Combat of Augsberg, 17 August 1796

Combat of Augsberg, 17 August 1796

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Combat of Augsberg, 17 August 1796

The combat of Augsberg (17 August 1796) was a costly skirmish fought between the advance guard of Championnet's division and a strong Austrian force posted at Augsberg, a small village five miles to the south of what was then the main road between Nuremburg and Amberg.

Championnet's division made up the right wing of General Jourdan's army as it advanced along the River Pegnitz towards the Austrian advance guard, which was posted between Neukirchen and Sulzbach. While the main column was fighting at Neukirchen, the two battalions of Championnet's advance guard ran into a strong Austrian force at Augsberg. The French retreated into a small wood, where they held off the Austrians until reinforcements arrived. Both sides continued to feed fresh troops into the battle, which lasted until the end of the day. Both sides may have suffered as many as 1,000 casualties in this fighting.

Early on 18 August General Wartensleben decided to withdraw east from Amberg to the Naab. General Kray, and the rearguard, moved back to Amberg, and then to Wolfring. On 20 August they held off a French attack at Wolfring, but were outflanked and forced to join Wartensleben on the east bank of the Naab. This would be the last Austrian retreat, for the main Austrian army under the Archduke Charles was now approaching from the south, and it would soon be the French who were falling back.

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars

Combat of Augsberg, 17 August 1796 - History

History of the 511th Airborne Regiment

by Leo Kocher

The 511th PIR was activated at Camp Toccoa, Georgia on January 5, 1943, under the command of LTC Orin D. Haugen. He was promoted to a full Colonel a few months later. The cadre of the 511th PIR were selected mainly from the 505th PIR which was then stationed in Fort Benning, GA. The Regiment was formed from about 12,000 recruits, of which about 3,000 were selected to start basic training. From the latter number around 2,000 troopers formed the Regiment, of which 173 were commissioned and three were warrant officers .

On March 23, 1943, the 511th PIR closed at Camp Mackall, NC to join the 11 th Airborne Division, under the command of Major General Joseph M. Swing. Following 17 weeks of Basic training, the 511th journeyed to the Fort Benning Parachute School for three weeks of jump training. It should be noted, with all the extensive training, no 511th PIR soldier who boarded a C-47 refused to make the jump.

In December of 1943, the 511th returned to Camp Mackall for Advanced Training. The success of the Knollwood Maneuvers was very instrumental in the continued use of Airborne troops during the remainder of World War II. In January of 1944, the Regiment departed Camp Mackall for Camp Polk, Louisiana to engage in further maneuvers and prepare for overseas movement.

In April of 1944 the 511th departed Camp Polk for Camp Stoneman, California. On May 8, 1944, the 511th PIR departed from Pittsburgh, CA on the SS Sea Pike with about 2,000 troopers that had been disguised as a "Straight Leg" infantry unit. The ship had been built by the Western Pipe and Steel Corp. and launched in Feb. 1943. The ship was 492 feet long, with a beam of 70 feet. She drew 29 feet of water and her steam engines pushed her at 17 knots. On May 28, 1944 the Regiment arrived at Oro Bay, New Guinea.

While the 511th was in Strategic Reserve in New Guinea (May - October 1944), they conducted Airborne, Jungle and Amphibious training. On Nov. 7, 1944 the Regiment departed New Guinea by ship (USS Cavalier) for the Leyte Campaign in the Philippines. From November 18 to December 27 the Regiment participated in the Leyte Campaign in the Abuyog, Dulag, Burauen, Anonang, Manaraawat, Lubi, Mohonag and Anas areas.

The 511th went into reserve in the Dulag area from Dec. 27th to January 21, 1945. From Jan. 22 to Feb. 2, the Regiment prepared for the forthcoming jump on Tagaytay Ridge and moved to Mindoro by sea and air. On the 3rd of Feb., the 511th jumped on Tagaytay Ridge, Luzon. From there the Regiment moved to the Paranaque and the Pasay area and fought in the Ft. McKinley and Alabang area until Feb. 19, 1945. On Feb. 11, 1945 Col. Orin D. Haugen (the Regimental Commander) was mortally wounded and died of wounds on Feb. 22, 1945. Lt. Col. Edward Lahti, the 3rd Battallion commander assumed command and remained in command until August 1947.

On Feb. 23, 1945, in an effort to rescue the many prisoners (2,147) still under Japanese control at the Los Bonas prison, B-511th, plus the light machine gun platoon from HQ1, made a dawn jump on the prison at 0700 hours. Together with a simultaneous attack, by a Reconnaissance Platoon and Filipino guerrillas, the prison was captured. Amtracks (amphibious vehicles from the 672nd Amphibious Tractor Battalion) were used to transport the prisoners to safety. The plan envisioned the immediate evacuation of all prisoners and military personnel to the security of the Manila area. It was almost a textbook operation, no fatalities were suffered on the entire mission and all prisoners were rescued.

The Regiment fought in the Real, Mt Bijiang and Santo Tomas areas from March 4 to March 24, 1945. From March 24 to April 11, 1945, the Regiment less the 3rd Battalion, operated in the Bauen and Batangas areas as 6th Army reserve. During this period, the 3rd Battalion was attached to the 188th PG and fought in the Sulac, Sapac, Talisay and Malaraya Hill areas. From April 12 to May 4, 1945 the 511th fought in the Lipa and Mt. Malepunyo area. In May 1945, base camp was set up near Lipa, Luzon. On June 23, 1945 the 1st Battalion and Companies G and I, boarded troop transports, from the 317th Troop Carrier Group, at Lipa Airstrip and dropped by parachute near Aparri as part of the Gypsy Task Force. The 511th PIR sustained a total of 289 killed and/or missing in action causalities during the Leyte and Luzon Campaigns. Click here for a complete list of those in the 511th who gave their lives for their country.

On August 11, 1945 the Regiment departed Luzon by air and were flown to Okinawa. On August 30, 1945 the 511th arrived by air, at Atsugi Air Base near Yokohama to occupy the city and guard the docks from which the peace delegation left to go to the USS Missouri and the signing of the Armistice. On Sept. 16, 1945 the 511th moved to Morioka, Japan to begin the occupation of Iwate and Aomori Prefectures in Northern Honshu. Separate companies were stationed from South Morioka, all the way north of Honshu to the city of Aomori. In January of 1947 the scattered units started to move in to Camp Haugen near Hatchinohe. In February 1947, Regimental Headquarters moved from Morioka to Camp Haugen. During the months of January through March of 1947, the Regiment was brought back up to T/O strength.

