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List of Sunk U-boats - History

List of Sunk U-boats - History



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U-Boat Destroyed by air attack

List of
The


German U-Boat Casualties in World War Two

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
1939
14 SepU-39GlattesHMS Faulknor, Foxhound & Firedrake58-32 N, 11-49 W
20[22?] Sep§U-27FranzHMS Fortune & Forester58-35 N, 09-02 W
8 OctU-12von der RoppMine*Straits of Dover
13 OctU-40BartenMineStraits of Dover
13 OctU-42DauHMS Imogen & Ilex49-12N, 16-00 W
14 OctU-45GehlhaarHMS Inglefield, Ivanhoe, Intrepid, Icarus*50-58 N, 12-67 W
24 OctU-16WellnerHMS Puffin & Cayton Wyke (damaged by) (Mined & stranded on Goodwins)*51-09 N, 01-28 E
29 NovU-35LottHMS Kingston, Kashmir & Icarus60-53 N, 02-47 E
4 DecU-36FröhlichHM Sub. Salmon*57-00 N, 05-20 E
1940
30 JanU-55HeidelHMS Fowey, Whitshed & Br. Sqdn. 22848-37 N, 07-46 W
1 FebU-15FrahmRammed by German Iltis (DD)Baltic
5 FebU-41MuglerHMS Antelope*49-21 N, 10-04 W
12 FebU-33von DreskyHMS Gleaner55-25 N, 05-07 W (mining Clyde)
23 FebU-53GrosseHMS Gurkha in North Channel*60-32 N, 06-10 W
25 FebU-63LorentzHMS Escort, Narwhal, Inglefield & Imogen58-40 N, 00-10 W
20 MarU-44MathesHMS Fortune*63-27 N, 0-36 E
14 FebU-54KutschmannMined(*) North Sea (?) (wreckage found)
13 AprU-64SchulzHMS Warspite's Squadron 700*68-29 N, 17-30 E
15 AprU-49von GosslerHMS Fearless (& Brazen)68-53 N, 16-59 E
16 AprU-1DeeckeHM Sub. Porpoise*58-18 N, 05-47 E
25 AprU-22JenischMine*57-00 N, 09-00 E
10[29 ?] AprU-50BauerHMS Amazon & Witherington (Hero)?*62-54 N, 01-56 W
31 MayU-13SchulteHMS Weston52-27 N, 02-02 E
3 JulU-26ScheringerHMS Gladiolus & RAAF Squadron 1048-03 N, 11-30W
- JulU-122LoofUnknown*North Sea
3 AugU-25BeduhnMine54-00 N, 05-00 E
20 AugU-51KnorrHM Submarine Cachalot47-06 N, 04-51 W
21 Aug?U-102von KlothUnknown*North Sea?
3 SepU-57KühlNorw. SS Rona (rammed)Baltic
30 OctU-32JenischHMS Harvester & Highlander55-37 N, 12-20 W
2 NovU-31PrellbergHMS Antelope (& RAF§§)56-26 N, 10-18 W
21 NovU-104JürstHMS Rhododendron*56-28 N, 14-13 W
1941
7 MarU-70§§§MatzHMS Camellia & Arbutus60-15 N, 14-00 W
8 MarU-47PrienHMS Wolverine*60-47 N, 19-13 W
17 MarU-99KretschmerHMS Walker (& Vanoc?)61-00 N, 12-00 W
17 MarU-100SchepkeHMS Walker & Vanoc61-00 N, 12-00 W
23 MarU-551SchrottHMS Visenda*62-37 N, 16-47 W
5 AprU-76von HippelHMS Wolverine & Scarborough

58-35 N, 20-20 W

§ -- A semiofficial British account (1954) says 20 March.
* -- No survivors.
§§§ -- The most recently published British research suggests U-47 and U-70 sinkings should be transposed.
§§ - Second sinking: sunk 3-11-40, Schillig Rds., by RAF, raised and recommissioned.

--159--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1941]
28 AprU-65HoppeHMS Gladiolus*60-04 N, 15-45 W
9 MayU-110LempHMS Aubrietia, Bulldog & Broadway (captured)60-31 N, 33-10 W
2 JunU-147WetjenHMS Wanderer & Periwinkle*56-38 N, 10-24 W
18 JunU-138GramitzkyHMS Faulknor, Fearless, Forester, Foresight & Foxhound36-04 N, 07-29 W
27 JunU-556WohlfahrtHMS Nasturtium, Celandine & Gladiolus60-24 N, 29-00 W
29 JunU-651LohmeyerHMS Malcolm, Violet, Scimitar,Arabis & Speedwell59-52 N, 18-36 W
3 AugU-401ZimmermannHMS Wanderer, St. Albans & Hydrangea*50-27 N, 19-50 W
9 Aug(28 Jul?)U-144v. MittelstaedtTorpedoed by Russian Submarine SC-307*Gulf of Bothnia
25 AugU-452MarchHMS Vascama & British Squadron 209*61-30 N, 15-30 W
27 AugU-570**RahmlowBritish Squadron 26962-15 N, 18-35 W
10 SepU-501FörsterHMCS Chambly & Moosejaw62-50 N, 37-50 W
1l SepU-207MeyerHMS Leamington & Veteran*63-59 N, 34-48 W
4 OctU-111KleinschmidtHMS Lady Shirley27-15 N, 20-27 W
19 OctU-204KellHMS Mallow & Rochester*35-46 N, 06-02 W
11 NovU-580KuhlmannCollisionBaltic (off Memel)
15 NovU-583RatschCollision*Baltic
16 NovU-433EyHMS Marigold36-13 N, 04-42 W
28 NovU-95SchreiberHNM Submarine 0-2136-24 N, 03-20 W
30 NovU-206OpitzRAF Sqdn. 502*46-55 N, 07-16 W
11 Dec (Nov ?)U-208SchlieperHMS Bluebell*Atlantic, W. of Gibraltar
15 DecU-127HansmannHMAS Nestor*36-28 N, 09-12 W
16 DecU-557PaulssenRammed by Ital. Torp. boat Orione*35-33 N, 23-14 E
17 DecU-131BaumannHMS Exmoor, Blankney, Stanley, Stork, Pentstemon & Audacity [& 802 Sqdn (RN)]34-12 N, 13-35 W
18 DecU-434HeydaHMS Stanley & Blankney36-15 N, 15-48 W
19 DecU-574GengelbachHMS Stork38-12 N, 17-23 W
21 DecU-451HoffmannBritish Squadron 81235-55 N, 06-08 W
21 DecU-567EndrassHMS Deptford & Samphire*44-02 N, 20-10 W
23 DecU-79KaufmannHMS Hasty & Hotspur32-15 N, 25-19 E
28 DecU-75RingelmannHMS Kipling31-50 N, 26-40 E
1942
9 JanU-577SchauenburgBritish Squadron 230*32-22 N, 26-54 E
12 JanU-374v. FischelHM Sub. Unbeaten37-50 N, 16-00 E
15 JanU-93ElfeHMS Hesperus36-40 N, 15-52 W
2 FebU-581PfeifferHMS Westcott39-00 N, 30-00 W
6 FebU-82RollmannHMS Rochester & Tamarisk*44-10 N, 23-52 W
1 MarU-656KröningVP-82 PBO Aircraft*46-15 N, 53-15 W
14 MarU-133MohrMine (her own?)*38-00 N, 24-00 E
15 MarU-503GerhickeVP-82 PBO Aircraft*45-50 N, 48-50 W
24 MarU-655DumreseHMS Sharpshooter*73-00 N, 21-00 E
27 MarU-587BorcherdtHMS Leamington, Grove, Aldenham & Volunteer*47-21 N, 21-39 W
29 MarU-585LohseHMS Fury*72-15 N, 34-22 E
--AprU-702v. RabenauUnknown*North Sea (?)
14 AprU-85GregerRoper (DD-147)*35-55 N, 75-13 W (off N.C.)
14 AprU-252LerchenHMS Stork & Vetch*47-00 N, 18-14 W
1 MayU-573HeinsohnBritish Squadron 233(*)37-00 N, 01-00 E
2 MayU-74FriederichHMS Wishart, Wrestler & Br. 202*37-32 N, 00-10 E
9 MayU-352RathkeUS Coast Guard Cutter Icarus (WPC-110)34-12 N, 76-35 W (off N.C.)
28 MayU-568PreussHMS Bridge, Hero & Hurworth32-42 N, 24-53 E
2 JunU-652FraatzBritish Squadrons 815 & 20331-55 N, 25-13 E
13 JunU-157HenneUS Coast Guard Cutter Thetis (WPC-115)*24-13 N, 82-03 W (Off Fla.)
30 JunU-158RostinVP-74*32-50 N, 67-28 W (off S.C.)

**(HMS Graph from '47)

--160--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1942]
3 JulU-215HöcknerHMS Le Tiger*41-48 N, 66-38 W
5 JulU-502v. RosenstielBritish Squadron 172*46-10 N, 06-40 W
6 Jul
13 Jul
U-153ReichmannUS Army Bomb. 59 &
Lansdowne
(DD-486)
12-50 N, 72-20 W
*09-56 N, 81-29 W
7 JulU-701DegenUS Army Bomb. 39634-50 N, 74-55 W (off N.C.)
11 JulU-136ZimmermannHMS Spey, Pelican & RF Leopard*33-30 N, 22-52 W
15 JulU-576HeinickeVS-9 & Amer. MS Unicoi*34-51 N, 75-22 W (off N.C.)
17 JulU-751BigalkBritish Squadrons 502 & 61*45-14 N, 12-22 W
24 JulU-90OldörpHMCS St. Croix*48-12 N, 40-56 W
31 JulU-213v. VarendorffHMS Erne, Rochester & Sandwich*36-45 N, 22-50 W
31 JulU-588VogelHMCS Wetaskiwin & Skeena*49-59 N, 36-36 W
31 JulU-754OestermannRCAF Sqdn. 113*43-02 N, 64-52 W
1 AugU-166KuhlmannUSCG Sqdn. 212*28-37 N, 90-45 W (Gulf of Mexico)
3 AugU-335PelknerHM Sub. Saracen62-48 N, 00-12 W
4 AugU-372NeumannHMS Sikh, Zulu, Croome, Tetcott & British Squadron 22132-00 N, 34-00 E
6 AugU-210LemckeHMCS Assiniboine54-25 N, 39-37 W
8 AugU-379KettnerHMS Dianthus57-11 N, 30-57 W
10 AugU-578RehwinkelCzech Squadron 311*45-59 N, 07-44W
20 AugU-464HarmsVP-7361-25 N, 14-40 W
22 AugU-654ForsterUS Army Bomb. 45*12-00 N, 79-56 W
28 AugU-94ItesHMCS Oakville &, VP-9217-40 N, 74-30 W
2 SepU-222v. JessenCollision54-25 N, 19-50 E
3 SepU-756HarneyBritish Aircraft*57-30 N, 29-00 W
3 SepU-705HornBritish Squadron 77*47-55 N, 10-04 W
3 SepU-162WattenbergHMS Vimy, Pathfinder & Quentin12-21 N, 59-29 W
12 SepU-589§HorrerHMS Faulknor*75-04 N, 04-49 E
14 SepU-88§BohmannHMS Onslow*75-40 N, 20-32 E
15 SepU-261LangeBritish Squadron 58*59-49 N, 09-28 W
16 SepU-457BrandenburgHMS Impulsive*75-05 N, 43-15 E
23 SepU-253FriedrichsBritish Squadron 210*68-19 N, 13-50 W
27 SepU-165HoffmannMine & Sqdn. 825*47-50 N, 03-22 W
2 OctU-512SchultzeUS Army Bomb. 9906-50 N, 52-25 W
5 OctU-582SchulteBritish Squadron 269*58-41 N, 22-58 W
8 OctU-179SobeHMS Active*33-28 S, 17-05 E
9 OctU-171PfefferMine*47-50 N, 03-22W
12 OctU-597BopstBritish Squadron 120*56-50 N, 28-05 W
15 OctU-661v. LilienfeldBritish Squadron 120*53-58 N, 33-43 W
15 OctU-619MakowskiHMS Viscount*53-42 N, 35-56 W
16 OctU-353RömerHMS Fame53-54 N, 29-30W
20 OctU-216SchultzBritish Squadron 224*48-21 N, 19-25 W
22 OctU-412JahrmärkerBritish Squadron . 179*63-55 N, 00-24 W
24 OctU-599BreithauptBritish Squadron 224*46-07 N, 17-40 W
27 OctU-627KindelbacherBritish Squadron 206*59-14 N, 22-49 W
30 OctU-520SchwartzkopfRCAF Sqdn. 10*47-47 N, 49-50 W
30 OctU-559HeidtmannHMS Pakenham, Petard, Hero, Dulverton, Hurworth & Br. Aircraft32-30 N, 33-00 E
30 OctU-658SenkelRoyal Canadian Air Force Sqdn. 145*50-32 N, 46-32 W
[20] OctU-116Grimme[VP-74] ?*Atlantic
5 NovU-132VogelsangBritish Squadron 120*58-08 N, 33-13 W
5 NovU-408v. HymmenVP-84*67-40 N, 18-32 W
12 NovU-272HeppCollisionBaltic (off Hela)
12 NovU-660BaurHMS Lotus & Starwort36-07 N, 01-00 W
13 NovU-605SchiitzeHMS Lotus & Poppy*37-04 N, 02-55 E
14[15?]NovU-595Quaet-FaslemBritish Squadron 500 [dmgd, bchd, scuttled]36-38 N, 00-30 E
15[14?]NovU-259KöpkeBritish Squadron 500*37-20 N, 03-05 E
16 NovU-173SchweichelWoolsey (DD-437), Swanson (DD-443) & Quick (DD-490)*33-40 N, 07-35 W
17 NovU-331v. TiesenhausenHMS Formidable's Sqdn. 820 & British Squadron 500§§37-05 N, 02-24 E

§ -- Latest British study transposes these two sinkings also.
§§ -- Damaged by and surrendered to Sqdn. 500, but signals not seen by 820 Sqdn., who then sank her.

--161--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1942]
19 NovU-98EichmannBritish Squadron 608*35-38 N, 11-48 W
20 NovU-184DangschatHNMS Potentilla*49-25 N, 45-25 W
21 NovU-517HartwigHMS Victorious' Sqdn. 81746-16 N, 17-09 W
15 NovU-411§SpindleggerHMS Wrestler*36-09 N, 07-42 E
8 DecU-254GilardoneBritish Squadron 120, after collision with another U-boat (sunk by HMSWrestler?)57-25 N, 35-19 W
10 DecU-611v. JacobsVP-84*58-09 N, 22-44 W
15 DecU-626BadeUSGC Ingham*56-46 N, 27-12 W
26 DecU-357KellnerHMS Hesperus & Vanessa57-10 N, 15-40 W
27 DecU-356RuppeltHMCS St. Laurent, Chilliwack, Battleford, Napanee & St. John*45-30 N, 25-40 W
1943
6 JanU-164FechnerVP-8301-58 S, 39-23 W
13 JanU-224KosbadtHMCS Ville de Quebec36-28 N, 00-49 E
13 JanU-507SchachtVP-83*0l-38 S, 39-52 W
15 JanU-337RuwiedelBritish Squadron 206*57-40 N, 27-10 W
21 JanU-301KörnerHM Sub. Sahib41-27 N, 07-04 E
-- JanU-553ThurmannUnknown*53-00 N, 33-00 W
3 FebU-265AufhammerBritish Squadron 220*56-35 N, 22-49 W
4 FebU-187MünnichHMS Vimy & Beverley50-12 N, 36-34 W
7 FebU-609RudloffRF Lobelia*55-17 N, 26-38 W
7 FebU-624v. Soden-FraunhofenBritish Squadron 220*55-42 N, 26-17 W
10 FebU-519EppenUS Army A/S Sqdn. 2*47-05 N, 18-34 W
12 FebU-442HesseBritish Squadron 48*37-32 N, 11-56 W
14 FebU-620SteinBritish Squadron 202*39-27 N, 11-34 W
15 FebU-529FraatzBritish Squadron 120*55-45 N, 31-09 W
17 FebU-201RosenbergHMS Fame*50-36 N, 41-07 W
17 FebU-69GräfHMS Viscount*50-50 N, 40-50 W
17 FebU-205BürgelHMS Paladin & RSAAF Sqdn. 1532-56 N, 22-01 E
19 FebU-562HammHMS Isis, Hursley & Br. Aircraft*32-57 N, 20-54 E
19 FebU-268HeydemannBritish Squadron 172*47-03 N, 05-56 W
21 FebU-623SchröderRAF Sqdn. 120 (Aircraft torp.)*48-68 N, 29-15 W
21 FebU-225LeimkühlerUSCGC Spencer (WPG-36)*51-25 N, 27-28 W
22 FebU-606DöhlerUSCGC Campbell & ORP Burza47-44 N, 33-43 W
23 FebU-522SchneiderHMS Totland*31-27 N, 26-22 W
23 FebU-443v. PuttkamerHMS Bicester, Lamerton & Wheatland*36-55 N, 02-25 E
24 FebU-649TieslerCollision with U-232
4 MarU-83WörishofferRAF Squadron 500*37-10 N, 00-05 E
4 MarU-87BergerHMCS Shediac & St. Croix*41-36 N, 13-31 W
7 MarU-633MüllerBritish Squadron 220*57-14 N, 26-30 W
8 MarU-156HartensteinVP-53*12-38 N, 54-39 W
11 MarU-432EckhardtRF Aconit51-35 N, 28-20 W
11 MarU-444LangfeldHMS Harvester & RF Aconit51-14 N, 29-18 W
12 MarU-130KellerChamplin (DD-601)*37-10 N, 40-21 W
19 MarU-5RahnCollision54-25 N, 19-50 E
20 MarU-384v. Rosenberg-GruszcynskiBritish Squadron 201*54-18 N, 26-15 W
21 MarU-163EngelmannHerring (SS-233)*44-13 N, 08-23W (lv. Lorient, 3-10)
22 MarU-665HauptBritish Squadron 172*46-47 N, 09-58 W
22 MarU-524v. SteinaeckerUS Army A/S Sqdn. 1*30-15 N, 18-13 W
25 MarU-469ClaussenBritish Squadron 206*62-12 N, 16-40 W
27 MarU-169BauerBritish Squadron 206*60-54 N, 15-25 W
28 MarU-77HartmannBritish Squadron 233 & 4837-42 N, 00-10 E
2 AprU-124MohrHMS Stonecrop & Black Swan*41-02 N, 15-39 W
6 AprU-167SturmBritish Squadron 233 (5 Apr; scuttled, 6th)27-47 N, 15-00 W
6 AprU-635EckelmannHMS Tay*58-25 N, 29-22 W
6 AprU-632KarpfBritish Squadron 86*58-02 N, 28-42 W
7 AprU-644JensenHM Sub. Tuna*69-38 N, 05-40 W
10 AprU-376MarksBritish Squadron 172*46-48 N, 09-00 W
14 AprU-526MöglichMine47-30 N, 03-45 W

§ -- See Dessie under Italians, inf.

