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29 December 1942

29 December 1942



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29 December 1942

December 1942

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Eastern Front

Soviet troops recapture Kotelnikovo



The Orange Leader (Orange, Tex.), Vol. 29, No. 275, Ed. 1 Thursday, December 31, 1942

Daily newspaper from Orange, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with extensive advertising.

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four pages : ill. page 20 x 16 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the Lamar State College – Orange to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 50 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

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Lamar State College in Orange opened in 1969 as an extension center of Lamar University in Beaumont. It later earned independent accreditation in 1989 and received separate degree-granting authority in 1991. It sits on a unique campus composed of repurposed buildings and has helped revitalize downtown Orange.


Contents

Buhari was born to a Fulani family [8] on 17 December 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Mallam Hardo Adamu, a Fulani chieftain, and his mother Zulaihat who had an ancestry of Hausa and Kanuri. [9] [10] He is the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mother, after his father died when he was about four years old. He attended primary school in Daura and Mai'adua, in 1953, Katsina Middle School, and attended Katsina Provincial Secondary School from 1956 to 1961. [11]

Buhari enrolled at age 19 in the Nigerian Military Training College (NMTC) in 1962. [12] In February 1964, the college was upgraded to an officer commissioning unit of the Nigerian Army and renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) (prior to 1964, the Nigerian government sent cadets who had completed their NMTC preliminary training to mostly Commonwealth military academies [13] [14] [15] for officer cadet training).

From 1962 to 1963, Buhari underwent officer cadet training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England. [16] In January 1963, at age 20, Buhari was commissioned a second lieutenant and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963 to January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders' Course at the Nigerian Military Training College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer's Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom.

From 1965 to 1967, Buhari served as commander of the Second Infantry Battalion and appointed brigade major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967. Following the bloody 1966 Nigerian coup d'état, which resulted in the death of Premier Ahmadu Bello. Lieutenant Buhari alongside several young officers from Northern Nigeria, took part in the July counter-coup which ousted General Aguiyi Ironsi replacing him with General Yakubu Gowon.

Civil war Edit

Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa, [17] the division had temporarily moved from Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian Civil War. The 1st division was divided into sectors and then battalions [18] with Shuwa assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu and Sule Apollo who was later replaced by Theophilus Danjuma. Buhari's initial assignment was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2 battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st Division. The 2 battalion was one of the units that participated in the first actions of the war, they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko's artillery squad. [19] They reached and captured Ogoja within a week with the intention of advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel capital. [20] Buhari was briefly the 2 battalion's Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to link with the 3rd Marine Commando and advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and Abakaliki. However, before the move to Enugu, he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who would later become battle fatigued and replaced by Isa Bukar. [21] Buhari stayed with the infantry for a few months as the Nigerian army began to adjust tactics learnt from early battle experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new tactics involved securing and holding on to the lines of communications and using captured towns as training ground to train new recruits brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta and Zaria. [21] In 1968, he was posted to the 4 Sector also called the Awka sector which was charged to take over the capture of Onitsha from Division 2. The sector's operations was within the Awka-Abagana-Onitsha region which was important to Biafran forces because it was a major source of food supply. It was in the sector that Buhari's group suffered a lot of casualties trying to protect food supplies route of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana. [22]

After the war Edit

From 1970 to 1971, Buhari was Brigade Major/Commandant, Thirty-first Infantry Brigade. He then served as the Assistant Adjutant-General, First Infantry Division Headquarters, from 1971 to 1972. He also attended the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, India, in 1973. [23] From 1974 to 1975 Buhari was Acting Director of Transport and Supply at the Nigerian Army Corps of Supply and Transport Headquarters. [24]

In the 1975 military coup d'état, Lieutenant Colonel Buhari was among a group of officers that brought General Murtala Mohammed to power. He was later appointed Governor of the North-Eastern State [25] [26] [27] from 1 August 1975 to 3 February 1976, to oversee social, economic and political improvements in the state. On 3 February 1976, the North Eastern State was divided into three states Bauchi, Borno and Gongola. [28] [29] [30] Buhari then became the first Governor of Borno State from 3 February 1976 to 15 March 1976.

In March 1976, following the botched 1976 military coup d'état attempt which led to the assassination of General Murtala Mohammed, his deputy General Olusegun Obasanjo became the military head of state and appointed Colonel Buhari as the Federal Commissioner for Petroleum and Natural Resources (now minister). In 1977, when the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation was created, Buhari was appointed as its Chairman, a position he held until 1978. [31]

During his tenure as the Federal Commissioner for Petroleum and Natural Resources, the government invested in pipelines and petroleum storage infrastructures. The government built about 21 petroleum storage depots all over the country from Lagos to Maiduguri and from Calabar to Gusau the administration constructed a pipeline network that connected Bonny terminal and the Port Harcourt refinery to the depots. Also, the administration signed the contract for the construction of a refinery in Kaduna and an oil pipeline that will connect the Escravos oil terminal to Warri Refinery and the proposed Kaduna refinery. [32]

From 1978 to 1979, he was Military Secretary at the Army Headquarters and was a member of the Supreme Military Council from 1978 to 1979. From 1979 to 1980, at the rank of colonel, Buhari (class of 1980) attended the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in the United States, and gained a Masters Degree in Strategic Studies. [33] [34] Upon completion of the on-campus full-time resident program lasting ten months and the two-year-long, distance learning program, the United States Army War College (USAWC) college awards its graduate officers a master's degree in Strategic Studies.

Divisional commands held in the Nigerian Army:

  • General Officer Commanding, 4th Infantry Division: August 1980 – January 1981 [35]
  • General Officer Commanding, 2nd Mechanised Infantry Division: January 1981 – October 1981 [36]
  • General Officer Commanding, 3rd Armed Division: October 1981 – December 1983

Coup d'état of 1983 Edit

Major-General Buhari was one of the leaders of the military coup of December 1983 that overthrew the Second Nigerian Republic. At the time of the coup plot, Buhari was the General Officer Commanding (GOC), Third Armoured Division of Jos. [37] With the successful execution of the coup by General Buhari, Tunde Idiagbon was appointed Chief of General Staff (the de facto No. 2 in the administration). The coup ended Nigeria's short-lived Second Republic, a period of multi-party democracy revived in 1979, after 13 years of military rule.

According to The New York Times, the officers who took power argued that "a flawed democracy was worse than no democracy at all". Buhari justified the military's seizure of power by castigating the civilian government as hopelessly corrupt and promptly suspended the constitution. Another rationale for the coup was to correct economic decline in Nigeria. Sani Abacha in the military's first broadcast after the coup linked 'an inept and corrupt leadership' [38] with general economic decline. In Buhari's New Year day speech, he too mentioned the corrupt class of the Second Republic but also as the cause of a general decline in morality in the society. [38]

Consolidation of power Edit

The structure of the new military leadership which was also the fifth in Nigeria since independence resembled the last military regime, the Obasanjo/Yaradua administration. The new regime established a Supreme Military Council, a Federal Executive Council and a Council of States. [39] The number of ministries was trimmed to 18 while the administration carried out a retrenchment exercise among the senior ranks of the civil service and police. It retired 17 permanent secretaries and some senior police and naval officers. In addition, the new military administration promulgated new laws to achieve its aim. These laws included the Robbery and Firearms (Special Provisions) Decree for the prosecution of armed robbery cases, the State Security (Detention of Person) Decree which gave powers to the military to detain individuals suspected of jeopardizing state security or causing economic adversity. [40] Other decrees included the Civil Service Commission and Public Offenders Decree which constituted the legal and administrative basis to conduct a purge in the civil service. [40]

According to Decree Number 2 of 1984, the state security and the chief of staff were given the power to detain, without charges, individuals deemed to be a security risk to the state for up to three months. [41] Strikes and popular demonstrations were banned and Nigeria's security agency, the National Security Organization (NSO) was entrusted with unprecedented powers. The NSO played a wide role in the cracking down of public dissent by intimidating, harassing and jailing individuals who broke the interdiction on strikes. By October 1984, about 200,000 civil servants were retrenched. [42] Buhari mounted an offensive against entrenched interests. In 20 months as Head of State, about 500 politicians, officials and businessmen were jailed for corruption during his stewardship. [43] [44] Detainees were released after releasing sums to the government and agreeing to meet certain conditions. The regime also jailed its critics, including Fela Kuti. [45] He was arrested on 4 September 1984 at the airport as he was about to embark on an American tour. Amnesty International described the charges brought against him for illegally exporting foreign currency as "spurious". Using the wide powers bestowed upon it by Decree Number 2, the government sentenced Fela to five years in prison. He was released after 18 months, [45] when the Buhari regime was overthrown.

In 1984, Buhari passed Decree Number 4, the Protection Against False Accusations Decree, [46] considered by scholars as the most repressive press law ever enacted in Nigeria. [ citation needed ] Section 1 of the law provided that "Any person who publishes in any form, whether written or otherwise, any message, rumour, report or statement [. ] which is false in any material particular or which brings or is calculated to bring the Federal Military Government or the Government of a state or public officer to ridicule or disrepute, shall be guilty of an offense under this Decree". [47] The law further stated that offending journalists and publishers will be tried by an open military tribunal, whose ruling would be final and unappealable in any court and those found guilty would be eligible for a fine not less than 10,000 naira and a jail sentence of up to two years.

Economics Edit

In order to reform the economy, as Head of State, Buhari started to rebuild the nation's social-political and economic systems, along the realities of Nigeria's austere economic conditions. [48] The rebuilding included removing or cutting back the excesses in national expenditure, obliterating or removing completely, corruption from the nation's social ethics, shifting from mainly public sector employment to self-employment. Buhari also encouraged import substitution industrialisation based to a great extent on the use of local materials. [48] However, tightening of imports led to reduction in raw materials for industries causing many industries to operate below capacity, [49] reduction of workers and in some cases business closure. [43]

Buhari broke ties with the International Monetary Fund, when the fund asked the government to devalue the naira by 60%. However, the reforms that Buhari instigated on his own were as or more rigorous as those required by the IMF. [50] [51]

On 7 May 1984, Buhari announced the country's 1984 National Budget. The budget came with a series of complementary measures:

  • A temporary ban on recruiting federal public sector workers
  • Raising of Interest rates
  • Halting Capital Projects
  • Prohibition of borrowing by State governments
  • 15 percent cut from Shagari's 1983 Budget
  • Realignment of import duties
  • Reducing the balance of payment deficit by cutting imports
  • It also gave priority to the importation of raw materials and spare parts that were needed for agriculture and industry.

Other economic measures by Buhari took the form of counter trade, currency change, price reduction of goods and services. His economic policies did not earn him the legitimacy of the masses due to the rise in inflation and the use of military might to continue to push many policies blamed for the rise in food prices. [52]

Mass social mobilization Edit

One of the most enduring legacies of the Buhari government has been the War Against Indiscipline (WAI). Launched on 20 March 1984, the policy tried to address the perceived lack of public morality and civic responsibility of Nigerian society. Unruly Nigerians were ordered to form neat queues at bus stops, under the eyes of whip-wielding soldiers. Civil servants [53] who failed to show up on time at work were humiliated and forced to do "frog jumps". Minor offences carried long sentences. Any student over the age of 17 caught cheating on an exam would get 21 years in prison. Counterfeiting and arson could lead to the death penalty. [54]

Buhari's administration enacted three decrees to investigate corruption and control foreign exchange. The Banking (Freezing of Accounts) Decree of 1984, allotted to the Federal Military Government the power to freeze bank accounts of persons suspected to have committed fraud. The Recovery of Public Property (Special Military Tribunals) Decree permitted the government to investigate the assets of public officials linked with corruption and constitute a military tribunal to try such persons. The Exchange Control (Anti-Sabotage) Decree stated penalties for violators of foreign exchange laws. [55]

Decree 20 on illegal ship bunkering and drug trafficking was another example of Buhari's tough approach to crime. [56] Section 3 (2) (K) provided that "any person who, without lawful authority deals in, sells, smokes or inhales the drug known as cocaine or other similar drugs, shall be guilty under section 6 (3) (K) of an offence and liable on conviction to suffer death sentence by firing squad." In the case of Bernard Ogedengebe, the Decree was applied retroactively. [57] He was executed even if at the time of his arrest the crime did not mandate the capital punishment, but had carried a sentence of six months imprisonment. [57] In another prominent case of April 1985, six Nigerians were condemned to death under the same decree: Sidikatu Tairi, Sola Oguntayo, Oladele Omosebi, Lasunkanmi Awolola, Jimi Adebayo and Gladys Iyamah. [58]

In 1985, prompted by economic uncertainties and a rising crime rate, the government of Buhari opened the borders (closed since April 1984) with Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon to speed up the expulsion of 700,000 illegal foreigners and illegal migrant workers. [59] Buhari is today known for this crisis there even is a famine in the east of Niger that have been named "El Buhari". [60] His regime drew criticism from many, including Nigeria's first Nobel Prize winner Wole Soyinka, who, in 2007, wrote a piece called "The Crimes of Buhari" [61] which outlined many of the abuses conducted under his military rule.

Ahead of the 2015 general election, Buhari responded to his human rights criticism by saying that if elected, he would follow the rule of law, and that there would be access to justice for all Nigerians and respect for fundamental human rights of Nigerians. [62]

Coup d'état of 1985 Edit

In August 1985, Major General Buhari was overthrown in a coup led by General Ibrahim Babangida and other members of the ruling Supreme Military Council (SMC). [63] Babangida brought many of Buhari's most vocal critics into his administration, including Fela Kuti's brother Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, a doctor who had led a strike against Buhari to protest declining health care services. Buhari was then detained in Benin City until 1988. [64]

Detention Edit

Buhari spent three years of detention in a small guarded bungalow in Benin. He had access to television that showed two channels and members of his family were allowed to visit him on the authorization of Babangida.

Civilian life Edit

In December 1988, after his mother's death he was released and retired to his residence in Daura. While in detention, his farm was managed by his relatives. He divorced his first wife in 1988 and married Aisha Halilu. [1] In Katsina, he became the pioneer chairman of Katsina Foundation that was founded to encourage social and economic development in Katsina State.

Buhari served as the Chairman of the Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), a body created by the government of General Sani Abacha, and funded from the revenue generated by the increase in price of petroleum products, to pursue developmental projects around the country. A 1998 report in New African praised the PTF under Buhari for its transparency, calling it a rare "success story". [65]

Presidential campaigns and elections Edit

2003 presidential election

In 2003, Buhari ran for office in the presidential election [66] as the candidate of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). He was defeated by the People's Democratic Party incumbent, President Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ, by more than 11 million votes.

2007 presidential election

On 18 December 2006, Buhari was nominated as the consensus candidate of the All Nigeria People's Party. His main challenger in the April 2007 polls was the ruling PDP candidate, Umaru Yar'Adua, who hailed from the same home state of Katsina. Buhari officially took 18% of the vote to Yar'Adua's 70%, but Buhari rejected these results. [67] After Yar'Adua took office, he called for a government of national unity to bring on board aggrieved opposition members. The ANPP joined the government with appointment of its national chairman as a member of Yar'Adua's cabinet, but Buhari denounced this agreement. [68]

2011 presidential election

In March 2010, Buhari left the ANPP for the Congress for Progressive Change (CPC), a party he had helped to found. He said that he had supported foundation of the CPC "as a solution to the debilitating, ethical and ideological conflicts in my former party the ANPP". [69]

Buhari was the CPC Presidential candidate in the 2011 election, running against incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan of the People's Democratic Party (PDP), Mallam Nuhu Ribadu of Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN), and Ibrahim Shekarau of ANPP. They were the major contenders among 20 candidates. [70] Buhari campaigned on an anti-corruption platform and pledged to remove immunity protections from government officials. He also gave support to enforcement of Sharia law in Nigeria's northern states, which had previously caused him political difficulties among Christian voters in the country's south. [43]

The elections were marred by widespread sectarian violence, which claimed the lives of 800 people across the country, as Buhari's supporters attacked Christian settlements in the country's central region. [71] The three-day uprising was blamed in part on Buhari's inflammatory comments. [71] In spite of assurances from Human Rights Watch, which had judged the elections "among the fairest in Nigeria's history", Buhari claimed that the vote was flawed and warned [71] that "If what happened in 2011 should again happen in 2015, by the grace of God, the dog and the baboon would all be soaked in blood". [72] [73]

Buhari remained a "folk hero" to some for his vocal opposition to corruption. [74] He won 12,214,853 votes, coming in second to Jonathan, who polled 22,495,187 votes and was declared the winner. [75]

2015 presidential election

Buhari ran in the 2015 presidential election as a candidate of the All Progressives Congress party. His platform was built around his image as a staunch anti-corruption fighter and his incorruptible and honest reputation, but he said he would not probe past corrupt leaders and would give officials who stole in the past amnesty if they repented. [76]

In the runup to the 2015 election, Jonathan's campaign asked that Buhari be disqualified from the election, claiming that he was in breach of the Constitution. [77] According to the fundamental document, in order to qualify for election to the office of the president, a person must be "educated up to at least School certificate level or its equivalent". Buhari failed to submit any such evidence, claiming that he lost the original copies of his diplomas when his house was raided following his overthrow from power in 1985. [78]

In May 2014, in the wake of the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping, Buhari strongly denounced the Boko Haram insurgency. He "urged Nigerians to put aside religion, politics and all other divisions to crush the insurgency he said is fanned by mindless bigots masquerading as Muslims". [79] In July 2014, Buhari escaped a bomb attack on his life by Boko Haram in Kaduna, 82 people were killed. [80] In December 2014, Buhari pledged to enhance security in Nigeria if elected president. [81] After this announcement, Buhari's approval ratings skyrocketed, largely due to Jonathan's apparent inability to fight Boko Haram. Buhari made internal security and wiping out the militant group one of the key pillars of his campaign. In January 2015, the insurgent group "The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta" (MEND) endorsed Buhari. [82]

Buhari's campaign was briefly advised by former Obama campaign manager David Axelrod [83] and his AKPD consultancy. In February 2015, former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo quit the ruling PDP party and endorsed Buhari. [84]

On 31 March, Jonathan called Buhari to concede and congratulate him on his election as president. [85] Buhari was sworn in on 29 May 2015 in a ceremony attended by at least 23 heads of state and government.

