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Short Bull, a member of the Sioux tribe, was born in about 1845. He became active in the Ghost Dance movement and in 1890 visited Wovoka at Pyramid Lake, Nevada.
After the murder of Sitting Bull and the events that led up to Wounded Knee Massacre Short Bull was imprisoned at Fort Sheridan, Illinois.
In 1891 Short Bull was released from custody and he was permitted to join Buffalo Bill Cody and his Wild West Show. He remained for several years and made several trips to Europe.
Short Bull died on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota in 1915.
A Short History of Bull-Baiting in Leeds
The blood-sport of bull-baiting became popular in England in the 17th and early 18th centuries. It was born out of a misconception that, if a bull was baited just before market, its meat would be more tender. The cruel practice involved tethering a bull with a rope or chain attached to its collar, or a ring through its nose, within a bull-ring, or a pit, approximately 30 feet in diameter. The hapless creature had pepper blown up its nose to agitate it and was then set upon by up to three bulldogs.
A good dog would practically crawl upon its belly, to avoid being kicked or gored, and attack the bull’s stomach – although many were injured or killed in the process. The other dogs would then try to fasten on to the bull’s withers. In some variants, the dogs would try to force the bull to the ground by attacking its snout. Once the bull had been immobilised, the dogs’ owners would prise apart their jaws with a stave.
This barbaric sport was particularly popular in Leeds and continued well into the 19th century at Wortley, in an area subsequently known as the Bull Ring, and at Woodhouse Moor. There was once a Methodist church in Wortley known as the Bull Ring Chapel. The sport was outlawed by the passing of the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835 but appears to have continued illegally well beyond that, judging by a reference to the Bull Stone of Guiseley in Philemon Slater’s ‘History of the Ancient Parish of Guiseley’ (written in 1880):
“fastening bulls to it [the Bull Stone] when they were baited by dogs, a custom still known to the Carlton farmers.”
It could be a dangerous practice and there are at least two recorded deaths from bull-baiting in Leeds. The first was at Quarry Hill on 1 September 1755 when John Westerman “had his thigh terribly gored by the bull, of which wound he languished until Saturday [5 September] and then expired.” (Leeds Intelligencer, 9 September 1755)
The other was at Beeston on 28 August 1782 when three dogs attacked a bull being led by its owner. The bull broke free at kicked out, striking its owner with “so violent a blow to his breast, as to occasion his immediate death.” (Leeds Intelligencer, 3 September 1782).
After the sport was finally eradicated, the Old English Bulldog breed became extinct and the modern equivalent lacks the necessary physical qualities to tackle a bull – it is more docile and has a much shorter muzzle.
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A Short History of Watusi Cattle
Over 8,000 years ago humans first domesticated Aurochs, the wild ancestor of the numerous breeds of cattle that have played such an important role in human development. In the thousands of years after this first momentous event, humans have bred herds of domesticated animals for use as transportation, companions, protection, clothing and food. In these domesticated groups individual animals exhibiting certain characteristics were selected by the herdmaster and bred to each other. The resulting generations ultimately created the hundreds of breeds of cattle presently known to man. The Aurochs themselves became extinct prior to 1627, but their legacy lives on.
For some 6000 years a group of very similar cattle with huge horns have played a role in the lives of African tribes. Various breeds of cattle were mixed through generations as humans moved across the African continent until the distinctive Sanga type was produced. Sanga cattle are the background type for many of the individual breeds now available. One of the oldest and definitely most exciting breeds of these cattle is most commonly referred to as Watusi. Also known as the Cattle of Kings, Ankole cattle and Royal Ox, this breed originated in eastern Africa, most commonly in the areas of Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Lake Victoria and Tanganyika. The various members of this breed are often named for the tribe that raises them or are classified by the area in which they are raised Watusi, for the Tutsi tribes of Rwanda and Burundi Ankole, Bahima, Bashi and Kigezi and Kivu. Cave drawings which have survived for thousands of years, as well as Egyptian tomb paintings. These and other artifacts suggest that the predecessors to the present day breed played an important role in the lives of the tribes. In Rwanda where the Tutsi ruled the common type of Watusi were known as Insanga (meaning “the ones which were found” because according to tradition they had been discovered by the first kings) and exceptional individuals with huge horns were known as Inyambo (”the cows with long, long horns” purportedly to have been twelve feet or more from tip to tip)and were only owned by the King and considered to be sacred.