--162--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1943]
17 AprU-175BrunsUSCGC Spencer (WPG-36)48-50 N, 21-20 W
23 AprU-602SchülerBritish Squadron 500 (off Oran)(*)Mediterranean
23 AprU-189KurrerBritish Squadron 120*59-50 N, 34-43 W
23 AprU-191FiehnHMS Hesperus*56-45 N, 34-25 W
24 AprU-710v. CarlowitzBritish Squadron 206*61-25 N, 19-48 W
25 AprU-203KottmannHMS Biter's Sqdn. 811 Aircraft & HMS Pathfinder55-05 N, 42-25 W
27 AprU-174GrandefeldVB-12543-35 N, 56-18 W
30 AprU-227KuntzeRAAF Sqdn. 455*64-05 N, 06-40 W
2 MayU-332HüttemannRAAF Sqdn. 461*44-48 N, 08-58 W
3 MayU-659StockCollision with U-43943-32 N, 13-20 W
3 MayU-439v. TippelskirchCollision with U-65943-32 N, 13-20 W
4 MayU-630WinklerRCAF Sqdn. 5*56-38 N, 42-32 W
7 MayU-465WolfRAAF Sqdn. 10*47-06 N, 10-58 W
5 MayU-192HappeHMS Pink*54-56 N, 43-44 W
5 MayU-638StaudingerHMS Loosestrife*53-06 N, 45-02 W
6 MayU-125FolkersHMS Vidette*52-31 N, 44-50 W
6 MayU-531NeckelHMS Oribi*52-31 N, 44-50 W
6 MayU-438HeinsohnHMS Pelican*52-00 N, 4-10 W
7 MayU-447BotheBritish Squadron . 233*35-30 N, 11-55 W
4 MayU-109SchrammBritish Squadron 86*47-22 N, 22-40 W
7 MayU-663SchmidBritish Squadron 58*46-33 N, 11-12 W
11 MayU-528v. RabenauHMS Fleetwood & British Squadron 5846-55 N, 14-44 W
12[14?]MayU-186HesemannHMS Hesperus*41-54 N, 31-49 W
12(14) MayU-89LohmannHMS Biter's Sqdn. 811, HMS Broadway & Lagan*46-30 N, 25-40 W
13 MayU-456TeichertCoastal Command Liberator, HMS Pathfinder and an RAF Swordfish Aircraft*48-37 N, 26-57 W
13 MayU-753v. MannsteinHMS Lagan, HMCS Drumheller & British Squadron 423*47-00 N, 22-00 W
14 MayU-266v. JessenBritish Squadron 86*47-45 N, 26-57 W
14 MayU-640§§NagelVP-84*60-10 N, 31-52 W
15 MayU-176DierksenVS-62 & Cuban SC-13*23-21 N, 80-18 W (off Fla.)
15 MayU-463WolfbauerBritish Squadron 58*45-28 N, 10-20 W
16(15)MayU-182ClausenMackenzie (DD-614)*33-55 N, 20-35 W
17(28?)MayU-128SteinertVP-74, Moffett (DD-362) & Jouett (DD-396)10-00 S, 35-35 W
17 MayU-657§§GöllnitzHMS Swale*58-54 N, 42-33 W
17 MayU-646WulffBritish Squadron 269*62-10 N, 14-30 W
19 MayU-954LöweBritish Squadron 120*55-09 N, 35-18 W
19 MayU-209BroddaHMS Jed & Sennen*54-54 N, 34-19 W
19 MayU-273RossmannBritish Squadron 269*59-25 N, 24-33 W
19 MayU-381v. Pückler u. LimpurgHMS Duncan & Snowflake*54-41 N, 34-45 W
20 MayU-258v. MäszenhausenBritish Squadron 120*55-18 N, 27-49 W
21 MayU-303HeineHM Sub. Sickle42-50 N, 06-00 E
22 MayU-569JohannsenVC-9 from Bogue (CVE-9)50-40 N, 35-21 W
23 MayU-752SchröterHMS Archer's Aircraft51-40 N, 29-49 W
25 MayU-414HuthHMS Vetch*36-31 N, 00-40 E
25 MayU-467KummerVP-84*62-25 N, 14-52 W
26 MayU-436SeibickeHMS Test & Hyderabad*43-49 N, 15-56 W
28 MayU-304KochBritish Squadron 120*54-50 N, 37-20 W
28 MayU-755GöingBritish Squadron 60839-58 N, 01-41 E
29 MayU-549§Eugene E. Elmore (DE-686)
31 MayU-563BorchardtBritish Squadrons 58 & 228 & RAAF Sqdn. 10*46-35 N, 10-40 W
31 MayU-440SchwaffBritish Squadron 201*45-38 N, 13-04 W
1 JunU-202PoserHMS Starling56-12 N, 39-52 W
1 JunU-418LangeBritish Squadron 236*47-05 N, 08-55 W
2 JunU-105NissenBritish Squadron 141*14-15 N, 17-35 W
2 JunU-521BargstenPC-56537-43 N, 73-16 W
4 JunU-308MühlenpfordtHM Sub. Truculent*64-28 N, 03-09 W
4 JunU-594MummBritish Squadron 48*35-55 N, 09-25 W
5 JunU-217Reichenbach-KlinkeVC-9 from Bogue (CVE-9)*30-18 N, 42-50 W
11 JunU-417SchreinerBritish Squadron 206*63-20 N, 10-30 W
12 JunU-118CyganVC-9 from Bogue (CVE-9)30-49 N, 33-49 W
14 JunU-334EhrichHMS Jed & Pelican*58-16 N, 28-20 W
14 JunU-564FiedlerBritish Squadron 1044-17 N, 10-25 W
16 JunU-97TroxRAAF Sqdn. 45933-00 N, 34-00 E
20 JunU-388SuesVP-84*57-36 N, 31-20 W

§ See Morrison, Samuel Eliot, History of the United States Naval Operations in World War II, Vol. X, The Atlantic Battle Won: May 1943-May 1945 (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1956), 289.

§§ Br. Admiralty advises U-640 and -657 should be transposed.

--163--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1943]
24 JunU-119v. KamekeHMS Starling*45-00 N, 11-59 W
24 JunU-194HesseBritish Squadron 120*58-15N, 25-25 W
24 JunU-200SchonderVP-84*59-00 N, 26-18 W
24 JunU-449OttoHMS Wren, Woodpecker, Kite & Wild Goose*45-00 N, 11-59 W
3 JulU-126KietzBritish Squadron 172*46-02 N, 11-23 W
3 JulU-628HasenscharBritish Squadron 224*44-11 N, 08-45 W
5 JulU-535EllmenreichBritish Squadron 53*43-38 N, 09-13 W
7 JulU-951PresselUS Army A/S Sqdn. 1*37-40 N, 15-30 W
8 JulU-514AuffermannBritish Squadron 224*43-37 N, 08-59 W
8 JulU-232ZiehmUS Army A/S Sqdn. 2*40-37 N, 13-41 W
9 JulU-435StrelowBritish Squadron 179*39-48 N, 14-22 W
9 JulU-590KruerVP-94*03-22 N, 48-38 W
12 JulU-409MassmannHMS Inconstant37-12 N, 04-00 E
12 JulU-506WürdemannUS Army A/S Sqdn. 142-30 N, 16-30 W
12 JulU-561HenningHM MTB-8138-16 N, 15-39 E
13 JulU-607JeschonnekBritish Squadron 22845-02 N, 09-14 W
13 JulU-487MetzVC-13 from Core (CVE-13)27-15 N, 34-18 W
14 JulU-160v. Pommer-EscheVC-29 from Santee (CVE-29)*33-54 N, 27-13 W
15 JulU-159BeckmannVP-32*l5-58 N, 73-44 W
15 JulU-135LutherHMS Rochester, Mignonette & Balsam & VP-9228-20 N, 13-17 W
15 JulU-509WitteVC-29 from Santee (CVE-29)*34-02 N, 26-02 W
16 JulU-67Müller-StöckheimVC-13 from Core (CVE-13)30-05 N, 44-17 W
19 JulU-513GuggenbergerVP-7427-17 N, 47-32 W
20 JulU-558KrechUS Army A/S Sqdn. 1945-10 N, 09-42 W
21 JulU-662MüllerVP-9403-56 N, 48-46 W
23 JulU-527UhligVC-9 from Bogue (CVE-9)35-25 N, 27-56 W
23 JulU-613KöppeBadger (DD-126)*35-32 N, 28-36 W
23 JulU-598HoltorfVB-10704-05 S, 33-23 W
24 JulU-459v. Wilamowitz-MollendorfBritish Squadron 17245-53 N, 10-38 W
24 JulU-622KarpfUS Army air raid63-27 N, 10-23 E
26 JulU-759FriedrichVP-32*18-06 N, 75-00 W
28 JulU-359FörsterVP-32*15-57 N, 68-30 W
28 JulU-404SchönbergUS Army A/S Sqdn. 4 & Br. 224*45-53 N, 09-25 W
29 JulU-614SträterBritish Squadron 172*46-42 N, 11-03 W
30 JulU-591ZiesmerVB-12708-36 S, 34-34 W
30 JulU-504LuisHMS Kite, Woodpecker, Wren, Wild Goose*45-33 N, 10-47 W
30 JulU-43SchwandtkeVC-29 from Santee (CVE-29)34-57 N, 35-11 W
30 JulU-461StieblerRAAF Sqdn. 46145-42 N, 11-00 W
30 JulU-462VoweBritish Squadron 50245-08 N, 10-57 W
30 JulU-375KoenenkampPC-624*36-40 N, 12-28 E
31 JulU-199KrausVP-74 & Brazilian Aircraft23-54 S, 42-54 W
1 AugU-383KremserBritish Squadron 228*47-24 N, 12-10 W
1 AugU-454HackländerRAAF Sqdn. 1045-36 N, 10-23 W
2 AugU-706v. ZitzewitzUS Army A/S Sqdn. 446-15 N, 10-25 W
2 AugU-106DamerowRAAF Sqdn. 461 & Br. 22846-35 N, 11-55 W
3 AugU-572KummetatVP-205*11-35 N, 54-05 W
3 AugU-647HertinUnknown(*)Iceland-Faroes
4 AugU-489SchmandtRCAF Sqdn. 42361-11 N, 14-38 W
5 AugU-34AustCollision with Ger. sub-tender Lech
(refloated Aug. 1943)
Off Memel
7 AugU-615KapitzkyVP-205, VP-204, VB-130 & US Army Bomb. 1012-57 N, 64-34 W
7 AugU-117NeumannVC-1 from Card (CVE-11)*39-32 N, 38-21 W
9 AugU-664GraefVC-1 from Card (CVE-11)40-12 N, 37-29 W
11 Aug [3?]U-604HöltringScuttled as result of attacks by VB-129, VB-107 & Moffett (DD-362)05-00 S, 20-00 W [9-10 S, 29-43 W]
11 AugU-468SchamongBritish Squadron 20012-20 N, 20-07 W
11 AugU-525DrewitzVC-1 from Card (CVE-11)*41-29 N, 38-55 W
18 AugU-403HeineBritish Squadron 200 & Fr. 69713-42 N, 17-36 W
20 AugU-197BartelsBritish Squadrons 265 & 259*28-40 S, 42-36 E
21 AugU-670HyronimusCollision w/target ship BokloburgBaltic (Bay of Danzig)
22 AugU-458DigginsHMS Easton & HHMS Pindos36-25 N, 12-39 E

--164--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1943]
24 AugU-134BrosinBritish Squadron 179*42-07 N, 09-30 W
24(30?) AugU-185MausVC-13 from Core (CVE-13)27-00 N, 37-06 W
24 (26?) AugU-84UphoffVC-13 from Core (CVE-13)*27-09 N, 37-03 W
25 AugU-523PietzschHMS Wanderer & Wallflower42-03 N, 18-02 W
27 AugU-847KuppischVC-1 from Card (CVE-11)*28-19 N, 37-58 W
30 AugU-634DahlhausHMS Stork & Stonecrop*40-13 N, 19-24 W
30 AugU-639WichmannRussian Sub. S-101*Kara Sea
7 SepU-669KöhlRCAF Sqdn. 407*45-36 N, 10-13 W
8 SepU-983ReimersCollisionBaltic
8 SepU-760BlumDamaged by HMS Wellington's Sqdn. 179Interned in Spain; surrendered in '45
11(12?) SepU-617BrandiBritish Squadron 179, HMS Hyacinth, Haarlem & HMAS Woolongong35-38 N, 03-27 W
19 SepU-341EppRCAF Sqdn. 10*58-40 N, 25-30 W
20 SepU-338KinzelBritish Squadron 120*57-40 N, 29-48 W
20 SepU-346LeistenMarine casualty (diving accident)*54-25 N, 19-50 E
22 SepU-229ScheteligHMS Keppel*54-36 N, 36-25 W
27 SepU-161AchillesVP-74*12-30 S, 35-35 W
27 SepU-221TrojerBritish Squadron 58*47-00 N, 18-00 W
4 OctU-279FinkeBritish Squadron 120*60-51 N, 28-26 W
4 OctU-336HungerVB-128*60-40 N, 26-30 W
4 OctU-422PoeschelVC-9 from Card (CVE-11)*43-18 N, 28-58 W
4 OctU-460SchnorrVC-9 from Card (CVE-11)43-13 N, 28-58 W
5 OctU-389HeilmannBritish Squadron 269*62-43 N, 27-17 W
8 OctU-643SpeidelBritish Squadrons 86 & 12056-14 N, 26-55 W
8 OctU-610v. FreybergRCAF Sqdn. 423*55-45 N, 24-33 W
8 OctU-419GiersbergBritish Squadron 8656-31 N, 27-05 W
13 OctU-402v. ForstnerVC-9 from Card (CVE-11)*48-56 N, 29-41 W
16 OctU-470GraveBritish Squadrons 59 & 12058-20 N, 29-20 W
16 OctU-533HennigBritish Squadron 24425-28 N, 56-50 E
16 OctU-844MöllerBritish Squadrons 86 & 59*58-30 N, 27-16 W
16 OctU-964HummerBritish Squadron 86*57-27 N, 28-17 W
17 OctU-631KrügerHMS Sunflower*58-13 N, 32-29 W
17 OctU-841BenderHMS Byard59-57 N, 31-06 W
17 OctU-540KaschBritish Squadrons 59 & 120*58-38 N, 31-56 W
20 OctU-378MäderVC-13 from Core (CVE-13)47-40 N, 28-27 W
23 OctU-274JordanHMS Duncan, Vidette &British Squadron 224*57-14 N, 27-50W
24 OctU-566HornkohlBritish Squadron 17941-12 N, 09-31 W
26 OctU-420ReeseRCAF Sqdn. 10*50-49 N, 41-01 W
28 OctU-220BarberVC-1 from Block Island (CVE-21)*48-53 N, 33-30 W
29 OctU-282MüllerHMS Vidette, Duncan & Sunflower*55-28 N, 31-57 W
30 OctU-431SchöneboomHM Sub. Ultimatum*43-04 N, 05-57 E
31 OctU-306v. TrothaHMS Whitehall & Geranium*46-19 N, 20-44 W
31 OctU-584DeeckeVC-9 from Card (CVE-11)*49-14 N, 31-55 W
31 OctU-732CarlsenHMS Imperialist & Douglas35-54 N, 05-52 W
1 NovU-340KlausHMS Fleetwood, Active, Witherington & British Squadron 17935-33 N, 06-37 W
1 NovU-405HopmanBorie (DD-215)*49-00 N, 31-14 W
5 NovU-848RollmannVB-107 & US Army 1st Compron10-09 S, 18-00 W
6 NovU-226GangeHMS Starling, Woodcock & Kite*44-49 N, 41-13 W
6 NovU-842HellerHMS Starling & Wild Goose*43-42 N, 42-08 W
9 NovU-707GretschelBritish Squadron 220*40-31 N, 20-17 W
10 NovU-966WolfVB-103, VB-110 & Czech Sqdn. 31144-00 N, 08-30 W
12 NovU-508StaatsVB-103*46-00 N, 07-30 W
16 NovU-280HungershausenBritish Squadron 86*49-11 N, 27-32 W
18 NovU-718WieduwiltCollisionBaltic
19 NovU-211HauseBritish Squadron 179*40-15 N, 19-18 W
20 NovU-536SchauenburgHMS Nene, Snowberry & HMCS Calgary43-50 N, 19-36 W
20 NovU-768ButtjerCollisionBaltic
21 NovU-538GosslerHMS Foley & Crane*45-40 N, 19-35 W

