Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt


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Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt, eldest son of Kermit Roosevelt, the son of Theodore Roosevelt, was born in Buenos Aires on 16th February, 1916. After completing his university education he joined the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). During the Second World War Roosevelt worked in the Middle East.

After the war Roosevelt taught at Harvard University. In 1950 Frank Wisner recruited Roosevelt into the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the Central Intelligence Agency. At this time Wisner began plotting the overthrow of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran. He had upset the US government by nationalizing Iran's oil industry. Mossadegh also abolished Iran's feudal agriculture sector and replaced with a system of collective farming and government land ownership.

On April 4, 1953, Wisner persuaded Allen W. Dulles to approve $1 million to be used "in any way that would bring about the fall of Mossadegh." Roosevelt was put in charge of what became known as Operation Ajax. According to Donald N. Wilber, who was involved in this CIA plot to remove Mossadegh from power, in early August, 1953, Iranian CIA operatives, pretending to be socialists, threatened Muslim leaders with "savage punishment if they opposed Mossadegh," thereby giving the impression that Mossadegh was cracking down on dissent. This resulted in the religious community turning against Mossadegh.

Iranians took to the streets against Mossadegh. Funded with money from the CIA and MI6, the pro-monarchy forces quickly gained the upper hand. The military now joined the opposition and Mossadegh was arrested on August 19, 1953. President Dwight Eisenhower was delighted with this result and asked Frank Wisner to arrange for Roosevelt to give him a personal briefing on Operation Ajax.

Allen W. Dulles asked Roosevelt to organize the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala. Roosevelt refused, explaining that for a coup to be successful, the people had to "want what we want". He did not believe that the "Guatemalan peasants wanted what the United Fruit wanted."

Roosevelt continued to work in the Middle East. Part of his job was to distribute money to anti-communist leaders. This included a payment of $12 million to General Bey Naguib in Egypt. However, Gamal Nasser overthrew Naguib and stole the $12 million. Some of this money was used to build the Cairo Tower. Some CIA officials called it "Roosevelt's Erection".

The Iranian oil industry was denationalization in 1955. The British oil monopoly was superseded by a consortium in which Anglo-Iranian received 40 percent of revenues, five U.S. corporations (Gulf Oil, Standard of New Jersey, Standard of California, Texas, and Socony-Mobil) received 40 percent, and 20 percent went to Royal Dutch Shell and a French company).

In 1958 Roosevelt left the CIA and found employment with Gulf Oil. Two years later he was appointed vice president. According to Geoff Simons: "Later he (Roosevelt) formed the consulting firm, Downs and Roosevelt, which in the late 1960s was receiving $116,000 a year from the Iranian government. At the same time, the aerospace Northrop Corporation was paying Roosevelt $75,000 a year to aid its sales to Iran and other states in the region." He left Gulf Oil in 1970 and worked as a consultant to American companies doing business in the Middle East.

Roosevelt's book, Counter Coup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran, was published in 1979. In the book Roosevelt argued that Mohammed Mossadegh had to be removed to prevent a communist takeover of Iran.

Kermit Roosevelt, died on 8th June, 2000.

"'I owe my throne to God, my people, my army and to you!" By 'you' he (the Shah) meant me and the two countries - Great Britain and the United States - I was representing. We were all heroes.

It is ironic that CIA agent Kermit Roosevelt, the grandson of Theodore Roosevelt, published his book on the 1953 CIA coup in Iran and the return of the shah in the same year that "his majesty's government" was overthrown. An American friend gave a copy of the book to me shortly after its publication in 1979. I skimmed through the book and put it on my bookshelf. The CIA coup appeared irrelevant when the old and decadent institution of monarchy in Iran seemed to be finished once and for all.

More importantly, however, I, along with many other Iranians of my generation, knew the story full well and did not need Kermit to repeat it. We knew that the shah owed his throne to the likes of Kermit. But we also knew something that Kermit didn't know, or didn't say. We knew that we owe to the Kermits of the world our tortured past: years of being forced as students to stand in the hot sun of Tehran in lines, waving his majesty's picture or flag as his entourage passed by in fast moving, shiny, big black cars with darkened-glass windows; years of being forced to rise and stay standing in every public event, including movie theaters, while his majesty's national anthem was being played; years of watching a dense megalomaniac try to imitate "Cyrus the Great" by wearing ridiculous ceremonial robes in extravagant celebration of his birthdays or crowning of his queens; years of being hushed by our parents, fearful of being arrested, if we uttered a critical word about his majesty's government or his American advisors; years of worrying about secret police (SAVAK) informants, who were smartly, but ruthlessly, trained by the best of the US's CIA and Israeli's Mossad; years of witnessing our friends and acquaintances being taken to jail, some never heard from again; years of passing by buildings in which, we were told, people were being tormented; years of hearing about people dying under torture or quietly executed; years of being exiled in a foreign country, which ironically was the belly of the beast, the metropolis, the center which masterminded much of our misfortune in the first place; years of spending our precious youth to free or save thousands of political prisoners by marching in the streets of the metropolis, wearing masks to hide our identities and looking bizarre to those who knew nothing about our story; and, finally, years of trying to prove to the American people that the 1953 CIA coup was not a fig-leaf of our imagination or a conspiracy theory, that it indeed happened and that they, whether they like it or not, have a certain culpability in what their government does around the world.