The cattle herds played an important role in tribal life. The herds provided a form of barter, trade and a sign of wealth within the tribe. The animals provide a source of food when none would otherwise have been available. Seldom slaughtered for meat, except in ceremonies such as the coming of adulthood, the cows are frequently milked and bled to make a yogurt like high protein drink. This clabbered milk drink is a staple to the diet. The animals themselves provide status for a man within the tribe, his wealth being measured by the number and quality of animals that he owns. In addition they are used as gifts to a brides family at the time of marriage a tradition known as bridewealth. Physically even present day Watusi are striking. They posess the largest and most dramatic horns of any breed of cattle. Individuals in this country have been known to have horn bases that measure 28 inches in circumference, 8 inches in diameter and eight feel from tip to tip. The horns vary from lateral almost flat growth to an upswept arched shape known as lyre, sometimes with the tips almost touching. Watusi are stately and tall, relatively long legged and posses a small to negligible cervico-thorasic hump (placed up towards the base of the neck). These animals have an extremely long, rope-like tail for swatting insects. Watusi are most commonly a deep red or red with some white speckling, however, they are also known to occur in black, brown, white, yellow, dun, gray and brindled as well as some heavily spotted combination of these colors.
Nature helped to develop the characteristics of Watusi in order to allow the survival of the breed. In the predator infested wilderness of eastern Africa an animal that could not protect itself and its young from predators would be doomed to quick and violent death and eventual extinction. Similarly they must remain strong under adverse conditions to still survive the attacks. For this reason nature and the herdsmen selected the large horned females that could fend off the cunning attacks of groups of jackals or lions to protect herself and her young., The young have to be born quickly and they must be strong enough to outrun the predators within a short time of birth. The mother must produce a highly nutritious milk to nourish the young for the speed and stamina necessary in the environment and must be able to produce it from whatever feed may be available.
In Watusi the cows and bulls are long legged, making them capable of running and jumping with tremendous agility. The cows have a small, tight udder that would not be an easy target for predators or thorn bushes, yet they produce milk to nourish their young that tests out with very high butter fat. They give birth to a very small calf with the ease that is natural to wild species of animals. The calves are especially alert and are capable of running along with their mothers and the herd within a short time of birth. The breed is highly social, much preferring to stay in a group for company and protection. At night they tend to form a circle with adults lying on the outside, horns out to protect the calves located in the inner circle. The calves will hang in groups by day, always in close proximity to at least one adult and when frightened will instinctively run in front of the horns of a retreating mother or under her belly for protection.
Modern Watusi are a medium sized bovine with cows generally weighing from 800 to 1200 pounds and bulls weighing from 1000 to 1600 pounds. The newborn calves weigh from 30 to 50 pounds. In the animal industry there are almost as many reasons behind and goals in front of an operation as there are people involved. Watusi can till the requirements of many aspects of this industry. The first and most obvious is the uniqueness of this animal. They look exotic and are certain show stoppers as a display novelty. With this animal you can have it all. They are striking for display as are antelopes, gazelles and other, horned hoofstock, yet handle with the ease of cattle. To cattle breeders, Watusi possess some very desirable traits of great importance to the potential buyer and many that have been lost or bred out of other modern breeds. In addition they can add some exiting differences that appeal to a broad range of needs and desires. In the harsh environment in which this breed has adapted for centuries, survival is the primary consideration. through all of these years they have become highly tolerant to brutal extremes of condition. Watusi are especially resistant to drought, heat and direct sunlight. Their huge horns (shown at right) act as a natural cooling system by circulating blood through to the ends of the horn to disperse the heat before returning it to the body. In addition, their digestive systems have the ability to utilize poor quality and limited quantities of food and water. Their native homeland can boast days in the which temperatures can soar to 120° and nights can plummet to 20°, this in addition to low quality sparsely available feeds, seasonally limited water supplies, virulent diseases, predators and parasites that would have long ago destroyed less hardy animals. Yet through it al, Watusi have flourished. These survival abilities have allowed them as a breed to not only survive the centuries in Africa but to become established on the continents of Europe, South America, Australia and North America.
Watusi cattle first made their appearance in the United States in 1960 when 2 bulls, which were born in Scandinavia, were imported. It took another three years before the first female was brought in to keep them company. From these recent and meager beginnings an arduous breeding program was developed. To aid in the development of the breed whose numbers were so severely limited and to add hi-bred vigor to such a small genetic pool, an up-breeding program was developed. Under this program, Foundation Pure bulls (those of 100% Watusi bloodlines) were bred to females of other breeds. The female offspring of this first mating were registered as 1/2 blood and bred back to Foundation Pure bulls. The offspring of this second generation were registered as 3/4 blood. The females of this 3/4 generation were bred back to Foundation Pure bulls again to produce 7/8 %. Females of 7/8% and above are now registered as Native Pure, males must reach 15/16% prior to being designated as Native Pure. Any Native Pure female bred to a Foundation Pure bull will produce a Native Pure offspring. Native Pure bulls can be bred to percentage females and their offspring registered. Foundation Pure animals are only the result of breeding Foundation Pure to Foundation Pure.