--165--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1943]
23 NovU-648StahlHMS Bazley, Blackwood & Drury*42-40 N, 20-37 W
25 NovU-849SchultzeVB-107*06-30 S, 05-40 W
25 NovU-600ZurmühlenHMS Bazley & Blackwood*40-31 N, 22-07 W
28 NovU-542CoesterBritish Squadron 179*39-03 N, 16-25 W
29 NovU-86SchugVC-19 from Bogue (CVE-9)*39-33 N, 19-01 W
13[l2?] DecU-172HoffmannVC-19 from Bogue (CVE-9), George E. Badger (AVD-3), DuPont (DD-152), Clemson (DD-186)& George W. Ingram (DE-62)26-19 N, 29-58 W
13 DecU-345KnackfussMine*54-06 N, 12-09 E
13 DecU-391DültgenBritish Squadron 53*45-45 N, 09-38 W
13 DecU-593KelblingWainwright (DD-419), HMS Calpe37-38 N, 05-58 E
16 DecU-73DeckertWoolsey (DD-437) & Trippe (DD-403)36-07 N, 00-50 W
20 DecU-850EwerthVC-19 from Bogue (CVE-9)*32-54 N, 37-01 W
21 DecU-284ScholzScuttled55-04 N, 30-23 W
24 DecU-645FerroSchenck (DD-159)*45-20 N, 21-40 W
1944
8 JanU-426ReichRAAF Sqdn. 10*46-47 N,10-42 W
8 JanU-757DeetzHMS Bayntun & HMCS Camrose*50-33 N, 18-03 W
9 JanU-81KriegUS Army AircraftPola
9 JanUIT-19-(unknown) -US Army AircraftPola
13 JanU-231WenzelBritish Squadron 17244-15 N, 20-38 W
(After 15 Jan)U-377KluthUnknown(*)Atlantic
16 JanU-544MattkeVC-13 from Guadalcanal (CVE-60)*40-30 N, 37-20 W
17 JanU-305BahrHMS Wanderer &, Glenarm*49-39 N, 20-10 W
19 JanU-641RendtelHMS Violet*50-25 N, 18-49 W
-- JanU-972KönigUnknown* Atlantic
20 JanU-263NölkeMine*46-10 N, 01-14 W
28 JanU-571LüssowRAAF Sqdn. 461*52-41 N, 14-27 W
28 JanU-271BarlebenVB-103*53-15 N, 15-52 W
30 JanU-314BasseHMS Whitehall & Meteor*73-45 N, 26-15 E
30 JanU-364SassBritish Squadron 172*45-25 N, 05-15 W
31 JanU-592JaschkeHMS Starling, Wild Goose & Magpie*50-20 N, 17-29 W
4 FebU-854WeiherMine53-55 N, 14-17 E
6 FebU-177BuchholzVB-10710-35 S, 23-15 W
8 FebU-762PietschmannHMS Woodpecker, (Wild Goose & Starling)*49-02 N, 16-58 W
9 FebU-238HeppHMS Kite, Magpie & Starling*49-44 N, 16-07 W
9 FebU-734BlauertHMS Wild Goose & Starling*49-43 N, 16-23 W
10 FebU-545MannesmannBritish Squadron 61258-17 N, 13-22 W
10 FebU-666WillbergHMS Fencer's Aircraft*53-56 N, 17-16 W
11 FebU-424LüdersHMS Wild Goose & Woodpecker*50-00 N, 18-14 W
11 FebU-283NeyRCAF Sqdn. 407*60-45 N, 12-50 W
14 FebU-738HoffmannDiving accident54-31 N, 18-33 E
14 FebUIT-23§StrieglerHM Sub. Tally Ho04-25 N,100-09 E
18 FebU-406DieterichsHMS Spey48-32 N, 23-36 W
18 FebU-7LoeschkeCollision54-25 N, 19-50 E
19 FebU-264LooksHMS Woodpecker & Starling48-31 N, 22-05 W
19 FebU-386AlbrechtHMS Spey48-51 N, 22-41 W
24 FebU-257RaheHMCS Waskesiu47-19 N, 26-00 W
24 FebU-713GosejacobHMS Keppel*69-27 N, 04-53 E
24 FebU-761GeiderVP-63, VB-127,British Squadron 202, HMS Anthony & Wishart35-55 N, 05-45 W
25 FebU-601HansenBritish Squadron. 210*70-26 N, 12-40 E
25 FebU-91HungerhausenHMS Affleck, Gore &. Gould49-45 N, 26-20 W
1 MarU-358MankeHMS Affleck, Gould, Garlics & Gore45-46 N, 23-16 W
1 MarU-709ItesThomas (DE-102), Bostwick (DE-103) & Bronstein (DE-189)*49-10 N, 26-00 W
1 MarU-603BertelsmannBronstein (DE-189)*48-55 N, 26-10 W

[§ Japanese Torpedo Boat 22 rescued the crew of U-23. Source: Japanese Ships Report, No. 99, notes, page 9, Naval Historical Center's Operational Archives Branch.]

--166--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1944]
4 MarU-472v. ForstnerHMS Chaser's Sqdn. 816 & HMS Onslaught73-05 N, 26-40 E
5 MarU-366LangenbergHMS Chaser's Sqdn. 816*72-10 N, 14-45 E
6 MarU-744BlischkeHMCS St. Catherine's, Chilliwack, Gatineau, Fennel, Chaudiere, HMSIcarus & Kenilworth Castle52-01 N, 22-37 W
6 MarU-973PaepenmöllerHMS Chaser's Sqdn. 81670-04 N, 05-48 E
10 MarU-450BöhmeHMS Exmoor, Blankney, Blencathra & Brecon41-11 N, 12-27 E
10 MarU-343RahnHMS Mull*38-07 N, 09-41 E
10 MarU-625StraubRCAF Sqdn. 422*52-35 N, 20-19 W
10 MarU-845WeberHMS Forester; HMCS St. Laurent, Owen Sound & Swansea48-20 N, 20-33 W
11 MarUIT-22 [ex-Alpino Attilio Bagnolini]WunderlichRSAAF Sqdns. 279 & 262*41-28 S, 17-40 E
11 MarU-380BrandiUS Army AircraftToulon
11 MarU-410FenskiUS Army AircraftToulon
13 MarU-575BoehmerVC-95 from Bogue (CVE-9); Br. Sqdns. 172 & 206, Haverfield (DE-393),Hobson (DD-464), HMCS Prince Rupert & Br. 22046-18 N, 27-34 W
15 MarU-653KandlerHMS Vindex's Aircraft, HMS Starling & Wild Goose*53-46 N, 24-35 W
16 MarU-392SchümannVP-63, HMS Affleck & Vanoc*35-55 N, 05-41 W
16 MarU-801BranzVC-6 from Block Island (CVE-21); Carry (DD-463) & Bronstein (DE-189)16-42 N, 30-28 W
17 MarU-1013LinckCollisionBaltic
19 MarU-1059LeupoldVC-6 from Block Island (CVE-21)13-10 N, 33-44 W
25 MarU-976TieslerBritish Squadron 24846-48 N, 02-43 W
-- MarU-851WeingaertnerUnknown(*)Atlantic
29 MarU-961FischerHMS Starling*64-31 N, 03-19 W
30 MarU-223GerlachHMS Laforey, Tumult, Hambledon & Blencathra38-48 N,14-10 E
-- MarU-28SachseMarine casualtyBaltic (Neustadt)
1 AprU-355La BaumeHMS Tracker's Sqdn. 846 & HMS Beagle*73-07 N, 10-21 E
2 AprU-360BeckerHMS Keppel*73-28 N, 13-04 E
3 AprU-288MeyerHMS Tracker's Sqdn. 846 & HMS Activity's Sqdn. 819*73-44 N, 27-12 E
6 AprU-302SickelHMS Swale*45-05 N, 35-11W
6 AprU-455ScheibeUnknown*44-04 N, 09-51 E
7 AprU-856WittenbergChamplin (DD-601) & Huse (DE-145)40-18 N, 62-22 W
8 AprU-2SchwarzkopfCollisionBaltic (W. of Pillau)
8 AprU-962LiesebergHMS Crane & Cygnet*45-43 N, 19-57 W
9 AprU-515HenkeVC-58 from Guadalcanal (CVE-60); Pope (DD-225), Pillsbury (DE-133),Chatelain (DE-149) & Flaherty (DE-135)34-35 N, 19-18 W
10 AprU-68LauzemisVC-58 from Guadalcanal (CVE-60)33-25 N, 18-59 W
14 AprU-448DauterHMCS Swansea & HMS Pelican46-22 N, 19-35 W
16 AprU-550HänertGaudy (DE-764), Joyce (DE-317) & Peterson (DE-152)40-09 N, 69-44 W
17 AprU-342HossenfelderRCAF Sqdn. 162*60-23 N, 29-20 W
17 AprU-986KaiserSwift (AM-122) & PC-619*50-09 N, 12-51 W
19 AprU-974WolffHis Norwegian Majesty's Submarine Ula59-08 N, 05-23 E
24 AprU-311ZanderRCAF Sqdn. 423*50-36 N, 18-36 W
26 AprU-488StudtFrost (DE-144), Huse (DE-145), Barber (DE-161) & Snowden (DE-246)*17-54 N, 38-05 W
27 AprU-803SchimpfMine53-55 N, 14-17 E
28 AprU-193AbelBritish Squadron 612*45-38 N, 09-43 W
29 AprU-421KolbusUS Army AircraftToulon
(11?) AprU-108BrünigUS Army & RAF Aircraft (Decomm. 17th; Scuttled, May '45)Stettin

--167--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1944]
1 MayU-277LübsenHMS Fencer's Sqdn. 842*73-24 N, 15-32 E
2 MayU-674MuhsHMS Fencer's Sqdn. 842*70-32 N, 04-37 E
2 MayU-959WeitzHMS Fencer's Sqdn. 842*69-20 N, 00-20 W
3 MayU-852EckBritish Squadrons 8 & 62109-32 N, 50-59 E
4 MayU-371FenskiPride (DE-323), Joseph E. Campbell (DE-70), RF Senegalais & HMSBlankney37-49 N, 05-39 E
4 MayU-846HashagenRCAF Sqdn. 40746-04 N, 09-20 W
5 MayU-473SternbergHMS Starling, Wren & Wild Goose49-29 N, 21-22 W
6 MayU-66SeehausenVC-55 from Block Island (CVE-106) & Buckley (DE-51)17-17 N, 32-29 W
6 MayU-765WendtHMS Vindex's Sqdn. 825, Bickerton, Bligh & Aylmer52-30 N, 28-28 W
13 May(ex-)U-1224 [HIJMS RO-501]NoritaFrancis M. Robinson (DE-220)*18-08 N, 33-13 W
14-17 MayU-616KoitschkaNields (DD-616), Cleaves (DD-423), Ellyson (DD-454), Hilary P. Jones(DD-427), Macomb (DD-458), Hambleton (DD-455), Rodman (DD-456),Emmons (DD-457) & British Squadron 3636-52 N, 00-11 E
15 MayU-1234WredeCollision (later raised)Off Göteborg
15 MayU-731KellerVP-63, HMS Kilmarnock & Blackfly*35-54 N, 05-45 W
16 MayU-240LinkNorwegian Squadron 330*63-05 N, 03-10 E
18 MayU-241WerrBritish Squadron 210*63-36N, 01-42 E
19 MayU-960HeinrichNiblack (DD-424), Ludlow (DD-438), British Squadrons 36 & 50037-20 N, 01-35 E
19 MayU-1015BoosCollision*54-25 N, 19-50 E
21 MayU-453LührsHMS Termagant, Tenacious & Liddesdale38-13 N, 16-36 E
24 MayU-476NiethmannBritish Squadron 210*65-08 N, 04-53 E
24 MayU-675SammlerBritish Squadron 4*62-27 N, 03-04 E
25 MayU-990NordheimerBritish Squadron 59*65-05 N, 07-28 E
27 MayU-292SchmidtBritish Squadron 59*62-37 N, 00-57 E
29 MayU-549KrankenhagenEugene E. Elmore (DE-686) & Ahrens (DE-575)*31-13 N, 23-03 W
31 MayU-289HellwigHMS Milne*73-32 N, 00-28 E
3 JunU-477JenssenRCAF Sqdn. 162*63-59 N, 01-37 E
4 JunU-505LangeCaptured by VC-8 from Guadalcanal (CVE-60); Chatelain (DE-149),Jenks (DE-665) &, Pillsbury (DE-133)(Now at Chicago Museum of Science & Industry) 21-30 N, 19-20 W
7 JunU-955BadenBritish Squadron 201*45-13 N, 08-30 W
7 JunU-970KetelsBritish Squadron 22845-15 N, 04-10 W
8 JunU-629BugsBritish Squadron 224*48-27 N, 05-47 W
8 JunU-373v. LehstenBritish Squadron 22448-10 N, 05-31 W
9 JunU-740StarkBritish Squadron 120*49-09 N, 08-37 W
10 JunU-821KnackfussBritish Squadrons 206 & 248*48-31 N, 05-11 W
11 JunU-980DahmsRCAF Sqdn. 162*63-07 N, 00-26 E
12 JunU-490GerlachVC-95 from Croatan (CVE-25); Frost (DE-144), Inch (DE-146) & Huse(DE-145)42-47 N, 40-08 W
13 JunU-715RöttgerRCAF Sqdn. 16262-45 N, 02-59 W
15 JunU-860BüchelVC-9 from Solomons (CVE-67)25-27 S, 05-30 W
15 JunU-987SchreyerHM Sub. Satyr*68-01 N, 05-08 E
16 JunU-998FiedlerNor. 333: heavily damaged, scuttled 27th.61-01 N, 03-00 E
17 JunU-423HacklanderNorwegian Squadron 333*63-06N, 02-05 E
18 JunU-767DankleffHMS Fame, Inconstant & Havelock49-03 N, 03-13 W
18 JunU-441HartmannPolish Sqdn. 30449-03 N, 04-48 W
24 JunU-971ZeplinHMCS Haida, HMS Eskimo & Czech Sqdn. 31149-01 N, 05-35 W
24 JunU-1225SauerbergRCAF Sqdn. 162*63-00 N, 00-50 W
25 JunU-1191GrauHMS Affleck & Balfour*50-03N, 02-59 W