The story of how the C.I.A. overthrew the government of Iran in 1953 is really an object lesson in how easy it is for a rich and powerful country to throw a poor and weak country into chaos. The CIA sent one of its most adept operatives, Kermit Roosevelt, the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt, to Iran with the mission of organizing the overthrow of the government. One reason I was so interested in writing this book is that I have always asked myself, how do you go about overthrowing a government? What do you do? Suppose that you are sent to a country with that mission. What do you do on the first day? How do you start and then what do you do? Well, now I know. Kermit Roosevelt set about trying to create chaos in Iran. He was able to do that very quickly by a series of means. The first thing he did was, he started bribing members of parliament and leaders of small political parties that were a part of Mossadegh 's political coalition. Pretty soon the public started to see the Mossadegh ’s coalition splitting apart and people denouncing him on the floor of parliament. The next thing Roosevelt did was start bribing newspaper editors, owners and columnists and reporters. Within a couple of weeks, he had 80% of the newspapers in Tehran on his payroll and they were grinding out every kind of lie attacking Mossadegh . The next thing Roosevelt did was start bribing religious leaders. Soon, at Friday prayers, the Mullahs were denouncing Mossadegh as an atheist enemy of Islam. Roosevelt also bribed members of police units and low-ranking military officers to be ready with their units on the crucial day. In what I think was really his master stroke, he hired the leaders of a bunch of street gangs in Tehran, and he used them to help create the impression that the rule of law had totally disintegrated in Iran. He actually at one point hired a gang to run through the streets of Tehran, beating up any pedestrian they found, breaking shop windows, firing their guns into mosques, and yelling -- "We love Mossadegh and communism." This would naturally turn any decent citizen against him. He didn't stop there. He tired a second mob to attack the first mob, to give people the impression that there was no police presence and order had completely disintegrated. So, within just a few weeks, this one agent operating with a large sum of cash and a network of contacts and various elements of society, had taken what was a fairly stable country and thrown it into complete upheaval.

After the overthrow of Mossadegh, Reza Shah returned to Tehran and began the last phase of the Pahlavi dynasty. For the next 25 years he remained a steadfast ally of the United States. Electronic surveillance posts were established near the Soviet border; American aircraft were permitted to fly from Iran to carry out surveillance over the Soviet Union; spies were infiltrated across the Soviet-Iranian border; and many American military installations were established throughout Iran. In February 1955, Iran became a member of the U.S.-devised Baghdad Pact to create, in Dulles’s words, “a solid band of resistance against the Soviet Union.”

The way was now open for the denationalization of Iran’s oil industry. The British oil monopoly was superseded by a consortium in which Anglo-Iranian received 40 percent of revenues, five US corporations (Gulf Oil, Standard of New Jersey, Standard of California, Texas, and Socony-Mobil) received 40 percent, and 20 percent went to Royal Dutch Shell and a French company.

In 1958, Kermit Roosevelt left the CIA to work for Gulf Oil; in 1960 he was appointed vice president. Later he formed the consulting firm, Downs and Roosevelt, which in the late 1960s was receiving $116,000 a year from the Iranian government. At the same time, the aerospace Northrop Corporation was paying Roosevelt $75,000 a year to aid its sales to Iran and other states in the region. John Foster Dulles and his brother Allan, director of the CIA, were also board members of Standard Oil. The syndicated columnist Jack Anderson reported in the San Francisco Chronicle (December 26, 1979) that the Rockefeller family, who controlled Standard Oil and Chase Manhattan Bank, “helped arrange the CIA coup that brought down Mossadegh.” The shah showed his gratitude by making heavy deposits in Chase Manhattan and facilitating housing developments in Iran built by a Rockefeller company.

I owe my throne to God, my people, my army - and to you," sobbed a grateful Shah of Iran to Kermit Roosevelt in August 1953, after the CIA-backed coup which overthrew the country's independently-minded Prime Minister, Muhammad Mossadeq, and restored the Shah to the Peacock Throne.

The background to the crisis was Iran's substantial oil reserves, which in the early 1950s - like the Suez Canal in Egypt not so long afterwards - were becoming a focus for nationalist sentiment. As soon as Mossadeq became Prime Minister of Iran in 1951, with the support of the Tudeh (Communist) Party, the debate over them moved from aspiration to direct action.

In 1952 Mossadeq nationalised Iran's (mainly British-owned) oil resources, an action which put him beyond the pale with the Americans, who swiftly came to regard him as being the thin end of one of the Cold War's many wedges. From that moment they saw him as opening the door to the Soviet domination of Iran - although in fact he had been as much opposed to giving the Soviet Union an oil concession in the north of the country as he was to the dominance in the south of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (the forerunner of BP).

But with the Americans obsessed with the Soviet danger to their interests worldwide, and in the uncertain climate that prevailed within the Soviet Union in the aftermath of Stalin's death, this obvious fact could not save Mossadeq. And the British Government of Winston Churchill, enraged at the nationalisation of its huge oil assets, was even more anxious to have him removed.

When British Intelligence approached the CIA about the possibility of toppling him, it found a ready ear, and a plan - Operation Ajax - was formulated with remarkably little discussion of the ethics of removing the legitimate government of a foreign country. It was the precursor of several such infamous actions by the CIA.

Roosevelt, grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt and the head of the CIA's Middle East division, was the man for the job. A man of languid coolness, he was dispatched to Iran where, on August 3, 1953, he confronted the Shah and bluntly told him that there would have to be an insurrectionary solution to the Mossadeq problem, with the support of the army absolutely vital to success.

But the frightened monarch havered, and it was for Roosevelt to "help" key members of the armed forces to realise where their loyalties lay and physically to assist them to carry out their "duties". In particular he arranged for the influential army commander, General Fazlolah Zahedi, to make an address to the country over the radio, which was to prove important to the Shah's cause.