Today, thanks to the efforts of dedicated private breeders and zoos who have worked over the years to help reserve these magnificent animals, breeding stock is now available to the public. The World Watusi Association was formed as a non-profit corporation designed to collect, record and preserve the pedigrees of Watusi cattle worldwide. It maintains the breeding registry and stud book as well as regulates the standards by which this multi-faceted breed is known. The Association also sanctions sales and shows in order to help promote and present these magnificent animals to the public. The World Watusi Association publishes information on this breed in its official newsletter Watusi World which is available in the bi-monthly publication, Rare Breeds Journal.
The Shorty Bull is a compact and muscular bulldog of small stature. The head is round with typical bulldog features. Eyes are set far apart and should not protrude. Jaw should be curved, not straight. Nose should be turned up slightly and may be black or liver colored. Dudley noses are a cosmetic fault. Should have an undershot bite, but not excessively undershot. The eyes may be any color, although brown is the preferred eye color. The ears are cropped or dropped. Rose or erect ears are considered a fault. The body should be short from the back of the neck to the tail. The chest should be broad for height and have depth reaching to the elbow. A compact look is desired. The width of the front quarters and hindquarters should be proportionate, not lending to a narrow rear, and the chest may be broader than the rear. Very narrow hindquarters are considered a fault. The shoulders and rump should be well rounded and well-muscled, lending to an appearance of strength. There may be a slight rise over the loins. The legs are heavy boned and in direct proportion to the body. Long legs in proportion to the body or fine bones are a fault. Cow-hocked or pigeon-toed is a fault. The dog should have tight feet and straight pasterns. Splayed feet are a fault. The tail is short, either docked or screwed. All coat colors accepted except merle or black and tan.
The Shorty Bull is a good-natured, even-tempered, stable dog. This breed needs leadership and will not thrive without it. When it senses an owner is meek or passive toward it, it will become fairly willful. These dogs respond best to an owner who is calm, but firm, consistent and patient. Proper human to canine communication is essential. Very willing to please. Makes a great companion and is ready and willing to work.
Height: 15 inches (38 cm) and under.
Weight: 40 pounds (18 kg) and under.
The Shorty Bull does best living indoors close to its family.
The Shorty Bull is more agile and athletic than the English Bulldog. It needs to be taken for a daily long walk where it is heeling beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog's mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human.
Very little grooming is needed. Regular brushings will do. This breed is an average shedder.
The founders of the Shorty Bull are Jamie Sweet and Amy Krogman. The Shorty Bull is a new line of bulldogs that are being bred in the miniature size. Unlike a lot of other bully breeds bred down in size, the Shorty Bulldog does not contain Boston Terrier or Pug in its lines. These dogs are being bred for their working ability and physical traits and not solely on looks.
- ABKC = American Bully Kennel Club
- BBC = Backwoods Bulldog Club
- BBCR = Bully Breed Coalition Registry
- DRA = Dog Registry of America, Inc.
Adult, female Shorty Bull, photo courtesy of Precious Jems Kennel
Adult, male Shorty Bull, photo courtesy of Precious Jems Kennel
Shorty Bull pup at 6 months old, photo courtesy of Precious Jems Kennel
Shorty Bull pup at 6 months old, photo courtesy of Precious Jems Kennel
The Material contained herein may not be reproduced without the prior written approval of the author. Contents & Graphics Copyright © Dog Breed Info Center® (C) 1998-. All Rights Reserved. Our work is not Public Domain.
HISTORY OF SHORTS
To understand shorts or any fashion style in the present, we have to start by looking at various unique moments in history that likely influenced society’s priorities and how the culmination of those values and situations led to and organically shaped what we now consider as acceptable in present day thinking about men’s shorts.
England prospered during the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547). A rise of consumerism created a new bourgeois (middle) class that became more influential and started to separate itself from the impoverished gentry. This made it increasingly difficult to tell the wealthy merchants apart from the nobles. In order to make the classes more easily identifiable, King Henry VIII enacted what later came to be known as Sumptuary laws. Sumptuary laws restrict the type and style of clothing (as well as other luxuries), that could be worn. This was sold to the people in the name of being something that regulated and reinforced modesty (for protecting public morals), But what it really did was to create visible class separations and make people easily identifiable based on their social rank. Whereas in earlier times, sumptuary laws existed because they divided people into explicit categories based on class. Modern society regulations are more proscriptive and tend towards appropriate dress being: what people may not wear and often based on religion. An example is sumptuary laws in Colonial American, where Puritans sought to influence identity by curbing extravagance in dress. Regulating dress has gone back a long time, many laws have been written, but few have stood the test of time. Today, Laws on dress haven’t disappeared, so much as having metamorphosized so far away from their original form that their present is unrecognizable from their past.