--168--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1944]
25 JunU-269UhlHMS Bickerton50-01 N, 02-59 W
26 JunU-317RahlfBritish Squadron 86*62-03 N, 01-45 E
26 JunU-719SteffensHMS Bulldog*55-33N, 11-02 W
29 JunU-988DobbersteinHMS Essington, Duckworth, Domett, Cooke, & Br. 224*49-37 N, 03-41 W
30 JunU-478RademacherBritish Squadron 86 & RCAF Sqdn. 162*63-27 N, 00-50 W
2 JulU-543HellriegelVC-58 from Wake Island (CVE-65)*25-34N, 21-36 W
3 JulU-154GemeinerInch (DE-146) & Frost (DE-144)*34-00 N, 19-30 W
5 JulU-390GeisslerHMS Wanderer & Tavy49-52 N, 00-48 W
5 JulU-586GötzeUS Army AircraftToulon
5 Jul(?)U-642BrünningUS Army AircraftToulon
5 JulU-233SteenCard (CVE-11) 's Aircraft, Baker (DE-190) & Thomas (DE-102)42-16 N, 59-49 W
6 JulU-678HyronimusHMCS Ottawa, Kootenay & HMS Statice*50-32 N, 00-23 W
8 JulU-243MärtensRAAF Sqdn. 1047-06 N, 06-40 W
11 JulU-1222BielfeldBritish Squadron 201*46-31 N, 05-29 W
14 JulU-415WernerMine48-22 N, 04-29 W
15 JulU-319ClemensBritish Squadron 206* 57-40 N, 05-00 E
17 JulU-361SeidelBritish Squadron 86*68-36 N, 08-33 E
17 JulU-347de BuhrBritish Squadron 21068-35 N, 06-00 E
18 JulU-672LawaetzHMS Balfour (Scuttled)50-03 N, 02-30 W
18 JulU-742SchwassmannBritish Squadron 210*68-24 N, 09-51 E
21 JulU-212VoglerHMS Curzon & Ekins*50-27 N, 09-51 E
(22) JulU-1166BallertTorpedo explosionEckernförde
23 JulU-239VögeRAF Aircraft (out of svce., 24 July)Kiel
23 JulU-1164- (unknown) -RAF Aircraft (out of svce., 24 July)Kiel
26 JulU-214ConradHMS Cooke*49-55 N, 03-31 W
29 JulU-2323AngermannUS Army AircraftBremen
29 JulU-872GrauUS Army AircraftBremen
30 JulU-250SchmidtRussian M-103 (sub)Gulf of Finland
31 JulU-333FiedlerHMS Starling & Loch Killin49-39 N, 07-28 W
4 AugU-671HegewaldHMS Stayner & Wensleydale50-23 N, 00-06 E
6 AugU-736ReffHMS Loch Killin & Starling47-19 N, 04-16 W
6 AugU-952CurioUS Army AircraftToulon
6 AugU-471KlövekornUS Army AircraftToulon
6 AugU-969DobbertUS Army AircraftToulon
9 AugU-608ReisenerBritish Squadron 53 & HMS Wren46-30 N, 03-08 W
11 AugU-385ValentinerRAAF Sqdn. 461 & HMS Starling46-16 N, 02-45 W
12 AugU-981KellerBritish Squadron 50245-41 N, 01-25 W
13 AugU-270SchreiberRAAF Sqdn. 46146-19 N, 02-56 W
12 AugU-198Heusinger v. WaldeggHMS Findhorn & HMIS Godavari*03-35 S, 52-49 E
14 AugU-618FaustBr. 53 & HMS Duckworth & Essington*47-22 N, 04-39 W
15 AugU-741PalmgrenHMS Orchis50-02 N, 00-36 W
18 AugU-107FritzBritish Squadron 201*46-46 N, 03-39 W
18 AugU-621StuckmannHMCS Ottawa, Kootenay & Chaudiere*45-52 N, 02-36 W
19 AugU-123v. Schröter(Out of Service, 8/44) (RF Blaison, '54)Lorient
19 AugU-466ThaterScuttled (blown up?)Toulon
19 AugU-967EberbachScuttled (blown up?)Toulon
20 AugU-413SachseHMS Wensleydale, Forester & Vidette50-21 N, 00-01 W
20 AugU-984SiederHMCS Ottawa, Chaudiere & Kootenay*48-16 N, 05-33 W
20 AugU-1229ZinkeVC-42 from Bogue (CVE-9)42-20 N, 51-39 W
20 AugU-9KlapdorRussian AircraftConstanza
21 AugU-230EberbachScuttledToulon
22 AugU-180RiesenMine*45-00 N, 02-00 W
24 AugU-354SthamerHMS Vindex's Sqdn. 825, Mermaid, Loch Dunvegan, Keppel & Peacock§§*74-54 N, 15-26 E
22 AugU-344PietschHMS Vindex's Sqdn. 825§§ *72-49 N, 30-41 E
24 AugU-445v. TreubergHMS Louis*47-21 N, 05-50 W
25 (20?) AugU-178SpahrScuttledBordeaux

§§ Br. Admiralty indicates these two positions should be transposed.

--169--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1944]
20 AugU-188LüddenScuttledBordeaux
25 AugUIT-21 [ex-Giuseppe Finzi]- (unknown) -ScuttledBordeaux (out of service after 9/8/43 attack)
25 AugU-667LangeMine*46-10 N, 01-14 W
25 [31?] AugU-1000MüllerMineNeustadt (Pillau ?)
-- AugU-766Wilke(Out of service, 8/44) (RF Laubie, '47)La Pallice
--AugU-129v. Harpe(Out of service, 7/44) (later scuttled)Lorient
25 Aug 10Sep?U-18FleigeScuttled (later raised by USSR)Constanza (Kustendje)
25 Aug 10Sep?U-24LenzmannScuttled (later raised by USSR)Constanza (Kustendje)
1 SepU-247MatschulatHMCS St. John & Swansea*49-54 N, 05-49 W
2 SepU-394BorgerHMS Vindex's Sqdn. 825, Keppel, Mermaid, Whitehall & Peacock*69-47 N, 04-41 E
4 SepUIT-15, -16, -20(See: Italian sub. chronology, inf.)
5 SepU-362FranzRussian Minesweeper T-116*Krakowka I. vicinity
9 SepU-743KandzlorHMS Portchester, Castle & Helmsdale*55-45 N, 11-41 W
9 SepU-484SchäferHMCS Dunver, Hespeler [& RCAF Sqdn. 423?)*56-30 N, 07-40 W
10 SepU-19OhlenburgScuttledTurkish coast
10 SepU-20GrafenScuttledTurkish coast
10 SepU-23ArendtScuttledTurkish coast
19 SepU-407KolbusHMS Troubridge, Terpsichore & ORP Garland36-27 N, 24-33 E
19 SepU-865StellmacherUnknown*North Sea
19 SepU-867v. MühlendahlBritish Squadron 224 (or engine failure?)*62-15 N, 01-50 E
23 SepU-859JebsenHM Sub. Trenchant05-46 N, 100-04E
24 SepU-565HenningUS Army AircraftSalamis
24 SepU-596KolbusUS Army AircraftSalamis
24 SepU-855OhlsenBritish Squadron 224*61-00 N, 04-07 E
26 SepU-871GanzerBritish Squadron 220*43-18 N, 36-28 W
29 SepU-863v. d. EschVB-107*10-45 S, 25-30 W
30 SepU-921WernerHMS Campania's Sqdn. 813*72-32 N, 12-55 E
30 SepU-1062AlbrechtFessenden (DE-142) & Mission Bay (CVE-59)*11-36 N, 34-44 W
30 SepU-703BrunnerMine*Iceland (E. coast)
18 SepU-925KnokeUnknown (Sailed from Bergen 24 Aug)*Iceland-Faeroes
4 OctU-993SteinmetzRAF AircraftBergen
4 OctU-228EngelRAF Aircraft (out of service, 12 Oct)Bergen
4 OctU-437LambyRAF Aircraft (Put out of service, 13 Oct)Bergen
4 OctU-92BrauelRAF Aircraft (Put out of service, 12 Oct)Bergen
5 OctU-168PichHNetherlandsMSub. Zwaardvisch06-20 S, 111-28 E
15 OctU-777RupertiRAF AircraftWilhelmshaven
16 OctU-1006VoigtHMCS Annan60-59 N, 04-49 W
19 OctU-957SchaarRammed 19th by Ger. trspt.; out of service, Narvik, 21st.
23 OctU-985WolffMine (out of service, 15 Nov)[63-07 N, 07-45 E?] (or Listerfjord?)
24 OctU-673GerkeCollision w/minesweeper; stranded59-20 N, 05-53 E
27 OctU-1060BrammerHMS Implacable's 1771 Sqdn., British Squadron 502 & Czech Sqdn. 311*65-24 N, 12-00 E
28 OctU-1226ClaussenUnknown (Schnörkel accident?)*Atlantic
-- OctU-2331PahlMarine casualtyNear Hela (Baltic)
9 NovU-537SchreweFlounder (SS-251)*07-13 S, 115-17 E
10 NovU-966WolfCollisionOff C. Ortegal, Biscay
11 NovU-771BlockHM Sub. Venturer*69-17 N, 16-28 E

--170--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1944]
11 NovU-1200Mangels

HMS Pevensey Castle, Launceston Castle,

Portchester Castle &Kenilworth Castle

*50-24 N, 09-10 W
25 NovU-322WyskHMS Ascension & Norwegian Sqdn. 330*60-18 N, 04-52 W
28 NovU-80KeerlDiving accident54-25 N, 19-50 E
30 NovU-196StrieglerUnknown*06-45 S, 105-50 E Sunda Straits
-- NovU-547NiemeyerMineBaltic
6 DecU-297AldegarmannHMS Loch Insh & Goodall*58-44 N, 04-29 W
9 DecU-387BüchlerHMS Bamborough Castle*69-41 N, 33-12 E
12 DecU-416RiegerRaised after collision of 30 MarchBaltic (off Pillau)
12 DecU-479SonsMine*Eastern Baltic
13 DecU-365TodenhagenHMS Campania's Sqdn. 813*70-43 N, 08-07 E
17 DecU-400CreutzHMS Nyasaland*51-16 N, 08-05 W
18 DecU-1209HülsenbeckDiving accident [struck rock]49-57 N, 05-47 W
19 DecU-737GréusCollision with minesweeper[60-00 N, 05-00 E]
26 DecU-2342Schad v. MittelbiberachMine*53-55 N, 14-17 E
27 DecU-877FindeisenHMCS St. Thomas46-25 N, 36-38 W
28 DecU-735BörnerRAF Aircraft59-24 N, 10-29 E (Horten)
30 DecU-772RademacherRCAF Sqdn. 407*50-05 N, 02-31 W
31 DecU-906UnknownAir attackHamburg
31 Dec (Apr '45?)U-2532UnknownUS Army Aircraft (& RAF)Hamburg
31 Dec (Apr '45?)U-2537KlapdorUS Army Aircraft (& RAF)Hamburg
1945
- JanU-650ZornUnknown* NE of Scotland (?)
10 JanU-679AustMine [Russian A/S vsl. MO-124?]* Baltic
16 JanU-248LoosHayter (DE-212), Otter (DE-210), Varian (DE-798) & Harry E. Hubbard(DD-748)*47-43 N, 26-37 W
16 JanU-482v. MatuschkaHMS Peacock, Hart, Starling, Loch Craggie & Amethyst*55-30 N, 05-53 W
17 Jan (11 Mar ?)U-2515BorchersUS ArmyHamburg
17 Jan (11 Mar ?)U-2530BockelbergUS ArmyHamburg
17 JanU-2523KetelsUS Army & RAF AircraftHamburg
21 JanU-1199StollmannHMS Icarus & Mignonette49-57 N, 05-42 W
24 JanU-763SchröterRussian AircraftKoenigsberg
26 JanU-1172KuhlmannHMS Aylmer, Colder, Bentinck & Manners*53-39 N, 05-23 W
27 JanU-1051v. HollebenHMS Tyler, Keats & Bligh*52-24 N, 05-42 W
31 JanU-3520BallertMine*54-27 N, 09-26 E
-- JanU-1020EberleinUnknown(*)57-50 N, 04-10 W
-- JanU-382WilkeCollisionBaltic
3 FebU-1279FalkeHMS Bayntun, Braithwaite & Loch Eck61-21 N, 02-00 W
4 FebU-745v. TrothaUnknown*Eastern Baltic
4 FebU-1014GlaserHMS Loch Scavaig, Nyasaland, Papua & Loch Shin*55-17 N, 06-44 W
9 FebU-864WolframHM Sub. Venturer*60-46 N, 04-35 E
14 FebU-989v. RoithbergHMS Bayntun, Braithwaite, Loch Eck & Loch Dunvegan*61-36 N, 01-35 W
15 FebU-1053LangeCasualty in rocket tests*60-22 N, 05-10 E
16 FebU-309LoederHMCS St. John*58-09 N, 02-23 W
17 FebU-425BentzienHMS Lark & Alnwick Castle69-39 N, 33-50 E
17 FebU-1273KnollmannMine*59-30 N, 10-30 E
17 FebU-1278Müller-BethkeHMS Bayntun & Loch Eck*61-32 N, 01-36 W
18 FebU-2344EllerhageCollision54-09 N, 11-51 E
19 FebU-676SassMine* Baltic
20 FebU-1208HageneHMS Amethyst*51-48 N, 07-07 W
22 FebU-300HeinHMS Recruit, Evadne & Pincher36-29 N, 08-20 W
24 FebU-480FörsterHMS Duckwworth & Rowley*49-55 N, 06-08 W
24 FebU-927EbertBritish Squadron 179*49-54 N, 04-45 W
24 FebU-3007MarbachUS Army AircraftBremen
27 FebU-1018BurmeisterHMS Loch Fada49-56 N, 05-20 W

--171--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1945]
27 FebU-327LemckeVPB-12, HMS Labuan, Loch Fada & Wild Goose*49-46 N, 05-07 W
28 FebU-869NeuerburgFowler (DE-222) & RF l 'Indiscret*39-34 N, 73-02 W
-- FebU-923FrömmerMine* Baltic
2 MarU-3519v. HarpeMine*54-11 N, 12-05 E
7 MarU-1302HerwartzHMCS La Hulloise, Strathadam & Thetford Mines*52-19 N, 05-23 W
10 MarU-275WehrkampMine*50-36 N, 00-04 E
11 MarU-681GebauerVPB-10349-53 N, 06-31 W
12 MarU-683KellerHMS Loch Ruthven & Wild Goose*49-52 N, 05-52 W
12 MarU-260BeckerMine51-15 N, 09-05 W
14 MarU-714SchebckeHMSAS Natal*55-57 N, 01-57 W
15 MarU-367StegemannMine*54-25 N, 19-50 E
18 MarU-866RogowskyLowe (DE-325), Menges (DE-320), Pride (DE-323) & Mosley (DE-321)*43-18 N, 61-08 W
20 MarU-905SchwartingBritish Squadron 86*59-42 N, 04-55 W
20 MarU-1003StrübingHMCS New Glasgow [rammed]**55-25 N, 06-53 W
22 MarU-296RaschBritish Squadron 120*55-23 N, 06-40 W
26 MarU-399BuhseHMS Duckworth49-56 N, 05-22 W
27 MarU-965UnverzagtHMS Conn, (Rupert & Deane)*58-34 N, 05-46 W
27 MarU-722ReimersHMS Fitzroy, Redmill & Byron*57-09 N, 06-55 W
29 MarU-246RaabeHMS Duckworth*49-58 N, 05-25 W
29 MarU-1106BartkeBritish Squadron 224*61-46 N, 02-16 W
30 MarU-1021HolpertHMS Rupert, Conn (& Deane)*58-19 N, 05-31 W
4 MarU-3508v. LehstenUS Army AircraftWilhelmshaven
30 MarU-429 (ex RS S-2)KuttkatUS Army AircraftWilhelmshaven
30 MarU-96RixUS Army AircraftWilhelmshaven
30 MarU-72MayerUS Army AircraftBremen
30 MarU-430 (ex RS S-3)HammerUS Army AircraftBremen
30 MarU-870HechlerUS Army AircraftBremen
30 MarU-329- (unknown) -US Army AircraftBremen
30 MarU-884LüdersUS Army AircraftBremen
30 MarU-2340KlusmeierUS Army AircraftHamburg
30 MarU-350NiesterUS Army AircraftHamburg (D. Werft)
- MarU-348SchunckUS Army AircraftHamburg
30 MarU-1167BortfeldUS Army AircraftHamburg
30 MarU-747ZahnowUS Army AircraftHamburg
30 MarU-886---US ArmyAircraftBremen (on stocks)
31 MarU-682TienemannRAF AircraftHamburg
2 AprU-321BerendsPolish Sqdn. 304*50-00 N, 12-57 W
3 AprU-1221AckermannUS Army AircraftKiel
3 AprU-2542HübschenUS Army AircraftKiel
3 AprU-3505WillnerUS Army AircraftKiel
3 AprU-1276WendtBritish Squadron 224*61-42 N, 00-24 W
4 AprU-749HuiskenUS Army AircraftKiel
4 AprU-237MenardUS Army AircraftKiel
4 AprU-3003KregelinUS Army AircraftKiel
5 AprU-1169GoldbeckMine*52-03 N, 05-53 W
6 AprU-1195CordesHMS Watchman50-33 N, 00-55 W
7 AprU-857PremauerGustafson (DE-182)*42-22 N, 69-46 W
8 AprU-1001BlaudowHMS Fitzroy & Byron*49-19 N, 10-23 W
8 AprU-2509SchendelRAF AircraftHamburg
8 AprU-2514WahlenRAF AircraftHamburg
8 AprU-3512HornkohlRAF AircraftKiel
8 AprU-774SausmikatHMS Calder & Bentinck*49-58 N, 11-51 W
9 AprU-804MeyerBritish Squadrons 143, 235 & 248*57-58 N, 11-15 E
9 AprU-843HerwartzBritish Squadrons 143, 235 & 24857-58 N, 11-15 E
9 AprU-1065PanitzBritish Squadron. 235*57-48 N, 11-26 E
10 AprU-878RodigHMS Vanquisher & Tintagel Castle*47-35 N, 10-33 W