In February of 1949, the Regiment less the 3rd Battalion, departed Camp Haugen and returned to the United States via the Panama Canal and arrived in New Orleans in March 1949, from where it moved to Camp Campbell, Kentucky. The 3rd Battalion remained in Camp Haugen, attached to the 7th Division, until April 22, 1949, when it departed for the United States. With the outbreak of the war in Korea, on June 25, 1950, training was intensified, including reservists. On August 1, 1950, the 187th was alerted for overseas movement and was designated the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team. To bring the 187th ARCT up to T/O strength, their ranks were filled from the 511th PIR, with most transfers being made within like units. They departed San Francisco on September 6-7, 1950 by ship and begin arriving at the Inchon Beachhead, in Korea, on Sept. 22, 1950. Of the 476 causalities suffered by the 187th in Korea, during the entire police action (1950-1953), it has been determined that at least 62, were in the first wave of 511th PIR troopers, that had been merged into the 187th ARCT in 1950. Another highlight came in March 1956, when the 511th (as part of the 11th

Airborne Division) crossed the Atlantic into Europe to replace the 5th Inf. Div., in Augsburg, Germany during Operation Gyroscope. The 511th's fifteen-year duration came to an end at Fort Campbell in July 1958, when they and the 11th Abn. Div. was officially inactivated. On June 1, 1993, A-511th Infantry was reactivated at Fort Rucker, Alabama. They were deactivated in Nov. 1994. On October 1, 1997, A-511th PIR was reactivated as a Test Company for the Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided Missile (EFOGM) system, under the Command of Cpt. Stephen Inouye at Fort Bragg, NC. It will be the first and only Airborne EFOGM Company in the world.

The 511th PIR Commanders Tour of Duty

Col. Orin D. Haugen Jan. 1943 - Feb. 1945

Lt.Col. Edward Lahti Feb. 1945 - Aug. 1947

Col. Reynolds Condon Aug. 1947 - Sept.1949

Lt.Col. M.M. Lyons Sept.1949 - Dec. 1949

Lt.Col. Ben Harrell Dec. 1949 - July 1950

Col. Aubrey S. Newman Aug. 1950 - Apr. 1951

Lt.Col. Warren T. Hannum Jr. Apr. 1951 - May 1951

Col. Broadus McAfee May 1951 - May 1952

Lt.Col. William M. Haycock May 1952 - July 1952

Col. Curtis J. Herrick July 1952 - Jan. 1953

Col. Robert L. Walton Jan. 1953 - June 1953

Lt.Col. Ralph D. Burns June 1953 - June 1953

Col. John D. Cone June 1953 - June 1954

Lt.Col. Ralph D. Burns June 1954 - July 1954

Col. Patrick F. Cassidy July 1954 - June 1955

Lt.Col. Gordon K. Smith June 1955 - Aug. 1955

Col. Herman W. Dammer Aug. 1955 - July 1956

Lt.Col. Cameron Knox July 1956 - Sept. 1956

Col. D.E. Munson Sept.1956 - July 1958


1) 511th Parachute Infantry Yearbooks

2) Articles from the 511th PIR Association Newsletter "Winds Aloft"

3) Communication with fellow 511th troopers and personal knowledge.

"Strength From Above" - An impressive and substantial historical chronicle
of the 511th PIR. Dr. James Lorio, former G Company Commander, used "Strength From Above"
to recount personal accounts and the exploits of the men of the 511th PIR. "Strength from Above" can
also be found in the PTO section and new section of the site.

If you have comments or a story to share, please use the Feedback Form to reach us.

Return to Exhibits Page.


Would you have known? &ndash Offset printing, as we know it today, goes back to a walk on a rainy day in 1796. At that time, the German Alois Senefelder noticed a stone on the roadside on which a sheet of paper had appeared, and he had the idea of a completely new, particularly sharp printing process: lithography (Greek lithos = stone, graphein = drawing, writing).

Alois Senefelder made use of the physico-chemical principle of the mutual repulsion of fat and water: a musician by birth, he wrote notes on a flat stone plate with greasy ink, which became water-repellent at these points. He treated the "printing plate" illustrated in this way with a diluted acid, which made the unlabeled areas water-absorbent.

The actual printing process then consisted of three steps:

  1. Moistening the imaged and etched surface with water that was repelled by the image areas and collected at the non-image areas.
  2. Inking with greasy ink which was repelled by the water on the non-image areas and collected at the image areas.
  3. Printing, in which a sheet of paper was placed on it and the ink was transferred by vigorous pressing.

Since printing and non-printing areas of the printing plate lie in the same plane, this printing process is also called planographic printing. And the transfer of the printing ink to an intermediate carrier &ndash usually a rubber blanket &ndash turns flatbed printing into offset printing.

Timeline &ndash the most important milestones of web offset printing in Augsburg

1840 &ndash Foundation of Sander'sche Maschinenfabrik

1844 &ndash Carl Buz and his brother-in-law Carl August Reichenbach take over the management of Sander'sche Maschinenfabrik, which is renamed in C.Reichenbach'sche Maschinenfabrik.

1845 &ndash Carl August Reichenbach designs his latest printing machine: a high-speed press with rail movement.

1857 &ndash Renamed in Maschinenfabrik Augsburg.

1872 &ndash A complete printing set-up with pressure vessel and steam engine is delivered.

1873 &ndash The first rotary press for newspaper printing in Germany is built in Augsburg.

1879 &ndash The first commercial web press in Europe is built in Augsburg.

1908 &ndash Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG (M.A.N)

1920 &ndash Web offset press New miniature: compact, space-saving press // New on offer: sheetfed-offset presses

1921 &ndash First web offset printing press at the plant in Augsburg

1925 &ndash The largest German rotary press with 15 printing units is designed and built.

1931 &ndash First high-performance rotary press

1947 &ndash Calendar block rotation machine

1951 &ndash Sheet-fed offset press ULTRA-MAN ist built.

1960 &ndash 75 % of the total circulation of all daily newspapers in Germany is produced on presses from Augsburg.

1962 &ndash "The next generation": A new generation of web offset presses is developed &ndash the LITHOMAN series.

1972 &ndash The 16-page ROTOMAN commercial web offset press is produced.

1974 &ndash The first 17-page COLORMAN web offset press with 62 printing units is built, making it the largest web offset press in Europe at the time.

1977 &ndash Market launch of the UNIMAN &ndash the first two-plate wide rotary offset press for newspaper printing on the market.

1979 &ndash M.A.N.-Roland Druckmaschinen AG: Printing press manufacturing is spun off from M.A.N.

1980 &ndash Largest web offset press is delivered to Eastern Europe.

1988 &ndash The largest order in the history of the printing industry, worth over DM 1 billion, is received from News International in February 1988.