Before the French Revolution, the working class wore long pants and the aristocracy wore culottes. After the French Revolution, all classes began to wear pants. The pervasive mentality at the time was that shorts were for young boys. Until around the end of the 19th century, male infants in the Western world wore long white dresses, which became shorter white dresses as they grew older and became toddlers. Upon becoming boys, they started to wear shorts and during middle childhood, they switched to breeches and finally in their teens to long trousers. This progression - evolving out of femininity, towards manhood - really did suggest that being an adult male was essentially defined as “someone who wears pants.” (Britches is a variant of breeches, not a corruption)
The innovation of photography at the turn of the 19th century helps give us a better understanding. Shorts owe much of their contemporary origins to the military. Possibly the earliest example (the 1880s) of modern-day shorts is the uniform of the heavily respected Nepalese army. (Much like our khaki shorts of today, but four generous pockets and a distinctive cummerbund waistband with buckles and adjustable straps) The British East India Company defeated the Gurkha soldiers in The Anglo-Nepalese War, but upon surrender had such respect for the bravery and ability of the Gurkha soldiers, that part of the treaty stipulated that Britain could employ its soldiers to fight alongside them in future battles. Present-day, it is a statue of a Ghurka soldier wearing shorts that stands guard in front of The Ministry of Defense at Whitehall, in the heart of the British Empire.
During World War I, Britain set up its North American Headquarters in Bermuda. There was a single tea shop on the island and because of the British soldiers, business boomed. The tropical heat and the steaming pots of tea made the temperature inside the little tea shop oftentimes unbearable. The owner, a man named Nathaniel Coxton, not wanting to spend money on new uniforms for his staff, took all the khaki trousers to a local tailor who cut them just above the knee. Rear Admiral Mason Berridge, who took his tea in this little shop, adopted the style for his fellow officers and named them. The British Navy founded the yacht clubs in Hamilton St. George, soon officers of the British Army serving elsewhere began adopting the smart looking, summer version of the khaki military uniform. Before long the men in London, who made such uniform decisions on behalf of the military, stated that standard dress was to be khaki shorts amongst all British soldiers serving elsewhere in the sub-tropics of The Old British Empire. The local people of Bermuda certainly began noticing the smartly dressed British officers milling around the yacht clubs and tailors began to copy and modify the style for civilian use. This helped to establish it and by the 1920’s it had become the standard business attire of the local men. At the time, Bermuda was a very popular steamship destination and tourists arriving for winter holiday helped to spread the style back to the United States and elsewhere around the world.
No country has influenced the school uniforms worn by children around the world more than England. Originally, uniforms were first adopted by charity institutions to identify the children receiving charity. Only later, did exclusive private schools adopt the uniforms, with the goal of discipline and uniformity, but paradoxically, the uniforms served to famously identify the status of students from prestigious schools. With few exceptions, it was grey wool flannel shorts, based on the short trouser uniform worn by the British Military in Tropical settings. The style was also picked up by the Boy Scouts, whose founder, Lord Baden Powell, himself a Major General for the British Army. After the turn of the 1900s, baggy-kneed trousers to the ankle known as knickerbockers (or knickers) were the common athletic wear. As these British schoolchildren grew into adults and started to influence the things around them, shorts gradually became more acceptable in society. First, with outdoor activities like hiking and golf and from there they made the very public jump to tennis. In 1932, when Britain’s top-ranked tennis player, Bunny Austin appeared in the U.S. National Championships in Forest Hills, New York, he wore flannel shorts on the field instead of the standard white trousers, but after, before appearing in public, he had to change into clean and ironed long pants.
In the United States up until the ’50s, the unspoken rule of etiquette was that a grown man should not show himself in public while wearing short pants. Some towns looked at this as a matter of common decency and went so far as to ban the wearing of shorts. The city of Honesdale, PA., for instance, banned them in 1938. One city leader telling the newspaper, 'Honesdale is a modest town, not a bathing beach.' In the early 1950s, the United States Golf Association banned golfing shorts for amateur tournament play and to this day the USGA’s PGA forbids players from wearing shorts during competitive play. In the period after World War II, Western civil society began to shrug off the conformity that had been required. Society began to reorganize itself as more casual & perhaps took more of a distrustful view of stuffiness. An outgrowth of the population shift to warmer climates and suburbs, plus the growth of patio culture meant that Bermuda shorts were now seen as acceptable everyday wear.
The ’60s brought war, politics, hippies. liberation, festivals and homemade jean shorts. It was anything goes and minds that felt free to question authority. The 70’s followed shortly after with birth control, disco & divorce. All of which gave rise to a newfound openness about putting it out there and expressing yourself through style. People started posing, showing skin and flaunting it …. while questioning tradition and Its stuffy attire. Media moved more deeply into the mainstream and Hollywood started to have a greater influence on our decisions. Styles followed these new open ideas - getting shorter, tighter and more revealing. (Magnum P.I., Bionic Man, Love Boat) The classic OP barely there corduroy surf shorts were the height of beachy fashion. New materials, terry-cloth and polyester and thanks to the fitness craze sweeping the nation, sportswear and fashion started merging & athletic wear became mainstream fashion for the first time. Inspired by basketball legends like Dr. J and Larry Bird and tennis stars like Björn Borg and John McEnroe. Tiny over the top gym shorts became a hot seventies fashion item that took short to a whole new level and make some people glad the ’70s are over.
