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Combat of Liebenau, 26 June 1866

Combat of Liebenau, 26 June 1866



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Combat of Liebenau, 26 June 1866

The combat of Liebenau (26 June 1866) was the first significant combat during the Austro-Prussia War and saw the Prussians force the Austrians to abandon the village of Liebenau and gain their first foothold across the River Iser.

General von Moltke, the Chief of the Prussian General Staff, decided to send three armies into Bohemia. The 1st Army, under Prince Frederick Charles, was the centre of these three, and was to advance into Bohemia from the north-west. To his right (west) was the Army of the Elbe (General Karl E. Herwarth von Bittenfeld), which first had to occupy Saxony, and then entered Bohemia from the west. Further east was the Prussian 2nd Army (Crown Prince Frederick William), which was to advance into Bohemia from the Breslau area. The main Austrian force was assembling to the south of the Prussian 2nd Army, but there was also a force made up of Clam-Gallas's Austrian Corps and the Army of Saxony operating further to the west, on the Iser River.

By 25 June the Austrians and Saxons, under Count Edouard von Clam-Gallas and Crown Prince Albert of Saxony, were concentrating to the south and east of the River Iser, with their main forces around Münchengrätz. The Austrians also had outposts north of the river, made up of the Poschacher brigade and some light cavalry. These troops were stretched out along the road from Türnau, just south of the Iser, to Reichenberg, with the most advanced troops in the village of Liebenau, about half way between the two. Most of the brigade was in the hills south of the village. This brigade had fought alongside the Prussians in the Schleswig-Holstein War, only two years earlier.

The Prussian 1st Army was to their north, with its HQ at Reichenberg. The Army of the Elbe had closed up with them, and was now just to their west.

On the morning of 26 June Prince Frederick Charles ordered General August von Horn's 8th Division to send out a force of two battalions of infantry from the 72nd Regiment, one squadron of Uhlans and a battery of four pounder guns to reconnoitre the road to Türnau. This force was supported by Hann von Weyhern's 2nd Cavalry Division.

The Prussians ran into the Austrians in Liebenau. The Austrians were attempting to build a barricade in the village street, but on the appearance of the Prussians they retreated to a range of hills south of the village, where the main Austrian force was posted. This was made up of four regiments of light cavalry from the 2nd Cavalry Division (Edelsheim), two batteries of horse artillery and a limited force of infantry.

Horn's infantry almost immediately advanced up the hills south of the village, while the Prussian artillery took up a position on a second range of hills to the north. Hann's cavalry moved into the village.

Just before 9am Prince Frederick Charles arrived on the scene. At about the same time the Austrian artillery opened fire and a short artillery duel followed. The outnumbered Austrians were soon silenced, partly by the Prussian guns and partly by the advancing Prussian infantry.

After Horn's infantry successfully forced the Austrian artillery to withdraw, the Prussian cavalry advanced to the top of the hills south of the village. The Prussians attempted to pursue the Austrians across a plateau that extended south from these hills, but were unable to catch up with the retreating Austrians, and they were able to escape into more broken countryside beyond.

The Prussian successes continued for the rest of the day. Advancing troops from Fransecky's 7th Division, who had been ordered up to support Horn, reached the Iser at Turnau, and discovered that the place was undefended. The bridge over the Iser had been partly destroyed, but the Prussians were quickly able to build a pontoon bridge, and soon had a strong foothold across the Iser.

Further south the Austrians and Prussians clashed against at Podol (26-27 June 1866), where once again the Prussians were victorious, defeating an Austrian counterattack aimed at retaking Turnau.

The fighting on 26 June demonstrated the poor command structure on the Austrian side. General Benedek, the overall Austrian commander, had decided to attack Prince Frederick Charles first, and sent orders to Clam-Galas and Albert, Crown Prince of Saxony, to hold the river. Earlier the day the Crown Prince had suggested to Clam-Galas that they should defend Turnau, but had been talked out of it. As a result the line of the Iser was lost, and the Austrians and Saxons were exposed to attack at Münchengrätz (28 June 1866).