The economy has averaged a growth rate of 0.9% since the administration's first term, unemployment is at an all-time high of 23%, and millions entered poverty. [86] Since 2015, Buhari has lost supporters due to his perceived un-energetic personality and contemplative decision making. [87]

Cabinet Edit

Buhari's key advisers include: his nephew Mamman Daura, businessman Ismaila Isa Funtua, political operator Baba Gana Kingibe, Abba Kyari the Chief of Staff to the President and from the late stages of his first term, Boss Mustapha the Secretary to the Government of the Federation. [88] Empowering his kitchen cabinet after his second inauguration, Buhari has stated his preference for cabinet members seeking meetings or consultation to direct such requests through the chief of staff or through the government secretary. [88]

Since the Fourth Republic, ministerial positions are legally required to be composed of a federal ethno-demographic character with a minister representing each state of the federation. A result of this has created the outcome of political considerations as an important factor in nominating ministers as local party officials lacking in merit jostle for cabinet positions. [88] Nomination into Buhari's cabinet has been influenced by those political considerations and also closeness to the president and his inner cabinet. [88]

In August 2019, the president named his cabinet of predominantly male members with an average years of 60 and dominated by political actors or those close to the president. [89] The cabinet include two wealthy former governors from the Niger Delta, Timipre Sylva and Godswill Akpabio who were originally members of the opposition party PDP and fourteen retained ministers some of whom critics alleged had performed poorly or having a close relationship with a corrupt past Head of State. [89]

Health Edit

In May 2016, Buhari cancelled a two-day visit to Lagos to inaugurate projects in the state but he was represented by the Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo after citing an "ear infection" suspected to be Ménière's disease. [90] On 6 June, Buhari travelled to the United Kingdom to seek medical attention. [91] [92] This happened days after the Presidential Spokesman Femi Adesina was quoted as saying Buhari was "as fit as fiddle" and "hale and hearty", to much discontent and criticism from political analysts and followers. [93] [94] [95] In February 2017, following what were described as "routine medical check-ups" in the UK, [96] Buhari asked parliament to extend his medical leave to await test results. [97] His office did not give any further details on his health condition nor the expected date of his return. [98] On 8 February, President Buhari personally signed a letter addressed to the President of the Senate of Nigeria alerting him of a further extension to his annual leave, leaving his Vice President in charge. [99] [100] [101] Following an absence of 51 days from office, President Buhari returned to Nigeria. He arrived at Kaduna Airport in the morning of March 10. [102] [103] [104] Although information was limited during his stay in London, he was pictured on March 9 meeting the most senior cleric of the world Anglican congregation, Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby. [105] [106] Vice President Yemi Osibanjo remained in charge as acting President, while the President continued to recover in Abuja. [107] The President has missed major official and public appearances just two months following his return to office from England. Most recently he was absent from the Federal Executive Council (FEC) meeting, the worker's day event held at the Eagle Square in Abuja on May Day 2017. [108] [109] [110] Speculations about the President's health circulated in the public sphere in the days following President Buhari's wishes to "work from home". [111] Some prominent Nigerian figures urged the President to take a long-term medical leave, [112] [113] citing his failure to make any public appearances over a two-week period. [114] [115]

President Buhari again left Nigeria for a reported health check-up in London on 7 May 2017. [116] President Buhari returned to Nigeria from his medical leave in the United Kingdom 104 days after leaving, on August 19, 2017. [117] [118] On 8 May, Buhari left Nigeria to London for medical check up, upon arrival from USA and he returned on Friday 11 May 2018. [119]

Economy Edit

An attractive choice to many Nigerians because of a perceived incorruptible character. [120] Once in power, Buhari who had earlier mobilized supporters in three previous elections was slow to manifest his intention to solve problems he mentioned during his campaign. Determination to initiate his domestic policy agenda like naming of cabinet officials took six months, [120] while the passage of the 2016 and 2017 budgets were delayed by infighting.

In Buhari's first year in office, Nigeria suffered a decline in commodity prices which triggered an economic recession. To source funds to close shortfall in revenue and fund an expansionary capital budget, Buhari traveled to 20 countries seeking loans. [121] Thereby, expansionary budget allocation to finance infrastructure was pushed back to a further date. [122]

In the first year of the administration, Naira, the currency of Nigeria depreciated in the black market leading to a gulf between the official exchange rate and the black-market rate. [123] A resulting shortage in foreign exchange hit various businesses including petroleum marketers. However, the gulf between the official rates and the black market rates opened up the opportunity for well connected individuals to engage in arbitrage, making a mockery of the president's anti-corruption image. [124] In May, 2016, the government announced a rise in the official pump price of petroleum to curtail shortfall in the commodity as a result of foreign exchange shortages. [125]

In 2016, the country's economy declined by 1.6% and in 2017 per capital economic growth is projected to be negligible. Buhari's first tenure as head of state coincided with a decline in oil prices similar to his second stint but his administration has not shown dedicated effort to diversify sources of government spending. [124] The 2018 budget signaled an expansionary fiscal policy with funds dedicated to infrastructural projects such as strategic roads, bridges and power plants. [126]

Since an upturn in economic growth from the decline of 2016, a slow pace of recovery has the country behind many of its continental neighbors in GDP growth. Unemployment levels remain high and any effort to increase non-oil revenues has not improved while government deficit spending include a significant portion of its yearly budget dedicated to service debts. [127]

Buhari with the support of the Central Bank chief initiated policies to improve agriculture production through lobbying private banks to lend to the sector and restriction of foreign exchange at official rates for importation of food product that are grown locally. In his second tern, the budget minister, Udo Udoma and trade minister, Enemalah both of whom favored liberalisation were not returned. [88]

The government continued to operate flexible exchange rates into the second term of the administration despite critics alluding to the exchange rate regime of being susceptible to arbitrage abuses and round tripping by cronies of the government. [127]

Social welfare Edit

In 2016, Buhari launched the National Social Investment Program, a national social welfare program. [128] The Program was created to ensure a more equitable distribution of resources to vulnerable populations, including children, youth, and women. There are four programs which address poverty, unemployment and help increase economic development: [129]

  • The N-Power program provides young Nigerians with job training and education, as well as a monthly stipend of 30,000 Nigerian naira (USD $83.33).
  • The Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP) directly supports the most vulnerable by providing cash to those in the lowest income group, helping reduce poverty, improve nutrition and self-sustainability, and supporting development through increased consumption.
  • The Government Enterprise and Empowerment Program (GEEP) is a micro-lending entrepreneurship program targeting farmers, petty traders and market women with a focus. This program provides no-cost loans to its beneficiaries, helping reduce the start-up costs of business ventures in Nigeria. The programs include: TraderMoni, MarketMoni and FarmerMoni.
  • The National Home Grown School Feeding Program (NHGSF) is attempting to increase school enrollment by providing free meals to schoolchildren, particularly those in poor and food-insecure regions. The program works with local farmers and empowers women as cooks, building the community and sustaining economic growth from farm to table.

The program was previously co-ordinated from the office of Vice President Yemi Osinbajo, until 2019, when the program was moved to the new Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development under Sadiya Umar Farouq. In his 2019 Independence Day Speech, the President attributed the movement to the need to have the programmes institutionalized. [130]

Anti-corruption Edit

The $2 billion arms deal was exposed following the interim report of Buhari's investigations committee on arms procurement under the Goodluck Jonathan administration. The committee report showed extra-budgetary spending to the tune of N643.8 billion and additional spending of about $2.2 billion in the foreign currency component under the Goodluck Jonathan's watch. Preliminary investigation suggested that about $2 billion may have been disbursed for the procurement of arms to fight against Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The investigative report indicated that a total sum of $2.2 billion was inexplicably disbursed into the office of the National Security Adviser in procurement of arms to fight against insurgency, but was not spent for the purpose for which the money was disbursed. Investigations on this illegal deal led to the arrest of Sambo Dasuki, the former National Security Adviser who later mentioned prominent Nigerians involved in the deal. Those who were mentioned and arrested includes Raymond Dokpesi, the Chair Emeritus of DAAR Communications Plc, Attahiru Bafarawa, the former Governor of Sokoto State, and Bashir Yuguda, the former Minister of State for Finance, Azubuike Ihejirika, the Chief of Army Staff, Adesola Nunayon Amosu, the former Chief of the Air Staff, Alex Badeh and several other politicians were mentioned.

On 21 December 2016, the government's Federal Ministry of Finance announced a whistle-blowing policy with a 2.5%-5% reward. [131] The aim is to obtain relevant data or information regarding:

  • the violation of financial regulations
  • the mismanagement of public funds and assets
  • financial malpractice
  • fraud
  • theft

In May 2018, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Nigeria's anti-corruption agency, announced that 603 Nigerian figures had been convicted on corruption charges since Buhari took office in 2015. [132] The EFCC also announced that for the first time in Nigeria's history, judges and top military officers including retired service chiefs are being prosecuted for corruption. [132] The successful prosecutions were also credited to Buhari's EFCC head Ibrahim Magu. [132] Under Buhari, Chief Justice of the Nigerian Court Walter Onnoghen was convicted by the Code of Conduct Tribunal on April 18, 2019 for false assets declaration. [133] In December 2019, Mohammed Bello Adoke, the former Attorney General of the Federation, was extradited to Nigeria to stand trial on corruption charges. [134] In January 2020, however, Transparency International still gave Nigeria a low performance in its corruption perception index. [135] [136]

In July 2020, Ibrahim Magu the EFCC chairman was arrested by the Department of State Services (DSS) over damaging security reports concerning his activities as the Buhari administration's leading anti-corruption figure and alleged financial irregularities, he was later replaced by Mohammed Umar. [137] [138] [139] [140] In December 2020, Former Pension Reform Taskforce head Abdulrasheed Maina, who was arrested in the neighboring country of Niger after jumping bail, appeared in a Abuja court on a 12-count charge of fraud and money laundering. [141] Ali Ndume, a senator representing Borno South, was arrested after jumping bail as well. [142]

Security issues Edit

Nigeria has the second-largest reserves of crude oil in Africa, reserves largely found in the Niger Delta region of the country. Years of oil production have resulted negative impact on farming and fishery by oil spillage. [143] The government initiated Hydrocarbon Pollution Remediation Project (HYPREP) to help clean up Ogoniland while other state governors within the region want a similar setup. HYPREP was initiated in 2005 but has been slow to commence remediation works in Ogoniland. [143]

Nonetheless, there are still intermittent attacks on oil facilities by groups such as the Niger Delta Avengers. This has significantly affected oil production leading to cuts in exports and government revenue. [144] The Avengers are waging conflict for greater economic and political autonomy.

The Islamic Movement of Nigeria led by Sheikh Ibrahim Zakzaky is one of the country's leading organization of Shia Muslims. Nigeria's Muslim population is mainly Sunni while the Shia population have gone through sporadic persecution by governments. [145] After the Islamic movement was accused of an attack against Chief of Army Staff Tukur Buratai in December 2015, Zakzaky's base was shelled causing hundreds of fatalities while Zakzaky was arrested. [145]

A separatist group, the Indigenous People of Biafra and led by Nnamdi Kanu became high profile in 2015 for advocating independence for a separate nation of Biafra. [145] A breakaway Biafra republic was briefly formed during Nigeria's Civil War. The group agitating for a resurgence of Biafra, a republic not constrained by dis-empowerment of Igbos gradually founded favor among many economically and politically dis-empowered youths in Southeastern Nigeria. In October 2015 Kanu was arrested on allegation of treason, his arrest was followed by protest against his detention across many Southeastern states. [145]

Since 2015, the fight against the extremists has taken a new dimension, internally the groups have splintered into the traditional Boko Haram sect controlled by Abubakar Shekau and the Islamic State in West Africa Province controlled by Abu Musab al-Barnawi. [146] Other groups supported by Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb such as Ansaru, who were driven from Mali due to the French-led Operation Serval have surfaced and co-operated with Boko Haram despite being its rival. [147] This was mostly out of necessity, as the two factions could not risk to weaken themselves by fighting each other. [148] In February 2020, over two hundred and fifty Ansaru members were killed in a police raid in Birnin Gwari. [149]

In October 2016, the government negotiated a deal with the terrorist group, Boko Haram which secured the release of 21 Chibok girls. [150] By December 2016, the government had recovered much of the territories previously held by Boko Haram and after the capture of Sambisa Forest, Buhari announced that Boko Haram has been technically defeated. The insurgency displaced about 2 million people from their homes and the recapture of the towns now present humanitarian challenges in health, education and nutrition. [151] On 6 May 2017, Buhari's government secured a further release of 82 out of 276 girls kidnapped in 2014, in exchange of five Boko Haram leaders. [152] On 7 May 2017, President Buhari met with the 82 released Chibok girls, before departing to London, UK, for a follow up treatment for an undisclosed illness. [153]

Farmer-Herder violence

The Middle-Belt region of Nigeria has been vulnerable to clashes between farmers and cattle herders, two groups trying to secure arable land for grazing or farming and access to water. [145] The intensity and politicization of the conflict along ethnic and religious divide increased during the administration of Buhari as instances of conflicts flared in parts of Southern Nigeria. [145] About 300 civilians were killed in a village in Benue State, Middle-Belt of the country and about 40 civilians were killed in Enugu in Southeastern Nigeria. [145] The violence has displaced upwards of 250,000 villagers [154] who migrate to cities ill-prepared to handle the influx of migrants. The conflict between farmers many of whom are largely Christians and herders who are predominantly Muslims has stoked religious tension not helped when the president sent in military troops disarm ethnic Christian militias while critics allege of his lukewarm towards armed cattle herders. [154]

The administration's effort to solve the conflict led to the National Livestock Transformation Plan to modernise cattle grazing and stabilize the Middle Belt region. [154] In 2017, RUGA, an acronym for Rural Grazing Area but also a word meaning settlement in Fulani was a proposed solution that came from deliberations of the transformation plan. [154] RUGA was to set aside grazing areas for herders as they migrate south, however, many Southern states opposed any involuntary acquisition of land for RUGA and the plan was suspended [154]

Banditry in Northern Nigeria

Since 2015, the Buhari Administration has suffered with an increased spate of banditry-related activities in Northern Nigeria. [155] The Abuja-Kaduna highway has been termed the "highway of kidnapping", due to the rampant atrocities committed by bandits. [156] In February 2020, the Northern Elders Forum, a socio-political organisation, said the administration has failed Nigerians in terms of security. [157]

National issues Edit

The Buhari administration introduced the controversial Ruga policy (human settlement policy), aimed at resolving the conflict between nomadic Fulani herdsmen and sedentary farmers. The policy, which is currently suspended, would "create reserved communities where herders will live, grow and tend their cattle, produce milk and undertake other activities associated with the cattle business without having to move around in search of grazing land for their cows." [158]

Alleged militarization

Buhari has faced a lot of criticism in office. In 2019 his government came under widespread criticism over the unfair treatment [159] of US-based Social Activist Sowore during his trial, despite the court granting him bail. [160] This move was largely condemned, with Sowore himself stating that Buhari had violated his civic space. [161] In December 2019, Nigeria's Newspaper Giants: PUNCH stated that henceforth they would addressed Buhari's administration as a "regime" [162] and subsequently address him as "General Buhari" [162] as his military-like administration was a far cry from democracy. They insisted that he was a 'military dictator', [163] a move that was greeted with mixed receptions on Social Media. [164]

Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria, Buhari established a Presidential Task Force for the control of the virus in the country. [165] On 23 March, Buhari's chief of staff Abba Kyari tested positive for COVID-19 sparking fears that Buhari may have been infected, it was later revealed that Buhari tested negative. [166] On 30 March, Buhari announced a two-week lockdown on major cities Abuja, Lagos and Ogun. [167]

On 14 October, the presidential task force on COVID-19 warned about a potential second wave "if the guidelines and protocols are not adhered to strictly". [168]

In October 2020, protests against alleged police brutality of a special police unit of the Nigerian Police Force the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) erupted in Lagos and other major cities. The End SARS movement with no centralised leadership beyond the small assembly that organized the initial protests, share similarities with the 2012 Occupy movement. [169]

On 12 October, a day after demonstrators declared their demands Buhari announced the disbandment of SARS and promised "extensive police reforms". [170] Since independence in 1960, the Nigerian Police Force has been at the forefront of tackling organised crime in Nigeria with the recent spate of banditry, cultism, drug trafficking, fraud and kidnapping drastically affecting its personnel capacity, [171] leaving a vacuum for SARS members to exploit and commit extrajudicial killings. [172]

On 13 October Mohammed Adamu the Inspector General of Police announced the creation of a new unit the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) to take over the duties of SARS. [173] This move did not satisfy most demonstrators, who expected a substantial overhaul of the police structure. [174] On 14 October, the demonstrations continued with at least ten protestors being killed, and violent clashes occurring between pro-SARS and anti-SARS protesters with the elite Presidential Guard Brigade intervening in the federal capital. [175]

On 12 June 2021, there was a deployment of the Nigerian Police Force and the Nigerian Army to the streets, Nationwide to curb the planned protest by the Youths, The demonstration of this was to prevent the incidents from the End Sars Protest that happened October 2020 [176]

Foreign policy Edit

Buhari described the military crackdown by the Myanmar Army and police on Rohingya Muslims as ethnic cleansing and warned of a disaster like the Rwandan genocide. [177]

Nigeria and South Africa between them share about 50% of Africa's economic output but both countries macroeconomic structure is hampered by high poverty rates, youth unemployment and decline in capital investment. [178] About 600,000 Nigerians have emigrated to South Africa to seek out better economic opportunities and like in Nigeria, it is an economy struggling with its own high unemployment rates. Tensions between migrants and the local populace have occasionally flared up, in 2008, 2015 and in 2019. The last resulted in the violence between migrants including Nigerians and black South Africans. The leaders of both countries met in early October 2019, to discuss measures to improve the relationship between both countries which has been affected not only by anti-migrant violence in South Africa both issues about profit repatriation by South African firms operating in Nigeria.