James Bond fighting tropical foes in skimpy attire and doing for men in Thunderball, what Ursula Andress had done for women ten years earlier in Dr. No. Sean Connery wears three different pairs of Jantzen shorts with their familiar ‘diving girl’ logo (at one time, the 7th most recognizable brand trademark in the world. But because of various disastrous ownership changes, currently only making woman’s swimwear). As the film series progresses, 007’s short inseams gradually gives way to a longer Bulldog cut, a few stylish coin pockets are added - Everything is almost always blue and then his shorts get very short all over again.
As the 1970s and 80’s came to an end, short styles for men became longer and therefore more modest. Michigan basketball’s 1991’s “best-recruiting class ever” created a cultural shift, from short shorts to a new, longer, baggy short, that asserted ego, personality, and a new style of player. A path of success and swagger from five young guys, that ended up influencing style both in the NBA and on the street.
No piece about men’s shorts would be complete without mentioning cargo shorts – To some, they are the fanny pack of fashion. Cargo Pants were first worn by the British infantry and introduced to American Paratroopers in the early 1940s. During the ’80s, American veterans brought them home with them and they started showing up in military surplus stores. Eventually, they ended up trickling down into street fashion subculture, where people kept the utility of the pockets but did away with the fabric below the knee. It took about ten years to catch on, but all the big brands eventually got in on the action and the largely male demographic flocked to its lazy simplicity in droves. They peaked during the ’90s when oversized clothing was out of control and became something of a way of life for backyard barbeques and college campuses. The thing that held their popularity around longer than it might otherwise have was grunge music plus the fact that not enough men had actually thrown their cargo shorts away and the introduction of cell phones, which meant that those empty oversized freeform pockets now had an actual urban purpose and back out of the drawer they came. Slowly the silhouette was trimmed down, ripstop became chino fabric and the style went of safari…. till the whole concept became so visually ridiculous that backlash started. In 2015, no less than The Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, New York Times all published viral stories with tales from suffering wives calling cargo shorts everything from a running gag for lazy guys who like energy drinks and peaked in high school to that they send a social signal that you’re a guy who has a terrible credit score and takes a lot of selfies. When it all died down, basically they had become the single worst item a man can wear and there was no one left to defend the increasingly out of fashion cargo short.
Old Bull Lee
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Definition and Summary of the Wounded Knee Massacre
Summary and Definition: The massacre at Wounded Knee took place on December 29, 1890 on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota. The incident was sparked by the Ghost Dance movement and the death of Chief Sitting Bull. It involved the 7th US Cavalry under Colonel James W. Forsyth who clashed with the Lakota Sioux. The Lakota Sioux were led by Spotted Elk, also known as Big Foot. The conflict resulted in the massacre of nearly 400 Lakota Sioux the majority of which were women and children.
Wounded Knee Massacre
Benjamin Harrison was the 23rd American President who served in office from March 4, 1889 to March 4, 1893. One of the important events during his presidency was the Wounded Knee Massacre.
Wounded Knee Creek
The site of the conflict was Wounded Knee Creek. Wounded Knee Creek is a branch of the White River in the Black Hills of South Dakota
Wounded Knee History: The Ghost Dance Movement
The Wounded Knee massacre occured during a turbulent time in U.S. history. Native American Indians had been dispossessed of their lands outnumbered by the white Europeans and forcibly relocated to inhospitable reservations. The Ghost Dance Movement was a religious and spiritual revival of the Great Plains Indian tribes. The Medicine Man, or Shaman, called Wovoka had experienced visions and prophesized that by performing the Ghost Dance the ghosts, or spirits of the dead, would re-unite with the living and bring peace and prosperity to Native American Indians. The U.S. Government were concerned about the rapid growth of the Ghost Dance Movement and believed that Chief Sitting Bull would start an Indian uprising. Their attempts to arrest Sitting Bull led to his death, which in turn resulted in the Wounded Knee
Wounded Knee Facts for kids
Interesting facts about the Wounded Knee Massacre for kids are detailed below. The history of the Wounded Knee Massacre is told in a factual sequence consisting of a series of short facts providing a simple method of relating the history and events of the Wounded Knee.
Wounded Knee Facts for kids
Wounded Knee Fact 1: The Ghost Dance Movement started in 1888 by Wovoka spread words of hope among the tribes, especially the Lakota Sioux of the Great Plains.
Wounded Knee Fact 2: The Ghost Dancers quickly increased in number. Wovoka was clear that the Ghost Dance was a peaceful movement and there should be no fighting.
