary American chorus line—an exciting precision dance company with great style, flair and glamour—in 1925.

Inspired by the British dance troupe formed by John Tiller (“The Tiller Girls” performed in a 1922 Ziegfeld Follies production), Russell wanted to achieve absolute precision and ultimate uniformity in the movements of the dancers. Originally, a Rockette had to be between 5𔃼″and 5𔄀 ½”, but today, she is between 5𔄀″and 5󈧎 ½” and has to be proficient in tap, modern, jazz and ballet. Starting with just 16 women, over the years the troupe grew to a line of 36 dancers.

The dancers known as the “Missouri Rockets” made their show debut in St. Louis. That same year, the troupe traveled to New York City to perform in the Broadway show Rain or Shine, and were discovered by showman S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel.

The “Missouri Rockets” were such an instant hit, that Rothafel was loath to let them leave after their performances at the Roxy Theatre, and pleaded with Markert to form another line to replace the departing dancers.

While there were three separate dance troupes performing in New York City in the early 󈧢s, Rothafel moved two of the troupes to Radio City Music Hall for opening night on Dec. 27th, 1932. Described as “the hottest ticket in town,” more than 100,000 people requested admission, but only 6,200 could be obliged.

Rothafel first dubbed the troupes as the “Roxyettes,” who performed a routine to the song “With a Feather in Your Cap” on opening night, but in 1934, the “Roxyettes” officially became the Radio City Music Hall Rockettes.

Two weeks after its gala opening, Radio City Music Hall premiered its first film, The Bitter Tea of General Yen. Radio City quickly became the favorite first-run theatre for moviemakers and moviegoers alike. Before long, a first showing at the Music Hall virtually guaranteed a successful run in theatres around the country.

Since 1933, more than seven hundred movies have opened at the Music Hall like the original King Kong, National Velvet, White Christmas, Mame, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, To Kill a Mockingbird, Mary Poppins, 101 Dalmatians and the Lion King.

Radio City featured a new movie every week accompanied by a lavish and unique stage production starring the Rockettes.

After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States entered World War II. The Rockettes were among the first entertainers to volunteer for the United Service Organizations (USO). They entertained our troops abroad and were involved in wartime shows at the Copacabana, the Army Air Corps base in Pawling, New York and at the Stage Door Canteen. The Rockettes and Eleanor Roosevelt even hosted a War Bond Rally at the World’s Most Famous Arena, Madison Square Garden.

Radio City was showing world premiere movies together with stage shows, sometimes as many as five a day. The movies kept playing as long as there was demand for tickets, and the shows changed every time the movies did. If a film failed at the box office, the Rockettes suddenly had to rehearse the new show at dawn, at midnight, and in between.

Because of their demanding schedule, Radio City Music Hall became their home away from home. They worked, played, ate and often slept within its walls. Facilities including a 26-bed dormitory, cafeteria, recreation area, tailor shop and hospital with medical staff, were provided to support and sustain what many recall as an extended family.

Americans in the 󈧶s increasingly turned to television for their entertainment, so it was inevitable that television would feature the Rockettes. They made their first TV appearance on Wide, Wide World, and also performed for the first time in the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in 1957. Like so many events the Rockettes took part in, it became a New York City tradition.

The 󈨀s were a time of social change and political activism, so it’s no surprise that the Rockettes broke new ground for women in those early years. In a salute to both Feminism and the Space Age, the Rockettes danced as astronauts on the Great Stage.

Their production numbers also reflected an incredible variety of music, dance and costuming (after the bikini craze that entered the fashion world in the 󈨀s, the Rockettes raised their kicks and hemlines!). They appeared as Geisha girls, hula dancers, bull fighters, chimney sweeps and even can-can dancers.

In 1961, Eastman Kodak, created a color photomural featuring the Rockettes. It was the largest mural of its kind ever made, and was hung in New York City’s Grand Central Terminal.

While Radio City was a popular venue for filmmakers to premiere a movie, it wasn’t uncommon for the stars to make an appearance before the showing. In 1962, none other than Cary Grant surprised the Rockettes when he came to promote his new movie, That Touch of Mink.

One of the most awesome productions in the history of Radio City took place with a salute to Walt Disney. Sections of the theme park’s famous Main Street, Frontierland, Tomorrowland and Fantasyland were recreated right on the Great Stage, all under the personal supervision of Walt Disney himself.