US$2.8 billion NNPC scandal Edit

During his tenure as Federal Commissioner of Petroleum and Natural Resources, US$2.8 billion allegedly went missing from the accounts of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) in Midlands Bank in the United Kingdom. General Ibrahim Babangida later allegedly accused Buhari of being responsible for this fraud. [179] [180] [181]

However, in the conclusion of the Crude Oil Sales Tribunal of Inquiry headed by Justice Ayo Irikefe to investigate allegations of 2.8 billion Dollars misappropriation from the NNPC account, the tribunal found no truth in the allegations even though it noticed some lapses in the NNPC accounts. [182]

Chadian military affair Edit

In 1983, when Chadian forces invaded Nigeria in the Borno State, Buhari used the forces under his command to chase them out of the country, crossing into Chadian territory in spite of an order given by President Shagari to withdraw. [183] This 1983 Chadian military affair led to more than 100 victims and "prisoners of war". [183]

Umaru Dikko affair Edit

The Umaru Dikko Affair was another defining moment in Buhari's military government. Umaru Dikko, a former Minister of Transportation under the previous civilian administration of President Shagari who fled the country shortly after the coup, was accused of embezzling $1 billion in oil profits. With the help of an alleged former Mossad agent, the NSO traced him to London, where operatives from Nigeria and Israel drugged and kidnapped him. They placed him in a plastic bag, which was subsequently hidden inside a crate labelled as "Diplomatic Baggage". The purpose of this secret operation was to ship Dikko off to Nigeria on an empty Nigerian Airways Boeing 707, to stand trial for embezzlement. The plot was foiled by British airport officers. [184]

53 suitcases saga Edit

Buhari's administration was embroiled in a scandal concerning the fate of 53 suitcases with unknown contents. [185] The suitcases were being transported by the Emir of Gwandu, whose son was Buhari's aide-de-camp, and were cleared through customs on 10 June 1984 without inspection during his return flight from Saudi Arabia. [186]

PTF allocation to the military Edit

While Buhari was Chairman of the Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), critics had questioned the PTF's allocation of 20% of its resources to the military, which they feared would not be accountable for the revenue. [187] [188]

Sharia in Nigeria Edit

Previously, Buhari gave his support for the total implementation of Sharia in the country. [189] He was quoted in 2001 as saying, "I will continue to show openly and inside me the total commitment to the Sharia movement that is sweeping all over Nigeria", he then added: "God willing, we will not stop the agitation for the total implementation of the Sharia in the country." [190] Buhari has denied all allegations that he has a radical Islamist agenda. [191] On 6 January 2015, Buhari said: "Because they can't attack our record, they accuse me falsely of ethnic jingoism they accuse me falsely of religious fundamentalism. Because they cannot attack our record, they accuse us falsely of calling for election violence – when we have only insisted on peace. Even as Head of State, we never imposed Sha'riah." [192]

Mediation with Boko Haram Edit

In 2012, Buhari's name was included on a list published by Boko Haram of individuals it would trust to mediate between the group and the Federal Government. [193] However, Buhari strongly objected and declined to mediate between the government and Boko Haram. In 2013, Muhammadu Buhari made a series of statements, when he asked the Federal Government to stop the killing of Boko Haram members and blamed the rise of the terrorist group on the prevalence of Niger Delta militants in the South. Buhari stated [194] that "what is responsible for the security situation in the country is caused by the activities of Niger Delta militants [. ] The Niger Delta militants started it all". [195] He also questioned the special treatment including close to $500 million a year paid to 30,000 militants under the amnesty programme since 2013 [196] by the Federal Government and deplored the fact that Boko Haram members were killed and their houses destroyed.

Abolishing the office of the first lady Edit

In December 2014, Muhammadu Buhari went on the record to say he would abolish the office of the First Lady if he was elected as President, claiming it was unconstitutional. [197] [198]

The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), a Nigerian militant group that endorsed Buhari during the 2015 general elections, commended Buhari for his plans and went on to say that the office of the First Lady was "obviously an irrelevant, fraudulent and unconstitutional office, whose only purpose is to further plunder the resources of the country." [199]

Since assuming the presidency on 29 May 2015, Buhari has yet to terminate the office of the First Lady. Aisha Buhari operates from the office of the First Lady as "wife of the President". [200]

Having suggested the abolition of the Office of the First Lady, [198] Buhari has further aired some controversial statements about women.

On his visit to the Germany's Angela Merkel, [201] Buhari reiterated "I don't know which party my wife belongs to, but she belongs to my kitchen and my living room and the other room" [202] after his wife had earlier advised him to step up his leadership. [202]

Plagiarism scandal Edit

In September 2016, President Buhari came under heavy criticism after a newspaper report found him using plagiarized speech during the launching of a national re-orientation campaign tagged “Change begins with me”. The speech was later found to be lifted from the 2008 inaugural speech of former US President Barack Obama. [203] [204] The presidency later apologized and says the blunder was caused by "overzealous staff" and "Those responsible" will be sanctioned. [205] [206] However, one week later, a deputy director in the State House linked to the speech was redeployed and presidency assured Nigerian public that it has taken steps to avoid a repeat of such an embarrassing occurrence by implementing digital tools that detect plagiarism. [207]

Family Edit

In 1971, Buhari married his first wife, Safinatu (née Yusuf). They had five children together, four girls and one boy. Their first daughter, Zulaihat (Zulai) was named after Buhari's mother. Their other children are Fatima, Musa (deceased son), Hadiza, and Safinatu. [208] On 14 January 2006, Safinatu, the former first lady, died from complications of diabetes. [208] In November 2012, Buhari's first daughter, Zulaihat (née Buhari) Junaid died from sickle cell anaemia, two days after having a baby at a hospital in Kaduna. [209]

In 1988, Buhari and his first wife Safinatu divorced. In December 1989, Buhari married his second and current wife Aisha Buhari (née Halilu). They also had five children together, a boy and four girls: Aisha, Halima, Yusuf, Zahra and Amina. [210]

Wealth Edit

In 2015, Buhari declared US$150,000 cash in addition to five homes and two mud houses as well as farms, an orchard and a ranch of 270 head of cattle, 25 sheep, five horses and a variety of birds, shares in three firms, two undeveloped plots of land, and two cars bought from his savings. [211]

National honours Edit

Foreign honours Edit

Traditional titles Edit

In 2017, the South-East council of traditional rulers honoured President Buhari with the chieftaincy titles of the Enyioma I of Ebonyi and the Ochioha I of Igboland. [215] At the time of his investiture, the president had already held a title - that of the Ogbuagu I of Igboland - in the Nigerian chieftaincy system. [216] He was later awarded another one, Ikeogu I of Igboland, in the following year. [217] [218]


Battle of the Solomon Islands - WW2 Timeline (January 1942 - August 1945)

The American invasion of Guadalcanal by United States Marine and Navy forces was the beginning of a long and arduous campaign to be fought on land, at sea, and in the air. While a bold (and ultimately costly) move, the threat of invasion was verifiable enough to the Japanese that resupply forces were ordered to the island to alleviate the pressure placed on the defenders by the Americans. As the strength of the Japanese war machine lay soundly in their Imperial Navy, victory was all but a certainty against the untested American forces.

During night fighting off the cost of Savo Island, an American cruiser contingent was all but destroyed by a force of IJN vessels. This led to the belief that the American sea-going force could be easily defeated in time. However, the presence of the American carrier groups quickly sent the Japanese cruisers out of the region and opened the IJN to a weakened defense. By this time the area near the Solomon Islands was under mixed control. The USN maintained a heavy airborne presence during daylight hours where aircrews attacked any moving vessel seeking passage between the Eastern and Western islands. The IJN maintained an advantage at and proceeded through the area when the USN aircraft were not in the sky. As these Japanese convoys progressed through the gap at speed in an effort to resupply their land forces at Guadalcanal, the gap became known as the 'Tokyo Express'. To combat the American carrier presence, attempts were made to bring the group within range of a combined IJN force and ultimately wipe them out.

The Battle of the Solomons began with the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. This engagement spanned three days - August 22nd through August 25th - and resulted in the IJN losing their light carrier IJN Ryujo. The carrier USS Enterprise was damaged enough to be pulled out of further action and the carrier USS Saratoga soon followed after receiving several enemy torpedoes. On September 14th the carrier USS Wasp was targeted by the IJN submarine I-19 and torpedoed further diminishing the American carrier presence in the region.

Imperial Japanese Army forces on Guadalcanal were proving to be a determined foe for the Americans. However their food and ammunition supplies were critical and starvation was rampant. The IJN sought to resupply their soldiers in due time by forcing their convoys through the American defensive perimeter. The night time Battle of Cape Esperance (October 11th - October 12th) was an American Navy warship attack against one such IJN convoy. Despite maintaining an element of surprise, the American warships engaged the enemy but allowed the protected IJN convoy managed to slip by. A few days later, IJN battleships Hiei and Kirishima opened fire against U.S. Marine positions ashore. The shelling was intense and little response was managed by the USN to quell the attacks as support in the area proved lacking. The following night heavy IJN cruisers continued attacks up and down the coast sending over 750 shells against suspected enemy positions.

An American carrier group led by Vice Admiral William Halsey in the South West Pacific went into action to support the Marines. As the Japanese encouraged participation from the American carriers, this move was welcomed but it also forced the IJN to commit her own carriers to the fray.

On October 25th, U.S. spotter planes located at least three of the IJN carriers with a fourth one en route. Fighting ensued that left the carriers Zuiho and Zuikaku damaged. USS Hornet was torpedoed and abandoned, left to sink by additional Japanese torpedoes where she sat. USS Enterprise was damaged but repaired enough to be brought back to the battle though the Japanese believed her to be out of the fight for good.

Regardless of the losses incurred by the USN, the Americans managed a final push and took Guadalcanal. Through this action, the forces of the USN delayed the resupply actions of the IJN just enough that America could claim to its first major land grab in the vast Pacific War. The Japanese could claim nothing more than a tactical victory, damaging or sinking several key USN carriers, battleships and lesser vessels but the damage against the Empire in the region had been done.


There are a total of (35) Battle of the Solomon Islands - WW2 Timeline (January 1942 - August 1945) events in the Second World War timeline database. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). Other leading and trailing events may also be included for perspective.

A large contingent of Imperial Japanese Navy warships heads out of Rabaul towards Savo Island to strike at US Navy transports there.

Three US and one Australian cruiser are sunk by the Japanese Navy during the morning hours.

The Imperial Japanese Navy enacts a plan to resupply their forces at Guadalcanal under the cover of three aircraft carriers made up of the IJN Ryujo, the IJN Shokaku and the IJN Zuikaku.

US naval patrol aircraft spot the incoming Japanese convoy, radioing positions back to the main task force.

US naval patrol aircraft once again spot the incoming Japanese convoy. Positions are sent to Task Force 61.

Task Force 61, comprised of the USS Enterprise, USS Saratoga and the USS Wasp head to intercept the Japanese convoy.

Task Force 61 sets up at locations east of Malaita Island in preparation for the battle. Aircraft are launched form the American carriers beginning what is known as the Battle of the Eastern Solomons.

At 3:15PM, American carrier aircaft from the USS Enterprise manage hits on the IJN Shokaku.

Dive bombers and torpedo bombers from the USS Enterprise manage critical hits against the IJN Ryujo and sink here where she stood at 3:50PM.

At about 4:41PM, the USS Enterprise is the victim of Japanese dive bombers and takes several direct hits but manages to keep fighting.

The Japanese Navy lose their seaplane carrier - the IJN Chitose - to American dive bombers at 5:40PM.

The Japanese Navy loses a pair of transport ships enroute to the Solomon Island chain.

The Battle of the Eastern Solomons ends with the Japanese Navy claiming at least 90 aircraft lost while the American Navy enjoys victory with 20 aircraft lost in the fray.

A Japanese Navy convoy headed through the Eastern and Western Solomons is intercepted by a US Navy force, beginning what is known as the Battle of Cape Esperance.

At 11:32PM, US Navy warships fire upon IJN vessels in the convoy, sinking the IJN Fubuki and damaging the IJN Furutaka and IJN Aoba, which themselves begin sinking.

At midnight, the Japanese convoy is in retreat and gone from the region in roughly 30 minutes.

The IJN Furutaka officially sinks at 12:40AM.

Japanese Navy supply ships make their way offshore of Guadalcanal where land forces there are attempting to take Henderson Field.

A USN Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boat scout plane spots the Japanese waterforce and relays their position.

The US Navy sends Task Force 16 and 17 to intercept the Japanese resupply action.

US Navy aircraft are launched from USS Enterprise and USS Hornet but fail to locate the Japanese ships.

A PBY Catalina, capable of limited bombing, misses its mark as it attempts to hit several Japanese aircraft carriers at 2:50AM.

USS Enterprise launches a wave of Dauntless dive bombers in search of the Japanese group. Some 22 total aircraft are launched.

72 aircraft are launched as a combined force from USS Enterprise and USS Hornet.

The IJN carrier launch around 110 aircraft in response.

At 7:40AM, USN dive bombers damage the IJN carrier Zuiho.

US Navy and IJN aircraft formally meet in air to air combat by 8:15AM.

The USS Hornet takes a critical hit at 9:15AM from attacking Japanese Navy dive bombers and torpedo bombers. The IJN forces claim two torpedo hits and a further six bomb hits against her.

The crew of the USS Hornet begin evacuation procedures aboard their doomed ship.

The crippled IJN carrier Zuiho is hit by another four bombs, bringing her tenure at sea to an official close at 9:18AM.

USN bombers score several key direct hits against the carrier IJN Shokaku at 9:30AM.

USS Enterprise receives several direct hits from IJN dive bombers against her flight deck and forward elevator.

The Americans signal a withdrawal of all forces form the battle.

The USS Hornet is cleared of all crew by 11:40AM.

Tuesday, October 27th, 1942

Destroyers of the IJN come across the remains of the USS Hornet and launch torpedoes against her, sending her to the bottom of the Pacific.


Codemakers: History of the Navajo Code Talkers

Navajos in a U.S. Marine artillery regiment relay orders over a field radio in their native tongue.

William R. Wilson
February 1997

Training Day: Navajos from the 1st Marine Division were pivotal to the war effort in the Pacific Theater. (U.S. Marine Corps)

In early 1942, World War II was not going well for the Allies. France had fallen. Britain was still staggering from the Blitz. Japanese forces had crippled the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, attacked the Philippines and Guam, and were seizing territory in the south and central Pacific in assaults that included sinking British battleship Prince of Wales and battle cruiser Repulse off Malaya. Germany armies had advance deep into the Soviet Union. Hitler’s submarines were wreaking havoc on convoys leaving the United States for Russian ports.

In wartime, secure communications are crucial, but for the U.S. armed forces, securing messages become a bewildering problem. Japanese cryptographers, many of them educated in the United States and fluent in standard and colloquial English, were amazingly adept at breaking codes. Enemy forces often knew about American battle plans in advance, and no defense against Japanese codebreaking had materialized. “Military communications were made available to the enemy like sand sifting through a sieve,” an analyst said.