**-- Scuttled, 23d.

--172--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1945]
12 AprU-486MeyerHM Sub. Tapir*60-44 N, 04-39 E
12 AprU-1024GutteckCaptured by HMS Loch Glendhu (towed by Loch More, but sank underway)53-39 N, 05-03 W
14 AprU-1206SchlittDiving accident (grounded)57-21 N, 01-39 W
14 AprU-235HuiskenGer. escort vessel T-17*57-44 N, 10-39 E
15 AprU-285BornhauptHMS Grindall & Keats*50-13 N, 12-48 W
16 AprU-1063StephanHMS Loch Killin50-08 N, 05-52 W
16 AprU-1235BarschStanton (DE-247) & Frost (DE-144)*47-54 N, 30-25 W
16 AprU-78HübschRussian forcesPillau, in dock
16 AprU-880SchötzauStanton (DE-247) & Frost (DE-144)*47-53 N, 30-26 W
16 AprU-1274FittingHMS Viceroy*55-36 N, 01-24 W
19 AprU-251SäckBr. 235, 143, 248 and Norw. 33356-37 N, 11-51 E
19 AprU-879MachenBuckley (DE-51) & Reuben James (DE-153)*42-19 N, 81-45 W
21 AprU-636SchendelHMS Bazely, Drury & Bentinck*55-50 N, 10-31 W
21[22?] AprU-518OffermannCarter (DE-112) & Neal A. Scott (DE-769)*43-26 N, 38-23 W
23 AprU-183SchneewindBesugo (SS-331)*04-57 S, 112-52 E
23 AprU-396SiemonBritish Squadron 86*59-29 N, 05-22 W
24 AprU-546JustFlaherty (DE-135), Neunzer (DE-150), Chatelain (DE-149), Varian (DE-798), Harry E. Hubbard (DD-798), Janssen (DE-396), Pillsbury (DE-133)& Keith (DE-241)43-53 N, 40-07 W
25 Apr
28 Apr
U-1223KniepBritish Aircraft
Scuttled
Off Weser Estuary
25 AprU-1107ParduhnVPB-103*48-12 N, 05-42 W
28 AprU-56MiedeUS Army & RAF AircraftKiel
29 AprU-1017RieckenBritish Squadron120*56-04 N, 11-06 W
29 AprU-307KrügerHMS Loch Insh69-24 N, 33-44 E
29 AprU-286DietrichHMS Loch Shin, Anguilla & Cotton*69-29 N, 33-37 E
30 AprU-242RiedelUnknown(*) U. K. Area
30 AprU-548KremplNatchez (PF-2), Coffman (DE-191), Bostwick (DE-103) and Thomas(DE-102)*36-34 N, 74-00 W (off Va.)
30 AprU-1055MeyerVPB-63*48-00 N, 06-30 W
-- AprU-1227AltmeierUS Army & RAF AircraftKiel
-- AprU-677AdyUS Army & RAF AircraftHamburg
-- AprU-982HarmannUS Army & RAF AircraftHamburg
-- AprU-3525GaudeUS Army & RAF AircraftBaltic
-- AprU-2516KallipkeUS Army & RAF AircraftHamburg
-- AprU-1131FiebigUS Army & RAF AircraftKiel
30? AprU-325DohrnUnknown*Eng. Channel (I. of Man)
-- AprU-326MatthesUnknown*United Kingdom area
2 MayU-1007v. WitzendorffRAF Aircraft (later mined)53-54 N, 11-28 E
2 MayU-2359BischoffBritish Squadrons 143, 235, 248, RCAF Sqdn. 404 & Norwegian Sqdn. 333*57-29 N, 11-24 E
3 MayU-3030LuttmannRAF Aircraft55-30 N, 10-00 E
3 MayU-3032SlevogtRAF Aircraft55-30 N, 10-00 E
3 MayU-2540SchultzeRAF Aircraft55-30 N, 10-00 E
3 MayU-2524v. WitzendorffBritish Squadrons 254 & 23655-55 N, 10-45 E
3 MayU-1210GrabertRAF Aircraft54-27 N, 09-51 E
4 MayU-2503WächterBritish Squadrons 236 & 254 (damage, beached)55-37 N, 10-00 E
4 MayU-711LangeHMS Searcher's, Trumpeter's & Queen's Sqdns. 853, 882 & 84668-48 N, 16-38 E
4 MayU-2338KaiserBritish Squadrons 254 & 23655-37 N, 10-00 E
4 MayU-393HerrleBritish Squadrons 254 & 23655-37 N, 10-00 E
4 MayU-904StührmannRAF bombs, Scuttled after damage54-29 N, 09-52 E
4 MayU-746LottnerRAF bombs, Scuttled after damage54-48 N, 09-55 E
4 MayU-876BahnRAF bombs, Scuttled after damage54-29 N, 09-52 E

--173--

DateU-BoatLast CommanderCause of SinkingPosition
[1945]
4 MayU-236MummBritish Squadrons236 & 254 [Scuttled later]55-37 N, 10-00 E
4 MayU-4708SchulzAircraftKiel (Germaniawerft)
4 MayU-4709AircraftKiel (Germaniawerft)
4 MayU-4711EndlerAircraftKiel (Germaniawerft)
4 MayU-4712FleigeAircraftKiel (Germaniawerft)
5 MayU-2365ChristiansenCzech. 31157-27 N, 10-38 E
5 MayU-2367SchröderCollision with U-boat; (raised, '56, for Bundesmarine)Great Belt
5 MayU-534NollauBritish Squadron 20656-59 N, 11-48 E
5 MayU-3523MüllerBritish Squadron 224*56-06 N, 11-06 E
5 (4?) MayU-2521MethnerBritish Squadron 547*56-11 N, 11-08 E (off Va.)
5 MayU-733HammerRAF bombs (Damaged, scuttled)54-47 N, 09-26 E
5 MayU-3503DeiringBritish Squadron 86 (Scuttled off Göteborg, 8th)56-45 N, 10-49 E
5 MayU-579SchwarzenbergRAF bombs*55-30 N, 10-00 E
6 MayU-1008GessnerBritish Squadron. 8657-52 N, 10-49 E
6 MayU-2534DrewsBritish Squadron86*57-08 N, 11-52 E
6 MayU-853FrömsdorfAtherton (DE-169) & Moberly (PF-63)*41-13 N, 71-27 W
6 MayU-881FrischkeFarquhar (DE-139)*43-18 N, 47-44 W
7 MayU-320EmmrichBritish Squadron 21061-32 N, 01-53 E
-- MayU-398CranzUnknown(*)E. Coast Scotland
9 MayU-2538KlapdorMineOff Marstal, SW Aerö I.
16 MayU-873SteinhoffSurrenderedPortsmouth, N.H.
3 JunU-1277SteverScuttledW. of Oporto
__ JulyU-530SurrenderedArgentina
17 AugU-977SchaefferSurrenderedLa Plata R., Argentina

N.B. Over 150 U-boats were scuttled in northern ports the first week in May '45-15 in Wilhelmshaven, 10 at Hamburg, 31 in Travemünde and 26 in Kiel the 2d. and 3d; 56 in Flensburg alone the 5th. From then till the end of June, approximately an equal number of submarine crews surrendered to the Allies from Narvik to Portsmouth, N. H., and a straggler or two at the River Plate as late as mid-August. To pinpoint terminal date and locale for an individual U-boat, consult the general index, as space in the two paragraphs immediately following permits only a skeleton listing of the 300 U-numbers.


Lost U-boats still out there

According to the definitive website Uboat.org, a total of 50 German U-boats remained unaccounted for after the end of World War II.

U.S. Navy officials have steadfastly held that unless an official German report of a U-boat engaging a blimp turns up, or the wreckage of a sub is found off Mount Desert Island, there is no reason to reopen the inquiry into speculation it was enemy action that caused blimp K-14 to crash into the sea east of Mount Desert Rock in July of 1944.

However, as those pushing for the case to be reopened point out, the history of what happened in World War II is constantly being rewritten as more information comes to light.

And when it comes to whether the U.S. Navy or German Navy records have the last word on what happened, critics point to the case of U-869, dubbed “U-who,” discovered 60 miles off the coast of New Jersey in 1991.

It took six years and numerous dives on the site, including missions that resulted in the deaths of three divers, before the wreck was positively identified.

The discovery was all the more remarkable in that U.S. Navy records showed the sub being sunk by a destroyer off the coast of Gibraltar on the far side of the Atlantic Ocean in February of 1945.

While German Navy documents are detailed in their descriptions of where submarines went, the technology of the day did not make it easy for commanders to track where their subs were. Radio communications were brief, and usually done in bursts to avoid detection. Most records of activities come from logs kept on the ship and brought ashore when the U-boats returned to base.

“If they didn’t make it back the admirals usually had no idea where they were,” points out K-14 airship accident expert Fred Morin of Massachusetts.

According to U-boat.net, some 1,154 U-boats were in operation during the war. A total of 450 were lost to Allied action or accidents.

Of the 50 boats that were unaccounted for, paperwork reveals the areas they were officially assigned to but there is no way to know if they ever reached those areas or went elsewhere later. And, as Mr. Morin points out, no records of “off the books” secret missions have been found.

“They [Germans] may have kept records but I doubt they wrote everything down or that all the records have been found,” he said.


Contents

The first submarine built in Germany, the three-man Brandtaucher, sank to the bottom of Kiel harbor on 1 February 1851 during a test dive. [1] [2] The inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer had designed this vessel in 1850, and Schweffel & Howaldt constructed it in Kiel. Dredging operations in 1887 rediscovered Brandtaucher it was later raised and put on historical display in Germany.

There followed in 1890 the boats Nordenfelt I and Nordenfelt II, built to a Nordenfelt design. In 1903 the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft dockyard in Kiel completed the first fully functional German-built submarine, Forelle, [3] which Krupp sold to Russia during the Russo-Japanese War in April 1904. [4] The SM U-1 was a completely redesigned Karp-class submarine and only one was built. The Imperial German Navy commissioned it on 14 December 1906. [5] It had a double hull, a Körting kerosene engine, and a single torpedo tube. The 50%-larger SM U-2 (commissioned in 1908) had two torpedo tubes. The U-19 class of 1912–13 saw the first diesel engine installed in a German navy boat. At the start of World War I in 1914, Germany had 48 submarines of 13 classes in service or under construction. During that war the Imperial German Navy used SM U-1 for training. Retired in 1919, it remains on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. [6]

On 5 September 1914, HMS Pathfinder was sunk by SM U-21, the first ship to have been sunk by a submarine using a self-propelled torpedo. On 22 September, U-9 under the command of Otto Weddigen sank the obsolete British warships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue (the "Live Bait Squadron") in a single hour.

In the Gallipoli Campaign in early 1915 in the eastern Mediterranean, German U-boats, notably the U-21, prevented close support of allied troops by 18 pre-Dreadnought battleships by sinking two of them. [7]

For the first few months of the war, U-boat anticommerce actions observed the "prize rules" of the time, which governed the treatment of enemy civilian ships and their occupants. On 20 October 1914, SM U-17 sank the first merchant ship, the SS Glitra, off Norway. [8] Surface commerce raiders were proving to be ineffective, and on 4 February 1915, the Kaiser assented to the declaration of a war zone in the waters around the British Isles. This was cited as a retaliation for British minefields and shipping blockades. Under the instructions given to U-boat captains, they could sink merchant ships, even potentially neutral ones, without warning.

In February 1915, a submarine U-6 (Lepsius) was rammed and both periscopes were destroyed off Beachy Head by the collier SS Thordis commanded by Captain John Bell RNR after firing a torpedo. [9] On 7 May 1915, SM U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania. The sinking claimed 1,198 lives, 128 of them American civilians, and the attack of this unarmed civilian ship deeply shocked the Allies. According to the ship's manifest, Lusitania was carrying military cargo, though none of this information was relayed to the citizens of Britain and the United States who thought that the ship contained no ammunition or military weaponry whatsoever and it was an act of brutal murder. Munitions that it carried were thousands of crates full of ammunition for rifles, 3-inch artillery shells, and also various other standard ammunition used by infantry. The sinking of the Lusitania was widely used as propaganda against the German Empire and caused greater support for the war effort. A widespread reaction in the U.S was not seen until the attack on the ferry SS Sussex which carried many citizens of the United States of America.

The initial U.S. response was to threaten to sever diplomatic ties, which persuaded the Germans to issue the Sussex pledge that reimposed restrictions on U-boat activity. The U.S. reiterated its objections to German submarine warfare whenever U.S. civilians died as a result of German attacks, which prompted the Germans to fully reapply prize rules. This, however, removed the effectiveness of the U-boat fleet, and the Germans consequently sought a decisive surface action, a strategy that culminated in the Battle of Jutland.

Although the Germans claimed victory at Jutland, the British Grand Fleet remained in control at sea. It was necessary to return to effective anticommerce warfare by U-boats. Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer, Commander in Chief of the High Seas Fleet, pressed for all-out U-boat war, convinced that a high rate of shipping losses would force Britain to seek an early peace before the United States could react effectively.

The renewed German campaign was effective, sinking 1.4 million tons of shipping between October 1916 and January 1917. Despite this, the political situation demanded even greater pressure, and on 31 January 1917, Germany announced that its U-boats would engage in unrestricted submarine warfare beginning 1 February. On 17 March, German submarines sank three American merchant vessels, and the U.S. declared war on Germany in April 1917.

Unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was initially very successful, sinking a major part of Britain-bound shipping. With the introduction of escorted convoys, shipping losses declined and in the end, the German strategy failed to destroy sufficient Allied shipping. An armistice became effective on 11 November 1918. Of the surviving German submarines 14 U-boats were scuttled and 122 surrendered. [10]

Of the 373 German submarines that had been built, 178 were lost by enemy action. Of these 40 were sunk by mines, 30 by depth charges and 13 by Q-ships. 512 officers and 4894 enlisted men were killed. They sank 10 battleships, 18 cruisers and several smaller naval vessels. They further destroyed 5,708 merchant and fishing vessels for a total of 11,108,865 tons and the loss of about 15,000 sailors. [10] The Pour le Mérite, the highest decoration for gallantry for officers, was awarded to 29 U-boat commanders. [11] 12 U-boat crewmen were decorated with the Goldene Militär-Verdienst-Kreuz, the highest bravery award for non-commissioned officers and enlisted men. [12] The most successful U-boat commanders of World War I were Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière (189 merchant vessels and two gunboats with 446,708 tons), followed by Walter Forstmann (149 ships with 391,607 tons), and Max Valentiner (144 ships with 299,482 tons). [13] Their records have not been surpassed in any subsequent conflict.

Classes Edit

Surrender of the fleet Edit

Under the terms of armistice, all U-boats were to immediately surrender. Those in home waters sailed to the British submarine base at Harwich. The entire process was done quickly and in the main without difficulty, after which the vessels were studied, then scrapped or given to Allied navies. Stephen King-Hall wrote a detailed eyewitness account of the surrender. [14]

The Treaty of Versailles ending World War I signed at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 restricted the total tonnage of the German surface fleet. The treaty also restricted the independent tonnage of ships and forbade the construction of submarines. However, a submarine design office was set up in the Netherlands and a torpedo research program was started in Sweden. Before the start of World War II, Germany started building U-boats and training crews, labeling these activities as "research" or concealing them using other covers. When this became known, the Anglo-German Naval Agreement limited Germany to parity with Britain in submarines. When World War II started, Germany already had 65 U-boats, with 21 of those at sea, ready for war. [15]

During World War II, U-boat warfare was the major component of the Battle of the Atlantic, which began in 1939 and ended with Germany's surrender in 1945. The Armistice of 11 November 1918 ending World War I had scuttled most of the old Imperial German Navy and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles of 1919 limited the surface navy of Germany's new Weimar Republic to only six battleships (of less than 10,000 tons each), six cruisers, and 12 destroyers. To compensate, Germany's new navy, the Kriegsmarine, developed the largest submarine fleet going into World War II. [16] British Prime Minister Winston Churchill later wrote "The only thing that really frightened me during the war was the U-boat peril." [17]

In the early stages of the war, the U-boats were extremely effective in destroying Allied shipping due to the large gap in mid-Atlantic air cover. Cross-Atlantic trade in war supplies and food was extensive and critical for Britain's survival. The continuous action surrounding British shipping became known as the Battle of the Atlantic, as the British developed technical defences such as ASDIC and radar, and the German U-boats responded by hunting in what were called "wolfpacks" where multiple submarines would stay close together, making it easier for them to sink a specific target. Britain's vulnerable shipping situation existed until 1942, when the tides changed as the U.S. merchant marine and Navy entered the war, drastically increasing the amount of tonnage of supplies sent across the Atlantic. The combination of increased tonnage and increased naval protection of shipping convoys made it much more difficult for U-boats to make a significant dent in British shipping. Once the United States entered the war, U-boats ranged from the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Arctic to the west and southern African coasts and even as far east as Penang. The U.S. military engaged in various tactics against German incursions in the Americas these included military surveillance of foreign nations in Latin America, particularly in the Caribbean, to deter any local governments from supplying German U-boats.