In spite of all these precautions, the success of the coup was in its early days far from a foregone conclusion. There was widespread rioting from crowds who remained loyal to Mossadeq, and for several days it was difficult to tell whether Roosevelt's tactics were succeeding or not. The Shah himself so doubted the outcome that on August 16 he fled the country and took refuge in Baghdad.

But CIA money was lavished on officials and police. Mossadeq supporters were quietly done away with. Roosevelt gradually persuaded the wavering commanders of army units to show themselves on the streets at the head of their units and to face down the pro-Mossadeq mobs. Mossadeq and ministers and officers loyal to him were arrested, and on August 19, just three days after his flight, the Shah was able to return in triumph to his capital, where he later expressed his heartfelt gratitude to his saviour.

How The CIA Overthrew Iran's Democracy In 4 Days

Aug. 21, 1953: A resident of Tehran washes "Yankee Go Home" from a wall in the capital city of Iran. The new Prime Minister Fazlollah Zahedi requested the cleanup after the overthrow of his predecessor. AP hide caption

Aug. 21, 1953: A resident of Tehran washes "Yankee Go Home" from a wall in the capital city of Iran. The new Prime Minister Fazlollah Zahedi requested the cleanup after the overthrow of his predecessor.

On Aug. 19, 2013, the CIA publicly admitted for the first time its involvement in the 1953 coup against Iran's elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh.

1952: Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. Keystone/Getty Images hide caption

1952: Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh.

The documents provided details of the CIA's plan at the time, which was led by senior officer Kermit Roosevelt Jr., the grandson of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Over the course of four days in August 1953, Roosevelt would orchestrate not one, but two attempts to destabilize the government of Iran, forever changing the relationship between the country and the U.S. In this episode, we go back to retrace what happened in the inaugural episode of NPR's new history podcast, Throughline.

Mohammad Mossadegh was a beloved figure in Iran. During his tenure, he introduced a range of social and economic policies, the most significant being the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry. Great Britain had controlled Iran's oil for decades through the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. After months of talks the prime minister broke off negotiations and denied the British any further involvement in Iran's oil industry. Britain then appealed to the United States for help, which eventually led the CIA to orchestrate the overthrow of Mossadegh and restore power to Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

August 19, 1953: Massive protests broke out across Iran, leaving almost 300 dead in firefights in the streets of Tehran. Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh was soon overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the CIA and British intelligence. The Shah was reinstalled as Iran's leader. AFP/Getty Images hide caption

August 19, 1953: Massive protests broke out across Iran, leaving almost 300 dead in firefights in the streets of Tehran. Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh was soon overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the CIA and British intelligence. The Shah was reinstalled as Iran's leader.

According to Stephen Kinzer, author of the book All the Shah's Men, Roosevelt quickly seized control of the Iranian press by buying them off with bribes and circulating anti-Mossadegh propaganda. He recruited allies among the Islamic clergy, and he convinced the shah that Mossadegh was a threat. The last step entailed a dramatic attempt to apprehend Mossadegh at his house in the middle of the night. But the coup failed. Mossadegh learned of it and fought back. The next morning, he announced victory over the radio.

A 1950 photo of Kermit Roosevelt Jr., grandson of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, and a former Central Intelligence Agency official. AP hide caption

A 1950 photo of Kermit Roosevelt Jr., grandson of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, and a former Central Intelligence Agency official.

Mossadegh thought he was in the clear, but Roosevelt hadn't given up. He orchestrated a second coup, which succeeded. Mossadegh was placed on trial and spent his life under house arrest. The shah returned to power and ruled for another 25 years until the 1979 Iranian Revolution. The 1953 coup was later invoked by students and the political class in Iran as a justification for overthrowing the shah.

If you would like to read more on the 1953 coup, here's a list:

    by Stephen Kinzer by Kermit Roosevelt Jr.
  • "Secrets of History: The C.I.A. in Iran" from The New York Times (a timeline of events leading up to and immediately following the coup)
  • "CIA Confirms Role in 1953 Iran Coup" from The National Security Archive (CIA documents on the Iran operation)
  • "64 Years Later, CIA Finally Releases Details of Iranian Coup" from Foreign Policy magazine

We love to hear from our listeners! Tweet at us @throughlineNPR, send us an email, or leave us a voicemail at (872) 588-8805.

Edith Roosevelt

Edith Roosevelt (1861-1948) was an American first lady (1901-09) and the second wife of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States. Childhood sweehearts, the two were separated for a number of years before resuming their romance and marrying, two years after the tragic death of Theodore’s first wife, Alice. In 1901, the Roosevelts entered the White House, which Edith and Theodore quickly realized could not accomodate their large and boisterous young family. They secured permission and funding from Congress to extensively remodel the building, including construction of the new West Wing, which separated the private family quarters from the presidential offices for the first time.

The second child of Gertrude Elizabeth and Charles Carow, scion of a successful New York City-based shipping firm, Edith Kermit Carow was born into a world of privilege. She received an extensive education in writing, literature, languages and the arts, and learned the proper social behavior expected from a young woman of high society. But all was not rosy within the Carow household due to Charles’s drinking and gambling habits, and his sudden loss of income in the late 1860s forced the family to live with relatives for a few years. Deeply ashamed of her father’s failures, Edith later destroyed much of his surviving correspondence and records.

Edith was schooled in the Roosevelt household alongside the future president’s siblings, and accompanied the family on their summer trips to Oyster Bay, Long Island. Their frequent proximity fueled romantic sparks, though their relationship cooled after Roosevelt’s sophomore year at Harvard University, and he soon began his courtship of Alice Hathaway Lee. A year and a half after his first wife’s death, Roosevelt reconnected with Edith at a sister’s home. Engaged in November 1885, they agreed to keep their status a secret while Edith’s mother went through with plans to move the family to Europe. The Roosevelts finally tied the knot in London on Dec. 2, 1886.