An unlikely answer came from an unlikely source. Philip Johnston, a civil engineer who lived in Los Angeles, was the child of missionaries who had raised their son on the Navajo Reservation, which stretches across New Mexico and Arizona. Born in Kansas in 1892, Johnson had grown up speaking Navajo. In that language, unique to reservation dwellers and rarely used elsewhere, inflection determines a word’s meaning. Depending on pronunciation, a Navajo word can have four distinct meanings. Navajo verb forms are especially complex. Outsiders generally find the language incomprehensible and have likened hearing it spoken to listening to the rumble of a freight train, the gurgling of a partially blocked drain, and the flushing of an old-fashioned commode. In 1942, there was no Navajo alphabet. The language did not exist in written form. At government boarding schools to which Indian children were sent, teachers and administrators often forbade their charges to speak Navajo or any other Indian language, demanding that they speak only English.

At 50, Johnson, who had served in France with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I, was too old to fight in World War II, but he still wanted to serve. Reading an article about military security, he had an idea: base a secret code on Navajo. He thought through his concept and in February 1942 visited U.S. Marine Corps Camp Elliott near San Diego. At a meeting with Signal Corp Communications Officer Lieutenant Colonel James E. Jones, Johnston described how a code based on Navajo would thwart enemy codebreakers. Jones was skeptical but Johnston persuaded him to test the premise.

Back in Los Angeles, Johnston recruited four bilingual Navajos. He and they traveled on February 28 to Camp Elliott for a demonstration before Marine staff officers. Two Navajos were given a typical military field order and assigned to a room from which they were to transmit the message in Navajo to their companions several rooms away. Retranslated into English, the Navajo message accurately recapitulated the order as given, amazing the Marine observers.

Impressed, Camp Elliott commander Major General Clayton Vogel asked Marine Corps Headquarters in Washington, DC, to authorize the immediate recruitment of 200 young, well-educated Navajos as Marine communications specialists. Headquarters authorized 30, reasoning that to be enough to prove Johnston’s theory.

Off to Battle: Many of the Navajos recruited for the program had never left their reservations in the American Southwest, but soon found themselves headed across the Pacific Ocean to fight a war. (U.S. Marine Corps)

By April, Marine personnel were on the Navajo Reservation recruiting volunteers from Indian agency schools at Fort Wingate and Shiprock, New Mexico, and Fort Defiance, Arizona. Besides fluency in Navajo and English, candidates had to demonstrate that they were physically fit to serve as messengers in combat. Recruiters told volunteers only that they would be “specialists” serving at home and overseas. Officially, Marine recruits had to be between 16 and 35 years of age. Birth records were not usually kept on the reservation some underage volunteers lied about when they were born, as did 36-year-old Fort Defiance resident Carl Gorman. Few volunteers had ever left the reservation. Many had never ridden on a bus or train. Several recruits’ families insisted that their sons participate in a religious ceremony to pray for a safe return before departing for basic training at San Diego Marine Corps Recruit Depot. Officially the 382nd Platoon, U.S. Marine Corps, at boot camp, the group was referred to as “The Navajo School.”

Military discipline—obeying orders, marching in cadence, and keeping one’s quarters scrupulously clean, in Marine parlance “squared away”—was another new and sometime difficult experience, but nearly all the reservation recruits adjusted. Following basic training, the Navajos moved to Camp Pendleton at Oceanside, California. During a dress parade on a hot day, several white Marines passed out the Navajos remained erect in formation and at attention during the personal inspection that followed. “They’re a typical Marine outfit of budding specialists,” the publication Marine Corps Chevron reported. “They gripe about the things that all Marines gripe about—liberty, chow and the San Diego weather.”

The Navajos were assigned to devise a code in their language that would baffle enemy listeners. Code words had to be short and easily learned and recalled. The men developed a two-part code. A 26-letter phonetic alphabet used Navajo names for 18 animals or birds, plus the words “ice” (the letter I), “nut” (N), “quiver” (Q), “Ute” (U), “victor” (V), “cross” (X), “yucca” (Y), and “zinc” (Z). The second part was a 211-word English vocabulary with Navajo synonyms. Conventional Marine Corps codes involved lengthy encoding and deciphering procedures using sophisticated electronic equipment. The Navajo code, relying on the sender’s and the receiver’s brains, mouths, and ears, was much faster. In training and in combat, code-talkers’ proficiency erased official distrust.

One volunteer dropped out. Several remained in California to train the next group. Two became recruiters. The rest reported to Guadalcanal in August 1942, assigned to the First Marine Division, commanded by Major General Alexander Vandegrift, who soon was asking headquarters for 83 more Navajo just to handle encoding and decoding for his division. A second group of volunteers went through boot camp, then was assigned to the code-talker program at Camp Pendleton, which by August 1943 had trained nearly 200 Navajo and whose administrator was Staff Sergeant Philip Johnston.

In jungle combat, stamina, Spartan habits, ingenuity, scouting and tracking skill, and utter disregard for hardship stood the Navajo in good stead. At first assigned mainly at the company-battalion level, code-talkers became virtually indispensable. Often, especially when a Marine regiment was fighting alongside an Army unit, white soldiers mistook the Navajo for the enemy, nearly costing several code-talkers their lives. Sometimes GIs “captured” and interrogated Navajo. Code-talker William McCabe, waiting on a Guadalcanal beach for his ship, joined a chow line. “I got lost among the big chow dump,” he recalled, “All of a sudden I heard somebody say, ‘Halt,’ and I kept walking. ‘Hey, you! Halt, or I’m gonna shoot!’. . . . [T]here was a big rifle all cocked and ready to shoot. I’m just from my outfit, I was coming here to get something to eat. And he said, ‘I think you’re a Jap. Just come with me.’” After that incident, a white fellow Marine accompanied McCabe at all times.

On the eve of the First Marine Division’s departure for Okinawa, expected to be the bloodiest landing yet, the Navajo performed a sacred dance invoking their deities’ blessings and protection for themselves and other Americans. They prayed that their enemies prove weak. Some white personnel scoffed from the sidelines, but when war correspondent Ernie Pyle reported the story, he observed that the Okinawa landings had gone easier than had been anticipated, a point he said Navajo Marines were quick to point out to skeptics. When Japanese resistance inland almost halted the American advance, a white Marine asked his foxhole mate, a Navajo, what he thought of his prayers now. “This is completely different,” the Navajo said. “We only prayed for help during the landings.”

Eyes On Target: A Navajo code talker tracks enemy movements at Saipan. (National Archives)

Code talkers served with all six Marine divisions in the Pacific and with Marine Raider and parachute units, earning lavish praise for their performance in the Solomons and the Marianas and on Peleliu and Iwo Jima. Of Iwo Jima, Fifth Marine Division Signal Officer Major Howard Conner said, “The entire operation was directed by Navajo code. . . . During the two days that followed the initial landings I had six Navajo radio nets working around the clock. . . . They sent and received over 800 messages without an error. Were it not for the Navajo Code Talkers, the Marines never would have taken Iwo Jima.”

“Navajo School” graduated 421 code talkers assigned mostly to combat units overseas. Following Japan’s surrender, several volunteered for occupation duty. Others were sent to Marine units in China. Code talker Willson Price stayed a Marine for 30 years, retiring in 1972.

Most code talkers came home to family reunions and purification rites, traditional dances, and curing ceremonies, coupled with maternal prayers of thanks for sons’ safe return. These rites originated to protect returning Navajo from harmful influences they might have encountered or duties they had to to perform while away.

Few former code-talkers displayed evidence of serious psychological problems or combat fatigue, but reservation life nonetheless proved difficult. The men missed the excitement, the challenges, and especially the privileges of wartime service. Some re-enrolled in high school, others attended college on the G.I. Bill. Teddy Draper, Sr., who volunteered for occupation duty, became so fluent in Japanese that he served as an interpreter. “When I was going to boarding school [before the war], the U.S. government told us not to speak Navajo, but during the war, they wanted us to speak it!” Draper said. In combat, he thought, “If I can get back to the reservation safely, I want to become a Navajo language teacher and educate young Navajos.”

Draper did return to the reservation and become a teacher, but his experience was an exception. On the reservation, jobs were nonexistent. The G.I. Bill provided money for home loans to veterans, but many banks refused Navajo veterans loans because Navajo families held reservation land parcels in trust and had no proof of title. Despite this shameful treatment, one former code-talker said, “We’ve faced difficult situations before, and tough trails have never defeated us! Somehow the Navajos survived.”

In June 1969, the Fourth Marine Division honored its Navajo members at the unit’s annual reunion in Chicago, presenting 20 former code-talkers with medallions honoring each man’s wartime exploits. A few veteran code talkers still take part in holiday parades, often riding in convertibles. The Navajo Nation has chosen several to serve as chairman and vice-chairman, the tribe’s top executive positions, and others have served on the Tribal Council. The Navajo Code Talkers’ Association meets regularly at Window Rock, Arizona, the Navajo Nation capital.

In December 1971, President Richard M. Nixon presented the code talkers with a certificate of appreciation for the “patriotism, resourcefulness, and courage” they brought to bear in giving the Marine Corps its only unbreakable means of battlefield communication, saving thousands of American lives and perplexing the enemy to the very end. After the war, a former Japanese general acknowledged that Navajo transmissions had befuddled Japan’s most highly skilled cryptographers. An interviewer informed him that the troublesome code had been based on a Native American language. “Thank you,” the general said. “That is a puzzle I thought would never be solved.”

William R. Wilson is a former New Mexico travel writer and photographer, whose articles and photographs have been featured in Life, Look, Better Homes and Gardens, Modern Maturity, Reader’s Digest, and other family magazines.


The War Diary Of Will S. Arnett, 1st Lt. USAAF: December 29, 1942 Biskra, Africa

The following story appears courtesy of and with thanks to Will Seaton Arnett, 1st Lt. USAAF and John S. Green.

Took off at 12 o'clock to bomb the docks at Souse. After climbing through a thousand foot overcast, the whole of North Africa was covered over. One plane iced up going through the clouds and the pilot gave orders to bail out and the navigator was the first one out. About that time he dropped his load of bombs and regained control of his plane so no one else hit the silk. Thayer was all by his lonesome in the mountains and hasn't been found yet. The target was completely covered sow e came back with our bombs. I flew with Capt O'Carrol.

Routine. The Navigator hasn't been found yet.

Continued…
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29 December 1942 - History

Dim topics are coming soon.

    Naval Aircraft Types, 1942Aircraft at Pearl HarborBrewster F2A Buffalo
    Naval Aircraft Lists, 1942Naval Air HistoryEarly Flying Machines
    US Army Air CorpsPearl Harbor DefensePearl Harbor Pilots
    Carrier OperationsJapanese Naval AircraftJapanese Army Air Carriers
    Deck Crew
    Maps. -- overview
    Dud Torpedoes
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    Jet Aircraft Development - over 2,000 jets before war ended.
    Link to Photos -- all generations
    Mine Warfare
    Admirals of Oct 1941
    Code names
    Code Talkers
    Convoys
    Talk : Frank Jack Fletcher and the First Year of the Pacific War.
    Ideas that did - and didn't - work
    Be Prepared.
    One must fight with what is on hand.
    Why Pearl Harbor? 2
    Stories of some who were there.
    Stories from Readers.
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    Basic English : international language
    Rabaul Historical Society - Requests info on Jap subs.
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    Population Mix of the USA
    FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions ◄- Find your ship ↩ your father ↩
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    Here is My Story:
    I was ordered, in error, to serve on the pocket battleship Graf Spee, . . . Battle . . . Escape to Japan . . . Captured on blockade runner . . . POW #1 . . . Helmut's Story (35 pp) Helmut Ruge, 13th January 1917 -- 31th March 2009.
    There were other Enemy Alien Civilian Seamen during WWII, captured at sea before the U.S. was in the war, and interned for the duration,.
    The family listened to the news of the raid in disbelief Valerie had married a career sailor and was living in Pearl Harbor.
    I was almost 15 years old when the Japanese soldiers walked into Malang.
    From now on I was a slave for the Japanese Army."
    "On the morning of December 7, 1941, I was eleven years old. These are
    my memories of the bombing and the days that followed." - Yvonne's story.
    "As we approached our landing site, White Beach, our LST grounded on a sandbar
    some 20 yards from shore." -- Larry's story, Tami Air Field, Hollandia, DNG, 1944.
    "A few seconds later 'The Ghost Ship' lights were turned off and BLAMM!, heavy gunfire killed the silence, starshells were floating over the Vincennes and exploding shell fire caused the aircraft on its catapults to burst into flame !" -- Daniel's story, aboard Quincy, Savo Island, Aug 1942.
    "Kamikaze planes always came two at a time, low over the horizon. We had two minutes get to our guns. The planes would be in firing range for less than 20 seconds during which time you had to shoot them or they would have you." Joseph's LCS
    Luckiest Sailor
    Updated Sep 26, 2015 -- Start daily headlines 75 years ago.
    Dec 7, 2011 -- Start daily headlines 70 years ago.
    Dec 7, 2010 -- add Feedback on our new book
    May 25, 2010 -- add Hudson myth at Savo Island.
    October 25, 2009 -- add Royal Navy
    July 10, 2009 -- add 1939,40,41
    Oct 11, 2008 -- add Helmut Ruge of the Graf Spee.

Mr. Churchill in the White House

On December 13, 1941, six days after the “infamy” of Pearl Harbor, Winston Churchill boarded the battleship Duke of York bound for America—and the White House. The British prime minister did not return to London until January 17, 1942, and this wartime visit to confer with President Franklin Roosevelt established Churchill’s own “special relationship” with the Executive Mansion at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. He was no longer alone, and his darkest hours had become history.

Before the United States entered World War II, the two leaders had exchanged over 200 messages (telegrams, letters, or phone calls) and met for four days in Newfoundland during August 1941. Churchill, who had become prime minister on May 10, 1940, as war in Europe escalated, desperately sought greater American involvement, while Roosevelt remained cautious yet helpful.

President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill give a joint press conference on December 23, 1941 in the Oval Office.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum/NARA

Everything changed on December 8 with the declaration of war by Congress. That day Roosevelt wired Churchill: “Today all of us are in the same boat . . . and it is a ship which will not and cannot be sunk.” 1 Churchill immediately began making travel plans to Washington, even though Roosevelt worried about his future guest’s safety on the Atlantic crossing. Protected by three destroyers and weathering gale-force winds, the Duke of York arrived at Norfolk Navy Yard in Virginia on December 22—with the president meeting the prime minister at a Washington airfield shortly thereafter.

How concerned was Roosevelt that there might be a leak about Churchill’s voyage? First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt remembered being told by her husband “that we would be having some guests visit us” that December. “He told me that I could not know who was coming, nor how many, but I must be prepared to have them stay over Christmas,” she wrote years later in The Atlantic. “He added as an afterthought that I must see to it that we had good champagne and brandy in the house and plenty of whiskey.” 2

President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill preside over the National Christmas Tree lighting ceremony on December 24, 1941. Each leader gave a speech from the South Portico.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum/NARA

Once he was safely inside the White House, news of Churchill’s visit prompted banner headlines in newspapers around the world, and radio stations interrupted their broadcasts to announce his arrival. The two comrades in arms lost no time settling down for the first of many long discussions to plan military operations. Thus began the first of the prime minister’s five sojourns on American soil for consultations with FDR about the course of the war and its aftermath. The two leaders spent 113 days together between 1941 and 1945, and Churchill stayed at the White House on four different occasions. He also traveled with Roosevelt to the presidential retreat in Maryland (then called Shangri-La and today Camp David), as well as to Roosevelt’s beloved home in Hyde Park, N.Y.

Having Churchill as a guest in the Rose Bedroom of the White House meant that the president and his staff adapted to Churchillian ways. The Monroe Room on the Second Floor was converted into a map room to display the movement of troops and ships. His personal secretaries set up workspaces in the Lincoln Study. The visitor did much of his work—dictation of correspondence, reports, and speeches—after dinner and into the early morning hours. A self-described “tardy riser,” he liked to lounge in bed reading newspapers and catching up on affairs until lunchtime, and following that meal usually retired to his suite for an afternoon nap. But when the sun went down, he came alive for long conversations with his host or for composing his endless stream of documents.

In her book, On My Own (1958), Eleanor Roosevelt registered some displeasure with Churchill’s long-established routine. “They could talk for hours after dinner on any number of subjects,” she observed. “My husband, however, was so burdened with work that it was a terrible strain on him to sit up late at night with Mr. Churchill after working until 1 or 2 A.M. and then have to be at his desk early the next day while his guest stayed in his room until 11 A.M.” 3 Some memoirs detailing Roosevelt’s presidency mention that that he often needed time to recover from Churchill’s visits.

Both figures were outsized political personalities with immense confidence in themselves and what they were doing. Though Churchill was eight years older than Roosevelt, the prime minister understood that the president served as both head of state and head of government—and that Roosevelt had occupied this dual position since early 1933. Recognizing these realities, as well as America’s much larger population and capacity for resources, the prime minister tended to defer to Roosevelt, despite differences of opinion that occurred, particularly in the later years of the war. Interestingly and despite trips abroad to Casablanca, Tehran, and Yalta, Roosevelt never visited Britain as president. Churchill, whose mother was an American, kept crossing the Atlantic for conferences at the White House and elsewhere.

Diana Hopkins, daughter of advisor Harry Hopkins, stands beside Mr. Churchill with President Roosevelt's dog Fala in January 1942.