Wounded Knee Fact 3: Two Sioux chiefs, Grant Short Bull and Kicking Bear, believed that militant action would accelerate the removal of the white man from North America.
Wounded Knee Fact 4: The Battle of Little Bighorn was fought less than 20 years previously. The memory of the shocking defeat of the 7th Cavalry led by General George Custer against Chief Sitting Bull unnerved the US Government who attempted to ban the Ghost Dance.
Wounded Knee Fact 5: An attempt was made to arrest Chief Sitting Bull on December 15, 1890 at the Standing Rock Reservation. A gun fight broke out and Chief Sitting Bull was killed. Twenty-eight soldiers were killed and another 30 were wounded.
Wounded Knee Fact 6: Fearing further repercussions, Chief Spotted Elk, also known as Big Foot, led the followers of Sitting Bull to the "Bad Lands" of Dakota and to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to seek shelter with Chief Red Cloud.
Wounded Knee Fact 7: They were pursued by the U.S. Army but avoided them for 5 days. During this time Chief Spotted Elk contracted pneumonia and became extremely sick.
Wounded Knee Fact 8: The government ordered that the Native Indians should be compelled to give up their weapons, believing that the disarming of the Indians was the only way to ensure peace.
Wounded Knee Fact 9: On December 28, the 7th Cavalry, under the leadership of Colonel James W. Forsyth, intercepted the ailing Spotted Elk and his people at near Porcupine Butte and ordered them to camp 5 miles away at Wounded Knee Creek.
Wounded Knee Fact 10: Colonel James W. Forsyth ordered them to make ready to give up their weapons.
Wounded Knee Massacre for kids
The info about the Wounded Knee Massacre provides interesting facts and important information about this important event that occured during the presidency of the 23rd President of the United States of America.
Wounded Knee Facts for kids
Interesting facts about the Wounded Knee are continued below.
Wounded Knee Facts for kids
Wounded Knee Fact 11: The Native Indians complied with the request and stacked their guns and knives outside the tepee of Spotted Elk.
Wounded Knee Fact 12: The 7th Cavalry had surrounded the Native Indian camp that consisted of families with young children and babies. The troops were supported by four Hotchkiss guns.
Wounded Knee Fact 13: The Hotchkiss gun was a type of Cannon consisting of a revolving barrel machine gun designed to be light enough to travel with cavalry.
The revolving Hotchkiss cannon was capable of firing 68 rounds per minute with a range of 2,000 yards.
Wounded Knee Fact 14: Chief Spotted Elk had no intention of fighting the cavalry. There were 500 US troops and Chief Spotted Elk had less than 100 men.
Wounded Knee Fact 15: Soldiers entered the camp to collect the weapons. According to some records, a Shaman named Yellow Bird began to perform the Ghost Dance.
Wounded Knee Fact 16: Yellow Bird resisted being searched by a soldier. A gun went off - and the massacre began.
Wounded Knee Fact 17: Yellow Bird was shot dead. The soldiers entered the tepee of the sick Spotted Elk and he was killed where he lay. Shots were fired at all the people who desperately tried to escape the carnage. But the guns kept firing.
Wounded Knee Fact 18: Soldiers on the hill fired at the teepees with the Hotchkiss guns. The bodies of men, women and were scattered for over a mile from the camp site.
Wounded Knee Fact 19: After a terrible blizzard that lasted for three days the frozen bodies of 400 Native Indians were collected and, without ceremony, thrown in a mass grave.
Wounded Knee Fact 20: Army casualties numbered 25 dead and 39 wounded. The Army awarded twenty Medals of Honor and Colonel James W. Forsyth was promoted to Major General.
Wounded Knee Facts for kids
Wounded Knee Massacre for kids - President Benjamin Harrison Video
The article on the Wounded Knee provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following Benjamin Harrison video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 23rd American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1889 to March 4, 1893.
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The Man Behind the Legend Who Is Sitting Bull
Little Big Horn, Custer's Last Stand, the Wild West Show and the Ghost Dance. These are all events associated with one legendary figure who started life with the nickname "Slow." Of course, we're talking about none other than Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota warrior, holy man, shirt wearer and leader.
His image today is recognizable, but the facts about his life are often muddled by misrepresentations and 19th-century political machinations.
Sitting Bull's Early Life
Born around 1831 in today's South Dakota, he was named Jumping Badger but was called Slon-ha, which means slow, until he earned the name for which he would become known. At age 14, the young Lakota participated in his first battle, a raid on Crow Indians, and was able to strike an opposing warrior with a coup stick. Following this achievement, he became Tatanka-Iyotanka, a name that refers to a buffalo bull (in the process of) sitting down.
Sitting Bull became a shirt wearer, a type of community leader who counseled higher-ranking tribal council members, had authority over annual gatherings and decided who would become akicita, a Lakota word often translated as "warrior" but at that time meant something more like police. In other words, shirt wearers were important. He also gained recognition as a holy man and even volunteered for the Sun Dance, an important and painful ceremony that left some men traumatized by the experience.