She established a precedent by hiring the first federally-salaried White House social secretary to answer mail, convey news to the press and help run the household. Edith also honored her predecessors by hanging portraits of former first ladies a ground-floor corridor of the White House. From a policy standpoint, Edith’s most important contributions came via her private correspondence with Cecil Spring-Rice, a junior British ambassador who had been the best man at the Roosevelts’ wedding. Continually apprised of the ongoing Russo-Japanese War through his wife, the president negotiated an end to the conflict, for which he earned the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906.

The Roosevelts traveled extensively after leaving the White House in 1909, with Edith escorting her husband through several South American countries before his departure on an expedition into the Amazon jungle. Following the former president’s death in 1919, Edith continued her world tour by visiting Europe, South Africa, Asia, Hawaii and the West Indies, later recounting her experiences in the 1927 travelogue 𠇌leared for Strange Ports.” Edith also edited a history of her genealogy with her son Kermit and assisted the aging members of her husband’s “Rough Riders” contingent during those years.

Edith resurfaced in the public eye as an opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1932 presidential campaign. A proud Republican, she chafed at what was misconceived to be a close relationship with her niece Eleanor’s husband, and spoke at a rally for the incumbent Herbert Hoover at New York’s Madison Square Garden that October. Edith eventually developed more respect for FDR and his New Deal policies, and maintained cordial relations with that branch of the family. She passed away on Sept. 30, 1948, at her longtime home in Oyster Bay.

Kermit, TX

Kermit is on the Texas-New Mexico Railway and State highways 18, 302, 703, and 115 seven miles northwest of Wink in central Winkler County. It began as a supply center for the scattered ranches of the area. Kermit became the seat of Winkler County when the county was organized in 1910. The first public school and the post office opened the same year. The town was named for Kermit Roosevelt, son of President Theodore Roosevelt. The younger Roosevelt visited the T Bar Ranch in northern Winkler County to hunt antelope a few months before the town was named. In 1916 the county suffered a drought. Many homesteaders and ranchers were forced to leave. In 1924 only Ern Baird's family remained in the town. Only one student attended school in the county for five months of 1924. Only three houses and the courthouse were in use by 1926. On July 16, 1926, however, oil was discovered in Hendrick oilfield, near Kermit, and the town experienced a boom. In 1927 a population of 1,000 was reported by 1929 that number increased to 1,500. On March 4, 1929, the Texas-New Mexico Railway reached the town.

The population declined drastically in the early 1930s, but both population and business figures rose at the end of the 1930s, when 2,700 residents and 180 businesses were listed. On February 15, 1938, residents voted to incorporate. During the 1940s the oil boom caused real estate prices to double. Housing was scarce, and some people lived in tents. A bank was opened by 1945. The grade school had to be enlarged, and a hospital was built. In the 1950s the town continued to grow housing additions were built. By 1960 the town had a population of more than 6,000 and 215 businesses. Flooding became a problem because of the flat terrain. By the 1960s Kermit had 10,465 people and 260 businesses. New crown streets were constructed to solve the flooding problem, and more housing additions were built. The town moved the last working wooden derrick in the Permian Basin from Loving County to Pioneer Park in Kermit in 1966 as a symbol of the importance of the oil industry to the economy of Kermit and Winkler County. In the 1970s and 1980s the population of Kermit bounced between 8,500 and 6,912, and the number of businesses moved between 200 and 116. Improvements were made in city services, and more housing additions were built. The 1990 United States census set the population of Kermit at 6,875. By 2000 the population had dropped to 5,714.

Kermit Roosevelt III Net Worth

His net worth has been growing significantly in 2019-2020. So, how much is Kermit Roosevelt III worth at the age of 49 years old? Kermit Roosevelt III’s income source is mostly from being a successful . He is from D.C.. We have estimated Kermit Roosevelt III’s net worth, money, salary, income, and assets.

Net Worth in 2020 $1 Million – $5 Million
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Kermit Roosevelt III Social Network


Roosevelt is an internationally recognized expert on constitutional law, the Supreme Court, national security and civil liberties, US Presidential history, and Japanese American internment. He is a frequent contributor to national and international media outlets, including Time, The New York Times, the Huffington Post, and Newsmax. His TEDx talk (June, 2016) is entitled “Myth America: The Declaration, the Constitution, and Us.”

His second novel, Allegiance, published in 2015, was a Harper Lee Prize finalist. It received favorable reviews in The Wall Street Journal (“well worth reading”) and The Richmond Times-Dispatch (“splendid, troubling, and authoritative”) and a starred review from Publishers Weekly. Based on actual events, the story examines U.S. national security policies during World War II, focusing on President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s executive order 9066, which authorized the internment of Japanese Americans. Roosevelt studied court documents and personal diaries of key political figures, including Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, J. Edgar Hoover, Felix Frankfurter, and Francis Biddle, to accurately portray the circumstances and motivations behind the decisions that led to the internment. Allegiance recaptures the legal debates within the US government, including the Supreme Court cases Hirabayashi vs. United States and Korematsu vs. United States, and explores the moral issues surrounding U.S. national security policies.