The White House Historical Association

The first visit from late December 1941 through early January 1942 was not only the longest but also the one that aroused the most curiosity and public interest. On December 23, Roosevelt and Churchill held a joint press conference. The next day the pair participated in the annual lighting of the National Christmas tree. On Christmas Day, they attended morning church services—and ended a round of White House events with a 90-minute discussion in Churchill’s suite. On December 26, the prime minister addressed a joint meeting of Congress, the first of three times (between 1941 and 1952) that he spoke to members of both the House of Representatives and Senate.

The evening after his speech at the Capitol, Churchill experienced what he called “a dull pain over my heart.” During an examination the following day, his doctor Sir Charles Wilson, later named Lord Moran, found that the “symptoms were those of coronary insufficiency,” a diagnosis he didn’t share with his patient. 4 Though Wilson suggested slowing down, Churchill kept to his busy schedule and headed to Ottawa for a speech to the Canadian Parliament on December 30. In his diary, published as Churchill in 1966, Lord Moran uses the phrase “heart attack” to describe the incident. 5 Medical professionals who have more recently studied Churchill’s records dispute that assessment.

Besides his public activities and a succession of planning meetings with Roosevelt and his war council, Churchill supplied a constant flow of reports and memoranda back to government officials in London. One update he wired to Clement Attlee, the deputy leader of the House of Commons and Lord Privy Seal, on January 3, 1942 is revealing in its description of what it was like to reside and work in the White House. Each page of the prime minister’s account—now available in the National Archives outside London—is marked with a warning in red: “HUSH—MOST SECRET.”

“We live here as a big family in the greatest intimacy and informality, and I have formed the very highest regard and admiration for the President,” Churchill said. “His breadth of view, resolution and his loyalty to the Common Cause are beyond all praise.” 6 Churchill’s opinion of the congenial domesticity is probably confirmed most dramatically by repeating an anecdote involving the president and his guest. In The Grand Alliance (1950), the third of six volumes comprising Churchill’s historical memoir, The Second World War, he notes that Roosevelt made a middle-of-the-night decision to call the Allies fighting the Axis countries the “United Nations” rather than the “Associated Powers.” In the prime minister’s account, “The President was wheeled in to me on the morning of January 1. I got out of my bath, and agreed to the draft.” 7

President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill fishing at the presidential retreat, Shangri-La in May 1943. This retreat is known today as Camp David.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum/NARA

Roosevelt’s recollection of what actually happened is somewhat more colorful. In F.D.R., My Boss (1949), his personal secretary Grace Tully remarked that the president later informed her about the incident, “You know, Grace, I just happened to think of it now. He’s pink and white all over.” 8

Margaret (Daisy) Suckley, a distant relative and confidante of President Roosevelt, corroborated the story. In her diary, published as Closest Companion (1995), Suckley says the president “called to W.S.C. & in the door leading to the bathroom appeared W.S.C.: a ‘pink cherub’ [FDR said] drying himself with a towel, & without a stitch on!” 9

Though Churchill denied ever uttering the quip often attributed to him during the encounter—“You see, Mr. President, I have nothing to conceal from you” 10 —the prime minister did, indeed, report to King George VI after his return later that January: “Sir, I believe I am the only man in the world who has received the head of a nation without any clothes on.” 11

The extended White House stay as the war began nurtured a personal bond between Churchill and Roosevelt. The president, in fact, sent a “Dear Winston” letter in March 1942 that included this advice: “I know you will keep up your optimism and your grand driving force, but I know you will not mind if I tell you that you ought to take a leaf out of my notebook. Once a month I go to Hyde Park for four days, crawl into a hole and pull the hole in after me. I am called on the telephone only if something of really great importance occurs.” 12

Churchill, however, relished action to the point of being somewhat of a daredevil and made more than two dozen trips abroad for meetings or battlefield visits during the war. But his time in Washington was special and sometimes quite out of the ordinary.

Once news broke that Mr. Churchill was residing at the White House, he began receiving fan mail from across the United States. This letter, addressed to "Churchill the Magnificent," was sent from Boston, Massachusetts during his extended visit of 1941-1942.

Robert Schmuhl, Sir John Martin Papers, Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge

In the memoirs of the prime minister’s chief military assistant, General Hastings Ismay relates what happened in September 1943 during Churchill’s fourth visit to the White House. “The President had to go to Hyde Park before Churchill finished all that he wanted to do,” Ismay notes. “On leaving, he said, in so many words, ‘Winston, please treat the White House as your home. Invite anyone you like to any meals, and do not hesitate to summon any of my advisers with whom you wish to confer at any time you wish.” 13

Churchill seized the opportunity, later stopping at Hyde Park to report what he’d done. Ismay’s comment on Churchill’s decision to continue to conduct business at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue without the president in residence is striking: “I wonder if, in all history, there has ever existed between the war leaders of two allied nations, a relationship so intimate as that revealed by this episode.” 14

When Churchill became prime minister for a second time in 1951, he made trips to the United States on three different occasions—in 1952, 1953, and 1954. For the last one, the then-79-year-old leader wrote President Dwight Eisenhower, “My dear Friend,” proposing to “stay four or five days . . . at the [British] Embassy.” 15 Eisenhower, who had served as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during World War II and worked closely with Churchill, came up with a different plan, which he expressed in an incomplete sentence: “Am desirous that you stay with me . . . at the White House.” 16 From the morning of June 25 until the afternoon of June 29, the prime minister engaged in his usual round of meetings, conversations, and meals with American officials. Despite being increasingly frail, the guest valued his return to 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, wiring Eisenhower, “We have many pleasant and enduring memories of our visit to the White House.” 17

Five years later (in May 1959), President Eisenhower welcomed Britain’s most prominent statesman—and still an incumbent member of Parliament—back to Washington for yet another White House stay. Ike even took Churchill, a student of the American Civil War, to his farm in Gettysburg via helicopter to show him the nearly century-old battlefield from the air. Describing Churchill’s departure at the end of this stay, John Eisenhower, the president’s son and a noted historian, remarked that the years and several strokes had taken their toll on Britain’s bulldog. But he still commanded respectful attention: “When he left the White House after the visit, the entire presidential staff poured out to the northwest gate to send him off in his limousine, the members viewing him half in affection and half in awe.” 18

President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill pose with the Chiefs of Staff in May 1943. This photograph was taken in the garden outside the West Wing, known today as the Rose Garden.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum/NARA

That affection and awe only increased during Churchill’s final years. President John F. Kennedy considered Churchill a hero and invited him to return to the White House a few months after the young president’s inauguration in 1961. By that point such a journey was impossible and the offer was politely declined. Yet, two years later at a White House ceremony, Kennedy awarded Churchill honorary American citizenship, the first time a native of another country was so recognized by an Act of Congress. In his remarks, Kennedy, himself a Pulitzer Prize-winning author, praised the honoree’s ways with words: “In the dark days and darker nights when England stood alone . . . he mobilized the English language and sent it into battle.” 19

Even though Churchill could not make the journey to Washington, he composed a statement that his son, Randolph, read. In the eight-volume collection of Churchill’s “complete speeches”—8,917 pages in total—this address is the final one, and it combines both personal and historical reflections. “In this century of storm and tragedy,” he wrote, “I contemplate with high satisfaction the constant factor of the interwoven and upward progress of our peoples. Our comradeship and our brotherhood in war were unexampled. We stood together, and because of that fact the free world now stands.” 20

Churchill died on January 24, 1965, and Eisenhower traveled to London for the state funeral. In his tribute, he called his friend a “soldier, statesman, and citizen that two great countries were proud to claim as their own. Among all the things so written or spoken, there will ring out through all the centuries one incontestable refrain: Here was a champion of freedom.” 21 Freedom’s champion felt right at home in America, and the phrase he coined in 1944 to describe the enduring alliance between the United Kingdom and United States—“a special relationship”—also characterized his own personal association with the White House.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden are greeted by President Dwight Eisenhower, First Lady Mamie Eisenhower, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and Vice-President Richard Nixon beneath the North Portico on June 25, 1954.

Thomas J. O'Halloran, Library of Congress

Robert Schmuhl is the Walter H. Annenberg-Edmund P. Joyce Professor of American Studies and Journalism at the University of Notre Dame. He recently served as a Visiting Research Fellow at the Rothermere American Institute at the University of Oxford, where he worked on his forthcoming book, Mr. Churchill in the White House.


In May 1942, The Largest Surrender in U.S. Military History Took Place

But MacArthur was busy with other things. He was awarded $500,000 by Philippine president Manuel Quezon for his prewar service, and his staff also got money (Eisenhower was offered money, but turned it down). To be fair, he was ordered by President Roosevelt to fly himself and his family aboard a B-17 to Australia. Following orders, to be sure, but his troops weren’t so lucky. Between the cruelty of the Bataan Death March, and for the survivors the brutality of Japanese prison camps, 40 percent of the Americans never made it home.

“Tell Joe, wherever he is, to give ’em hell for us,” said the radio signal. “My love to you all. God bless you and keep you. Sign my name, and tell mother how you heard from me. Stand by.”

And then there was silence.

On the morning of May 6, 1942, U.S. Army Sgt. Irving Strobing sent the last message—to America, his family and his brother Joe—from the fortress of Corregidor, an island at the mouth of Manila Bay. A few hours later, under the cameras of Japanese photographers and the contemptuous glare of Japanese officers, Gen. Jonathan Wainwright surrendered the last of the U.S. garrison in the Philippines.

From Corregidor’s tunnels emerged eleven thousand starving, wounded and exhausted American and Filipino prisoners, including several American nurses. They swelled the ranks of the defenders of the Bataan peninsula, who had surrendered on April 9. By early May 1942, the Japanese had captured seventy-six thousand American and Filipino soldiers in the largest surrender in U.S. history.

On the seventy-fifth anniversary of the fall of Corregidor, the question still remains: what went wrong?

The answer is pretty much everything. The problems began with an impossible strategic situation. Manila is only two thousand miles from Japan, but five thousand miles from Pearl Harbor. By the 1930s, it was obvious that in the case of war, the Philippines would be isolated by the Japanese Navy, bereft of reinforcements and resupply. War Plan Orange called for the U.S. Navy to conduct a naval cavalry charge across the Pacific to relieve the garrison. At best, this would be chancy at worst, Japanese aircraft and subs would whittle down the U.S. fleet and in reality, the Pearl Harbor disaster left no fleet to come to the rescue.

None of which was Philippines commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s fault, but much else was. Under his watch, essential defense preparations were left undone (exacerbated by tight prewar budgets). By December 7, 1941, U.S. Army and mobilized Filipino troop strength had soared from thirty-one thousand to 130,000 troops. But the Filipinos in particular were poorly trained and armed, and the defenders were scattered across the islands of the Philippines. The Far East Air Force had perhaps three hundred aircraft, but that included only thirty-five B-17s and another hundred modern P-40 fighters, with the rest obsolete models. The Asiatic Fleet based in Manila had only a handful of ships, some submarines, plus the Fourth Marine Regiment.

News of Pearl Harbor awakened MacArthur at 3 a.m. December 8. The aircraft at Clark Field should have been dispersed and then launched to bomb Japanese airfields on Taiwan. With bad weather delaying the Japanese strike for nine hours, the Americans might have caught Japanese planes on the ground—if MacArthur had authorized it. Instead the Japanese caught the American air fleet on the ground and decimated it, thus depriving the defenders of their only chance to disrupt the impending amphibious landing.

Later on December, Japanese troops landed on northern Luzon, unmolested for a handful of U.S. aircraft (which still managed to sink or damage several ships). But this was only a sucker punch before the main landing: on December 22, the Japanese Fourteenth Army landed in Lingayen Gulf, in the center of Luzon and close to Manila and Clark Field. This was followed by a smaller landing in southern Luzon.

Outflanked and outmaneuvered, MacArthur ordered Plan Orange, a delaying action by rearguards while the bulk of his forces moved into the defenses of the Bataan Peninsula near Manila. Covered by detachments of U.S. and Filipino troops, including some M3 Stuart light tanks, eighty thousand troops and twenty thousand civilians made it into Bataan. Unfortunately, Plan Orange called for sufficient supplies for only forty-three thousand troops to dig in at Bataan.

Nonetheless, the Bataan troops fought bravely and inflicted heavy losses. But unless the U.S. Navy could instantly resurrect the sunken battleships at Pearl Harbor, the Philippines were doomed. Backed by heavy air support, the Japanese eventually broke through the lines of starving and ill defenders. Most eventually surrendered, but a few made it to Corregidor, defended by a motley assortment of Army, Marine and Filipino troops. Lacking food and medicine, they too were bombed and shelled until they surrendered May 6.

And MacArthur? The Bataan troops composed a song about him to the tune of “The Battle Hymn of the Republic”:

Dugout Doug MacArthur lies ashaking on the Rock

Safe from all the bombers and from any sudden shock

Dugout Doug is eating of the best food on Bataan

And his troops go starving on.

Dugout Doug’s not timid, he’s just cautious, not afraid

He’s protecting carefully the stars that Franklin made

Four-star generals are rare as good food on Bataan

And his troops go starving on.

Dugout Doug is ready in his Kris Craft for the flee

Over bounding billows and the wildly raging sea

For the Japs are pounding on the gates of Old Bataan

And his troops go starving on . . .

But MacArthur was busy with other things. He was awarded $500,000 by Philippine president Manuel Quezon for his prewar service, and his staff also got money (Eisenhower was offered money, but turned it down). To be fair, he was ordered by President Roosevelt to fly himself and his family aboard a B-17 to Australia. Following orders, to be sure, but his troops weren’t so lucky. Between the cruelty of the Bataan Death March, and for the survivors the brutality of Japanese prison camps, 40 percent of the Americans never made it home.

“I will return,” MacArthur vowed. And he did—on October 20, 1944, and in the presence of photographers.

Michael Peck is a contributing writer for the National Interest. He can be found on Twitter and Facebook.


Social Security

January 1, 1940 Monthly benefits first became payable under old-age and survivor's insurance to aged retired workers and their dependents and to survivors of deceased insured workers. The Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund was established as a separate account in the United States Treasury to hold the amounts accumulated under the old-age and survivors insurance program. Basic provisions for hearing and review instituted by the Social Security Board under authority to establish procedures, hold hearings, and take testimony in relation to determination of rights to old-age and survivors insurance benefits (Office of Appeals Council).

January 18-20, 1940 The White House Conference on Children in a Democracy was held Aid to Dependent Children was discussed.

January 31, 1940 Ida M. Fuller became the first person to receive an old-age monthly benefit check under the new Social Security law. She paid in $24.75 between 1937 and 1939 on an income of $2,484. Her first check, dated January 31, was for $22.54.

February 13, 1940 An Appeals Council, consisting of three members, was appointed by the Social Security Board to direct and supervise the holding of hearings on claims for old-age and survivors insurance benefits and to review decisions of referees, subject to review by the courts. Joseph McElvain was appointed the director. The staff of the Appeals Council included a Consulting Referee for the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance program as a whole and a Hearing Referee for each of the twelve regions.

May 17, 1940 The Social Security Board established regulations relative to entitlement to and computation of benefits, adjustment of overpayments and underpayments, procedures and penalties.

June 1940 All States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico were actively participating in programs providing child welfare services under the Social Security Act.

June 30, 1940 The Federal Security Agency under the President's Reorganization Plan No. IV was enlarged to include the Food and Drug Administration, transferred from the Department of Agriculture, and St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Freedman's Hospital, Columbia Institution for the Deaf, and Howard University, transferred from the Department of the Interior.

July 1940 The Report on Migratory Labor, presented to the President by the Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate Health and Welfare Activities, recommended the extension of social insurance programs to agricultural labor.

July 2, 1940 The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act was amended. One amendment was extended to July 1, 1942, the final date on which action could be taken by certain States to transfer from their accounts in unemployment trust fund to railroad unemployment insurance account amounts provided under Section 13(d) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act. Under this amendment, the Social Security Board was enabled to continue payment of administrative expenses for unemployment compensation in any State whose highest court had declared unconstitutional State legislation authorizing the transfer of funds.

July 11, 1940 The Bureau of Employment Security was designated a defense agency.

August 13, 1940 The Coal Mining Coverage Act was approved. It provided for more uniform coverage of certain persons employed in coal mining operations with respect to social insurance benefits under the Social Security Act.

September 5, 1940 Isidore S. Falk was named the Director of the Bureau of Research and Statistics, replacing Ewan Clague who had served since 1937.

September 14, 1940 The President recommended to Congress legislation designed to protect the social insurance rights of workers called into military service.

October 8, 1940 The Federal Unemployment Tax Act was amended by the Second Revenue Act of 1940 to permit employers to credit, against that tax for 1936, 1937, 1938 or 1939, contributions paid by them under State unemployment compensation laws at any time within 60 days after date of enactment.

October 8, 1940 The Social Security Board established regulations relative to determinations and decisions, hearing and review of matters affecting payments and revision of wage records, certification of payments, and representation of parties.

October 10, 1940 The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act was amended to change the benefit structure, definitions of employment and benefit year, disqualification provisions, and administrative procedures.