Because speed and range were severely limited underwater while running on battery power, U-boats were required to spend most of their time surfaced running on diesel engines, diving only when attacked or for rare daytime torpedo strikes. The more ship-like hull design reflects the fact that these were primarily surface vessels that could submerge when necessary. This contrasts with the cylindrical profile of modern nuclear submarines, which are more hydrodynamic underwater (where they spend the majority of their time), but less stable on the surface. While U-boats were faster on the surface than submerged, the opposite is generally true of modern submarines. The most common U-boat attack during the early years of the war was conducted on the surface and at night. This period, before the Allied forces developed truly effective antisubmarine warfare tactics, which included convoys, was referred to by German submariners as "die glückliche Zeit" or the First Happy Time. [18]

Torpedoes Edit

The U-boats' main weapon was the torpedo, though mines and deck guns (while surfaced) were also used. By the end of the war, almost 3,000 Allied ships (175 warships 2,825 merchant ships) were sunk by U-boat torpedoes. [19] Early German World War II torpedoes were straight runners, as opposed to the homing and pattern-running torpedoes that became available later in the war. They were fitted with one of two types of pistol triggers — impact, which detonated the warhead upon contact with a solid object, and magnetic, which detonated upon sensing a change in the magnetic field within a few meters.

One of the most effective uses of magnetic pistols would be to set the torpedo's depth to just beneath the keel of the target. The explosion under the target's keel would create a detonation shock wave, which could cause a ship's hull to rupture under the concussive water pressure. In this way, even large or heavily armored ships could be sunk or disabled with a single, well-placed hit.

Initially, the depth-keeping equipment and magnetic and contact exploders were notoriously unreliable. During the first eight months of the war torpedoes often ran at an improper depth, detonated prematurely, or failed to explode altogether—sometimes bouncing harmlessly off the hull of the target ship. This was most evident in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Norway, where various skilled U-boat commanders failed to inflict damage on British transports and warships because of faulty torpedoes. The faults were largely due to a lack of testing. The magnetic detonator was sensitive to mechanical oscillations during the torpedo run, and to fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field at high latitudes. These early magnetic detonators were eventually phased out, and the depth-keeping problem was solved by early 1942 with improved technology. [20] [ further explanation needed ]

Later in the war, Germany developed an acoustic homing torpedo, the G7/T5. It was primarily designed to combat convoy escorts. The acoustic torpedo was designed to run straight to an arming distance of 400 m and then turn toward the loudest noise detected. This sometimes ended up being the U-boat at least two submarines may have been sunk by their own homing torpedoes. Additionally, these torpedoes were found to be only effective against ships moving at greater than 15 knots (28 km/h). The Allies countered acoustic torpedoes with noisemaker decoys such as Foxer, FXR, CAT and Fanfare. The Germans, in turn, countered this by introducing newer and upgraded versions of the acoustic torpedoes, like the late-war G7es, and the T11. However, the T11 did not see active service. [21]

U-boats also adopted several types of "pattern-running" torpedoes that ran straight out to a preset distance, then traveled in either a circular or ladder-like pattern. When fired at a convoy, this increased the probability of a hit if the weapon missed its primary target.

U-boat developments Edit

During World War II, the Kriegsmarine produced many different types of U-boats as technology evolved. Most notable is the Type VII, known as the "workhorse" of the fleet, which was by far the most-produced type, and the Type IX boats, an enlarged VII designed for long-range patrols, some traveling as far as Japan and the east coast of the United States.

With the increasing sophistication of Allied detection and subsequent losses, German designers began to fully realise the potential for a truly submerged boat. The Type XXI "Elektroboot" was designed to favor submerged performance, both for combat effectiveness and survival. It was the first true submersible. The Type XXI featured an evolutionary design that combined several different strands of the U-boat development program, most notably from the Walter U-boats, the Type XVII, which featured an unsuccessful yet revolutionary hydrogen peroxide air-independent propellant system. These boats featured a streamlined hull design, which formed the basis of the later USS Nautilus nuclear submarine, and was adapted for use with more conventional propulsion systems. The larger hull design allowed for a greatly increased battery capacity, which enabled the XXI to cruise submerged for longer periods and reach unprecedented submerged speeds for the time. Waste disposal was a problem when the U-boats spent extended periods without surfacing, as it is today.

Throughout the war, an arms race evolved between the Allies and the Kriegsmarine, especially in detection and counterdetection. Sonar (ASDIC in Britain) allowed Allied warships to detect submerged U-boats (and vice versa) beyond visual range, but was not effective against a surfaced vessel thus, early in the war, a U-boat at night or in bad weather was actually safer on the surface. Advancements in radar became particularly deadly for the U-boat crews, especially once aircraft-mounted units were developed. As a countermeasure, U-boats were fitted with radar warning receivers, to give them ample time to dive before the enemy closed in, as well as more anti-aircraft guns. However, by early to mid-1943, the Allies switched to centimetric radar (unknown to Germany), which rendered the radar detectors ineffective. U-boat radar systems were also developed, but many captains chose not to use them for fear of broadcasting their position to enemy patrols and lack of sufficient electronic countermeasures.

Early on, the Germans experimented with the idea of the Schnorchel (snorkel) from captured Dutch submarines, but saw no need for them until rather late in the war. The Schnorchel was a retractable pipe that supplied air to the diesel engines while submerged at periscope depth, allowing the boats to cruise and recharge their batteries while maintaining a degree of stealth. It was far from a perfect solution, however. Problems occurred with the device's valve sticking shut or closing as it dunked in rough weather since the system used the entire pressure hull as a buffer, the diesels would instantaneously suck huge volumes of air from the boat's compartments, and the crew often suffered painful ear injuries. Speed was limited to 8 knots (15 km/h), lest the device snap from stress. The Schnorchel also had the effect of making the boat essentially noisy and deaf in sonar terms. Finally, Allied radar eventually became sufficiently advanced that the Schnorchel mast could be detected beyond visual range.

Several other pioneering innovations included acoustic- and electro-absorbent coatings to make them less of an ASDIC or RADAR target. The Germans also developed active countermeasures such as facilities to release artificial chemical bubble-making decoys, known as Bold, after the mythical kobold.

Classes Edit

    : first prototypes : small submarines used for training purposes : uncompleted experimental midget submarines : the "workhorse" of the U-boats with 709 completed in World War II [22] : these long-range U-boats operated as far as the Indian Ocean with the Japanese (Monsun Gruppe), and the South Atlantic : long-range minelayers and cargo transports : uncompleted experimental artillery boats : used to resupply other U-boats nicknamed the Milchkuh ("Milk Cow") : small coastal submarines powered by experimental hydrogen peroxide propulsion systems : known as the Elektroboot first subs to operate primarily submerged : smaller version of the XXI used for coastal operations , including Biber, Hai, Molch, and Seehund

Countermeasures Edit

Advances in convoy tactics, high-frequency direction finding (referred to as ("Huff-Duff"), radar, active sonar (called ASDIC in Britain), depth charges, ASW spigot mortars (also known as "hedgehog"), the intermittent cracking of the German Naval Enigma code, the introduction of the Leigh light, the range of escort aircraft (especially with the use of escort carriers), the use of mystery ships, and the full entry of the U.S. into the war with its enormous shipbuilding capacity, all turned the tide against the U-boats. In the end, the U-boat fleet suffered extremely heavy casualties, losing 793 U-boats and about 28,000 submariners (a 75% casualty rate, the highest of all German forces during the war).

At the same time, the Allies targeted the U-boat shipyards and their bases with strategic bombing.

Enigma machine Edit

The British had a major advantage in their ability to read some German naval Enigma codes. An understanding of the German coding methods had been brought to Britain via France from Polish code-breakers. Thereafter, code books and equipment were captured by raids on German weather ships and from captured U-boats. A team including Alan Turing used special purpose "Bombes" and early computers to break new German codes as they were introduced. The speedy decoding of messages was vital in directing convoys away from wolf packs and allowing interception and destruction of U-boats. This was demonstrated when the Naval Enigma machines were altered in February 1942 and wolf-pack effectiveness greatly increased until the new code was broken.

The German submarine U-110, a Type IXB, was captured in 1941 by the Royal Navy, and its Enigma machine and documents were removed. U-559 was also captured by the British in October 1942 three sailors boarded her as she was sinking, and desperately threw all the code books out of the submarine so as to salvage them. Two of them, Able Seaman Colin Grazier and Lieutenant Francis Anthony Blair Fasson, continued to throw code books out of the ship as it went under water, and went down with it. Further code books were captured by raids on weather ships. U-744 was boarded by crew from the Canadian ship HMCS Chilliwack on 6 March 1944, and codes were taken from her, but by this time in the war, most of the information was known. [23] The U-505, a Type IXC, was captured by the United States Navy in June 1944. It is now a museum ship in Chicago at the Museum of Science and Industry.

Battle of Bell Island Edit

Two events in the battle took place in 1942 when German U-boats attacked four allied ore carriers at Bell Island, Newfoundland. The carriers SS Saganaga and SS Lord Strathcona were sunk by U-513 on 5 September 1942, while the SS Rosecastle and PLM 27 were sunk by U-518 on 2 November with the loss of 69 lives. When the submarine launched a torpedo at the loading pier, Bell Island became the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in World War II.

Operation Deadlight Edit

"Operation Deadlight" was the code name for the scuttling of U-boats surrendered to the Allies after the defeat of Germany near the end of the war. Of the 154 U-boats surrendered, 121 were scuttled in deep water off Lisahally, Northern Ireland, or Loch Ryan, Scotland, in late 1945 and early 1946.


The Forgotten Blimps of World War II

Anyone who has ever seen a group of blimps will, I believe, remember the occasion.

For me it was during World War II when our family went from Leavenworth, Washington, where we lived, to Shelton because my cousin was home on leave from the Coast Guard. He took me to see the blimps at the Naval Auxiliary Air Station at Shelton and told me how they were being used. I don't remember anything he said but I never forgot the sight of those lighter than air airships. The main operating base of squadron ZP-33 was Tillamook, Oregon, but I am sure at least six of the squadron's eight airships were at Shelton that day.

That memory stayed with me and one regret of my Navy career is the fact that I only had a token contact experience with blimps. When I served as Beachmaster at NAS Pensacola, bringing in PBM's that stopped by, my collateral duty was Petty Officer-in-charge of mooring blimps (at the "old" Chevalier Field) that came down from Lakehurst, New Jersey. Recently, blimp pilot, LT C. Donald Lee, USNR (Ret.) gave me access to an NAS Lakehurst information booklet from 1946. This material was invaluable in our effort to revive the lighter than air (LTA) story.

The need for a fleet of airships was recognized before our entry into World War II. Four successive chiefs of the Bureau of Aeronautics had called for such a non-rigid airship program. Their names are remembered but their "requests" were ignored. They were RADM's Moffett, King, Cook and Towers.

Finally, in June 1940 the 76th Congress passed Public Law 635 for a 10,000 plane program which included a provision for 48 non-rigid airships. When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor six months later the only airships in service were training airships.

That total included four K-type patrol airships built between 1938-41, three small L-type trainers built in the same time frame, a single G-type trainer built in 1936 and two old TC-type Army trainers built in 1933. Only six (the K and TC types) were large enough for sea service, but the L ship would be used for coastal patrol. The only operational base was at Lakehurst, New Jersey.

Even people who lived through those early war years have forgotten the toll taken by enemy submarines. The merchant ships sunk numbered in the thousands with 454 sunk by German U-boats in 1942 in our Atlantic coastal area. Many of these sinkings were within sight of land, sometimes during daylight hours while swimmers on the beach watched in disbelief. By 1943 the number of sinkings was reduced to 65, eight in 1944 and only three in 1945.

The reduction was in direct ratio to the development of LTA operations. No ship escorted by a blimp was ever sunk. We hasten to add that this antisubmarine program was a partnership operation that developed using blimps the small CVE "jeep carriers," PBY Catalina squadrons and other patrol squadrons. The aircraft however, could not be watching over these merchant fleets all the time, as the blimps could. The blimps often could do the job themselves with their limited fire power and depth charges. When needed they could call for aircraft from the CVE assigned the area. The system worked very well.

The account of one German U-boat well illustrates how critical was the need for a rapid development of a large airship program.

German U-123 was commanded by a 28 year old named Reinhard Hardegen. He led a group of five U-boats to the eastern seaboard to begin their attacks 13 January 1942. Each sub carried 15 torpedoes and 180 rounds of artillery for their gun mount. When he returned to occupied France he had sunk nine ships. He began another cruise 10 April 1942 and by the time he returned to France again, he had sunk a total of 19 ships on the two cruises. More than 400 ships were thus sunk in the first six months of 1942.

The initial operation of which U-123 was part was named Operation Drumbeat. Michael Gannon, author of the book "Operation Drumbeat," is extremely critical of the Navy and particularly ADM King. Our purpose here is not to respond to Mr. Gannon in defense of ADM King. However, a message sent to the Secretary of the Navy, 12 February 1940, from RADM Ernest J. King would seem to refute charges that RADM King had no understanding nor appreciation for the threat of submarines.

"The restatement of Naval Policy recommended by the General Board in February 1937 reaffirmed in October 1939 is considered sound, viz: to build and maintain non-rigid airships in numbers and classes adequate for coastal patrol and other essential Naval purposes."

The execution of this recommendation began 12 December 1941 by order of the President. The losses of 1942 were a result of unrealistic down sizing of the military, not poor leadership after the war began.

The Pacific Coast was not immune from the submarine menace. The SS Medio* was the first merchant ship sunk by a Japanese sub on 20 December 1942 off the coast near Eureka, California. A Japanese sub actually shelled oil derricks north of Santa Barbara, California on 23 February 1942. Early in the evening, 15-25 rounds struck the United States.

When the war began there were only 100 LTA pilots, including retired, reserves and students. There were also only 100 qualified enlisted air crewmen. by 1944 this number reached 1,500 pilots and 3,000 air crewmen. The number of administrative support personnel grew from 30 officers and 200 enlist in 1941 to 706 officers and 7,200 enlisted in 1945.

Airship operations first expanded from Lakehurst to Moffett Field, California when ZP-32 was established 31 January 1942, with two TC's and two L's. ZP-12 was established at Lakehurst 2 January 1942, also with four ships. This was the beginning of fleet airship service in defense against submarines.

Fleet Airship Wings were steadily added up and down both coasts with squadrons ultimately stationed in Jamaica, Brazil, Trinidad, then across the Atlantic to Port Lyautey, French Morocco and Gibraltar. These latter two operating bases not only protected the Strait but the entire Mediterranean Sea.


Other U-boats existing after WWII

These boats had various fates during the war but had some sort of post-war usage at one time.

Decommissioned on 17 June 1944 at Lorient and laid up in box K3 of the U-boat pen. Scuttled there on 19 August 1944. Wreck captured by US forces in May 1945 and handed over to France.

Post-war information
Became the French submarine Blaison. Stricken 18 Aug 1959 as Q165.

Scuttled on 6 April 1943 in the North Atlantic off Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, in position 27.47N, 15.00W, after being badly damaged by depth charges from two British Hudson aircraft (233 Sqn RAF/L & W) on 5 April.

Post-war information
Raised in 1951 and transferred to Spain. Used commercially for filming etc. Broken up.

Sunk on 6 August 1944 in Missiessy Dock No. 1 at Toulon, France, in position 43.07N, 05.55E, by bombs during US air raid (15th AF). No casualties.

Post-war information
Raised in 1945 and returned to service as French Millé from 1946. Stricken 9 July 1963 as Q339.

Captured on 4 June 1944 off Mauritania, French West Africa, in position 21.30N, 19.20W, by the warships of Task Force 22.3, consisting of the US escort carrier USS Guadalcanal and the US destroyer escorts USS Pillsbury, USS Chatelain, USS Flaherty, USS Jenks and USS Pope, after being badly damaged by depth charges from USS Chatelain and strafing by two Wildcat aircraft (VC-8 USN/F-1 & F-7).

Post-war information
Arrived in Bermuda on 19 Jun 44. Used for secret trials and training in Bermuda until May 45. Gifted to the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry on 9 Mar 54. Now on display in Chicago, USA.

Decommissioned on 24 August 1944 at La Pallice and laid up in the U-boat pen as the boat was unseaworthy due to battle damage.

Captured by French forces in May 1945.

Post-war information
Became the French submarine Laubie in 1947. Stricken on 11 March, 1963 as Q335. Broken up.

Used for trials. Scuttled at 0130hrs on 4 May 1945 in position 54.19N, 09.43E in the Audorfer See, near Rendsburg.

Post-war information
The boat was later raised and taken as a British prize and used for trials. Final fate unknown.

Scuttled at 0130hrs on 4 May 1945 in position 54.19N, 09.43E in the Audorfer See, near Rendsburg.

Post-war information
The boat was later raised and taken as a British Prize and used for trials. Final fate unknown.

Decommissioned on 25 April 1945 at Wesermünde, after being badly damaged by bombs during US air raid (8th AF) in the Deschimag AG Weser shipyard at Bremen on 30 March 1945.

Captured at Wesermünde by British forces in May 1945.

Post-war information
Sunk by US Navy in the North Sea during February 1946.

Scuttled on 8 May 1945 in the Kattegat, north-west of Anholt island in position 56.51N, 11.49E.

Post-war information
The boat was raised in June 1956. Commissioned as U-Hai (S 170) in the German Federal Navy 15 Aug 1957. The boat sank at 1854hrs on 14 Sept, 1966 in the North Sea, in position 55.15N, 04.22E, after taking in water. Raised on 19 Sept, 1966 from 47 meters depth and broken up.

Sank 5 May 1945 near Schleimünde, in approximate position 55.00N, 11.00E, after a collision with an unidentified German U-boat.