In December, 2015, Kermit Roosevelt was a keynote speaker at The Commonwealth Club in San Francisco, California. Karen Korematsu, daughter of Fred Korematsu and director of The Korematsu Institute, attended the event. In May, 2016, Roosevelt and Karen Korematsu were featured speakers at the National Constitution Center for a program entitled, “Civil Liberties in Times of Crisis.” Jess Bravin, the Supreme Court correspondent for The Wall Street Journal, served as moderator. It is the first time a member of the Roosevelt family and a member of the Korematsu family appeared in a public forum.

In January, 2015, the Japan Society hosted an event featuring Kermit Roosevelt and actor/activist George Takei, who was five years old when he and his family were forced into an internment camp. Takei called Roosevelt’s book Allegiance, “A rip-roaring good read.”

Roosevelt is a Distinguished Research Fellow of the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania and a member of the American Law Institute. In November 2014, the American Law Institute announced that Roosevelt had been selected as the Reporter for the Third Restatement of Conflict of Laws. Roosevelt is also a lecturer for Kaplan Bar Review. He prepares students in all 50 states for the Constitutional Law portion of the bar exam.

Some of his recent scholarly publications include “Detention and Interrogation in the Post-9/11 World,” delivered as the Donahue Lecture at Suffolk University Law School in 2008, “Guantanamo and the Conflict of Laws: Rasul and Beyond” (2005), published in the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, “Constitutional Calcification: How the Law Becomes What the Court Does,” University of Virginia Law Review (2005), and “Resolving Renvoi: the Bewitchment of Our Intelligence by Means of Language,” Notre Dame Law Review (2005).

Roosevelt is also an award-winning novelist. His debut novel In the Shadow of the Law (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005) won the Philadelphia Athenaeum Annual Literary Award. A national campus bestseller, the novel was the New York Times Book Review Editors’ Choice Selection and a Christian Science Monitor Best Book of the Year. In a 2005 New York Times review of Roosevelt’s novel In the Shadow of the Law, Alan Dershowitz wrote, “I recommend this book with real enthusiasm. Why? Precisely because it doesn’t glamorize its subject. Roosevelt’s gritty portrayal of the transformation of bright-eyed and colorful young associates into dim-eyed and gray middle-aged partners (no one seems to make it to his or her golden years) rings true of all too many corporate law factories.” In 2006, Paramount filmed a pilot episode (written by Carol Mendelsohn) for a TV series based on the novel, starring Joshua Jackson, Frank Langella, Kevin Pollak, Monet Mazur, and Alan Tudyk.

Kermit Roosevelt

Kermit RooseveltJr. "was the Roosevelt who took the illustrious American political family into a starring role in one of the Central Intelligence Agency's most infamous and spectacular operations - the overthrow of the Iranian prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh in 1953, the first successful ouster of a foreign ruler in CIA history." [1] A few years later he went on to found the African Wildlife Foundation.

His father "Kermit Roosevelt is a member of the founding Executive Committee representing NYZS" (New York Zoological Society). [2]

"Kermit Roosevelt was a grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt and a distant cousin of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was born in Buenos Aires where his father, also Kermit, worked in banking and shipping, but grew up in upstate New York. After attending Harvard, he taught history before joining the Office of Strategic Services, forerunner of the CIA, during the war. After a spell in Egypt for the OSS, he moved seamlessly into the new espionage organisation, and swiftly moved up the ranks. Though he was always based in Washington, he had frequent spells abroad, mostly to the Middle East. . "In 1979, as the Shah in turn was driven out, he published Countercoup: the struggle for the control of Iran. The book had to be recalled for revision after allegations of libel by BP, the successor company to Anglo- Iranian. More important, however, is Roosevelt's portrait of how US intelligence worked at a time when covert operations went through virtually on the nod, without oversight." [3]

"In 1951 Prime Minister Mossadegh roused Britain's ire when he nationalized the oil industry. Mossadegh argued that Iran should begin profiting from its vast oil reserves which had been exclusively controlled by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. The company later became known as British Petroleum (BP).

"After considering military action, Britain opted for a coup d'état. President Harry Truman rejected the idea, but when Dwight Eisenhower took over the White House, he ordered the CIA to embark on one of its first covert operations against a foreign government.

"The coup was led by an agent named Kermit Roosevelt, the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt. The CIA leaned on a young, insecure Shah to issue a decree dismissing Mossadegh as prime minister. Kermit Roosevelt had help from Norman Schwarzkopf’s father: Norman Schwarzkopf." [4]