October 21, 1940 The Appeals Council of the Social Security Board, after reviewing an appealed referee decision relating to a claim for old-age and survivors benefits, handed down its first decision.

November 28, 1940 The National Defense Council, with the approval of the President, designated the Federal Security Administrator as coordinator of all health, medical, welfare, nutrition, recreation, and related fields of activity affecting the national defense. The Health and Medical Committee was transferred to the Federal Security Agency.

December 8-11, 1940 Arthur J. Altmeyer went to Lima, Peru to develop Pan American cooperation in Social Security. Following the meeting, a temporary Inter-American Committee on Social Security was formed.

December 23, 1940 Public Assistance principles and standards for fair hearing procedure were adopted by the Social Security Board to attain uniform interpretation of the Social Security Act's requirement that opportunity for fair hearing to dissatisfied applicants or recipients be provided under approved State plans, and to assist State agencies in clarifying and revising procedures.

1940 During the year, the first United States Social Security payments were made to 100 beneficiaries living abroad.

January 6, 1941 The President's State of the Union message recommended that coverage of the two social insurance programs be extended, opportunities for medical care be widened and plans made for a better employment system to assure work for persons needing gainful employment.

January 14, 1941 The Social Security Board adopted revised minimum standards for partial unemployment benefits, effective June 1, 1941, for administration by State employment security agencies.

February 4, 1941 The Social Security Board approved a statement of policy, relating to the consideration of income and resources in the determination of the need of an applicant for public assistance and to guide State agencies in conforming to the requirements called for by amendments to the Social Security Act.

February 7, 1941 The Rehabilitation Coordinating Committee was established within the Federal Security Agency, by order of the Administrator. It was charged with continuing the development of a program of coordination among the various Federal services engaged cooperatively with State governments in the general field of service to the disabled.

February 11, 1941 The appointment of The Interdepartmental Advisory Committee was announced by the Administration of the Federal Security Agency to assist and advise him in his capacity as Coordinator of Health, Welfare and Related Defense Activities. Regional directors of the Social Security Board have named as regional defense coordinators to act as chairmen of 12 regional advisory councils, each composed of regional representatives of all Federal agencies concerned.

February 12, 1941 The Family Security Committee, under the chairmanship of the Director of the Bureau of Public Assistance of the Social Security Board, was established by the Coordinator of Health, Welfare and Related Defense Activities to act in an advisory capacity to the Coordinator.

February 26, 1941 The Bureau of Public Assistance was designated a defense agency.

March 17, 1941 The Report of the National Resources Planning Board was submitted to the President.

April 11, 1941 The Social Security Board was designated a defense agency.

April 25, 1941 The Social Security Board adopted a statement of standards for safeguarding information concerning applicants and recipients of public assistance, for guidance of State agencies.

June 1,1941 Revised minimum standards for the administration of partial unemployment benefits was adopted by the Social Security Board and became effective this date.

June 20, 1941 A special Senate Committee to Investigate the Old-Age Pension System was authorized to make a full study of old-age assistance and old-age and survivors insurance provisions of the Social Security Act, as amended, and of ways and means for bringing about the early realization of a minimum pension for all aged persons who were not gainfully employed.

July 1,1941 The provisions of the Social Security Act Amendments of 1939 became effective, requiring that a State agency which administers the program shall, in determining need, take into consideration any other income and resources of an applicant for assistance, and provide safeguards to restrict the use or disclosure of information concerning applicants and recipients to purposes directly connected with administration of the program. Also effective this date were the provisions requiring that State laws include a provision that Federal funds received as administrative grants be expended solely for the purposes and in the amounts found necessary by the Social Security Board for proper and efficient administration, and that funds lost or expended for purposes other than, or in amounts in excess of, those found necessary by the Board be replaced within a reasonable time.

July 2, 1941 The Social Security Board approved an amendment of Section 403 702 (b) of Regulation No. 3 concerning evidence of the age of an applicant for old-age and survivors insurance benefits. Under this amendment, secondary evidence of age was declared admissible by a mere showing that primary evidence was not readily available.

July 21, 1941 The operation of Arizona's employment service offices was taken over by the Social Security Board under arrangement between the Board and the Arizona Employment Security Commission. Thus, the State Commission was to pay unemployment compensation benefits through employment service offices operated by the Board.

July 29,1941 The Social Security Board approved a draft copy of a reciprocal arrangement with the Dominion of Canada for handling unemployment contributions and benefits and also procedures for the transmittal of the agreement and the official adoption by both Governments.

August 7, 1941 The reappointment of George E. Bigge as a member of the Social Security Board was confirmed by the Senate for a term ending August 13, 1947.

August 14, 1941 In the Atlantic Charter, Roosevelt and Churchill included among the common principles in national policies of the two countries the desire "to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and Social Security."

September 3, 1941 The Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Services was established by the President to supersede the Office of Coordinator of Health, Welfare, and Related Defense Activities (November 28, 1940).

September 15, 1941 The program for making a substantial decentralization of adjudicative functions of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance became effective. Field offices assumed full responsibility for the reconciliation of wages, the development of claims, and the computation of benefit amounts their determinations were subject to review in central office.

September 20, 1941 The Federal Unemployment Tax Act and the Social Security Act were amended by the Revenue Act of 1941 to permit employers to credit against Federal unemployment tax for the calendar years 1936-1940, contributions, paid by them, under State unemployment compensation laws, before the 60th day after the date of enactment of the Revenue Act of 1941, if such claim was made within six months of that date.

September 23, 1941 The Social Security Board approved amendments to Sections 403.601 and 403.811 of Regulations No. 3 providing (1) that a penalty deduction from benefits which has not been made at the time of termination of benefits will not be considered an overpayment and need not require deduction from survivor benefits or restitution from the beneficiary's estate and (2) that persons employed by partnerships composed wholly of relatives designated in the family employment exception of the Social Security Act were to be excluded from coverage when the individual's relationship to each partner was as designated in the exception.

September 30, 1941 The Social Security Board approved a revision of Section 403.834(c) of Regulations No. 3, to the effect that, when the husband has been ordered by any court of competent jurisdiction to contribute to his wife's support, such order shall be considered as in full force and effect unless it has expired or has been vacated.

November 4, 1941 The Social Security Board adopted a policy permitting Federal financial participation in payments based on State plans that include grants enabling a recipient to meet the cost of care in a public hospital, provided that such care is not available to recipients of public assistance without charge, payments are not conditional, and care is not expected to extend beyond 90 days.

November 7, 1941 The Social Security Board ruled that wages paid for employment during 1937, with a State chartered member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System or State member banks of Federal Reserve System, be included in determining insured status and the amount of benefits in all pending and future claims for benefits.

November 24, 1941 The United States Supreme Court held unconstitutional the California legislation prohibiting any individual from assisting nonresident indigent persons to come into the State.

December 1, 1941 Oscar C. Pogge was named the Acting Director of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance. He succeeded John J. Corson, who was appointed to the newly-created position of Director of the United States Employment Service.

December 4, 1941 The Committee on Long Range Work and Relief Policies of the National Resources Planning Board transmitted to the President a comprehensive report "Security, Work and Relief Policies." This report advocated the addition of an insurance system that would provide disability and sickness benefits.

December 8, 1941 The work week was extended to 48 hours, after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

December 19, 1941 The national operation of the United States Employment service, effective January 1, 1942, was requested by the President. Telegrams were sent to the governor of each State and Territory declaring that the war program necessitated the establishment of a single centrally-directed organization to ensure effective utilization of all labor resources.

December 31, 1941 The Social Security Board approved amendments to Section 403.702(b), (a), and (d) of Regulations No. 3 concerning certification of records by Board employees. Under this amendment, designated field office employees of the Board were authorized,in specified instances, to certify to the contents of records in situations in which such certification might be made by the custodian of such records.

December 31, 1941 The Social Security Board certified to the Secretary of the Treasury all 51 jurisdictions as having approved unemployment compensation laws permitting employers to credit against 90 percent of the Federal unemployment tax for taxable year 1941 amounts paid as contributions under State laws.

1941 The Social Security Board first recommended the addition of disability benefits in its "Annual Report to Congress for 1941."

January 1, 1942 The States turned over to the Social Security Board the operation of the State-administered employment offices to effect the fullest utilization of the nation's labor supply.

January 5, 1942 The constitutionality of coverage under Pennsylvania's unemployment compensation law of employers engaged in interstate commerce was upheld by the United States Supreme Court, since such coverage did not trespass on Federal jurisdiction but was authorized by Federal law.

January 12, 1942 Executive Order No. 9017 established the War Labor Board to minimize strikes and lockouts.

January 13, 1942 The Social Security Board agreed to share administrative expenses of State public assistance agencies incurred in services of an exploratory and organizational nature for war or defense purposes, even though such activity may not have been concerned directly with the assistance program on which the employee normally worked.

February 6, 1942 The Social Security Board approved an amendment of Section 403.831 of Regulations No. 3 to permit a claimant to qualify for widow's insurance benefits, if she is the mother of an insured wage earner's child or was married to a wage earner a year before his death, without requiring also that she meet the added requirements of "wife" as defined elsewhere in the law.

February 6, 1942 President Roosevelt issued an order to the Federal Security Agency to create the Civilian War Benefits and Civilian War Assistance programs and for aid to enemy aliens (principally, to remove them to internment sites). The President's order allocated $5,000,000 from the President's Emergency Fund for these purposes. The Social Security Board was delegated this responsibility by the FSA.

February 9, 1942 The Social Security Board was given certain responsibilities in the program for aid to enemy aliens removed from the West Coast.

February 10, 1942 The Social Security Board authorized State public assistance agencies to release to selective service boards information relevant to dependency obtained from the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance.

February 26, 1942 The Social Security Board was authorized to administer monthly benefits, assistance, and services to civilians affected by enemy action hospitalization and medical care were made the responsibility of the Public Health Service.

March 3, 1942 The Social Security Board delegated to the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance responsibility for administering a temporary system to provide monthly benefit payments to dependents residing in continental United States or civilians affected by enemy action occurring outside the continental United States.

March 11, 1942 The Federal Security Administrator authorized the Social Security Board to utilize funds for assistance payments to needy civilians evacuated from Hawaii or Alaska.

March 17, 1942 The Social Security Board ruled: (1) that original determination of benefit awards, when based upon an obvious mistake of fact or law, shall be reopened retroactively and payments already made recovered or adjusted unless recovery or adjustment is waived under Section 204(b) and (2) that original determination of benefit awards, when not based upon obvious mistake of fact or law and not wholly arbitrary or unreasonable but no longer representing the position of the Board, shall in any event be reopened prospectively only and shall not be reopened at all if the beneficiary, who relied upon original determination, would be irreparably damaged by such reopening.

March 20, 1942 The Social Security Board certified the first civilian war benefits-chiefly for dependents of workers on Guam and Wake Island.

April 6, 1942 The United States Supreme Court upheld the validity of the "common control" provision of Mississippi's unemployment compensation law by dismissing the appeal of a Mississippi employer from a decision by the Mississippi Supreme Court which had held an employer liable for contributions under the State unemployment compensation law because he had exercised control of two businesses with a total of ten employees.

April 12, 1942 An agreement became effective between the United States and Canada for coordinating and integrating the unemployment insurance of the two countries to avoid duplicating contributions and benefits.

April 18, 1942 The War Manpower Commission was established by Executive Order with the Federal Security Administrator as Chairman.

April 28, 1942 The Social Security Board approved the release of information for war related purposes by State public assistance agencies under proper safeguards and in consideration of their own laws and standards.

April 29, 1942 Rhode Island became the first State to enact a sickness compensation law, providing cash sickness benefits for workers covered by the State Unemployment Compensation law.

May 5, 1942 Arthur J. Altmeyer, Chairman of the Social Security Board, was appointed Executive Director of the War Manpower Commission. He continued his duties on the Social Security Board.

May 16, 1942 The administration of Federal Credit Unions was transferred by Executive Order of the President from the Farm Credit Administration to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

May 22, 1942 The Social Security Board amended Section 403.202 or Regulations No. 3 in determining old age and survivors insurance benefit rights, each quarter for which a person was paid wages of not less than $50 in covered employment would be counted for purposes of determining "currently insured" status, notwithstanding the $3,000 limitation.

June 1, 1942 The central office of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance moved from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland decentralization of claims adjudication review and benefit payment operations was inaugurated with the opening of the first area office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A Bureau Personnel Office was established as an incident to the war time decentralization of the Bureau to Baltimore.

June 5, 1942 In cases involving a question of coverage under the Railroad Retirement Act or the old-age and survivors insurance program, the Social Security Board decided to pay monthly old-age and survivors insurance benefits unless the Railroad Retirement Board was making a current payment on the basis of the same wage record. Lump-sum payments would be made only if the Railroad Retirement Board was not making such a payment.

June 23,1942 The Servicemen's Dependents Allowance Act of 1942 was approved. It provided family allowances for dependents of enlisted men of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard.

June 26, 1942 The Social Security Board agreed to a Treasury Department request to shift the payment date for Social Security checks from the first of the month to the fifth. This was a war-mobilization action designed to reduce government demands on the Federal Reserve system at a time when it was trying to cope with many new demands for war-related payments.

July 1, 1942 The Social Security Board authorized continuing assistance, when necessary, on a month-to-month basis, for persons receiving temporary aid under temporary civilian assistance and enemy-alien allocations.

July 1, 1942 The Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance opened an area office in New York City.

July 3,1942 The Social Security Board approved a formula which would charge to programs other than those under Titles I, IV and X of the Social Security Act that portion of merit system costs incurred in connection with holding examinations, establishing and maintaining eligible registers and certifying persons from such registers which was attributable to employees working full time on such programs.

July 14, 1942 The Social Security Board approved an interpretation of residence requirements under public assistance programs indicating that the Social Security Act referred to residence only, and not to settlement or domicile, insofar as such terms are more restrictive than residence. The Board ruled that a State may not discontinue assistance because a recipient was temporarily absent from a State or because a recipient moved from one locality to another within a State.

July 24, 1942 The first field office of the War Manpower Commission opened in Baltimore, a critical labor supply area.

August 1, 1942 The Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance opened an area office in Chicago, Illinois.

August 1, 1942 Oscar C. Pogge was named the Director of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance.

August 28, 1942 Emergency grants to States was authorized for programs for day care for children of working mothers under plans approved by the Children's Bureau and the Office of Education, administered by the Works Projects Administration.

September 1, 1942 The Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance opened area offices in New Orleans, Louisiana, and San Francisco, California. The Social Security Board directed the transfer of the Regional Office for Region VII from Birmingham, Alabama, to Atlanta, Georgia, effective October 1, 1942 it also authorized the transfer of the State of Arizona from Region XI to Region XII.

September 4, 1942 A Women's Policy Committee was created to assist the War Manpower Commission.

September 10, 1942 The Inter-American Conference on Social Security opened in Santiago, Chile, under auspices of the Chilean government, with the Chairman of the Social Security Board, Arthur J. Altmeyer, as Chairman of the United States delegation. A permanent Inter-American Committee on Social Security was created.

September 17, 1942 The Chairman of the War Manpower Commission announced the appointment of three new regional directors. The former regional director of the Social Security Board's Region II, was appointed regional director for the Commission for the analogous region, New York State. The other two directors were appointed for Region I--New England, and Region X--Texas, New Mexico and Louisiana.

September 17, 1942 The United States Employment Service, National Youth Administration, apprenticeship training service, and training-within-industry service were transferred to the War Manpower Commission, by Executive Order, thus consolidating all authority over employment and employment training within the Commission.

September 1942 The headquarters of Region VII were moved from Birmingham to Atlanta to coincide with the War Manpower Commission headquarters. Also, Arizona was transferred from Region XI to Region XII.

October 3, 1942 Executive Order No. 9250 assigned administration of the wage stabilization program to the War Labor Board.

October 5, 1942 President Roosevelt expands the Civilian War Benefits programs to include civil defense and related workers residing in the United States.

October 9, 1942 The President asked Congress to establish within the Federal Security Agency a single rehabilitation service as central authority to coordinate and expand State and Federal services for rehabilitation of civilians and military personnel.

October 15, 1942 Arkansas inaugurated a plan for services to children of working mothers. (By December 31, similar programs were in operation in seven other States.

October 21, 1942 The Revenue Act of 1942 postponed the increase in the rate of contributions scheduled for 1943 under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act-(the rate was frozen at one percent through 1943.)

November 5, 1942 In accord with the President's request, the Federal Security Administrator authorized the Social Security Board (1) to pay disability benefits to civilians who had been injured in the performance of certain civilian defense activities or who had sustained injuries as a result of enemy action occurring after December 6, 1941, (survivor benefits were to be paid to survivors of such defense workers and other civilians who died from such injuries), and (2) to expand the temporary civilian war assistance program.

November 25, 1942 The Social Security Board approved the following recommendations for treating the income of employed recipients: That the States be encouraged (1) to determine, upon a reasonable basis, the minimum amount which any recipient of public assistance who is an actual or potential worker may be considered to need to cover expenses incident to employment (2) to include the amount so determined in requirements of all employed or potential workers who are recipients of public assistance and (3) to make additional provision for the needs incident to employment that may exceed the minimum.