1990 &ndash Introduction of the new control station electronics concept PECOM

1992 &ndash UNISET series // Integration of grapho metronics as a subsidiary

1994 &ndash LITHOMAN with new performance standards

1996 &ndash The 250 meter long GEOMAN is installed in Brazil &ndash the longest newspaper printing press in the world.

1998 &ndash REGIOMAN

1999 &ndash LITHOMAN with web width up to 1980 mm // Start of the global 24/7 TeleSupportCenter

2001 &ndash The COLORMAN XXL, which can process paper webs of up to 2100 millimeters, is introduced.

2004 &ndash The DICOweb, the world's only offset press with integrated imaging and deletion of the printing plate on printing plate sleeves, starts production.

2003 &ndash Quebecor World places the biggest commercial web offset order to date: 16 LITHOMAN and ROTOMAN presses

2006 &ndash MAN Roland becomes independent.

2007 &ndash Starting the first B2B online shop in the printing industry

2008 &ndash MAN Roland becomes manroland.

2012 &ndash The first COLORMAN e:line is put into operation at Allgäuer Zeitungsverlag in Kempten. With 100,000 copies per hour, it is the fastest newspaper press in its class. // Presentation at DRUPA: new One Touch operating concept (mobile use of touch pads)

2017 &ndash Expansion of the online shop into a B2B online marketplace for the printing press industry

2018 &ndash manroland Goss web systems: merger of manroland web systems and Goss international // Acquisition of GWS Printing Systems // MARKET-X: Expansion of the online platform into a brand-neutral B2B marketplace for mechanical and plant engineering

U.S. Army liberates Dachau concentration camp

On April 29, 1945, the U.S. Seventh Army’s 45th Infantry Division liberates Dachau, the first concentration camp established by Germany’s Nazi regime. A major Dachau subcamp was liberated the same day by the 42nd Rainbow Division.

Established five weeks after Adolf Hitler took power as German chancellor in 1933, Dachau was situated on the outskirts of the town of Dachau, about 10 miles northwest of Munich. During its first year, the camp held about 5,000 political prisoners, consisting primarily of German communists, Social Democrats, and other political opponents of the Nazi regime. During the next few years, the number of prisoners grew dramatically, and other groups were interned at Dachau, including Jehovah’s Witnesses, Roma peoples, homosexuals and repeat criminals. Beginning in 1938, Jews began to comprise a major portion of camp internees.

Prisoners at Dachau were used as forced laborers, initially in the construction and expansion of the camp and later for German armaments production. The camp served as the training center for SS concentration camp guards and was a model for other Nazi concentration camps. Dachau was also the first Nazi camp to use prisoners as human guinea pigs in medical experiments. At Dachau, Nazi scientists tested the effects of freezing and changes to atmospheric pressure on inmates, infected them with malaria and tuberculosis and treated them with experimental drugs, and forced them to test methods of making seawater potable and of halting excessive bleeding. Hundreds of prisoners died or were crippled as a result of these experiments.

Thousands of inmates died or were executed at Dachau, and thousands more were transferred to a Nazi extermination center near Linz, Austria, when they became too sick or weak to work. In 1944, to increase war production, the main camp was supplemented by dozens of satellite camps established near armaments factories in southern Germany and Austria. These camps were administered by the main camp and collectively called Dachau.

With the advance of Allied forces against Germany in April 1945, the Germans transferred prisoners from concentration camps near the front to Dachau, leading to a general deterioration of conditions and typhus epidemics. On April 27, 1945, approximately 7,000 prisoners, mostly Jews, were forced to begin a death march from Dachau to Tegernsee, far to the south. The next day, many of the SS guards abandoned the camp. On April 29, the Dachau main camp was liberated by units of the 45th Infantry after a brief battle with the camp’s remaining guards.

As they neared the camp, the Americans found more than 30 railroad cars filled with bodies in various states of decomposition. Inside the camp there were more bodies and 30,000 survivors, most severely emaciated. Some of the American troops who liberated Dachau were so appalled by conditions at the camp that they machine-gunned at least two groups of captured German guards. It is officially reported that 30 SS guards were killed in this fashion, but conspiracy theorists have alleged that more than 10 times that number were executed by the American liberators. The German citizens of the town of Dachau were later forced to bury the 9,000 dead inmates found at the camp.

Combat of Augsberg, 17 August 1796 - History

Change of Command 1983

HHB, VII Corps Artillery was reactivated on 22 Jan 1951 at Fort Campbell, KY. The unit subsequently moved to Germany with VII Corps and served in FRG until being inactivated on 21 June 1975.

The unit was redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 17th FA Brigade on 2 Aug 1978 and activated in Augbsurg, Germany.

Col Andrew J. McVeigh III was commander of the 17th FA Bde from 2 June 1980 until 11 Jan 1983. Following Col McVeigh as Bde CO was Col. Robert B. Adair.


- 1st Battalion 18th FA
CO: LTC Edward G. Anderson III Cmd Sgt Maj: CSM Ronald J. Jarmusek
On 1 Oct 1976, the Battalion (155mm SP) deployed from CONUS to Augsburg, Germany and was assigned to VII Corps, 210th Artillery Group.

On 22 Aug 1978, the Battalion was reassigned to the newly activated 17th FA Bde.

- 1st Battalion, 30th FA
CO: LTC Dennis D. McSweeney Cmd Sgt Maj: CSM John H. Culp
The 30th FA Battalion was activated on 22 Feb 1949, and assigned to EUCOM and attached to the 1st Inf Div in Germany. The Battalion was stationed at Erlangen until Feb 1957 (when it probably returned to the US as part of Operation GYROSCOPE.). (The unit was redesignated as 1st Howizter Battalion (155mm), 30th FA on 25 June 1958.)

On 12 Oct 1976, the Battalion arrived in the FRG as a unit in support of the Increased Combat Capability Europe (ICCE) effort, and was assigned to the 210th FA Group, VII Corps Artillery, with a mission to support NATO forces in Europe.

On 22 Aug 1978, the Battalion was reassigned to the newly activated 17th FA Bde.

- 1st Battalion, 36th FA
In the Spring of 1957, the 36th FA Battalion was designated a GYROSCOPE unit and prepared to depart for Germany. The Battalion arrived in Europe and was assigned to Seventh Army on 13 Feb 1958, with its home station at Schwäbisch Hall.

On 1 Aug 1963, the 1st Bn, 36th FA and 1st Bn, 83rd FA exchanged colors and home stations, which resulted in 1st/36th FA being stationed at Ferris Barracks, Erlangen.

On 7 July 1966, the Battalion moved to Wiley Barracks in Neu Ulm and remained there until 12 Aug 1968. At that time it moved to Reese Barracks in Augsburg, and was later assigned to the 17th FA Brigade.