Radio City management began closing the theatre for weeks at stretch, leaving the once busy Rockettes with time on their hands. The troupe petitioned for the right to take the show on the road when Radio City was dark. In 1977, the Rockettes appeared at Harrah’s in Lake Tahoe, Nevada. Their precision dancing took the west coast by storm as they went on to play to sold-out crowds in Las Vegas. (They even opened for Liberace at the Las Vegas Hilton in 1979!).

In 1978, Radio City was slated to close due to financial problems. The Rockettes lead the crusade to save the theatre. In 1979, Radio City was designated a New York City landmark, saving it from the wrecking ball. The movie-and-stage-show format remained a Radio City signature until 1979, when the mass showcasing of new films called for a different focus.

The decade ended on a wonderful upbeat note. The Rockettes starred with Swedish-American actress, singer and dancer Ann-Margret in a two-hour television special, A Holiday Tribute to Radio City Music Hall. (Ann-Margaret even joined the Rockettes in their iconic “Parade of the Wooden Soldiers” number!).

The Rockettes led the fitness movement that swept the country. The dancers were arguably the fittest women in America. Radio City had moved to a new format: it no longer showed movies, but presented 90-minute stage shows. The Rockettes danced four or five numbers in each of them, four times a day, seven days a week, for four weeks straight. Then each woman got a week off.

During the 󈨔s, the Rockettes performed with Ginger Rogers in a show called, A Rockette Spectacular with Ginger Rogers, and also worked alongside Carol Lawrence and Liberace. They appeared as themselves in the movie Annie, starred in the 1988 Super Bowl halftime show and made a commercial for L’Eggs pantyhose, singing and dancing in praise of “a great pair of L’Eggs.”

They went on the road, too, and performed in Vegas and Lake Tahoe. There, Sammy Davis Jr., a great admirer of theirs, watched their show night after night. On their closing night, without warning, he stepped out on stage and joined the line (Former Rockette Leslie remembers him being one of the sweetest men she has every met!).

To celebrate the 50 th birthday of Radio City in 1982, producer and choreographer Bob Jani presented a lavish show featuring 50 years of Rockettes costumes. Another memorable event of throughout the 󈨔s was a series of three television specials in honor of the centennial of the Actors’ Fund of America. They were called The Night of 100 Stars, but actually over 200 of the most famous performers in the world took part if you were a star of stage, screen or television, you were there. And it all took place at Radio City, so of course the Rockettes welcomed the audience, danced the big opening number and even got to share the stage with talent like Dick Van Dyke, Lana Turner, Grace Kelly and Muhammad Ali.

The Rockettes continued to present their ever-popular Christmas Spectacular and Easter Extravaganza. Choreographers and designers created new routines and new costumes for them, but the historic Radio City Music Hall was beginning to show its age. Radio City’s parent company, decided that the world’s greatest theater was in need of the world’s greatest restoration. The vision? To restore Radio City to its former glory, to recapture the magnificence that made people gasp as they entered on that opening night back in 1932.

Every bit of gold leaf was repainted. Every one of 6,200 seats was recovered. In fact, there were now exactly 269 fewer seats. The company had surveyed the sightlines and ordered that seats be removed because they did not have an adequate view of the stage. They approved the purchase of a huge, 50,000-pound LED screen, which can be raised and lowered. It is the largest of its kind in the world. The projections from the screen’s “light emitting diodes” make all kinds of scenery possible, and take the audience on magical journeys.

Another innovation was the sound system. Radio City wasn’t satisfied that the audience was hearing the Rockettes’ pre-recorded taps they wanted the real thing. The company wouldn’t settle for the dancers to wear wired microphones and belt packs they were too bulky, and slowed down costume changes. So they challenged the best engineers to come up with a solution. Today, when the Rockettes are doing a tap number during the Christmas Spectacular, they wear custom dance shoes that have a special cavity within the heel for a sound transmitter, so what the audience hears is the actual rhythmic tapping of 72 feet.

When the Rockettes appeared in the Christmas Spectacular at the newly re-opened Radio City in 1999, one of the new numbers featured Santa Claus and his workshop. Greg Barnes, the Tony Award-winning designer who’s known for his costumes for Follies, Flower Drum Song and the revival of Bye Bye Birdie, created many outfits for the Rockettes, but perhaps his most memorable idea was to dress them as reindeer, complete with antlers. At every performance, when they pranced on stage pulling Santa’s sled, they brought down the house.