"That's an ordeal," says Gary Clayton Anderson, George Lynn Cross Professor at University of Oklahoma and author of "Sitting Bull and the Paradox of Lakota Nationhood." The Sun Dance required sacrifice to the Great Spirit. It was brutal and painful, and included the dancer being pierced with a skewer in the upper chest or back. The skewers were attached to a heavy object or pole the participant would dance around until his skin ripped free or he succumbed to exhaustion. "All young men didn't do that," Anderson says. But Sitting Bull participated many times to the point where his visions were said to usually come true.
His early clashes were with other Indians, as Sitting Bull worked to expand the territory of his tribe. However, in 1863, he faced the U.S. Army on behalf of the Santee Sioux and again the following year at the Battle of Killdeer Mountain. These experiences solidified his belief against signing treaties that would force his people onto a reservation, according to History.
By the 1870s, most Lakota bands had, however, settled on reservations, but the Hunkpapa were not one of those groups, explains Anderson. They remained independent of the U.S. government. Sitting Bull had become a war leader early on and was involved in at least 30 engagements. He rose through the ranks to become a major chief by the early 1870s, and his demeanor was legendary. One story tells that he calmly smoked a pipe while bullets flew around him during an 1872 battle on the Yellowstone River.
The Gold Rush and the Black Hills
Despite being most known for the 1876 Battle of the Little Big Horn against the army of Gen. George Armstrong Custer, Sitting Bull was not at the fight in which Custer died, according to Anderson. He was associated with the battle and many would say he played a role in its results.
A rush for gold had led prospectors to move into the Dakota Territory's Black Hills despite the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty, which held that the sacred land was off limits to white settlement. The U.S. government attempted to purchase the Black Hills, an offer rejected by the Lakota. In response, the government invalidated the treaty and decreed all Lakota must leave the area for reservations by Jan. 31, 1876. The Lakota refused to leave.
"In the end, you have several things colliding at once," says Anderson. Army officers were conspiring to start wars with the Sioux, of which the Lakota are a confederated tribe. There was a push to get the gold rush moving, which would necessitate U.S. government protection of miners. Furthermore, the Northern Pacific Railway was planned to be constructed through the Dakota territory.
"It's a complicated story, but Sitting Bull is at the heart of it," says Anderson. While three columns of federal troops converged on the area, Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes joined Sitting Bull's resistance.
It was the Oglala Lakota war chief Crazy Horse who led an initial battle against the army column under Gen. George Crook. At the Battle of the Rosebud, Crazy Horse forced the U.S. troops to retreat. The Lakota moved camp to the Little Big Horn River, where they were joined by 3,000 additional Indians.
Sitting Bull led the Sun Dance ritual and offered prayers to the Great Sprit Wakan Tanka and slashed his arms between 50 and 100 times in sacrifice. He is said to have danced for 36 hours. It was during this ceremony that Sitting Bull had a vision of U.S. soldiers "falling into the Lakota camp like grasshoppers falling from the sky," which he interpreted as a portent of U.S. Army defeat.
The Seventh Cavalry under Custer attacked the Indians at Little Big Horn with just a few hundred men June 25, 1876. Crazy Horse led the Indians to victory, killing Custer and all of the U.S. soldiers on-site. Contrary to popular belief, Sitting Bull was not there. He was in recovery from the taxing Sun Dance, according to Anderson.
After the Battle of the Little Big Horn, the Lakota dispersed even as the U.S. Army hunted them down in retaliation for Custer's defeat. As some chiefs were forced to surrender, Sitting Bull took his people to Canada in 1877. However, the buffalo population had all but disappeared, and the Hunkpapa were starving. By 1881, Sitting Bull had no other choice but to surrender, too. For two years, he was held prisoner at Fort Randall before being allowed to return to his people, who were at Standing Rock Reservation in what is now North Dakota.
On the Road With Buffalo Bill
Sitting Bull had a brief second life after his days of warfare ended, even though he never changed in his beliefs about white settlement and encroachment on Indian lands.
After meeting sharpshooter Annie Oakley, Sitting Bull joined her in Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show in 1884. If it seems like an odd mix, the "circus-like spectacle" at that time generally tried to portray Native Americans and in a positive light. In fact, Sitting Bull was the last act of the show, riding out on a horse, then standing and staring down the white audience, according to Anderson.
His time with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show was short-lived, and Sitting Bull returned to Standing Rock after just a few months.
The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee
By 1890, the Ghost Dance movement had begun, founded by Miniconjou Lakota Kicking Bear. Already performed in nearby reservations, including Pine Ridge, the Ghost Dance movement promised the expulsion of the white people, a restoration of the Indian way of life and a return of the buffalo. The people believed that their ancestors would return to Earth if they prepared by dancing.