- 2nd Battalion, 42nd FA
2nd Bn, 42nd FA was activated on 1 Oct 1973 as a LANCE missile unit at McKee Barracks, Crailsheim, Germany and was later assigned to the 17th FA Bde..

Shortly after Iraq invaded Kuwait any further transfers of people and equipment were put on hold. The "freeze" was ordered so that the remaining troops and/or equipment could be available, or the brigade could possibly be reconstituted if necessary for compat operations.

When VII Corps was notified of deployment to the Gulf, 17th FA Brigade had already transferred too much equipment and personnel to be rated as combat-ready. Myself and several others were attached to VII Corps Artillery HQ or other corps artillery brigades. I was the Deputy Intelligence Officer/Targeting Officer for VII Corps Arty during Desert Shield and Desert Storm and worked for Maj. Dan Pass (G2) and BG Creighton Abrams Jr.

At the conclusion of the conflict, several of the attached 17th Bde officers were tasked to run the redeployment seaports in Dhahran and Al Jubayl. I believe that most of the 17th Bde personnel returned to Germany in late May/early June of 1991 when our mission at the seaports concluded. We were notified that the brigade HQ would be transferred to Ft. Sill, OK, while we were still in the Gulf. Sometime in between December 1990 and May 1991 Col. Alan Fox assumed command of 17th FA Bde. The brigade resumed the inactivation of the four battalions after the cease-fire in the spring of 1991.

Then Major Ellis was the commander of the advanced party. We used to call him &ldquoFlash&rdquo, because he was in continual motion.

Our battalion commander was LTC Bob Adair, who passed away several years ago -- a real leader, gentleman and one outstanding commander.

SVC Battery was a special group of guys who took pride in all they did. The battalion was configured as a 3 X 6 direct support. I was young back then and not sure who we supported. Our battery consisted of Ammo sections, HQ's, Mechs, Fuel boys and commo. The ammo sections (4 or 6, not sure it's been many years) were equipped with the M813 5-ton trucks configured for cargo carrying with 6 bows and cargo canvass covering. Each truck, 5 per section, was assigned a driver who was responsible for the maintenance and appearance of the vehicle. Although it was a tactical vehicle, we took pride in our trucks. I remember our Btry Commander encouraged each of us to install stereos with speakers, remove the bench seating and install bucket seats from the 915 semi trucks, new mirrors etc. We were a mini long haul trucking outfit, a mix of 13B's and back then 64C (now 88M's motor transport specialists).

Service battery was the advanced party for the HOW battery's. The Ammo Dogs would convoy to Graf a week prior to the HOW btry's deployment, establish the ammo collection point (ACP), and prepare for drawing of all ammunition required for a 45 day rotation. We lived on Ammo pads out in the middle of Graf. A warm shower back then was sometimes 10 to 14 days up to 20 days away.

Upon arrival to the ACP, we would spend hours setting up the site: GP Mediums 4 ea. 2 sections per and one for a mess hall, GP Small for the TOC and 1 for Smoke and the LT. Of course all had to have Pot Belly stove (2 per Medium). Each member Soldier had cots with A and B bags with all there gear. Everything was dress right dress inside regardless of the 24 hour ops we ran in support of the BN's mission. Our camp was impressive and we had it down to a science, but mind you, it wasn't on concrete like the HOW btry, we lived on dirt and rocks. Once our AA was established we prepared to draw ammunition. Each vehicle had to be stripped of all slats, covers etc, and then had to be pre-inspected from top to bottom to ensure that they met the inspection criteria at the ASP.

Issue date was stressful for all. Each vehicle was configured to pick up a specific type and amount of ammunition, be it HE, illumination, Smoke, WP, powder, fuses, or 5.56mm, 7.62 and .50 cal for the ranges. If your vehicle failed inspection, the Germans would not allow you into the ASP therefore not able to pick up your assigned cargo. God help you if your vehicle failed. It could be for anything from improper seal on your fire extinguisher to a class II leak on the tranny. Sometimes pickup would take us 14 to 18 hours. Everything was accounted for and loaded onto the trucks by forklifts. We secured the cargo, and moved out to the front gate. Once all BN's draw was accounted for and vehicles lined up in convoy config, we went tactical from this point on for the long drive back to the "pad".

Upon arrival, ammunition could not be stored or left on the vehicles. Everything had to be downloaded onto pallets in predetermined areas and covered. We didn't have forklifts, this is when the esprit de corps and Ammo Dog spirit took over. A 155mm HE weighs 96.2 lbs. They had to be lifted off the truck, onto your shoulder and carried over and placed onto a ammo pallet. I believe there were 30 of us, and I can remember doing downloads of 600 to 700 rounds to include all powder, fuses and additional ammunition. This is where the term "Humping" came from. This was the BN's ASP.

Our missions were continuous, we had no break for a 45 day Graf rotation. When the HOW Btry's were out, we were on call. I remember 0200 hrs setting up an emergency resupply (now called a FARP). Those beautiful howitzers with the 557's would come off that tank trail, we would assume responsibility at the entrance, of course night tactical, guide them into their predesignated area, and get them in and out. Beautiful Chaos. Once they did there "hot upload" into the fuel lines, and gone. Then we packed up the residue and went back to the pad, pulled guard, ate a little and got ready for the next one. That was the life of an Ammo Dog. We were always dirty, wet, cold miserable but we took pride in what we did. I can't ever remember missing an issue time or place. The Howitzers of the 1/18th never went without ammunition.

In addition to the many rotations to Graf, the 1/18th also took part in the REFORGER exercises. Our GDP was a place up on the boarder called Voinsehag (sp) pronounce "VO In SEE HAG." We set up our tactical sites in farmers barns and pulled radio watch in a small gasthaus. Service Btry would return twice a year to recon the area, etc. This was explained to be our area if Russia ever came. Cold War tactics. The town welcomed us each time we would arrive. A great place and a great community. I remember one time pulling guard overlooking a beautiful farm. A small girl came up with a bag full of broatchens with cheese and some bottles of soda. I gave her my soft cap (wasn't supposed to have it) and she ran away smiling. Me and my battle buddy sat there and ate so good that night.

SVC Btry was all in support of the BN's Nuclear mission. We had a designated truck for pickup and delivery that carried nothing but the simulator and stood by on call. Those of us involved with the program were all cleared and placed on the PRP. We rehearsed with the special weapons section on a weekly basis.

We all wanted to get back to the "World" but damned if we didn't love the 1/18th, especially service battery.

I'm sorry that I've rambled on, but haven't thought about that unit in years. A buddy of mine (Fred Budd) reached out to me this week through facebook and brought back some incredible memories, this is how I found your site. Thank you for keeping it together.