Radio City Music Hall marked the 75th Anniversary of the Rockettes, with around 2,500 women having shared in the legacy by performing as a Radio City Rockette.

In 2001, the Rockettes were invited to perform at 43 rd president of the United States George W. Bush’s inauguration in Washington D.C., where they danced their way down the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. In 2005, the Rockettes performed their second presidential inauguration.

Linda Haberman became the first woman named solo director and choreographer for the Rockettes in 2006. Trained at the School of American Ballet, Haberman was in the original cast of Bob Fosse’s Dancin’, then went on to become his assistant choreographer. Her vision for the Rockettes was to transform them into a contemporary dance company. Haberman’s amazing choreography brought the troupe to new heights, and demanded superb dance technique as well as true athleticism.

On the Radio City stage, her productions combined dance with the ground-breaking technology and called for the Rockettes to interact with 3D effects. For the “New York at Christmas” number, Haberman put the Rockettes on a full-scale double-decker bus, which moved in sync with images of the city projected on the 90-foot LED screen.

Haberman created the first touring productions of the Christmas Spectacular, which visited more than 80 cities in the United States during their time. The tour ended after the 2014 season, as new approaches were explored to best showcase the Christmas Spectacular and the Rockettes.

This decade saw an important new Rockettes dance education program: The Rockettes Summer Intensive, which offers aspiring professional dancers the unique opportunity to train with the Rockettes and learn their world-famous precision dance technique. More than 1,000 young dancers from across the country audition each year. Those who are accepted spend a week in New York, where they rehearse and learn the Rockettes’ disciplines and dance routines. To date, more than 60 Rockettes have come from this training program.

Since the 1990s, the Rockettes have only performed at Radio City Music Hall from November to January in the Christmas Spectacular. However, that changed in Spring 2015 when the Rockettes starred in a new eight-week production, The New York Spring Spectacular, alongside Tony Award-winner Laura Benanti and Dancing with the Stars’ Derek Hough.

In June 2016, the Rockettes performed on the Great Stage to celebrate New York City in The New York Spectacular. Centered around the trip of a lifetime for two kids, who, while on a vacation in New York, are separated from their parents, the city magically comes to life to show them its many splendid wonders.

The Rockettes have been busier and more in the public eye than ever. They have performed on the Great Stage with Oprah, Heidi Klum, Michael Bublé, and have made numerous appearances on The TODAY Show, The Chew, The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, Project Runway (a costume was designed during a special Rockettes-themed episode by finalist Christopher Palu!) and America’s Got Talent (2013, 2014 and 2015!).

From the moment they first appeared in 1925, the Rockettes have been American icons. They are symbols of what you can achieve if you move with passion, dream big, work hard and most importantly, believe in yourself.


Thirty-four years prior to the events of Frozen II, the Arendellian King Runeard led a contingent of Arendellians into the Enchanted Forest. His stated purpose was to maintain good relations between the two peoples and to present the Northuldrans with a gift - a dam which would strengthen their lands.

Secretly, however, King Runeard was fearful of all magic. He believed, quite wrongly, that any access to magic made people feel they are too powerful and led them to believe that they could defy the will of a king. The dam, in fact, was secretly a ploy to weaken their lands and, by extension, the people.

During a gathering between the Northuldra and Arendellians in the forest, Runeard secretly murders the Northuldra leader after the latter voices his realization about the dam harming the forest instead of helping it. After his murderous deed, Runeard instigates a war with the Northuldra, but conducts his actions in stealth, leading those of the royal guards, including Lieutenant Mattias, to believe that it was, in fact, the Northuldra who were responsible. During the fighting, Runeard falls off a cliff to his death along with another Northuldra he had been trying to strike down. The conflict angers the spirits of the forest, who run rampant and then a magical mist appears, creating a barrier that allows nobody to enter or leave the forest. However, a young Northuldran girl Iduna rescues the Arendellian Prince Agnarr, and the two later become friends upon returning to Arendelle. As adults, the couple fall in love, marry, and become King and Queen of Arendelle, respectively. Three years later, the couple have their first child, Elsa, who possesses magic as a gift from the spirits. After three more years, Agnarr and Iduna have their second daughter, Anna.