December 1, 1942 The United States Employment Service was transferred to the War Manpower Commission

December 1, 1942 Sir William Beveridge's report, "Social Insurance and Allied Services," was submitted to Parliament on December 1, 1942. It called for: (1) a scheme of all-in social insurance for cash benefits (2) a general scheme of children's allowances both where the responsible parent was earning an income and where he or she was not earning an income and (3) an all-in scheme of medical treatment of every kind for everybody.

December 2, 1942 Public Law No. 784 enacted which codified and amended the Civilian War Benefits programs.

December 4, 1942 President Roosevelt ordered the liquidation of the W.P.A., and termination of project operations by February 1, 1943, or as soon thereafter as feasible.

December 7, 1942 Arthur J. Altmeyer resigned as Executive Director of the War Manpower Commission and assumed the position of a member representing the Federal Security Agency.

December 18, 1942 The Social Security Board amended Section 403.711(a) and (b) of Regulations No. 3 to authorize referees of the Appeals Council to extend the time within which a request for a hearing could be filed and to authorize referees to revise their own decisions when it clearly appeared that there was an error of fact or law in a decision or that a decision was procured by fraud or misrepresentation.

January 7, 1943 A post-war world which would furnish "assurance against the evils of all major economic hazards - assurance that will extend from the cradle to the grave" was envisioned by President Roosevelt in his message on the State of the Union, as one of two broad aims beyond the winning of the war.

March 10, 1943 A proposal for Social Security coverage for the armed forces and for a comprehensive post-war system of Social Security was sent to Congress by President Roosevelt.

March 26, 1943 The first disability payment under the Civilian War Benefits Program was made to a civilian defense worker.

January 18, 1943 The Supreme Court, upholding the conviction of American Medical Association and the District of Columbia Medical Society for violation of the Sherman antitrust law, declared that a cooperative enterprise organized to procure medical services for its members is engaged in business or trade and that professional bodies may be prosecuted for obstructing such business.

January 19, 1943 Mexico's Social Insurance Act was promulgated. It authorized a program of compulsory insurance against the risks of occupational accidents and disease, sickness, maternity, invalidity, old age, and death for all workers employed in the mining industry, transportation and commerce, and their dependents. Non-covered workers could insure on a voluntary basis, and all workers could contribute toward supplementary insurance.

January 20, 1943 In Uruguay, insurance coverage against risks of old age, unemployment, disability, and death of the wage earner was extended to all agricultural workers, including employers.

March 1, 1943 A ruling was issued that a company ordered by the National Labor Relations Board to reinstate employees with back pay could not deduct unemployment benefits received by the employees while idle.

March 10, 1943 A proposal for social security coverage for the armed forces and for a comprehensive post-war system of social security was sent to Congress by President Roosevelt.

March 16, 1943 Two comprehensive proposals for social security in Canada were submitted to a special committee of the House of Commons by Ian McKenzie, Pensions Minister. The first was a draft measure to provide a compulsory nationwide system of health insurance the other, a report on a comprehensive system of social security to assure a minimum standard income to every family.

March 18, 1943 A program of medical and hospital care for wives and infants of enlisted men in the four lowest grades of the armed forces was authorized to be administered by the Children's Bureau, through Federal grants to State health departments.

March 20, 1943 A Commonwealth Act establishing a National Welfare Fund was assented to in Australia. The Act provided that moneys in the fund be used for health services, unemployment or sickness benefits, family allowances or other social services, including maternity allowances and funeral benefit for pensioners.

March 24, 1943 An act was passed to permit the War Shipping Administration, as the employer of seamen serving on vessels owned or chartered to the United States, to pay the employer's payroll tax for old-age benefits without regard to the $3,000 limitation placed upon the amount of wages subject to that tax.

March 26, 1943 The first disability payment under the Civilian War Benefits Program was made to a civilian defense worker.

April 29, 1943 The Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare Services was abolished by Executive Order No. 9338. Its functions, duties and powers were transferred to the Federal Security Agency. Under this Order, the Federal Security Administrator established within his office an Office of Community War Services and a Committee on Physical Fitness.

May 24, 1943 Oscar C. Pogge resigned as Director, Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, when John J. Corson was reappointed to the position.

June 3, 1943 The first "Wagner-Murray-Dingell" bill was introduced. The bill provided for major changes in the Social Security Act, including disability benefits, and creation of a compulsory national health insurance program for all people. The program was to have been financed through a payroll tax. Congress took no action on the proposal.

June 9,1943 Legislation enacted permitting States to continue payments to old age assistance recipients at the rate paid in July 1943, without regard to any increase in resources from wages earned in agricultural employment.

June 9,1943 The American Medical Association created the Council on Medical Services and Public Relations to study the economic aspects of health on a national scale and to develop alternative plans to the compulsory health insurance plans being introduced into the Congress.

June 30,1943 With liquidation of projects of the W.P.A. and student work program of the National Youth Administration, Federal financial participation in public aid limited to public assistance under the Social Security Act.

July 5, 1943 Reappointment of Mrs. Ellen S. Woodward of Mississippi as a member of the Social Security Board confirmed by the Senate for the term expiring August 13, 1949.

July 6,1943 Amendments to the Vocational Rehabilitation Act established the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation in the Federal Security Agency.

July 6,1943 The existing Vocational Rehabilitation program was greatly expanded to include operation under State principles approved by the Federal Security Administrator. Federal grants to States were to cover all administrative costs, costs of all services for war disabled civilians, and half the costs of services to other civilians.

July 8,1943 Regulations issued by the Treasury Department for preferential income tax treatment of employees' pension, stock bonus, and profit sharing trusts provided that plans which differentiate between employees above and below a given level of earnings had to be integrated with the social security system to prevent disproportionate benefits to the higher-paid employees.

July 12,1943 A Social Security Board ruling was issued that stated: when a State agency operated under a State merit system established by legislative enactment, the moneys appropriated under the Social Security Act for grants to the States for the fiscal year 1943-1944 could not be withheld by the Social Security Board for the Children's Bureau because those agencies disapproved of the personnel of the State agency, the manner of their selection, or their rates of pay.

July 25, 1943 A new law became effective in Ecuador making social insurance obligatory for all public and private employees. The risks covered included sickness, maternity, invalidity, survivorship, old age, industrial accident and occupational disease.

September 4, 1943 The establishment of an Office of Vocational Rehabilitation in the Federal Security Agency was announced.

September 13, 1943 Hugh F. McKenna named Assistant Director of the Division of Field Operations, Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance.

October 1, 1943 Regions II and III of the Social Security Board were consolidated in New York City. The action was in line with the Social Security Board's effort to effect all possible savings in administrative costs.

October 25, 1943 The Social Security Board's Chairman outlined the principles and policies to be considered in including servicemen under old-age and survivors insurance and establishing a system of demobilization unemployment allowances.

November 9, 1943 An agreement establishing the U.N. Relief and Rehabilitation Administration was signed by 44 representatives of the United Nations and other affiliated nations.

November 22, 1943 Federal agencies were ordered to use Social Security account numbers for identifying Government workers whenever they established a new permanent system of numerical identification of employees. (Executive Order No. 9397.)

December 22, 1943 Congress postponed for 60 days the increase in Federal Insurance Contributions scheduled for January 1, 1944.

January 1, 1944 The Mexican social insurance act went into operation in the Federal District, It established a system of compulsory insurance covering risks of industrial accident and occupational disease, sickness and maternity, invalidity, old age and death, as well as providing for voluntary insurance of certain groups not included under the compulsory system.

January 11, 1944 President Roosevelt outlined in his State of the Union Message, an "economic bill of rights," which included "the right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health." However, he did not make any subsequent proposal for health insurance.

January 19, 1944 The Social Security Board, in its Eighth Annual Report to Congress, specifically called for compulsory national health insurance program to be incorporated into the Social Security system.

February 14, 1944 An amendment to Title I of the Social Security Act provided that the States could continue to pay, with Federal participation, old-age assistance at the rate paid in July 1943 without considering additional income derived by recipients performing agricultural labor as part of their resources in determining need.

February 17, 1944 A government White Paper on National Health Service recommended a comprehensive health program for Great Britain, including services of general practitioners, specialists, hospitals, and clinics, to provide all medical advice, treatment and care required by the British population.

February 23, 1944 A program providing for family allowances on a noncontributory basis was begun in Ireland.

February 24, 1944 A Retraining and Reemployment Administration was established in the Office of War Mobilization.

February 25, 1944 The Revenue Act of 1943 extended throughout 1944 the postponement of the scheduled increase in the contribution rates under the old-age and Survivors insurance program. Title II of the Social Security Act was amended to authorize appropriation from general revenues to the trust fund of any additional amounts required to finance benefits. (This, the Vandenberg-Murray Amendment, was in effect until 1950.)

April 1, 1944 Pensions were authorized for all physically or mentally helpless children of deceased veterans regardless of the age of the child at the date the claim was filed or at the time of the veteran's death, provided the child was disabled at age 16 and the disability continued to the date of the claim.

April 4, 1944 The Foreign War Shipping Crews Exclusion Act was approved (P.L. 17, 78th Congress). It amended Title II of the Social Security Act, providing coverage for officers and crew members who were employed on behalf of the United States through the War Shipping Administration.

April 5, 1944 The United States District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, held that money paid to a widow, after the death of her wage-earner husband pursuant to a back-pay award by the National Labor Relations Board entered after the wage earner's death, did not constitute wages as defined in the original Social Security Act because it was not remuneration for employment.

April 13, 1944 Elizabeth A. Mulholland assumed the position of Personnel Director of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance.

April 24, 1944 In ruling that newsboys are employees within the meaning of the National Labor Relations Act, the United States Supreme Court declared that the meaning of "employee" as used in the act must, in doubtful situations, be determined broadly by underlying economic facts rather than technically and exclusively by previously established legal classifications. If the Court ruled that the result of applying wholesale the traditional common-law conceptions as exclusively controlling limitations on the scope of the statutes effectiveness would hardly be consistent with the statute's broad terms and purposes.

May 11, 1944 An amendment to Veterans Regulation Number I (a) authorized that pensionable status existed for persons and dependents of persons who incurred disability or death in line of duty prior to final induction or acceptance for active military or naval service during the period from August 27, 1940 would continue until termination of the war.

May 22,1944 Oscar C. Pogge was named Director of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, replacing John J. Corson.

May 26,1944 A British Government White Paper on Employment Policy outlined a program for maintaining a high and stable level of postwar employment through the maintenance of the total expenditure for goods and services, stability of prices and wages, and mobility of labor between occupations and localities.

May 27,1944 The provisions for pensions for widows and children of veterans of World War I, who had a service-connected disability at the time of death, were extended to widows and children of World War II veterans and pensions or compensation for service-connected disability were increased by 15 percent for World War I, World War II, and certain peacetime cases.

May 29,1944 Michigan added a provision for dependents' allowances to its State unemployment insurance law only one other jurisdiction (D.C.) had included such provision in its original law.

June 7, 1944 The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals held that a beneficiary who served as a member of the executive committee of a corporation was an employee and that his benefits were subject to deductions when his wages exceeded $14.99 monthly.

June 22, 1944 The G.I. Bill of Rights, the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, was approved. It included provisions for education and training allowances, special placement services and readjustment allowances while the veteran was finding employment.

June 27, 1944 The Social Security Board revised its policy in connection with reopening the determinations of benefit awards, and limited the conditions under which favorable determinations could be reopened and corrected retroactively.

July 1, 1944 Title VI of the Social Security Act was repealed by the Public Health Service Act, which also expanded Federal-State public health programs, and raised the annual amount for grants for public health services.

August 1, 1944 Canada enacted the Family Allowances Act of 1944. The law, which became effective on July 1, 1945, provided family allowances for all dependent children under age 17, to be paid from general revenues and without a means test. This was the first of the comprehensive social security proposals for an extended program to be established.

August 14, 1944 One million old-age insurance benefits were in force.

September 25, 1944 The British Government published a White Paper on Social Insurance. The program, which represented the Government's recommendations for effecting most of the proposals set forth in the Beveridge Plan, would extend the scope of the existing system by increasing all existing types of benefits and by covering on a compulsory basis, the entire population. The Government offered a comprehensive program of social insurance, supplemented by family allowances, and an allied system to cover the risks of disablement and death through industrial injury.

October 3, 1944 The War Mobilization and Reconversion Act of 1944 amended the Social Security Act by establishing a Federal unemployment account in the Unemployment Trust Fund and added Title XII, providing for advances to State unemployment funds when the funds approached insolvency.

October 9, 1944 Venezuela's program of health, maternity, and work accident insurance began operations.

October 31, 1944 The Social Security Board authorized the recalculation of the average monthly wage after adjudication, at the request of a primary beneficiary, to include additional wages for services performed subsequent to the original award.

November 14, 1944 The Ministry of the National Insurance Act, 1944, became law in Great Britain. It provided for the transfer to a minister of national insurance of "The Functions of the Minister of Health and of the Secretary of State with respect to national health insurance, old age pensions, widows', orphans' and old age contributory and supplementary pensions the functions of the Minister of Labour and National Service with respect to unemployment insurance and unemployment assistance and the functions of the Secretary of State with respect to workmen's compensation."

November 22, 1944 In Argentina a law was passed establishing old age, disability and survivors insurance for commercial employees.

December 16, 1944 The old-age and survivors insurance contribution rates were frozen for 1945 at one percent each for employers and employees.

December 28, 1944 A Belgian legislative order improved the existing social insurance system and established a compulsory sickness and invalidity insurance system, to come into full operation April 1, 1945.

January 6, 1945 President Roosevelt in his State of the Union message again made reference to the right to "good medical care" but made no specific recommendations.

January 16, 1945 The Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance opened the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania office.

February 13, 1945 Greece initiated an experimental unemployment insurance fund for wage earners and salaried employees in industry.

March 26, 1945 The House Ways and Means Committee voted funds for a study of the Social Security Act, with particular reference to old-age and survivor's insurance and related problems of coverage, benefits and taxes. The Ways and Means Committee appointed a Technical Staff for the purpose of developing information looking to a revision of the Social Security Act.

March 28, 1945 A deficiency appropriation bill signed by the President included the Case Amendment, which provided that certain wages paid to recipients of old age pensions should not be deducted from their allowance, in order to allow them to engage in part-time nursing.

April 25, 1945 A government decree regulating the application of social insurance in Paraguay was amended to extend medical, surgical, pharmaceutical, and hospital services, including medical care before, during, and after childbirth, to families of insured persons.

April 30, 1945 The Social Security Board's Regulation No. 3 was amended to allow a primary insurance beneficiary to have his benefits recomputed to include wages paid to him in and after the quarter in which he became entitled.

May 7, 1945 The Organic Law of Social Services was adopted in Brazil. It was intended to provide all persons in the country, except public employees and members of the armed forces, with all essential social insurance benefits and assistance services.

May 28, 1945 President Truman called on Congress to widen the coverage of unemployment compensation to include Federal employees, maritime workers, and other workers their benefits to be financed by the Federal Government but administered by the States. Also, he recommended that Congress supplement, out of Federal funds, existing benefit provisions up to a maximum of at least $25 for a claimant with dependents, and for as much as 26 weeks for workers who remained unemployed.

June 15, 1945 Payment of cash allowances to British families "for the benefit of the family as a whole" was assured with the enactment of the Family Allowance Act.

June 30, 1945 A presidential decree, effective January 1, 1946, established compulsory social insurance in Colombia for public salaried employees and wage earners.

July 1, 1945 The work day for Social Security Board employees was reduced to 44 hours 8 hours per day and 4 hours overtime on Saturdays.

July 1, 1945 The Unemployment and Sickness Benefits Act came into force in Australia.

July 3, 1945 The Labor-Federal Security Appropriation Act, 1946, provided that jurisdiction over employment services should be returned to the States within three months after the cessation of hostilities.

July 18, 1945 The Senate confirmed the reappointment of Arthur J. Altmeyer as Chairman of the Social Security Board for a six-year term expiring August 13, 1951.

July 19, 1945 The Lord Mayor of Berlin announced a new social insurance system for the inhabitants of Berlin with protection against the risks of old age, invalidity, and unemployment and provision for hospital insurance and free medicines for the insured. Both employer and employee would contribute ten percent of the employee's earnings to the city insurance fund.

August 1, 1945 A resolution (SJ Res. 89) recommending formation of an international health organization was introduced by Senators Pepper, Ball, Capper, Murray, Smith and Wagner.

August 8, 1945 A bill was signed authorizing Federal agencies to provide minor medical and dental services to employees.

September 5, 1945 The Social Security Board approved a proposal to terminate on June 30, 1946, the program for aid to enemy aliens and others restricted by governmental action.

September 6, 1945 President Truman, in a special message to Congress, proposed an Economic Bill of Rights containing certain rights which were to be assured to every American citizen, including the Nation's health objectives.

September 14, 1945 Paul McNutt, the administrator of the Federal Security Agency, left to become High Commissioner of the Philippines.

September 19, 1945 The War Manpower Commission was terminated and all its functions were transferred to the Department of Labor. This included the United States Employment Service.

September 20, 1945 The Veterans' regulations were amended to provide increased rates of pension for certain service-incurred disabilities, generally on a parity with rates payable for similar disabilities under the World War I Veterans' Act, 1924, as amended.