1st Battalion, 30th Field Artillery received 12 new M110A2 howitzers to replace all of their guns with the new model. "The howitzer change indicates to me the continued effort on the part of the Army to upgrade the equipment in the NATO," said Lt. Col. Dennis McSweeney, Battalion Commander.

Although the appearance of the new guns is identical with the former model, several modifications were made and this will make the cannoneer's job performance easier.

The engine was modified to add more horsepower, a warning indicator light that used to be inside of the driver's cabin has been re-located to outside of the gun in a highly visible spot. The driver's seat can now be adjusted in height. This may not seem much of an improvement, but for the drivers who vary in size, this should help them a great deal. Alterations were made to the "Lock-out" system. The lock-out system is a stabilization platform when the gun is in firing position.

"Accepting the new howitzers meant a great deal of maintenance assessments and supply actions for the sections," McSweeney said, "It started out with section chiefs performing a 100 percent inventory and maintenance checks on the old howitzers to bring them up to standard on the inventory check. The new guns also had to be inventoried."

Last finishing touches are put on the new M110A2 howitzers at the 1/30th FA. Camouflage paint and winterization kits will get the new guns ready to be used in exercises.

"The guns are in for about 30 days. They are test driven and participated in alerts. The only thing they haven't done, was the actual firing," the commander said.

"Five people from 8904th's Direct Support Maintenance assisted with their expertise and knowledge to mount the winterization kits on the new guns," said Mai. William Jones, Executive Officer of the 1/30th FA.

Winterization kits are canvas canopies that protect the cannoneers and the gun from the elements. All new guns are delivered without those winterization kits and the frames for canopies had to be dismounted from the old howitzers and remounted to the new guns. Heating pipes were also installed to provide warmth on those cold winter field training exercises.

Some of the old howitzers will be retained within VII Corps artillery because they are still in excellent condition, others will be turned in, a battalion spokesman said.

My initial tour was spent on the survey crew for A Btry as a surveyor/computer. At this time the bn was subordinate element of the 72d FA Group of Wertheim, FRG. My survey chief(s) were SSG Alexander, SSG Penrose and SFC Eustice Smith. I can't recall the Btry Cmdr's name but do recall he was a short black man who got his commission while in the Republic of Vietnam. I do remember he later got "RIFed" during the days of the "hollow army" and went back to his former enlisted MOS as a gun chief in an artillery unit I believe he had orders for Ft Polk, LA.

This first tour of duty was spent typically in the field. Our missions always seemed to take us to the GDP area if not the LTA near McKee Barracks. More often then not, we were doing GDP missions in the vicinity of the then Czech border. I can remember a lot of cold and miserable days without proper gear and only the friendliness of a the German people we met along our travels. Crailsheim, what little time I did get to spend there, was a pleasant place and enabled me to make a lot of friends. As this was my 2nd tour to Germany, I already could speak German conversationally and this opened a lot of doors that most GI's couldn't get through. Places like the "New Yorker" discoteque and the "Gasthaus Stern" bring back good memories of those times I could get into town. I eventually bought a used car and spent many weekends and evenings away travelling the countryside. Even this told me that I wasn't seeing the people so I started "trampen" wie wir sagen. thumbing from McKee Barracks to over the border destinations. Actually I spoke pretty decent German and French. These two languages with my American English, got me a lot of friendships all over the West European continent.

My 2d tour as I stated, was from Sept of 1981 thru Aug 1984. This time I brought my newly wed wife with me and was able to get "Quarters" in the housing area across the street from McKee Barracks. I was assigned to C Btry as a survey section chief under Chief of Survey SFC Meiggs, and my rater 1Lt Eide. The other survey section chief was SSG Richard Humphries. The Btry Cmdr was CPT Schwarnenburg, the Bn Cmdr was LTC Fredrick E Van Horn and the CSM was named Wilson then later replaced by CSM Farrow. I admired the Bn Cmdr immensly as he was Airborne Ranger qualified and he had an esprit de corps attitude I haven't seen since, but many times tried to emulate. I got many Certificates of Appreciation from him that ended up in my promo packets and ended up on my "fiche" that said "Nuke 'em" where our bn logo would've normally read: "Festina Lente". Make Haste Slowly". I loved the runs he took us on after bn calisthenics through furrowed fields at 0:dark 30 and would last for at least an hour, if not 2. That LTC always made me want to grab the battalion guidon and run with him and around the running bn formation.

I spent 18 months as a platoon leader and 18 months as BMO. LTC Van Horn had command for three years, into the middle of 1983. He initiated the Goetz Von Berlichingen ceremony for the officers and Sr. NCOs, sort of a battalion level St. Barbara event that was still going in 1986 when I visited the battalion during a REFORGER exercise.

LTG Livsey became VII Corps commander during my time in Crailsheim and visited the battalion several times, including one memorable 'no notice walk in' to the motor pool when I was BMO. A few months later I escorted him to see the battalion during annual service practice (live fire) at NAMFI installation Crete.

During LTC Van Horn's command he had several XO's including Maj Larry Taylor and one other between him and John Westerlund. I can't remember the middle one's name.

I believe it was LTC Robert Wilson who succeeded Van Horn in battalion command.

I last visited Crailsheim in 2002. McKee Barracks no longer exists. Only the trees remained and stacks of water pipes that were dug out of the ground. The housing area has been converted to civilian (3rd world national) housing and the DOD school is now a German grade school.

I did find the widow of the German Maintenance Kaserne commander that adjoined the back of the McKee Barracks and she had fond memories of the early 80's when her husband commanded the German Kaserne. In fact, Werner made a point of finding me and meeting one time in Minnesota when he was visiting his daughter. Van Horn cultivated a close relationship with the local military and local police that paid off dividends during several incidents. I remain in contact with the daughter of the German colonel as she now lives in the States married to a former infantry officer.

The 1/51 Inf Bn shared our Kaserne along with an ordnance company, a medical detachment, and a DS maintenance detachment.

B ack in 1983-86 when I was stationed in Augsburg FRG, this battalion was part of the 17th FA BDE , VII Corps Artillery. 2nd Bn, 42nd FA was stationed at Crailsheim FRG, the other 3 battalions of the 17th FA BDE. 1st Bn, 36th FA (8"SP), 1st Bn, 30th FA (8"SP), 1st Bn, 18th FA (155mm SP), were stationed in Augsburg.

The 1-36th was stationed at Flak Kaserne and the 1-18th and 1-30th were stationed at Sheridan Kaserne.

I served in the 1/36 from 1983 to 1985 in Augsburg at Reese.

The following is an excerpt from Wiki: the 17th Brigade was called the 17th Field Artillery Brigade and did not become the 17th Fires Brigade until In 2007. The 17th Field Artillery Brigade moved to Fort Lewis, Washington and was renamed 17th Fires Brigade.