Post-war information
Raised in August 1956. Renamed U-Hecht (pike) and served in the German Federal Navy from 1 Oct, 1957. Stricken on 30 Sep, 1968 and broken up at Kiel in 1969.

Scuttled on 4 May 1945 near the Flensburg lightship.

Post-war information
Raised in 1957. Became the research vessel Wilhelm Bauer in the Bundesmarine, 1 Sept 1960. Transferred to the Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum (German Maritime Museum) at Bremerhaven in 1984.

Map showing final fate of U-boats after WWII

This map does not show the 116 boats from Operation Deadlight.

30 map positions. 60 post-war boats found. Map is click-able and zoom-able.

indicates a museum boat (4).

U-boats without a known map position (30)
Often these boats were broken up at a breakers yard in an unknown location
U-123, U-167, U-310, U-315, U-324, U-471, U-510, U-511, U-573, U-766, U-792, U-793, U-873, U-926, U-953, U-1057, U-1058, U-1064, U-1197, U-2353, U-2367, U-2518, U-2529, U-3035, U-3041, U-3515, U-4706, UD-5, UIT-24, UIT-25.


The Royal Navy lost 50,758 men killed in action, 820 missing in action and 14,663 wounded in action. [1] The Women's Royal Naval Service lost 102 killed and 22 wounded. [1]

The Royal Navy lost 3 battleships:

Name Location Date Cause
HMS Royal Oak (08) Scapa Flow 14 October 1939 Sunk by U-47
HMS Barham (04) off the coast of Sidi Barrani, Egypt 25 November 1941 Sunk by U-331
HMS Prince of Wales (53) South China Sea 10 December 1941 Sunk by Japanese aircraft

The Royal Navy lost 2 battlecruisers:

Name Location Date Cause
HMS Hood (51) Denmark Strait 24 May 1941 Sunk by naval gunfire from Bismarck
HMS Repulse (26) South China Sea 10 December 1941 Sunk by Japanese aircraft

The Royal Navy lost 5 fleet carriers:

Name Location Date Cause
HMS Courageous (50) off the coast of Ireland 17 September 1939 Sunk by U-29
HMS Glorious (77) Norwegian Sea 8 June 1940 Sunk by naval gunfire from Scharnhorst and Gneisenau
HMS Ark Royal (91) south east of Gibraltar 13 November 1941 Sunk by U-81
HMS Hermes (95) Sri Lanka 9 April 1942 Sunk by Japanese aircraft
HMS Eagle (94) south of Cape Salinas 11 August 1942 Sunk by U-73

The Royal Navy lost 3 escort carriers:

Name Location Date Cause
HMS Audacity (D10) Atlantic Ocean 21 December 1941 Sunk by U-751
HMS Avenger (D14) off Gibraltar 15 November 1942 Sunk by U-155
HMS Dasher (D37) Firth of Clyde 27 March 1943 Sunk by internal explosion

The Royal Navy lost 28 cruisers according to Roskill, [2] and 34 including Commonwealth/Dominion ships, according to the Naval-History project. [3] 27 are listed in addition HMS Carlisle (D67) was severely damaged by German air attack on 9 October 1943, not fully repaired, and became a base ship at Alexandria, Egypt.

Name Location Date Cause
HMS Dunedin (96) Atlantic Ocean 24 November 1941 Sunk by U-124
HMS Durban (D99) off Normandy 9 June 1944 Deliberately scuttled as breakwater
HMS Neptune (20) off Tripoli 19 December 1941 Sunk by Italian cruiser-laid mine
HMS Calypso (D61) off Crete 12 June 1940 Sunk by Italian submarine Bagnolini
HMS Coventry (D43) off Crete 14 September 1942 Scuttled following German air attack
HMS Curacoa (D41) off Ireland 2 October 1942 Rammed by RMS Queen Mary
HMS Curlew (D42) off Narvik 26 May 1940 Sunk by German aircraft
HMS Cairo (D87) off Bizerte 12 August 1942 Sunk by Italian submarine Axum
HMS Calcutta (D82) off Alexandria 1 June 1941 Sunk by German aircraft
HMS Galatea (71) off Alexandria 15 December 1941 Sunk by U-557
HMS Penelope (97) off Naples 18 February 1944 Sunk by U-410
HMS Edinburgh (16) Arctic Ocean 2 May 1942 Sunk by German destroyers
HMS Southampton (83) off Malta 11 January 1941 Scuttled following German air attack
HMS Manchester (15) Cap Bon 13 August 1942 Scuttled following Italian motor torpedo boat attack
HMS Gloucester (62) off Crete 22 May 1941 Sunk by German aircraft
HMS Charybdis (88) Battle of Sept-Îles 23 October 1943 Sunk by German torpedo boat destroyers
HMS Hermione (74) off Crete 16 June 1942 Sunk by U-205
HMS Bonaventure (31) off Crete 31 March 1941 Sunk by Italian submarine Ambra
HMS Naiad (93) off Crete 11 March 1942 Sunk by U-565
HMS Spartan (95) off Anzio 29 January 1944 Sunk by German aircraft (glide bomb)
HMS Fiji (58) off Crete 22 May 1941 Sunk by German aircraft
HMS Trinidad (46) off North Cape 15 May 1942 Scuttled following German air attack
HMS Effingham (D98) off Bodø 18 May 1940 Ran aground
HMS Cornwall (56) off Ceylon 5 April 1942 Sunk by Japanese aircraft
HMS Dorsetshire (40) off Ceylon 5 April 1942 Sunk by Japanese aircraft
HMS York (90) Crete 26 March 1941 Scuttled following Italian explosive boat attack
HMS Exeter (68) Battle of the Java Sea 1 March 1942 Sunk by Japanese naval gunfire and torpedoes

The Royal Navy lost 132 destroyers, according to Roskill [2] and 153 including Commonwealth/Dominion ships, according to the Naval-History project. [3]


List of Sunk U-boats - History


Map of Lost U-Boats.
U-869, the submarine profiled in the NOVA program "Hitler's Lost Sub," was just one of the more than 1,100 Unterseeboote, or U-boats, sunk, scuttled, captured, or otherwise lost to German forces during World War II. Here, naval historian Timothy Mulligan describes 25 of the most historically significant U-boats. Click on the map labels and plunge into the fascinating and often tragic histories of some of Germany's most notorious "sea wolves."

Notes KzS = Kapitän zur See (Captain)
KK = Korvettenkapitän (Lt. Commander)
KL = Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant)
OL = Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant, j.g.)
Lt.z.S.d.R. = Leutnant zur See der Reserve (Ensign in the Reserves)
Admiral Karl Dönitz was head of Germany's U-boat service
A snorkel is a tube that houses air intake and exhaust pipes for use with a submarine's diesel engine while the sub is submerged

Timothy Mulligan is a German naval historian and archivist at the National Archives and Records Administration. His most recent book is Neither Sharks Nor Wolves: The Men of Nazi Germany's U-Boat Arm 1939-1945 (Naval Institute Press, 1999).


U-47
Probably the best known U-boat of World War II because of her commander, KK Günther Prien, who penetrated the British fleet anchorage at Scapa Flow in October 1939 and sank the battleship Royal Oak at her berth there. Overnight sensations in Germany, Prien and his crew established the submariners' heroic public image in Germany for the rest of the war. U-47 also sank 30 merchant vessels totaling 164,953 tons.

Type: VII B
Built: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Keel laid: 1 April 1937
Launched: 29 October 1938
Commissioned: 17 December 1938
Commander: KK Günther Prien
Fate: Originally believed lost in action with all 45 crewmen against British destroyer HMS Wolverine south of Iceland on 7 March 1941. Subsequent research, however, suggests the boat may have been lost in a diving accident while in combat on that date.
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U-48
Most successful U-boat of World War II. Sank 54 Allied merchant ships totaling 324,131 gross registered tons, plus one British warship (sloop), during 12 patrols under three different captains, all during the period September 1939-June 1941.

Type: VII B
Built: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Keel laid: 5 March 1938
Launched: 5 March 1939
Commissioned: 22 April 1939
Commanders:
KL Herbert Schulze, April 1939-May 1940 and December 1940-July 1941
KK Hans Rösing, May-August 1940
KL Heinrich Bleichrodt, August-December 1940
Fate: Scuttled 3 May 1945 at Neustadt
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U-96
A successful U-boat whose exploits during one particular patrol in October-December of 1941 provided the historical basis for the novel and film Das Boot. Altogether sank 28 merchant ships totaling 190,181 tons before being retired to training duties in 1944.

Type: VII C
Built: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Keel laid: 16 September 1939
Launched: 1 August 1940
Commissioned: 14 September 1940
Commanders:
KL Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock, September 1940-March 1940
OL Hans-Jürgen Hellriegel, April 1942-March 1943
OL Wilhelm Peters, March-October 1943
Fate: Sunk at dock by U.S. air attack, 30 March 1945, Wilhelmshaven
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U-99
Commanded by the most successful U-boat ace of World War II, KK Otto Kretschmer, who sank most of his 41 Allied merchantmen totaling 238,768 tons while in command of this submarine from April 1940 to March 1941. After the war Kretschmer rose to a senior position in the Bundesmarine.

Type: VII B
Built: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Keel laid: 31 March 1939
Launched: 12 March 1940
Commissioned: 18 April 1940
Commander: KK Otto Kretschmer
Fate: Sunk 17 March 1941 in a convoy action north of the Hebrides by destroyer HMS Walker. Most of the crew survived as prisoners of war.
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U-107
The U-boat with the longest operational service in World War II, spending 750 days at sea during 13 patrols from January 1941 to August 1944. She sank 38 ships totaling 217,751 tons, including 14 vessels on one patrol, the most by any World War II U-boat during a single war cruise.

Type: IX B
Built: AG Weser, Bremen
Keel laid: 6 December 1939
Launched: 2 July 1940
Commissioned: 8 October 1940
Commanders:
KK Günther Hessler, October 1940-November 1941
KL Harald Gelhaus, December 1941-May 1943
KL Volker Simmermacher, June 1943-August 1944
Lt.z.S.d.R. Karl-Heinz Fritz, August 1944
Fate: Sunk by British air attack 18 August 1944 while in passage from Lorient to La Pallice with a load of snorkels for the U-boats based there. All 59 crewmen lost.
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U-110
The U-boat from which the British recovered a vital Enigma encryption device and accompanying documentation in May 1941, allowing the first critical Allied breakthrough in reading U-boat radio communications during World War II. (For more on the breaking of the Enigma, see Decoding Nazi Secrets.) U-110's captain, KL Fritz-Julius Lemp, had sunk the first Allied merchant ship of the war, the British liner Athenia, while in command of U-30.

Type: IX B
Built: AG Weser, Bremen
Keel laid: 1 February 1940
Launched: 25 August 1940
Commissioned: 21 November 1940
Commander: KL Fritz-Julius Lemp
Fate: Badly damaged in a convoy action 9 May 1941 by depth charges from corvette HMS Aubretia and forced to the surface. The crew abandoned ship, but before she could sink, a boarding party from destroyer HMS Bulldog went aboard, recovered the Enigma machine and other materials, and set up a towline to tow her into captivity. U-110 foundered the next day while still in tow.
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U-156
U-boat that initiated an international rescue operation after sinking the liner-transport Laconia in the South Atlantic, September 1942. U-156 and three other submarines—two German and one Italian—rescued roughly 1,500 people from the Laconia. After an American bomber attacked the subs, they broke off the rescue operation. Karl Dönitz thereafter ordered his commanders to no longer offer assistance to shipwrecked survivors (the "Laconia Order"), which led to Dönitz's indictment as a war criminal at Nuremberg.

Type: IX C
Built: AG Weser, Bremen
Keel laid: 4 October 1940
Launched: 21 May 1941
Commissioned: 4 September 1941
Commander: KK Werner Hartenstein
Fate: Lost with all 53 hands to air attack by a U.S. Navy Catalina in the Caribbean, 8 March 1943.
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U-181
Under Wolfgang Lüth, the second-highest U-boat ace of the war, this U-boat carried out a patrol that lasted 205 days, a record exceeded only by the U-boats that transferred to the Far East. Altogether, sank 27 ships totaling 138,779 tons.

Type: IX D2
Built: AG Weser, Bremen
Keel laid: 15 March 1941
Launched: 30 December 1941
Commissioned: 9 May 1942
Commanders:
KK Wolfgang Lüth, May 1942-October 1943
KzS Kurt Freiwald, November 1943-May 1945
Fate: Undergoing repairs at Singapore when Germany surrendered, U-181 was taken over by the Japanese Navy and became submarine I-501. Surrendered to the British at Singapore 15 August 1945 and scuttled there 16 February 1946.
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U-234
Cargo U-boat bound for Japan when war ended, surrendered to U.S. authorities at sea carrying a total cargo of 260 tons, including uranium oxide ore, mercury, and the component parts for an Me 262 jet fighter.

Type: X B
Built: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Keel laid: 1 October 1941
Launched: 23 December 1943
Commissioned: 2 March 1944
Commander: KL Johann-Heinrich Fehler
Fate: Surrendered to destroyer escort USS Sutton east of the Flemish Cap, 14 May 1945, after two Japanese passengers committed suicide. Other passengers bound for Japan included several Luftwaffe officers and technical specialists intended to improve Japanese aircraft defenses. The U.S. Navy used U-234 for experimental trials and then sank her off Cape Cod, November 1946.
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U-405
Engaged in a death duel with an American destroyer, each vessel sinking the other in a battle later fictionalized in the novel and film The Enemy Below.

Type: VII C
Built: Danziger Werft, Danzig
Keel laid: 8 July 1940
Launched: 4 June 1941
Commissioned: 17 September 1941
Commander: KK Rolf-Heinrich Hopmann
Fate: Sank after the destroyer USS Borie depth-charged, rammed, and struck her by gunfire north of the Azores, 1 November 1943. Following ramming, both warships remained temporarily locked together, and some fighting took place at close quarters before the U-boat broke away and sank with all 49 hands. USS Borie succumbed the next day from damage suffered, with the loss of 27 officers and seamen.
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U-459
First and most productive of the Type XIV supply tanker or "milch-cow" U-boats, which resupplied front-line U-boats with fuel, torpedoes, and provisions at sea, thus considerably extending the U-boats' effectiveness and range. Resupplied a total of 65 U-boats in her first five patrols, March 1942-June 1943.

Type: XIV
Built: Deutsche Werke, Kiel
Keel laid: 23 November 1940
Launched: 13 September 1941
Commissioned: 15 November 1941
Commander: KK Georg von Wilamovitz-Moellendorf
Fate: Sunk by British air attack in the Bay of Biscay 24 July 1943, with the loss of her captain (a former U-boat commander in World War I) and 18 men. The remaining 41 crewmen were recovered as prisoners of war.
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U-505
Only U-boat captured in action during World War II and the first enemy warship boarded and captured by the U.S. Navy since the War of 1812. The captured Enigma encryption machine and accompanying documentation in June 1944 greatly facilitated subsequent Allied decryption efforts for the remainder of the war. (For more on the breaking of the Enigma, see Decoding Nazi Secrets.) Her second commanding officer, KL Peter Zschech, committed suicide on board during a depth-charge attack 24 October 1943.
Type: IX C
Built: Deutsche Werft, Hamburg
Keel laid: 12 June 1940
Launched: 24 May 1941
Commissioned: 26 August 1941
Commanders:
KK Axel-Olaf Loewe, August 1941-September 1942
KL Peter Zschech, September 1942-October 1943
OL Paul Meyer (temporary), October-November 1943
OL Harald Lange, November 1943-June 1944
Fate: Captured at sea 4 June 1944 west of the Azores by U.S. Navy Task Group 22.3, after being forced to the surface by depth-charge attack. Boarding parties from destroyer USS Pillsbury and later the light aircraft carrier USS Guadalcanal kept the U-boat afloat, and it was eventually towed to Bermuda. In 1954, U-505 was awarded to the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, where it remains today as the best preserved and most originally furnished of the four museum U-boats, the others being U-534, U-995, and U-2540. (For more about U-505, see Resources.)
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U-515
A highly successful late-war U-boat that, from September 1942 to April 1944, sank 24 merchantmen, totaling 144,864 tons, and two warships. The same task group that captured U-505 sank U-515.

Type: IX C
Keel laid: 7 May 1941
Launched: 2 December 1941
Commissioned: 21 February 1942
Commander: KK Werner Henke
Fate: Sunk following attacks by naval aircraft from carrier USS Guadalcanal and depth charges and gunfire from destroyer escorts USS Pillsbury, USS Pope, and USS Chatelain southeast of the Azores, 9 April 1944. Sixteen crewmen were lost in the sinking the remaining 44 were rescued and made prisoners of war. Commander Henke was killed 15 June 1944 in a suicidal escape attempt at Ft. Hunt, Virginia.
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U-534
Most recently salvaged U-boat, now on display in Liverpool, England.