Data from the INTERHEART trial (Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction) showed that hypertension is one of the top risk factors for acute myocardial infarction with an odds ratio of 2.48 (99% CI, 2.30𠄲.68). Other risk factors identified in this population study included current smoking, raised ApoB/ApoA1, history of diabetes and psychosocial factors (88).

In the LIFE (Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension) trial, losartan was found to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and death by 13% compared to the beta-blocker atenolol (p=0.021) despite similar reductions in BP among hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (17). Losartan also reduced the incidence of fatal and nonfatal stroke by 25% compared to atenolol (p=0.002). If contrast, losartan did not reduce cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction compared to atenolol (89). In the VALUE (Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation) trial, valsartan did not show an advantage over amlodipine in reducing cardiac mortality and morbidity. However, in VALUE there was an unexpected difference in BP control, particularly during the first year of the study with the amlodipine arm resulting in a 17.3/9.9 mmHg versus 15.2/8.2 mmHg in those randomized to valsartan, respectively, pπ.0001). These differences likely contributed to the finding that cardiac events were significantly higher in the valsartan arm (90).

In the SCOPE (Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly) trial involving 4964 participants aged 70� years old with hypertension, candesartan (versus placebo) did not result in significant risk reduction in major cardiovascular event including myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality but nonfatal stroke was reduced by 27.8% (95% CI, 1.3 to 47.2, p=0.04) (91).

TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease) evaluated high-risk patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors with prior history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus without heart failure, with about 70% of the participants being hypertensive. Patients were randomized to telmisartan or placebo added to standard of care therapy (excluding a renin-angiotensin blocking therapy). After 56 months of follow-up, telmisartan resulted to fewer major cardiovascular events compared with placebo (15.7% versus 17.0%, respectively) but the result was not statistically significant [HR 0.92 (95% CI, 0.81 to1.05), p=0.216] (92).

Big Bands - Swing and Jazz

Big Band music, an offshoot of Swing and Traditional Jazz, was at the height of its popularity during the early 1940s. The genre focused on band leaders who often led four section musical ensembles with more than ten members. The four sections consisted of saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and rhythm (piano, bass, drums, and guitar). Big Band and Swing were somewhat interchangeable terms as Swing was often performed by Big Bands. The Dorsey Brothers (Tommy and Jimmy) best exemplified the genre as well as Glenn Miller. Band leaders worked on different arrangements of (often) the same songs and it was not uncommon to see the same song appear in the charts at the same time but by different artists. While improvisation was not necessarily of staple of Big Band, it was not an uncommon part of many live performances. Big Bands would often sign on short or long term engagements where they would perform night after night at certain clubs while touring the country, becoming an attracting as in the case of Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, and Artie Shaw. After World War II however, many clubs opted in favor of hiring smaller bands due to the high cost of accommodating and compensating "Big Bands" which led to the disbanding of several of the decades most popular groups as they could no longer sustain a viable tour. Big Bands could have male or female singers, and many of the top artists of the decade performed with big bands prior to embarking on successful solo careers. Examples include Frank Sinatra (Harry James' Band and Tommy Dorsey Orchestra), Doris Day (the Les Brown Band), Billie Holiday (Artie Shaw and the Gramercy Five and the Count Basie Band), Ella Fitzgerald (Chick Webb Orchestra), Helen Forrest (Harry James' Band), Bob Eberly (Glenn Miller's Orchestra), and Dick Haymes (Tommy Dorsey Orchestra).

The Racist History of Tipping

This week, the House of Representatives will have a chance to end a pernicious legacy of slavery. Lawmakers will vote on the Raise the Wage Act, which would boost the minimum wage across the country to $15 an hour by 2024. This would be a crucial step toward the first federal minimum wage increase in more than a decade.

A just-released Congressional Budget Office report finds that a $15 minimum wage would have tremendous benefits for low-wage workers of all races and ethnicities. Yet the stakes are particularly high for black workers. The share who would benefit from the Raise the Wage Act is far larger than the share of white workers who would benefit—38 percent compared with 23 percent.

There’s another provision in the legislation—eliminating the subminimum tipped wage—that corrects a wrong that goes much further back than the previous federal minimum wage increase. For workers regularly making more than $30 a month in tips, employers can currently pay as little as $2.13 an hour. That subminimum wage has been frozen at this level for decades. Should the Raise the Wage Act pass the House, it will mark the first time that either chamber of Congress has moved to eliminate the subminimum wage, which not only deepens economic inequalities but also happens to be a relic of slavery.