The battalion was activated again on 18 January 1952 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as a towed 155mm gun battalion. In 1957 the battalion was designated a Gyroscope unit, and it transferred to Germany, arriving in Bremerhaven on 12 February 1958.

On 25 June 1958 the 36th Field Artillery reorganized under the Combat Arms Regimental System, and the 36th Field Artillery Battalion became the new 1st Battalion, 36th Field Artillery, tracing its lineage from Battery A, 36th Field Artillery.

On 1 August 1963 the battalion was reorganized as an 8 inch howitzer battalion.

Since its arrival in Germany, it was stationed at Schwaebisch Hall, Erlangen, Neu Ulm, and Augsburg.

Combat of Augsberg, 17 August 1796 - History

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ARMD DIV 1948: three medium tank battalions one heavy tank battalion one reconnaissance battalion four armored infantry battalions three 105-mm FA battalions one 155-mm FA Battalion.

(Source: Jim Chorazy)
A s part of either Pentomic structure implementation and/or CARS, there was a change effective I believe on 1 Oct 1957 in which in the ARMD DIVs (1) the AIB&rsquos became ARB&rsquos (Armored Rifle Bns) and the applicable Tk Bns became known as &ldquoMTB&rsquos&rdquo or Medium Tank Battalions -- I guess they could still be called by generic names such as the above 1960 ARMD DIV scheme showing &ldquo4 tank battalions&rdquo & &ldquo4 armored infantry battalions&rdquo.

-- of course, when ROAD occurred in 1963 the ARBs became MIBs & the MTBs became simply Bns. For example, in ROAD, 1st Medium Tank Bn, 33rd Armor at Gelnhausen became &ldquo1st Bn, 33rd Armor&rdquo.

Two major changes (Pentomic Division and ROAD) in Army tactical concepts significantly affected USAREUR's readiness posture occurred in the 1950s and 60s. Both developments increased the command's combat capability, and both coincided with changing U.S. military strategy.

The Pentomic Division
In the early 1950's, when overwhelming Soviet military forces faced the Western nations, U.S. Army planners decided that, if American ground forces were to hold the decisive margin of strength on the battlefield of the future, they would have to possess superior mobility and exploit the effects of weapons of greatly increased firepower. The firepower would come from atomic weapons with these, superior tactical and logistical mobility could defeat a numerically superior enemy. This tactical concept was initiated in 1953 and 1954, when the first atomic delivery weapons arrived in Europe, and in early 1956, when one airborne and one armored division replaced two infantry divisions. (Webmaster Note: the 11th Airborne Division replaced the 5th Infantry Division in Augsburg (early 1956) and the 3rd Armored Division replaced the 4th Infantry Division in Frankfurt (May-June 1956).)

In late 1956 the Department of the Army proposed a reorganization plan to adapt infantry, armored, and airborne divisions to atomic warfare. The plan -- labeled the Pentomic Concept -- was approved for Army-wide implementation, and in November 1956 USEUCOM set tentative dates for the reorganization of the Seventh Army divisions under that concept. The reorganization of the 11th Airborne Division into five major battle groups, completely air transportable, was completed by the end of April 1957. The other four divisions in Europe were reorganized during the following five months (the 2nd Armored Division and 10th Infantry Division by 1 July 1957 8th Infantry Division by 1 August 1957 and the 3rd Armored Division by 1 Oct 1957).

Under the pentomic organization the infantry division lost one 155-mm and two 105-mm howitzer battalions, but a single composite unit, consisting of one 8-inch howitzer, one Honest John, and two 155-mm howitzer batteries, was added to increase its firepower. The infantry division also lost its regimental tank company, but its reconnaissance company was replaced with an armored cavalry battalion. Each infantry division had more than 100 tanks.

The armored divisions gained 261 personnel spaces, whereas the overall infantry division strength was reduced by 3,000. Frontline infantry elements, however, were increased by about 450 men. The spaces recovered in the strength reductions were used to meet troop ceiling reductions and to satisfy such new requirements as the establishment of a Redstone missile group and the augmentation of nuclear weapons logistical support units. The infantry and armored divisions lost one antiaircraft artillery battalion each.

Complementing the divisional reorganization, six 90-mm antiaircraft artillery battalions were converted to Nike missile battalions, and USAREUR's Honest John batteries were reorganized into battalions. The end product conformed closely to the original concept. Although primarily designed for atomic warfare and often referred to as atomic divisions, the pentomic units were actually capable of fighting both a nuclear and a conventional war.

ARMD DIV ROAD - six tank and five mechanized infantry battalions three 105-mm FA Battalions 1 155-mm FA Bn (comp)

ROAD - three tank and seven mechanized infantry battalions three 105-mm FA Battalions 1 155-mm FA Bn (comp)

ROAD Reorganizations in Europe:
3rd Armd Div - Oct 63 [6 tank 5 mech inf]
4th Armd Div - Aug 63 [6 tank 5 mech inf]
3rd Inf Div - Aug 63 [7 mech inf 3 tank]
8th Inf Div - Apr 63 [4 inf 3 abn 3 tank]
24th Inf Div - Feb 63 [7 mech inf 3 tank]

The rifle companies in the battle groups of the 3rd , 8th and 24th Inf Divisions will receive eighteen M113 armored personnel carriers to complete the mechanization. The engineer companies within the divisions will also be mechanized by the addition of ten armored personnel carriers each.

In 1961 USAREUR began to receive a series of newly developed equipment. In September Seventh Army units were issued the first shipments of the M-14 rifle that replaced, in a single weapon, the M-1 rifle, the carbine, the Browning automatic rifle, and the Thompson submachinegun. The new M60 main battle tank -- lighter, faster, and with a better weapons system and greater operational range than its predecessor -- was also issued. The new light and fast M113 armored personnel carriers proved to be vastly superior to the heavier obsolete vehicles they replaced. The shoulder-fired M79 grenade launcher filled the gap between the maximum range of a hand grenade and the minimum range of the mortar the new series of self-propelled howitzers increased artillery mobility and the revolutionary, nuclear-capable Davy Crockett gave the infantryman more firepower than he had ever had.

In 1962 these new items of equipment continued to arrive in Europe and underwent extensive tests in the hands of USAREUR troops. In addition, training began with the new French-designed Entac antitank missile, and Iroquois helicopters and Mohawk aircraft, necessary to support the aviation missions of ROAD divisions, began to arrive.

In 1963 when the time came for converting divisions to the ROAD configuration, USAREUR was ready for a smooth and rapid transition that would not jeopardize its combat readiness. Practically all the necessary equipment was on hand, and most of it had been issued. Beginning in February, 60 days were allotted to each division for conversion, but most of the units converted in 30. Reorganization of the last division was accelerated by one month, so that all five divisions completed the transition by mid October 1963.