Indian Agents grew concerned about the spread of the ceremony and worried that Sitting Bull would or had adopted it for his people. Dozens of Lakota police officers working for the U.S. government went to arrest Sitting Bull Dec. 15, 1890, and as his people moved to protect him, a gunfight began. One of the officers shot Sitting Bull during the clash.
"It's just an absolute tragedy," says Anderson. "It didn't have to happen."
Sitting Bull's death set off a chain reaction that led about two weeks later to the Wounded Knee massacre, he says. The holy man was buried at Fort Yates in North Dakota, then was moved to Morbridge, South Dakota, in 1953.
A Short History of “Pit Bull” Breeds in America
When I was asked to write a piece about the plight of a once beloved breed, I was on it so to speak,” like a dog on a bone”. I am, I must admit a bit biased because I had a pit bull as a pet and therefore have first-hand knowledge and understanding of this misunderstood breed.
The term pit bull is a generic term used to describe dogs with similar characteristics. A “pit bull” is considered one of several breeds including the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, or any mix with dogs considered from one of the “bully breeds”.
“Bully breeds” are those descended from the English Bulldog, French Bulldog, Boston Terrier or Cane Corso. The “pit bull” is not a distinct breed which makes it difficult for even experts to identify and that may be the basis for the discrimination that this beloved breed has endured in the last two decades. They have become the victims of canine profiling.
“Even though many dogs are assigned the label Pit Bull, it doesn’t mean they’re genetically or behaviorally similar or that you can predict a dog’s behavior based on that label,” says Bernice Clifford of the Animal Farm Foundation. “All dogs, no matter what their breed or breed mix, are individuals.” In fact, many people are surprised to learn that some of America’s most loved dogs are considered a bully breed. From the large and in-charge boxers to the small, stout Boston Terriers there are a variety of dogs that fall under the category known as bully breeds.
For most of our history we have had a National Dog… the pit bull. We chose this mixed breed because it seemed to accurately represent us as Americans faithful, reliable and trustworthy and although powerful, extremely tolerant. Pit bulls served this country’s children and it’s military with trust and bravery for 150 years. During the Civil War, a pit bull accompanied the 11th Infantry of Pennsylvania at the Battle of Gettysburg. A pit bull named Stubby became the first American dog during World War I to serve with a platoon in Germany. Stubby was the first U.S. Army dog to be promoted to sergeant. In addition, during World War II pit bulls appeared on war posters and cartoons helping to raise awareness and money for war bonds. They fought in the trenches with our soldiers and died on the battlefields beside them. These heroic canines served with great valor. At one point in our history they even earned the nickname “America’s Nanny Dog” because of their love, dedication and reliable behavior with children. The Little Rascal’s dog ‘Petey’ was a pit bull.
Over time, due to their popularity with a “criminal element” and those looking for a macho-status symbol, their image and public perception became negative. According to the ASPCA, another probable cause is the misidentification of dogs involved in attacks. These have contributed to the “pit bull” being the least adopted and most euthanized of any other breed. They are also banned in over 300 municipalities across our nation. Historically there have been other breeds that have been subject to this type of discrimination such as Rottweilers, Dobermans, and German Shepherds. Dogs are a product of their environment. Proper training, healthcare, and other factors affect temperament and behavior.
In tests conducted by the American Temperament Society, pit bulls were deemed less aggressive when faced with confrontational situations that produced negative reactions out of many other stereo typically “friendly” dog breeds. The most tolerant breed was the Golden Retriever and the pit bull came in second. One of the most amazing things about this breed is their ability to adapt to almost any situation. They serve in a wide variety of professional fields as well as making outstanding companions. Their positive attitude, even in the face of adversity, their courage, agility and athleticism and their desire to please humans makes them exceptional dogs for such fields as search and rescue, therapy and guide dogs as well as police and military drug and bomb sniffers. A well-bred, well-socialized and well-trained pit bull is one of the most delightful, intelligent and gentle dogs imaginable. They make great family pets. Yet, routinely pit bulls are the most common breed in shelters nationwide. There are a number of organizations that have been established to help change the ‘bad rap’ publicity that has been perpetuated in the past 30 years and are dedicated to the rescue, rehabilitation and adoption of the breed that was once known as America’s Family Dog.
If you are considering the adoption of a pit bull or bully breed, the best way to determine the proper fit for your particular household is to visit a local rescue or shelter and talk to the people who work with them. With proper socialization and training, you will have a loyal and loving companion for life.
The Bottom Line
The most recent bear market was the result of a global health crisis compounded by fear, which initially triggered a wave of layoffs, corporate shutdowns, and financial disruptions. But markets recovered—as they always have over time. The methods for measuring the length and magnitude of bull and bear markets alike differ among analysts. According to criteria employed by Yardeni Research, for example, there have been 20 bear markets since 1928. The most recent bear market will almost certainly not be the last.