You might not think of tipping as a legacy of slavery, but it has a far more racialized history than most Americans realize. Tipping originated in feudal Europe and was imported back to the United States by American travelers eager to seem sophisticated. The practice spread throughout the country after the Civil War as U.S. employers, largely in the hospitality sector, looked for ways to avoid paying formerly enslaved workers.

One of the most notorious examples comes from the Pullman Company, which hired newly freed African American men as porters. Rather than paying them a real wage, Pullman provided the black porters with just a meager pittance, forcing them to rely on tips from their white clientele for most of their pay.

Tipping further entrenched a unique and often racialized class structure in service jobs, in which workers must please both customer and employer to earn anything at all. A journalist quoted in Kerry Segrave’s 2009 book, Tipping: An American Social History of Gratuities, wrote in 1902 that he was embarrassed to offer a tip to a white man. “Negroes take tips, of course one expects that of them—it is a token of their inferiority,” he wrote. “Tips go with servility, and no man who is a voter in this country is in the least justified in being in service.”

The immorality of paying an insufficient wage to workers, who then were forced to rely on tips, was acknowledged at the time. In his popular 1916 anti-tipping study, The Itching Palm, writer William Scott described tipping as an aristocratic custom that went against American ideals. “The relation of a man giving a tip and a man accepting it is as undemocratic as the relation of master and slave,” Scott wrote. “A citizen in a republic ought to stand shoulder to shoulder with every other citizen, with no thought of cringing, without an assumption of superiority or an acknowledgment of inferiority.”

Several states sought to end the practice in the early 1900s, often in recognition of its racist roots. But the restaurant industry fought back and was powerful enough to roll back local bans on tipping. And tipped workers—along with most others, as the act applied to industries that together made up only one-fifth of the labor force—were excluded from the first, limited federal minimum wage law passed in 1938.

It took until 1966 for advocates to win a base wage for tipped workers, and that amounted to only 50 percent of the minimum wage already guaranteed to other workers. Congress continued to raise the subminimum tipped wage until 1996, when Herman Cain, who headed the National Restaurant Association at the time, offered legislators a bargain: The industry would accept a small increase in the minimum wage as long as the tipped wage was frozen at $2.13 an hour.

Congress agreed to the deal, and the tipped minimum wage remains just $2.13 to this day. Employers are supposed to pay the difference if tips don’t bring workers to the full regular minimum wage. But too often that law is not enforced. When the Department of Labor conducted an unusual compliance sweep of 9,000 full-service restaurants between 2010 and 2012, they found that 84 percent had violated the subminimum wage system.

A century later, the industry lobby continues its fight to uphold this two-tiered pay system. Where social movements have gotten cities to pass minimum wage hikes, the lobby has pressured state legislatures to ban local wage increases altogether. The industry also fought to overturn voter-approved initiatives in Maine and Washington, D.C., that would have ended the subminimum tipped wage, while they lobbied legislators in Michigan to keep the issue from reaching the ballot in the first place.

That’s why national action to finally reverse this particular vestige of slavery is so vital. No one can live on $2.13 an hour—a poverty wage.

We may live in a very different society from 150 years ago, but the subminimum tipped wage still exacerbates the inequalities passed down from that time. Workers in the restaurant industry are far more likely to be poor or near-poor than the general population. Sure, upscale restaurants where wealthy patrons offer servers good tips on expensive menu items can provide a good living, but those jobs are few and far between—and dominated by white men.

Research also shows that tipping itself has a racial component: Customers generally give white workers bigger tips than black workers, regardless of service quality. Thanks in part to segregation within the industry and discrimination from patrons, restaurant worker poverty rates are highest for women and people of color.

Ending the subminimum wage would right one of the historical wrongs keeping certain groups of workers from receiving the full protections they are due, but ultimately, low wages driven by racism hurt workers of all races. Three times as many white workers as black workers stand to get a raise if the federal minimum wage hike passes. Undoing systemic racism opens up opportunities for all people.

With a Republican Senate and president, the Raise the Wage Act might not become national law in the immediate future. But a vote by the House to end the subminimum tipped wage would send an unmistakable signal to the several states considering similar legislation: The days of these racist tiered wage systems are coming to an end.

CORRECTION: This article has been updated to reflect the new timing of the House vote.

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