"AMY GOODMAN: You are listening to Democracy Now!, the War and Peace Report. I'm Amy Goodman on this 50th anniversary of the C.I.A.-backed coup that overthrew the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammad Mossadegh. We're talking to Stephen Kinzer. He is author of a new book, All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. In a minute, we're going to go to old film about the coup where former C.I.A. agents talk about their role in it. But talk about the man in the C.I.A. who spearheaded this, Kermit Roosevelt. "STEPHEN KINZER: One of the reasons I wanted to write this book was because I've always been curious about exactly how you go about overthrowing a government. What do you do after you choose an agent and assign a lot of money? Exactly how do you go about doing it? Kermit Roosevelt really is a wonderful way to answer that question. What happened was this: Kermit Roosevelt, who as you said was Teddy Roosevelt's grandson, was the Near East director for the C.I.A. He slipped clandestinely into Iran just around the end of July 1953. He spent a total of less than three weeks in Iran--that's only how long it took him to overthrow the government of Mossadegh. And one thing that I did realize as I was piecing together this story is how easy it is for a rich, powerful country to throw a poor, weak country into chaos. So what did Roosevelt do? The first thing he did was he wanted to set Tehran on fire. He wanted to make Iran fall into chaos. So he bribed a whole number of politicians, members of Parliament, religious leaders, newspaper editors and reporters, to begin a very intense campaign against Mossadegh. This campaign was full of denunciatory speeches and lies about Mossadegh, dated and passed, without bitter denunciations of Mossadegh from the pulpits and in the streets, on the houses of Parliament. Then, Roosevelt also went out and bribed leaders of street gangs. You had a kind of "Mobs 'R' Us," mobs-for-hire, kind of situation existing in Iran that that time. Roosevelt got in touch with the leaders of these mobs. Finally, he also bribed a number of military officers who would be willing to bring their troops in on his side at the appropriate moment. So when that moment came, the fig leaf of the coup was, as you said, this document that the Shah had signed, rejecting the prime ministership of Mossadegh, essentially firing him from office. Now, this was a decree that was of very dubious legality since in democratic Iran only the Parliament could hire and fire prime ministers. Nonetheless, the idea was that this decree would be delivered to Mossedegh at his house at midnight one night and then, when he refused to obey it, as he probably would, he would be arrested. That was the plot. But what happened was that the officer that Kermit Roosevelt had chosen to go to Mossdegh's house at midnight, presented the decree firing Mossadegh and preparing to arrest him but other, loyal soldiers stepped out of the shadows and arrested him. The coup had been betrayed. The plot failed. The man who was supposed to arrest Mossadegh was himself arrested. And Kermit Roosevelt woke up the next day with a cable from his superiors in the C.I.A. telling him, My God, you failed, you better get out of there right away before they find you and kill you. But Kermit Roosevelt, on his own, decided that he would stay. He figured, I can still do this, I was sent here to overthrow this government, I'm going to make up my own plan." [5]

Roosevelt, Kermit. Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979. [pb] 1981. "Clark comment: The book details the planning and execution of Operation Ajax, the American-British operation which overthrew Iranian Prime Minister Mossadegh in 1953 and restored the Shah to his throne. Roosevelt was the American case officer for the operation and was on the scene in Teheran to oversee its successful implementation." [6]

[12] Revolutionary Iran Ramazani, R K. : John's Hopkins University Press, 1986 In 1953 very few Americans had ever heard the name of Kermit Roosevelt, and today certainly no American recalls the name with the exception of the odd history student or two. But just as certainly, key CIA operative Kermit Roosevelt installed the Shah Reza Pahlavi's royal family in power while taking out the democratic rule of Mossadegh. It is interesting to note that British imperial power could not interest Truman in the Mossadegh coup, while Eisenhower farmed out the job to the Dulles brothers within a matter of days subsequent to taking presidential power - the reason?

It also seems that Kermit was a member of "Le Cercle. a secret transnational intelligence and direct action group, that, according to all accounts, is funded by the CIA." "Circle members Allen Dulles, Frank Wisner, William Colby, Stefano Delle Chiaie, Giulio Andreotti, General Stilwell, and probably Karel Meulmeester have all been involved in the creation or maintenance of the Stay-Behind networks. Circle members Allen Dulles, Frank Wisner, and Kermit Roosevelt were members of the Knights Templar. Circle members Alexandre de Marenches and Kermit Roosevelt set up the Safari Club." [7]

The Amazonian Expedition That Nearly Killed Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt was never a fan of idle vacations. Whether ranching in the Dakotas, cougar hunting in Arizona, or going on a yearlong safari in Africa, his travels had always involved hardship and risk—two of the key components of what he once famously termed the “strenuous life.” Still, none of Roosevelt’s previous adventures could compare to the one he attempted in 1913. Despite having little experience in the jungle, the burly 55-year-old journeyed to Brazil and set out on a trip down an uncharted tributary of the Amazon: the mysterious Rio da Dúvida, or River of Doubt.

Theodore Roosevelt pointing towards the area explored during the Roosevelt-Rondon expedition. (Credit: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images)

Roosevelt described the Amazon adventure as his “last chance to be a boy,” but it was also something of a consolation prize. He had hoped to begin serving a third term as president in 1913, but despite a strong showing in the 1912 election, he and his upstart Progressive Party had lost out to Democrat Woodrow Wilson. After moping around his New York home for a few months, Roosevelt received a letter from Argentina inviting him to conduct a series of lectures in South America. Not only did he accept, he decided to supplement the speaking tour with an extended river cruise down two tributaries of the Amazon. Before setting sail for the continent that October, he contacted the American Museum of Natural History, recruited a pair of naturalists and made plans to collect animal specimens during the expedition.

Roosevelt had envisioned a journey that was part holiday and part scientific endeavor, but upon arriving in South America, he decided to tackle something more stimulating. After consulting with his guide, the veteran Brazilian explorer Colonel Candido Rondon, he dropped his original itinerary and set his sights on traversing the River of Doubt, a wild and winding waterway that had yet to be charted by Europeans. The head of the American Museum of Natural History tried to warn him of the risks, but Roosevelt brushed off his concerns. “If it is necessary for me to leave my bones in South America,” he wrote, “I am quite ready to do so.”

Theodore Roosevelt in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, shortly before the Roosevelt-Rondon expedition began. (Credit:: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty images)

In late-1913, after Roosevelt had completed his lecture tour, the “Roosevelt-Rondon” expedition got underway. Along with a small army of porters, explorers and scientists, the team also included Roosevelt’s 23-year-old son, Kermit, who had been living in Brazil. The adventurers began by traveling via steamboat to the remote town of Tapirapoan. From there, they embarked on a two-month overland trek toward the River of Doubt.