REFORGER - One division (less a brigade) and some smaller units was returned to the States in the first half of 1968 (3rd Bde, 24th Inf Div remained in Germany).

April 1970, 3rd Bde, 24th Inf Div replaced by 3rd Bde, 1st Inf Div
May 1971, 1st Armd Div replaced the 4th Armd Div

1974 Organizations:
1st Armd Div - [6 tank 5 mech inf]
3rd Armd Div - [6 tank 5 mech inf]
3rd Inf Div - [6 mech inf 5 tank]
8th Inf Div - [6 mech inf 5 tank]

(1) 8th Infantry Division -- 4th Bn, 69th Arm was activated in Sept 1972 at Lee Barracks, Mainz.

The changes would not change the overall strength of the divisions. However, costs would be reduced through standardization of equipment and personnel authorizations. More effective maintenance and administrative support would lead to further costs savings.

Most noticieable changes:
1) A Combat Support Company is added to the mechanized infantry and tank battalions.

2) The Data Processing Company in the Division Support Command will be combined with the division headquarters and headquarters company.

3) A separate Finance Company will be formed.

4) A Heavy Equipment Company will be added to the division Maintenance Battalion.

5) The division air defense capability will be enhanced through an increase in the number of Redeye firing teams.

Brigade 75
Brigade 76

2nd Armd Div supported the rotation of Brigade 75 3rd Bde deployed to Germany between March-June 1975 the brigade was a mechanized infantry brigade in the fall of 1978 (?), the Army assigned the brigade permanently to USAREUR (page 367)

Heavy Armd Div - six armor and four mech inf battalions

The published tables differed somewhat from the proposed heavy division that Meyer had approved three years earlier. Cavalry fighting vehicles replaced tanks in the reconnaissance squadron, and the squadron, consisting of two ground and two air troops, had no motorcycles. Rather than being a divisional unit, it was a part of the aviation brigade. The finance unit moved to the corps level, and the reorganized military intelligence battalion fielded electronic warfare, surveillance, and service companies. In the support command, the medical battalion reappeared, but the chemical company was returned to divisional level, and the target acquisition element was reduced to a battery.

The Army faced complex problems in fielding Division-86. Over forty major weapons or new pieces of equipment needed to be procured, and some were still in developmental stages. Doctrinal literature and training programs required revision, and budgetary limitations had to be considered. The solution approved by the Army Staff, as in the past, was to adopt the heavy division concept but with interim organizations using obsolete equipment until new weapons and equipment were available. Delivery of many new items was expected to begin in 1983. Therefore, organizational and equipment modernization was to begin in January of that year. The number of maneuver elements for a heavy armored division was set at six armor and four mechanized infantry battalions, while that for a heavy mechanized infantry division was placed at five armor and five mechanized infantry battalions.

The Army also faced another problem in fielding the new heavy division, a shortfall in personnel. The Training and Doctrine Command estimated that a strength of 836,000 was required to field Army-86, but only 780,000 was authorized for the foreseeable future. Therefore to provide manpower spaces for modernizing the forces in Germany, the 4th Brigade, 4th Infantry Division , was inactivated in Europe in 1984 along with other units throughout the Army. Shortly thereafter the modernization plan went awry. Because of various problems involved in funding and procuring equipment, the Army leadership slipped the completion date for modernizing heavy divisions to the mid-1990s.

US Army Regimental System
Early in the planning process for modernizing divisional forces, (General Edward C.) Meyer also decided to adopt a new regimental system. It was to address one aspect of the "hollow Army" (the problem of having sufficient personnel and equipment to support and sustain the forward-deployed Army), unit cohesion.

Under the "come-as-you-are, fight-as-you-are" approach to war, combat service support had to be immediately available in the battle area. To meet the new logistical requirements, Division-86 called for a radical reorganization of the division support command , primarily to address the forward area of the battlefield. The command included a materiel management center, adjutant general and finance companies, a supply and transport battalion, a maintenance battalion, and three support battalions, one for each divisional brigade.

Support battalions, which were to "arm, fuel, fix, and feed forward," included headquarters and headquarters, supply, maintenance, and medical companies.

A small medical battalion supported the rest of the division.

Planners had difficulty deciding whether to place a chemical company at corps, division, or division support command level, but gave it to the supply and transport battalion in the support command.

Each tank battalion consisted of a headquarters element and four tank companies, and each tank company fielded three platoons of four tanks each.

Mechanized infantry battalions contained a headquarters element along with one TOW and four rifle companies, with the riflemen to be mounted on new Bradley infantry fighting vehicles.

To counter the Soviet Union's high density of artillery and improved weapons, the Division-86 study, like its predecessor, significantly increased the division artillery . It fielded three battalions of 155-mm. self-propelled howitzers organized into three batteries, each having eight pieces one battalion of sixteen 8-inch howitzers and nine multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS) mounted on vehicles and a target acquisition battalion.


A new organization, an air cavalry attack brigade (later designated as an aviation brigade ), which resulted from the pioneer work of the 1st Cavalry Division and the 6th Cavalry Brigade at Fort Hood and others, appeared in the division to provide helicopters for an antitank role.

Two attack battalions, each consisting of four companies with six helicopters each, and a combat support aviation battalion, which provided resources for command aviation, aircraft maintenance, and the reconnaissance squadron, made up the brigade. The brigade fielded 134 aircraft.

2nd Armored Division (Fwd)

3rd Armored Division
2nd Battalion, 48th Infantry (Gelnhausen) inactivation
Division Artillery (Hanau) reorganization
Combat Aviation Brigade (Hanau) activation
Division Support Command (Frankfurt) reorganization

1st Infantry Division (Fwd)

3rd Infantry Division (M)
2nd Battalion, 15th Infantry (Schweinfurt) inactivation
Division Artillery (Würzburg) reorganization
Combat Aviation Brigade (Giebelstadt) activation
Division Support Command (Kitzingen) reorganization

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Sunday, June 20 — Lectionary 12 4th Sunday after Pentecost

Now is the acceptable time now is the day of salvation! Now we are in the storm, the boat almost swamped but Jesus is here now, and when we call him, he will calm the storm. Even the wind and waves listen to him as they would to their creator. We also listen to him and are called to believe in the power of God’s word in him, a power greater than all that we fear.

Access options

I gave early versions of this article at the 2017 Summer History Institute at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, and at a 2018 colloquium on ‘Historiography’ as part of an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation-funded project on ‘Religious diversity and the secular university’ hosted by the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH) at the University of Cambridge. I am most grateful, respectively, to Darrin M. McMahon and Udi Greenberg, and to Simon Goldhill and Theodor Dunkelgrün, for inviting me to speak at those meetings. I am also obliged to Brian Young, Jane Garnett, Paul Kerry, Michael Bentley, and the Historical Journal 's two anonymous readers for their improving criticism of previous versions of this article.