October 2, 1945 The Social Security Board approved amendments to Regulation No. 3, extending the period for filing proof of parents' dependency under Section 202(f), for filing a lump-sum death payment claim under Section 202(g), and for commencing wage discrepancy proceedings under Section 205(c) in certain types of cases in which the wage earner or claimant was a serviceman.

October 11, 1945 Watson B. Miller was confirmed by the Senate to succeed Paul V. McNutt as Federal Security Administrator. Mr. Miller had served as Assistant Administrator since early in 1941.

October 16, 1945 The Social Security Board approved the establishment of an Area Office in Kansas City and agreed to recommend redistribution of area office territory, which would necessitate changing the location of the New Orleans office.

October 23, 1945 The Internal Revenue Code and the Social Security Act were amended to extend coverage to all employees of the Bonneville Power Administration who were not covered under the Federal Civil Service Retirement Act and had no retirement protection.

October 29, 1945 The American Military Government announced restoration of a broad program of social insurance in Western Germany.

November 8, 1945 The Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance contribution rates were frozen for 1946 at one percent each for employers and employees.

November 13, 1945 The United States Supreme Court ruled that the Better Business Bureau (D.C.) was not exempt from paying social security taxes.

November 19, 1945 In a special message to Congress, President Truman proposed a comprehensive, prepaid medical insurance plan for all people through the Social Security system. The plan would have covered doctors, hospital, nursing, laboratory and dental services for people covered by the Social Security program it would also have provided benefits financed from Federal Revenues for needy people. A revised Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill providing for National Health Insurance was immediately introduced.

December 21, 1945 The Civil Service Retirement Act of 1930, as amended, was further amended to provide retirement credit, in computing length of service, to persons who left Government service to enter the armed forces of the United States.

December 29, 1945 The International Organizations Exclusion Act extended certain privileges, exemptions, and immunities to international organizations and to the officers and employees thereof. The act amended Title II of the Social Security Act.

December 31, 1945 Executive Order No. 9672 terminated the National War Labor Board.

1946 The Committee for the Nation's Health was organized to promote the passage of the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill.

1946 The Health Insurance Council was formed by eight trade associations in the insurance field to serve as a liaison agency between the dispensers of health services, such as physicians and hospitals, and the underwriters.

1946 The Association of Medical Care Plans, with the Blue Shield as an emblem, was created as a national coordinating agency for physician sponsored health insurance plans.

January 17, 1946 The Social Security Technical Staff of the House Ways and Means Committee presented its report (Issues in Social Security) on necessary amendments to the Social Security Act. The results of this staff study were embodied in a document generally referred to as the Calhoun Report.

February 20, 1946 The Employment Act of 1946 (later referred to as the Full Employment Act) was enacted "to declare a continuing national policy on employment, production, and purchasing power."

February 25, 1946 The United States Supreme Court ruled that back pay awarded, under the National Labor Relations Act, to an individual who was, before his discharge, an employee under the Social Security Act must be treated as "wages" under the act computing the individual's old age and survivors insurance benefits.

March 5, 1946 California became the second State to pass a law for cash sickness benefits to workers covered by the State unemployment insurance law.

April 1, 1946 The Kansas City Area Office, part of which was split off from New Orleans, opened.

May 3, 1946 The Taft-Smith-Ball Bill, S. 2143, authorizing grants to States for medical care to the poor was introduced as an alternative to the administration bill. The bill was endorsed by the American Medical Association. No action was taken on this bill.

June 11, 1946 Congress passed the Administrative Procedures Act on to provide for judicial review of the actions of administrative agencies.

June 21, 1946 The United Nations Economic and Social Council established a permanent Social Commission.

June 28, 1946 The Social Security Board approved a change in the name of the Alaska and Hawaii offices from "Territorial" to "Regional," and designated Alaska as Region XIII and Hawaii as Region XIV.

July 3, 1946 The National Mental Health Act authorized the establishment of a National Institute of Mental Health and increased Federal grants to States for public health services, with special emphasis on mental health problems.

July 16, 1946 Under the President's Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1946, the Social Security Board was abolished and its functions transferred to FSA and the Social Security Administration was established to carry on programs of the Social Security Board and those of the Children's Bureau. The Children's Bureau (then in the Department of Labor) was transferred (except for its child labor functions) to the Federal Security Agency by the same plan. The Office of the Commissioner for Social Security was established and Arthur J. Altmeyer was named to the position. George E. Bigge, a member of the Board, was appointed the Director of Federal-State Relations in the Federal Security Agency. William L. Mitchell became the Deputy Commissioner of Social Security. Ellen S. Woodward, the third member of the Board, was appointed to head Inter-Agency Relations in the Federal Security Agency.

July 22, 1946 The constitution of the World Health Organization was signed by representatives of 61 nations.

July 31, 1946 The Railroad Retirement Act and the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act amendments established monthly survivor benefits and sickness and maternity benefits for employees in the industry. The Social Security Act, in effect, was amended by the provision making wages in railroad employment applicable for survivor benefits under the old-age and survivors insurance program.

August 2, 1946 The Senate Committee on Finance was directed to make a complete study of the Social Security program and provisions for its extension.

August 8, 1946 The Alien Property Custodian Coverage Act was approved. It amended Title II of the Social Security Act.

August 10, 1946 The Social Security Act was amended to provide: monthly benefits under old age and survivors insurance for survivors of certain World War II veterans coverage to private maritime employees under State unemployment insurance temporary unemployment benefits to seamen with wartime Federal employment. In addition, permission was given States, with employee contributions under their unemployment insurance laws, to use such funds for temporary disability insurance benefits there was to be greater Federal sharing in public assistance payments for a specified period and larger grants were to be provided for maternal and child health and child welfare, as well as the extension of these programs to the Virgin Islands. In addition, the payroll tax rate was frozen at 1% for employers and employees for 1947.

August 13, 1946 The Hospital Survey and Construction Act was signed. It authorized the Public Health Service to make grants to the States for surveying their needs for hospitals and public health centers, for planning construction of additional facilities, and for assistance in financing such construction. The program was known as Hill-Burton, after its two principal supporters.

October 1, 1946 Increases in Federal financial participation of public assistance payments became effective.

November 6, 1946 Arthur J. Altmeyer was appointed for a two-year term as the United States representative on the U.N. Social Commission of the Social and Economic Council. (Appointment was confirmed by the Senate on January 17, 1947.)

November 15, 1946 The public employment offices were returned to State administration and control, as directed by legislation enacted July 26.

December 1946 The Interdepartmental Committee on International Social Welfare Policy was established in December 1946 by presidential order. The Commissioner for Social Security was requested to serve as Chairman, and the Director of the Bureau of Public Assistance as alternate chairman.

December 1946 A further step in the administrative integration of all Bureaus within the Social Security Administration was taken with the consolidation of the regional staffs of the Children's Bureau with the Administration regional offices on the same basis as the other Bureaus.

December 1, 1946 Cash sickness benefits became payable in California.

December 23, 1946 The United States Supreme Court ruled that a claim by the United States Government against a company for social security taxes had priority over a State's claim for unemployment insurance contributions.

December 26, 1946 With the adoption of Law 90 on Compulsory Social Insurance, Colombia joined the other nine South American Nations in enacting social security legislation applicable to commercial and industrial workers.

January 1, 1947 Grants to States for maternal and child health and child welfare services went into effect in the Virgin Islands.

February 10, 1947 The Birmingham Payment Center opened as a result of the closing of the New Orleans Office, part of which went to Kansas City and part to Birmingham, Alabama.

February 20, 1947 Arthur J. Altmeyer was elected Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the International Refugee Organization.

March 17, 1947 The Dominican Republic established a system of old-age, invalidity, health and maternity insurance.

May 19, 1947 President Truman, in a special health message to Congress, again requested a compulsory national health program. Senate Bill 1320 was introduced by Senators Wagner and Murray. Senator Taft's bill was also reintroduced.

May 20, 1947 A survey committee, appointed by the Federal Security Administrator to study ways in which field coordination might be improved, submitted its report.

June 1947 For the first time in the history of the program, the number of children receiving aid to dependent children passed the millionth mark.

June 30, 1947 By concurrent resolution, Congress rejected the President's Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1947, in which he had proposed that the United States Employment Service be made a permanent unit in the Department of Labor.

June 30, 1947 A bill was approved extending to July 1, 1949, the time in which income from agricultural labor and nursing service could be disregarded in making old age assistance payments.

June 1947 For the first time in the history of the program, the number of children receiving aid to dependent children passed the millionth mark.

July 6, 1947 The Swiss people approved, by referendum, the establishment of a nationwide compulsory system of old age and survivors insurance.

July 23, 1947 Senate Resolution 141, superseding Senate Resolution 320 (August 2, 1946) gave the Senate Finance Committee authorization and appropriation for investigating the Social Security program. The Committee was authorized to appoint an Advisory Council to assist and advise in the study.

July 25, 1947 An act was approved terminating certain emergency and war powers, including amendments to Title II of the Social Security Act.

July 30, 1947 Under Public Law No. 131, certain aged recipients of assistance could continue, until July 1, 1949, to work for wages on a farm or care for the sick without having such wages jeopardize their assistance payment.

August 6, 1947 The Social Security Act was amended to hold old-age and survivors insurance contribution rates for employers and employees at one percent for 1948 and 1949 and to schedule increases to 1.5 percent each for 1950 and 1951, and two percent each in 1952 and thereafter.

August 7, 1947 The President vetoed a bill that would have excluded from coverage under the insurance programs of the Social Security Act services performed by newspapers and magazine vendors.

August 19, 1947 Oscar R. Ewing was appointed Federal Security Administrator. He succeeded Watson B. Miller, who moved to the position of Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization.

September 16, 1947 The Social Security Commissioner approved amendments to Regulation No. 3 to show July 25, 1947 as the date of the termination of World War II for purposes of paying benefits under Section 210 of the Social Security Act, as amended.

September 28, 1947 A seventeen-member Advisory Council on Social Security was appointed by the Senate Committee on Finance to study proposals for expanding the Social Security program.

October 1947 At a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, the International Social Insurance Conference was renamed the International Social Security Association, (ISSA).

December 1, 1947 The United States Employment Service was transferred to the War Manpower Commission, effective this date.

December 16, 1947 The Senate confirmed the nomination of Oscar R. Ewing, of New York, to head the Federal Security Agency.

February 28, 1948 The Civil Service Retirement Act was amended to include protection for survivors of Federal employees.

March 1, 1948 Two social welfare attaches were appointed by the Department of State to the staff of the Foreign Service Reserve for service in Cairo and Paris. Among their functions was handling social security matters for beneficiaries living in those two countries.

April 5, 1948 President Truman vetoed H.R. 5052, a bill to exclude vendors of newspapers and magazines from social security coverage.

April 8, 1948 The 1947 Advisory Council on Social Security presented its first report, with recommendations on old-age and survivors insurance, to the Senate Finance Committee.

April 13, 1948 Workmen's compensation legislation became applicable nationwide, with Mississippi's enactment of such a law.

April 20, 1948 The Social Security Act was amended to exclude certain newspaper and magazine vendors from coverage under old-age and survivors insurance and under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. Congress passed this law over the President's veto.

May 1948 The International Labor Organization established the Committee of Social Security Experts. The Commissioner of the Social Security Administration was a member from its inception.

May 1-4, 1948 The National Health Assembly met in Washington, D.C., to work with the Federal Security Agency in developing a ten-year health plan for the nation.

May 8, 1948 The Advisory Council on Social Security presented its second report, with recommendations for an insurance system to cover the risks of permanent and total disability, to the Senate Finance Committee.

May 15,1948 Puerto Rico passed a law providing unemployment insurance benefits for workers in the sugar industry.

May 1948 The American Medical Association launched a "National Education Campaign" against National Health Insurance proposals.

June 1, 1948 New Jersey adopted a cash insurance law linked with unemployment insurance, but permitting the substitution of private sickness plans for coverage under the State plan.

June 2, 1948 The Railroad Retirement Act was amended to increase certain retirement and survivor benefits, and the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act was amended to reduce the employer tax through a system of merit rating.

June 14, 1948 A House Joint Resolution, Number 296, was agreed to overriding the President's veto of a measure to maintain the status quo on Social Security coverage pending action by Congress.

June 23, 1948 Public Law 744 was approved. It increased railroad pensions 20 percent, yet reduced taxes on payrolls.

June 24, 1948 Public Law 757 was approved. It increased certain benefits payable under the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers Compensation Act.

June 30, 1948 The Appropriation Act for 1949 transferred the Field Division and Regional Offices of the Social Security Administration to the Office of Administration, FSA, effective July 1, 1948.

July 1, 1948 The Social Security Administration's Region VIII with headquarters in Minneapolis was eliminated. Supervision of the area was taken over by the offices in Chicago and Kansas City. The State of Minnesota was transferred to the Region with headquarters in Chicago--the new Region V. Supervision of the States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa was transferred to the Region with headquarters in Kansas City. These last States, together with Kansas and Missouri, comprised the new Region VII.

July 1, 1948 Requirements relating to definite procedural provisions for hearings under the State public assistance plans became effective.

July 1, 1948 The United States Employment Service was transferred from the Department of Labor to the Federal Security Agency and then to the Social Security Administration where it became a part of the Bureau of Employment Security.

July 2, 1948 The President used a pocket veto on a measure to permit aid to the blind recipients to earn up to $40 a month without becoming ineligible for aid.

July 5, 1948 The comprehensive social security program, outlined in the Beveridge Report of 1942, went into effect for the people of Great Britain.

July 29, 1948 The President approved Public Law 813 which transferred the administration of the Federal Credit Union Act from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to the Federal Security Agency where it was placed within the Social Security Administration.

August 5, 1948 The Advisory Council on Social Security presented its third report on recommended changes in public assistance to the Senate Finance Committee.

September 1, 1948 The San Antonio Regional Office was moved to new headquarters in Dallas.

October 1, 1948 Public Law 642 was approved: an act to maintain the status quo in respect to certain employment taxes and Social Security benefits pending action by Congress on extended Social Security coverage.

December 28, 1948 The Advisory Committee on Social Security presented its fourth and final report, on improving the State-Federal system of unemployment insurance, to the Senate Finance Committee.

1948 UAW-CIO appointed a Social Security Advisory Committee and a Medical Care Advisory Committee.

1948 The National Labor Relations Board ruled that pension, health and welfare plans were within the scope of collective bargaining. These rulings were sustained by action of higher courts in 1949.

January 5, 1949 In his State of the Union Message, President Truman again called for compulsory national health insurance for persons of all ages, financed by a Federal payroll tax.

January 12, 1949 The Commission on Reorganization of the Executive Branch of the Government (the Hoover Commission) recommended the creation of a Department to handle Social Security, education and certain welfare services.

February 28, 1949 The House Ways and Means Committee began hearings on H.R. 2892, an amendment to the Social Security Act designed to aid the States in establishing more adequate public welfare programs.

March 16, 1949 A legislative proposal for the construction of a new building for BOASI was sent to Congress by the acting Federal Security Administrator, J. Donald Kingsley.

April 13, 1949 The New York Disability Benefits Law was enacted with benefit payments effective on July 1, 1950.

April 15, 1949 Public Law 42 was approved by the President. It authorized appropriations for the Federal Security Administrator to meet the emergency needs of crippled children for fiscal year 1949, in addition to funds authorized under the Social Security Act.

April 22, 1949 In another special message, President Truman called for National Health Insurance.

May 16, 1949 The names of all organizational units in the Social Security Administration below the divisional level were changed. In general, the former sections became branches, units became sections and sub-units became units.

May 31, 1949 The Flanders-Ives Bill providing for health needs by the use of Federal subsidies to private insurance companies was introduced in Congress.

June 20, 1949 The President signed the Reorganization Act of 1949 under which he could reorganize agencies of Government unless either House rejected within 60 days a specific plan submitted to it.

June 20, 1949 President Truman sent to Congress the Reorganization Plan No. 1, proposing to elevate the Federal Security Agency to a Cabinet-level Department of Welfare and to vest all functions of existing Federal Security Agency units directly under the new Secretary of Welfare. It was not accepted by Congress.

June 30, 1949 The emergency maternity and infant care program administered by the Children's Bureau in cooperation with the State Health Departments came to an end.

July 16, 1949 The President signed Public Law 174, extending for one year to June 30, 1950, reconversion and unemployment benefits for seamen provided by Title XIII of the Social Security Act.

August 15, 1949 H.R. 6000 (the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950) was introduced by Representative Doughton.

August 20, 1949 The Bureau of Employment Security (which included the United States Employment Service) was transferred from the Social Security Administration to the Department of Labor by Reorganization Plan No. 2.

October 25, 1949 The President signed Public Law 376, amending the Federal Credit Union Act. Under the amended law the permissible maximum period of loans was increased from two years to three years, and the permissible maximum unsecured loan was increased from $300 to $400.

November 7, 1949 Multilateral conventions on social security and social assistance were signed by the foreign ministers of Belgium, France, Great Britain, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

December 1, 1949 The Federal Security Agency sent a delegation to study the educational, health and Social Security systems in Britain, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy and Israel.


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