Though still carrying a bullet in his chest from a failed assassination attempt that occurred during his 1912 campaign, Roosevelt immediately impressed his companions with his seemingly boundless stamina. On the whole, however, the expedition did not get off to a promising start. Several men were struck down by tropical illness while crossing the rugged Brazilian highlands, and over half the group’s pack animals died from exhaustion. By the time they finally reached the River of Doubt in February 1914, a lack of supplies had forced Roosevelt and Rondon to downsize their team. In the end, the 22-man party that set off on the river included just three Americans—Roosevelt, Kermit and the naturalist George Cherrie.

Theodore Roosevelt during the expedition. (Credit: George Rinhart/Corbis via Getty Images)

If the journey to the River of Doubt had been trying, conditions only grew more extreme once explorers were on the water. As they floated down the river in dugout canoes, the men were at risk of attack by everything from alligators and piranhas to hostile native tribes. Whenever they stopped to camp on its banks, they were overwhelmed by what Roosevelt called the “torment and menace” of mosquitos and stinging flies. Just a few days into the expedition, the former president had another run-in with the local wildlife when he was nearly bitten by a venomous coral snake. The creature snapped at his leg, but only managed to sink its teeth into his thick leather boot.

With each bend in the river, the expedition entered new and unmapped territory. “It was interesting work, for no civilized man, no white man, had ever gone down or up this river or seen the country through which we were passing,” Roosevelt later wrote. “The lofty and matted forest rose like a green wall on either hand.” The journey began on calm waters, but by early March the explorers had encountered the first of what would eventually be dozens of miles of tortuous rapids. At each cataract, the men were forced to either shoot the whitewater in their canoes or carry the boats on their backs through the wilderness. Their progress slowed to a plodding seven miles per day, and they had to repeatedly stop and build new canoes after several were destroyed during the crossings. On March 15, Kermit’s canoe was sucked into a whirlpool and sent tumbling over a waterfall. He and a companion managed to swim to shore, but a third man, a Brazilian named Simplicio, drowned in the rushing rapids.

The River of Doubt (now the Roosevelt River). (Credit: Beatriz Andrade N༻rega)

The expedition’s troubles only mounted over the next several weeks. The explorers knew that a band of Indians was stalking them—Rondon had found his dog shot through with arrows𠅊nd they were constantly on edge about an ambush. The natives ultimately let the men pass unharmed, but the team was still plagued by malaria, dysentery and a lack of supplies. Even the indomitable Roosevelt began to suffer after he fell ill with fever and then sliced his leg open on a rock. Morale reached its lowest point in early April, when a porter named Julio shot and killed another Brazilian who had caught him stealing food. After failing to capture the murderer, the exhausted expedition simply abandoned him in the jungle.

The 19 remaining explorers continued downriver, but their scientific expedition had turned into a fight for survival. Their clothes were reduced to rags, and they headed off starvation only by catching fish and scrounging for hearts of palm. Roosevelt, once among the team’s strongest members, became delirious from fever and infection. He repeatedly demanded to be left alone in the jungle to die, but Kermit refused to leave him behind. “There were a good many days, a good many mornings when I looked at Colonel Roosevelt and said to myself, he won’t be with us tonight,” naturalist George Cherrie later remembered. 𠇊nd I would say the same in the evening, he can’t possibly live until morning.”

The expedition standing next to a Rio Roosevelt marker.

Roosevelt eventually lost a quarter of his body weight, but he stubbornly held on and even endured emergency leg surgery on the riverbank. As the former president languished in his canoe, Rondon led the explorers into waters closer to civilization. With the aid of local “seringueiros”𠅋razilian pioneers who lived in the jungle and harvested rubber—the men acquired new canoes and traversed the last few sections of rapids. Finally, on April 26, the team sighted a relief party that Rondon had previously ordered to meet them at the confluence of the River of Doubt and the Aripuanã River. After two months and hundreds of miles, they had reached the finish line. Though still sick, Roosevelt beamed with pride. In typically stoic fashion, he dashed off a telegram to the Brazilian government in which called the nightmarish expedition 𠇊 hard and somewhat dangerous, but very successful trip.”

Roosevelt received medical attention once the group reached civilization, and by the time he returned to New York in May 1914, he had grown strong enough to walk down his ship’s gangplank and greet a crowd of admirers. A few critics tried to dispute his claim that the expedition had “put upon the map a river nearly 1,500 kilometers in length,” but he later won over most of the skeptics during an extended lecture tour. In 1926, meanwhile, another group of explorers repeated the river journey and confirmed nearly all the Roosevelt-Rondon expedition’s geographical findings. By then, the Brazilians had given the River of Doubt a new name: the Roosevelt River.

Roosevelt&aposs Views on Race Impacted Both His Domestic and Foreign Policies

A political cartoon depicting the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, a foreign policy designed to fend off European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. 

Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

As president, he favored the removal of many Native Americans from their ancestral territories, including approximately 86 million acres of tribal land transferred to the national forest system. Roosevelt’s signature achievements of environmental conservation and the establishment of national parks came at the expense of the people who had stewarded the land for centuries. Roosevelt also supported policies of assimilation for indigenous Americans to become integrated into the broader American society. These policies, over time, contributed to the decimation of Native culture and communities.

Roosevelt’s attitudes toward race also had a direct impact on his foreign policy as president, says Cullinane: �use he believed that white Anglo-Saxons had reached the pinnacle of social achievement, he thought they were in a position to teach the other peoples of the world who had failed to reach such heights. The United States would help tutor and uplift the Western Hemisphere.”

That worldview formed the foundation of Roosevelt’s vocal support of American imperialism, and in the White House he presided over an expanding overseas empire that included territories won in the Spanish-American War including Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba and the Philippines. His Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, also known famously as his 𠇋ig stick” foreign policy, laid the foundation for a more interventionist policy in Latin America. He also extended American influence in the region by fomenting a rebellion in Panama that resulted in American construction of the Panama Canal.