94th Bomb Group

Activated 15 June 1942 at MacDill Field, Florida. Initial organization and training at Pendleton Field, Oregon on 29 June 1942. Primary flight training at Davis-Monthan Field in Arizona from 28 Aug. 42 to 31 Oct. 42 then at Biggs Field, El Paso, Texas.

332nd Bomb Squadron

Part of 94th Bomb Group.


Joseph Anderson

Military | Staff Sergeant | Ball Turret Gunner | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Attacked by fighters on a mission to Augsburg/Ulm, GR on 16 Mar 1944, B-17G #42-31546 'Old Sarge' fell out of formation.

Herbert Chase

Military | Staff Sergeant | Left Waist Gunner, Waist Gunner | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Attacked by fighters on a mission to Augsburg/Ulm, GR on 16 Mar 1944, B-17G #42-31546 'Old Sarge' fell out of formation.

Gilbert Debrieski

Military | Sergeant | Right Waist Gunner | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD.

William Holmes

Military | Technical Sergeant | Radio Operator | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Crashed on landing after a local engine check flight on 2 Mar 1944 in B-17G #42-37829 'The Better Half'. RTD.

Alwin Kocher

Military | Lieutenant | Pilot | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Attacked by fighters on a mission to Augsburg/Ulm, GR on 16 Mar 1944, B-17G #42-31546 'Old Sarge' fell out of formation.

Edmond Moreau

Military | Second Lieutenant | Bombardier | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Attacked by fighters on a mission to Augsburg/Ulm, GR on 16 Mar 1944, B-17G #42-31546 'Old Sarge' fell out of formation.

Henry Wallace

Military | Major | Co-Pilot | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Flew 13 combat missions. Attacked by fighters on a mission to Augsburg/Ulm, GR on 16 Mar 1944, B-17G #42-31546 'Old Sarge.

William Wood

Military | Technical Sergeant | Top Turret Gunner | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Attacked by fighters on a mission to Augsburg/Ulm, GR on 16 Mar 1944, B-17G #42-31546 'Old Sarge' fell out of formation.

Metro Wozniak

Military | Second Lieutenant | Navigator | 94th Bomb Group
Upon landing on return from a combat mission that was recalled on 9 Feb 1944, the right landing gear failed on B17F #42-3109. RTD. Attacked by fighters on a mission to Augsburg/Ulm, GR on 16 Mar 1944, B-17G #42-31546 'Old Sarge' fell out of formation.


VIII Bomber Command 84

17 August 1943
The mission flown on 17-Aug-43, the 1st anniversary of the 1st mission flown by the 8th Air Force, is probably the most written about mission of the war. This is the famous Schweinfurt/Regensburg mission on which 60 B-17s are lost. It has been dubbed .


Bury St Edmunds

Military site : airfield
The airfield was purpose-built for American bomb groups and as such had a 2,000 yard main runway that lain in concrete with a tarred and wood-chipped surface. The scale of bases such as this meant that very often the technical, administrative and.


Military site : airfield
Built originally to accommodate two RAF bomber squadrons, the first USAAF unit to occupy the base was the 15th Bomb Squadron in September 1942. Podington was then used as a satellite for nearby Chelveston. Work to lengthen the runways, although this.

The Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that ended the Thirty Years’ War.

Learning Objectives

Describe the terms of the Peace of Westphalia

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • The end of the Thirty Years’ War was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, collectively named the Peace of Westphalia.
  • The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination.
  • Along with several territorial adjustments, the terms of the Peace of Westphalia included a return to the principles in the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state.
  • The treaty also extended that tolerance to allow the minority religion of the territory to practice freely.
  • The Peace of Westphalia established important political precedents for state sovereignty, inter-state diplomacy, and balance of power in Europe.

Key Terms

  • letters of marque: A government license authorizing a person (known as a privateer) to attack and capture enemy vessels and bring them before admiralty courts for condemnation and sale.
  • fief: An estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service.
  • Imperial Diet: The legislative body of the Holy Roman Empire, theoretically superior to the emperor himself.


Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, collectively named the Peace of Westphalia. The three treaties involved were the Peace of Münster (between the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain), the Treaty of Münster (between the Holy Roman Emperor and France and their respective allies), and the Treaty of Osnabrück (between the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden and their respective allies).

The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster, 1648: The Treaty of Münster between the Holy Roman Emperor and France was one of three treaties that made up the Peace of Westphalia.

These treaties ended both the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.

The peace negotiations involved a total of 109 delegations representing European powers, including Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Philip IV of Spain, the Kingdom of France, the Swedish Empire, the Dutch Republic, the princes of the Holy Roman Empire, and sovereigns of the free imperial cities.

The Terms of the Peace Settlement

Along with ending open warfare between the belligerents, the Peace of Westphalia established several important tenets and agreements:

  • The power taken by Ferdinand III in contravention of the Holy Roman Empire’s constitution was stripped and returned to the rulers of the Imperial States.
  • All parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. This affirmed the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (Whose realm, his religion).
  • Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.
  • General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, and responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents. Issuance of unrestricted letters of marque and reprisal to privateers was forbidden.

There were also several territorial adjustments brought about by the peace settlements. For example, the independence of Switzerland from the empire was formally recognized. France came out of the war in a far better position than any of the other participants. France retained the control of the Bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun near Lorraine, received the cities of the Décapole in Alsace and the city of Pignerol near the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Sweden received Western Pomerania, Wismar, and the Prince-Bishoprics of Bremen and Verden as hereditary fiefs, thus gaining a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. Barriers to trade and commerce erected during the war were also abolished, and a degree of free navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine.

The Holy Roman Empire in 1648: After the Peace of Westphalia, each prince of a given Imperial State would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism.

Impact and Legacy

The treaty did not entirely end conflicts arising out of the Thirty Years’ War. Fighting continued between France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. Nevertheless, it did settle many outstanding European issues of the time. Some of the principles developed at Westphalia, especially those relating to respecting the boundaries of sovereign states and non-interference in their domestic affairs, became central to the world order that developed over the following centuries, and remain in effect today. Many of the imperial territories established in the Peace of Westphalia later became the sovereign nation-states of modern Europe.

The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peaces established by diplomatic congress, and a new system of political order in central Europe, later called Westphalian sovereignty, based upon the concept of co-existing sovereign states. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power. A norm was established against interference in another state’s domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order.

Europe in 1648: A simplified map of Europe in 1648, showing the new borders established after the Peace of Westphalia.

Watch the video: Western Front - France 1945 (August 2022).