Type: IX C/40
Built: Deutsche Werft, Hamburg
Keel laid: 20 February 1942
Launched: 23 September 1942
Commissioned: 23 December 1942
Commander: KL Herbert Nollau
Fate: After an undistinguished career in training and weather-reporting duties, U-534 departed Copenhagen on 5 May 1945 bound for Norway but was sunk by British aircraft in the Kattegat with the loss of three crewmen. In 1986 the U-boat was located near the Danish island of Anholt and brought to the surface by a consortium of Dutch and Danish salvagers on 23 August 1993. In 1996 the British Warship Preservation Trust acquired the boat and brought her to Liverpool, where she is now part of the Historic Warships Museum at Birkenhead Docks. (For more on U-534, see Resources.)
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U-552
The "Red Devil" boat captained by Erich Topp, third-highest U-boat ace, under whose command the U-boat sank 26 merchantmen totaling 141,058 tons. Also sank the first American warship lost in the war, the destroyer USS Reuben James.

Type: VII C
Built: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Keel laid: 1 December 1939
Launched: 14 September 1940
Commissioned: 4 December 1940
Commanders:
KK Erich Topp, December 1940-August 1942
KL Klaus Popp, September 1942-July 1944
OL Günther Lube, July 1944-May 1945
Fate: Retired to training duties April 1944. Scuttled at Wilhelmshaven 2 May 1945.
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U-559
U-boat from which codebooks and valuable cryptographic materials were recovered before sinking, facilitating, in late 1942, the second major Allied breakthrough in reading German U-boat communications. (For more on the breaking of the Enigma, see Decoding Nazi Secrets.)

Type: VII C
Built: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Keel laid: 1 February 1940
Launched: 8 January 1941
Commissioned: 27 February 1941
Commander: KL Hans Heidtmann
Fate: While operating in the eastern Mediterranean, U-559 came under attack by several British warships and an aircraft on 30 October 1942. Fatally damaged and forced to the surface, the sub was abandoned. A British boarding party from destroyer HMS Petard recovered the cryptographic materials, but the vessel sank before the cipher machine could be brought out. Eight German crewmen and two British seamen were lost, and 37 German survivors were taken prisoner.
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U-570
U-boat with the dubious distinction as the only one to surrender in action during the war.

Type: VII C
Built: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Keel laid: 21 May 1940
Launched: 20 March 1941
Commissioned: 15 May 1941
Commander: KL Hans-Joachim Rahmlow
Fate: With many of her green crew seasick from heavy seas during her maiden voyage, U-570 was damaged by air attack south of Iceland on 27 August 1941. She surfaced and surrendered to the circling British Hudson aircraft. British vessels eventually arrived to take her in tow to Iceland and later recommissioning in the Royal Navy as HMS Graph. The capture provided the Allies invaluable technical intelligence on U-boat capabilities. Submarine scrapped 1947.
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U-721
A training boat that never entered operational service but that, with other training and advanced-model submarines that never saw action, played a role in evacuating German civilians as the Red Army entered Germany. In late February 1945, U-721, by using every inch of available space on board, successfully evacuated about 100 civilian refugees and wounded soldiers from the port of Hela (now Hel, Poland).

Type: VII C
Built: H.C. Stülcken & Sohn, Hamburg
Keel laid: 16 November 1942
Launched: 23 July 1943
Commissioned: 8 November 1943
Commanders:
OL Otto Wollschläger, November 1943-December 1944
OL Ludwig Fabricius, December 1944-May 1945
Fate: Scuttled by her own crew 5 May 1945.
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U-852
The only U-boat in World War II whose crew is known to have killed shipwrecked Allied survivors.

Type: IX D2
Built: A.G. Weser, Bremen
Keel laid: 15 April 1942
Launched: 28 January 1943
Commissioned: 15 June 1943
Commander: KL Heinz-Wilhelm Eck
Fate: On her only patrol, U-852 sank the Greek steamer Peleus, 13 March 1944, and her crew attempted to kill the survivors to conceal her presence. After she proceeded into the Indian Ocean, British aircraft fatally damaged her off the Somali coast on 2-3 May 1944, and she beached herself near Ras Mabber, Somaliland. British forces captured her crew, and in October 1945, a British court in Hamburg subsequently tried, condemned, and executed the captain and two of his officers for war crimes. The court also convicted two other crewmen and sentenced them to prison terms.
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U-861
The last U-boat to travel to the Far East and return safely more than a year after her departure.

Type: IX D2
Built: AG Weser, Bremen
Keel laid: 15 July 1942
Launched: 29 April 1943
Commissioned: 2 September 1943
Commander: KK Jürgen Osten
Fate: U-861 departed Kiel on 20 April 1944 bound for the U-boat base at Penang on the Malayan peninsula, carrying supplies for the base and tin for the Japanese. She arrived at Penang 23 September 1944 after sinking en route four Allied merchantmen (over 22,000 tons). On 15 January 1945 she began the return trip with a load of rubber. Despite the lack of a snorkel, she eluded Allied patrols and arrived in Trondheim on 24 April 1945. U-861 was then turned over to British control and scuttled north of Ireland on 8 December 1945.
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U-869
Most recent discovery of a U-boat, whose actual location and fate underscore the uncertainties of World War II submarine warfare.

Type: IX C/40
Built: Deschimag AG Weser, Bremen
Keel laid: 5 April 1943
Launched: 5 October 1943
Commissioned: 26 January 1944
Commander: KL Hellmut Neuerburg
Fate: Originally believed to have been lost off Casablanca on 28 February 1945 by depth-charge attacks by the destroyer USS Fowler and the French sub-chaser L'Indiscret. The positive identification of her remains about 60 miles east of the New Jersey coast indicates she never received the change in orders diverting her to the Gibraltar approaches and was possibly sunk by one of her own acoustic torpedoes.
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U-995
Preserved today as a memorial on the beach at Laboe outside Kiel. During the war she operated entirely in Arctic waters against Allied and Russian forces, sinking two merchantmen and several light craft.

Type: VII C/41
Built: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Keel laid: 25 November 1942
Launched: 22 July 1943
Commissioned: 16 September 1943
Commanders:
KL Walter Köhntopp, September 1943-October 1944
OL Hans-Georg Hess, October 1944-May 1945
Fate: Surrendered at Trondheim 9 May 1945. Later given to Norway and commissioned into the Norwegian Navy as the Kaura, December 1952. In 1965 offered for return by Norway to the Federal Republic of Germany, where she was placed before the German Navy Memorial at Laboe and opened to the public in March 1972. (For more on U-995, see Resources.)
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U-997
U-boat whose captain and crew disobeyed the order of Karl Dönitz to surrender in May 1945 and instead proceeded to Argentina (as did U-530), arriving August 1945.

Type: VII C
Built: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Keel laid: 24 July 1942
Launched: 31 March 1943
Commissioned: 6 May 1943
Commanders:
KL Hans Leilach, May 1943-March 1945
OL Heinz Schäffer, March-August 1945
Fate: Served primarily as a training boat until April 1945, when she departed home waters for Norway and operations off the British coast. On news of the surrender, most of the crew voted to try for Argentina, which they reached on 17 August 1945 after 105 days at sea, the last 66 entirely submerged with the aid of a snorkel. The crew and boat were interned and turned over to U.S. authorities, who sank U-997 off the American east coast 13 November 1946.
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U-2336
Advanced-model (Type XXIII) U-boat that sank the last vessels of the U-boat campaign in the Firth of Forth in Scotland on 7 May 1945. Type XXIII boats later served in the Bundesmarine.

Type: XXIII
Built: Deutsche Werft, Hamburg
Keel laid: 27 July 1944
Launched: 10 September 1944
Commissioned: 30 September 1944
Commanders:
OL Jürgen Vockel, September 1944-March 1945
KL Emil Klusmeier, April-May 1945
Fate: Surrendered at Kiel 14 May 1945. Sunk north of Ireland 2 January 1946.
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U-2540
A salvaged and restored advanced-model U-boat, open to the public in Bremerhaven.

Type: XXI
Built: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Keel laid: 29 October 1944
Launched: 13 January 1945
Commissioned: 24 February 1945
Commander: OL Rudolf Schultze
Fate: As with virtually all of the advanced Type XXI U-boats, U-2540 did not make an operational patrol before war's end. Scuttled 4 May 1945 off Flensburg, Germany, the boat was raised in 1957 and recommissioned into the Bundesmarine as experimental U-boat Wilhelm Bauer. Since 1983 she has been a floating museum associated with the Deutsche Schiffahrtsmuseum at Bremerhaven. (For more on the museum, see Resources.)
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10 Famous Ships That Were Scuttled (Sunk by Their Own Crews)

On May 11, 1862, Confederate sailors sunk their own ship, the CSS Virginia, in the James River outside of Norfolk, Virginia to avoid capture by Union troops. Ships have been intentionally sunk by their own crews for a variety of reasons, usually to avoid capture by the enemy, sometimes after battle damage and sometimes while the ships were perfectly sound. At times, even whole fleets were scuttled. German U-boats would be scuttled when forced to the surface and unable to continue the fight to avoid capture of sensitive encoding equipment, let alone the boats themselves, a common practice in World War II. Several severely damaged US and Japanese aircraft carriers were also scuttled during World War II. Here we list 10 of the most famous incidents of ships destroyed intentionally by their own people, showing many of the reasons for doing so.

Digging Deeper

10. USS Oriskany, 2006 .

The aircraft carrier Oriskany was a retired US Navy carrier sunk to form an artificial reef, providing habitat for fish and ocean life. Many ships have been sunk for this purpose in the past few decades, giving sportsmen rich areas for fishing and diving. Another US aircraft carrier, the USS America was experimented on with underwater explosions before being scuttled in 2005. Data from the experiments on the America is to be used to construct more survivable future aircraft carriers. Other obsolete ships have been used as target practice, most spectacularly after World War II to observe the effects of nuclear bombs on a fleet.

9. Bruges-Zeebrugge, 1918 .

Another reason for intentionally sinking your own ships is to block the harbor or other passage to deny the enemy ships the ability to pass through. In this raid the British sent 3 obsolete cruisers packed with cement to block the passage of German U-Boats from the port of Bruges-Zeebrugge in occupied Belgium. The sunken cruisers successfully blocked in the U-Boats, but only for 3 days as the Germans dug a channel around the sunken ships.

8. USS Lexington, 1942 .

The Lady Lex was damaged so severely at the battle of the Coral Sea that American admirals decided to sink her themselves instead of her possibly falling into the hands of the Japanese. After being struck by 2 torpedoes the Lexington was able to conduct hasty repairs and get speed back to 24 knots, but after 2 bomb strikes, despite being able to recover her aircraft, fires inside the ship later led to 3 huge explosions and an uncontrollable fire. Lexington was sunk with 5 torpedoes from a US destroyer. Four Japanese aircraft carriers were scuttled in a similar manner during the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway.

7. Black Sea Fleet, 1854.

During the Crimean War at the Siege of Sevastopol, the Russians removed the cannon from their ships (2 of the ships were 120 gun ships of the line, others had up to 84 cannon) to be used on land and the crews to be used as land based fighters. After a year long siege, the French, British, and Turks finally captured Sevastopol anyway.

6. Cortez’s Fleet, 1519.

Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortez defied the governor of Cuba and took 11 ships to Veracruz, Mexico to conquer the Aztec Nation. In order to keep any of his men from deserting and sailing back to Cuba, he had his fleet scuttled.

5. Graf Spee, 1939 .

This powerful German “pocket battleship” had been fighting British cruisers Ajax and Cumberland, and New Zealand cruiser Achilles in the South Atlantic when she pulled into port at Montevideo, Uruguay, for repairs. The victim of a deception campaign, Capt. Langsdorff was led to believe more British ships had arrived and joined the 3 cruisers waiting for Graf Spee to be forced by the 3 day limit allowed in a neutral port to go back to sea. Not wanting his men killed in a hopeless battle, Langsdorff had his ship scuttled as it left the harbor. Langsdorff apparently could not stand the humiliation and shot himself 3 days after the scuttling.

4. French Fleet at Toulon, 1942 .

After the French surrender of 1940, the Vichy French government was allowed to govern southern France, but when the allies invaded North Africa the Germans decided to occupy the south coast of France as well. To keep the fleet anchored at Toulon out of the hands of the Germans, Admirals Marquis and Laborde ordered the scuttling of the fleet, including battleships Strasbourg and Dunquerque.

3. German High Seas Fleet, 1919.

In an act of defiance, 50 ships of the German High Seas Fleet that had been interned at Scapa Flow after World War I were scuttled by their crews to keep them out of British hands. Admiral Ludwig von Reuter was jailed by the British for ordering the scuttling, but was honored in Germany as a hero. The fleet had been ordered to Scapa flow and British custody under the terms of the German surrender at the end of the war.

2. CSS Virginia, 1862 .

The former Union Navy USS Merrimac, the Virginia was an ironclad that fought the famous battle with the USS Monitor at Hampton Roads in the first battle of ironclad ships. The historic vessel was scuttled as she was trapped in the James River with no prospect of safely escaping. For some reason, the Virginia is commonly referred to by her original name, Merrimac, before the ship was captured by the Confederates, rebuilt as an ironclad and renamed Virginia, perhaps because of the alliteration of “ Monitor and Merrimac” sounds better than “ Monitor and Virginia .”

1. Bismarck, 1941 .

The great and fearsome Bismarck, the terror of the sea, was being pounded by a large British fleet and carrier torpedo planes as she fought on alone. Hit by over 400 shells and several torpedoes (at least 3 before the final battle), including a torpedo fired from the British battleship HMS Rodney (the only time in history that one battleship torpedoed another), the Bismarck’s guns could no longer fire and the ship could not maneuver. When the crew finally abandoned ship, scuttling charges were set off to sink the mighty battleship to spare her the humiliation of being captured. British sailors bitterly denied that the ship had been scuttled, claiming they alone had sunk it, but the fact is that Bismarck was sent to the bottom by her own crew.

Question for students (and subscribers): What ships would you add to the list? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.

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19 Sunk: SS Central America

Also known as the Ship Of Gold, the SS Central America was sunk by a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina in 1857 - while it was carrying hundreds of people and thousands of pounds of gold from the California Gold Rush. The wreck was originally found in the ‘80s, and while it wasn’t a pirate ship, the tale of the recovery is one of modern piracy!

Treasure hunter Tommy Thompson was the one to originally find and explore the wreck, thanks to the financial backing of 161 investors. However, once Thompson staked his claim to the gold he found (and sold) he absconded with the money, and has been in jail since 2015 over his plunder of the loot.


Kernowdiggers

The final resting places of six German U-boats sunk in the final months of the Second World War’s greatest naval conflict have finally been identified. After years of research, maritime experts say their discoveries will force historians to re-evaluate the battle for control of the Atlantic.

Evidence from the wrecks suggests many U-boats were sunk by mines rather than attacks by Allied air and naval forces, as had previously been believed. The findings show coastal minefields were around three times more effective than British naval intelligence gave them credit for. Experts believe their view was distorted, unintentionally, by reports from over-enthusiastic airmen and escort ship commanders who sometimes claimed they had sunk U-boats with depth charges or anti-submarine mortars.

One submarine, the U-400, previously believed sunk by Royal Navy depth charges south of Cork in Ireland, has now been identified off the coast of north Cornwall. The German sub was on its very first patrol in December 1944 when it hit a mine, underwater photography suggests.

Another, the U-1021, also identified off the north Cornish coast, was on its first patrol in March 1945 when sunk by mines. Previously, it was thought the Royal Navy had sunk it with depth charges hundreds of miles away, off the west coast of Scotland. The U-326, also on its first patrol when it was destroyed by a US aerial depth charge attack in April 1945, has been identified 100 miles off the coast of Brittany. The U-325, sunk on its second patrol in May 1945, was thought to have been destroyed by Royal Navy depth charges in the Irish Sea. Now marine archaeology and underwater photography have identified it on the seabed 230 miles away – off Lizard Point, south Cornwall.

Other U-boats, sunk far from British coastal minefields, have also been identified. The U-1208, on its first patrol, was identified off the Scilly Isles after being sunk by Royal Navy depth charges in February 1945. The U-650, recently identified through underwater photography near Land’s End, was sunk by a direct hit from a hedgehog anti-submarine missile in January 1945.

From 1939 to early 1943, the Germans were very successful in their U-boat operations – sinking 2,500 Allied merchant ships and around 50 Allied warships, with the loss of around 25,000 lives. The tide turned in May 1943 when, with new equipment and a fresh strategy, the Allies got the upper hand.

The discoveries came from a survey of the western English Channel and adjacent areas, undertaken by the US firm Odyssey Marine Exploration. Dr Axel Niestlé, a German U-boat historian involved in the project, said: “It is a fine example of successful teamwork between marine archaeologists and historians rewriting naval history. The underwater photography gave us an unparalleled opportunity to learn how different types of Second World War anti-submarine weaponry worked.”

From 1939-45, the Germans built 1,167 U-boats, 863 of which were deployed in the Battle of the Atlantic 648 were sunk – with a loss of around 25,000 submariners. The locations of 40 U-boats remain a mystery. Thirty disappeared in deep water in the Atlantic, and it is unlikely they will be found. The remainder lie in a variety of suspected locations in the eastern part of the English Channel, where the team hopes to find them.


Watch the video: Ιστορία της βρετανικής υπερωκεάνιας RMS Lusitania. (August 2022).