And his desire to reset racial hierarchies wasn&apost limited to the Western Hemisphere. “It is of incalculable importance that America, Australia, and Siberia should pass out of the hands of their red, black and yellow aboriginal owners," Roosevelt wrote in his 1889 book The Winning of the West, "and become the heritage of the dominant world races.”  


Steve if I shared this information, my children & in-laws would say you have flipped your lid take her for some help before she joins Q! My husband says to me, you have gone down the rabbit hole! He doesn’t believe a word I say! What can I do to try to change his mind? Anyone? Thank you & may God bless you

Hi, for starters, I see how it sounds crazy…and for the record I never ever got involved in the Q thing. If you want facts, Walt Disney was a 33rd level freemason. This is the highest level of freemasonry. Freemasons HATE Jesus Christ. They are also known as the illuminati. Walt Disney had the Disney 33 club, which only allowed elites. It was named in honor of 33rd level masons. This is fact. Just did a post on this. Masonic lodges are all over the world and most freemasons don’t know what evil they are participating in, as they are the lower level bottom feeders. Walt Disney did not build a massive empire in his lifetime…he was the poster boy for Disney. Disney isn’t even his real name. This can all be found out, but it requires a little work most people are comfortable just living life, and I get that.

Darrell, I have been trying for years to tell people that the Bible they are reading is not what they have been brainwashed to believe! A very good read is the Kolbrin Bible (The Great Book or Egyptian Texts of the Bronzebook) which also includes Celtic Texts of the Coelbook). The latter was inspired in part by A visit by Jesus to Britain who had traveled there via a high speed Phoenician trading ship with his great uncle Joseph of Arimathea (who went to inspect a tin mine he owned). Joseph founded the Glastonbury Abbey which became the repository for these texts during the 1st millennium.

Darrell, one has to be careful on judging people in regard to the Gifts of the Spirit, because Yashua gives them when He wants – not when we expect them – it took quite a few years for me but my Dad initially judged me of not having enough faith – years later when He was more mature in His faith, he apologized… but that judgement caused me a lot of pain and soul searching needlessly… my faith is because of Yashua’s faithfulness to me and nothing to do with me … and I have a lot of it. I trust Him implicitly because of His hand in my life since I was 7 and I am now 56 and I have been to hell and back in many ways .. everything is in His time

Ok … the SUREST way to tell if two people are actually the same person is LOOK AT THE EARS. Clearly when you look at your pictures of Walt Disney and Hitler, that is NOT the same person.

Maybe today with more technological advanced materials and full pullover masks, the masks could make the ears identical, but not back at the time of these photos. The ears are CLEARLY not the same. Completely different.

Very true. I’ve been looking into this. Others have told me about this and they’ve given really interesting proof.

Thank you so much for all of the work you have put into this. I’m sorry but I cannot call you Awesome as that word to me means better than the best which to me means Yashua ha’Mashiah who is our Messiah not the vatican Jesus Christ which is a name none of the prophets and apostles spoke. There is no such thing as the original Greek as the vatican is the little horn of Daniel. See I thanks to our Elohim was never afraid to research the Christian religion. Truly Christians are under strong delusion. The modern KJV has nothing to do with King James. If you want the true living word of Yashua ha’Mashiah get a copy of the Halleluyah Scriptures bible before the vatican does to it what they did to the KJV which is a copy of the textus receptus found in the vatican. Our Father absolutely hates being called the one size fits all pagan title God which when they put in your modern KJV they meant it as Ba’al. When you say God bless you are saying Ba’al bless. Christians ignore where their bible says My people destroy themselves for lack of knowledge and Come out of her My people. The thing I can’t stand about Christians is that each and everyone of them believe the no of believe their modern KJV is the word of our Messiah so they all want to argue with me instead of researching their religion. All have heard of the free gifts of the spirit and hardly any of them know how to get them. They settle for a glass half full instead of a glass overflowing with the Ruah Ha’Qodesh. It’s actually very simple. Thank Him for what He did on that upright pole and ask Him to baptize you in the Holy Ghost. One of the gifts I received is wisdom. Finally my high IQ is being used. Now I need to work on my EQ.


[1] David Ignatius, "The Coup Against 'Countercoup': How A Book Disappeared," The Wall Street Journal, November 6, 1979, p. 1.

[2] For contemporaneous background, see: Ibid. Herbert Mitgang, "Publisher 'Correcting' Book on C.I.A. Involvement in Iran," The New York Times, November 10, 1979 Thomas Powers, "A Book Held Hostage," The Nation, April 12, 1980, p. 437 Nancy E. Gallagher and Dunning S. Wilson, "Suppression of Information or Publisher's Error?: Kermit Roosevelt's Memoir of the 1953 Countercoup, with Addendum, "Countercoup II," by Nikki K. Keddie, Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 1 (July 1981), pp. 14-17 Richard W. Cottam, "Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran by Kermit Roosevelt," (book review), Iranian Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3/4 (Summer-Autumn 1981), pp. 269-272.

[3] See John Prados, The Family Jewels: The CIA, Secrecy, and Presidential Power (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013), pp. 236-240.

[4] Irvin Molotsky, "Kermit Roosevelt, leader of C.I.A. Coup in Iran, Dies at 84," The New York Times, June 11, 2000 Geoff Simons, "Iran," The Link, Vol. 38, Issue 1, January-March 2005, p. 6.

[5] Gallagher and Wilson, op. cit., p. 15 Thomas Powers, op. cit.

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