4th Engineer Battalion

In its 140-plus year history, thousands of soldiers have proudly worn the insignia of the 4th Engineers and staunchly upheld the battalion’s motto, Volens et Potens (Willing and Able). The origins of the 4th Engineer Battalion date back to 31 December 1861 when the Army organized several new and existing engineer companies into a provisional engineer battalion in Washington, DC. The battalion focused primarily on the tasks of road and bridge building and took part in several Civil War campaigns, including the Peninsula, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and Appomattox. After the war, the provisional battalion was constituted in the Regular Army on 28 July 1866 as the Battalion of Engineers.

During the Spanish-American War, the battalion saw action in Cuba, taking part in the Santiago campaign. It later served briefly in the Philippine Insurrection.

Upon the United States’ entry into World War I, the battalion, now known as the 2d Regiment of Engineers, was expanded to form three engineer regiments (2d, 4th, and 5th). The 4th, redesignated as the 4th Engineers on 29 August 1917, was assigned to the 4th Division on 1 January 1918. During the war, the 4th took part in five campaigns: Aisne-Marne, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne, Champagne 1918, and Lorraine 1918. In 1921, the 4th Engineers was inactivated at Camp Lewis, Washington.

The re-birth of the 4th Engineers took place on 1 October 1933 at Fort Benning, Georgia, with the regiment’s activation and assignment to the 4th Division. Six years later, on 19 October 1939, the unit was redsignated the 4th Engineer Battalion (Combat). After a brief period as the 4th Engineer Motorized Battalion, the unit was once again reorganized and redesignated the 4th Engineer Combat Battalion to reflect its expanded role as an engineer and combat unit.

Elements of the 4th Engineer Combat Battalion were in the first wave of assault troops to hit the beaches of Normandy in the early hours of D-Day, 6 June 1944. The combat engineers of the 4th cleared Utah Beach of mines and opened a road for elements of the 8th and 22d Infantry Regiments. By nightfall, the rest of the 4th Engineer Battalion had landed and were soon busy clearing Utah Beach in support of the growing mass of men and equipment crowding the beachhead. Within days the engineers found out why they were called “combat engineers” when they were used as infantry during the assault on Montebourg.

During the ensuing days and weeks, the 4th Engineer Combat Battalion worked closely with 8th Infantry. The battalion provided reconnaissance for the main units of the 4th Infantry Division. During the drive to Paris, the engineers became pontierres again (harkening back to their origins) when the Seine, Aisne, and Meuse Rivers all needed bridges for the advancing troops. The 4th took part in the bloody fighting in the Huertgen Forest and earned a Presidential Unit Citation. The battalion also participated in the Battle of the Bulge and the Rhine River crossing. In all, the 4th took part in five World War II campaigns: Normandy (with arrowhead), Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe.

After a period of inactivation following the war, the 4th was reactivated in 1948 and deployed to West Germany in 1950 with the rest of the 4th Infantry Division. While in Germany, the 4th occupied former Wehrmacht facilities at Hanau am Main. On 5 June 1953, the battalion was redesignated the 4th Engineer Battalion.

In July 1966, elements of the 4th Engineer Battalion, under the command of LTC Gerhard Schulz, arrived at Pleiku, Republic of Vietnam and established the battalion headquarters at Camp Enari. Assignments for the 4th included providing base security (including the construction of a seven band barbed wire fence around the perimeter), building and maintaining the base airfield, and providing facilities for the 4th Infantry Division’s headquarters. Engineers of the 4th were also committed as infantry on several occasions, defending Pleiku against enemy attack. In all, the 4th took part in eleven campaigns during the Vietnam War. Company A, 4th Engineer Battalion, earned two Presidential Unit Citations, while Company C earned a Valorous Unit Award. The entire battalion earned a Meritorious Unit Commendation along with several citations from the Republic of Vietnam.

During Operation Iraqi Freedom, the 4th Engineer Battalion was deployed to Kuwait, with B Company first crossing the border into Iraq on 14 April 2003 with Task Force 1-8 Infantry. In June 2003, the battalion moved to Ad Dujayl, about sixty miles north of Baghdad, where the engineers conducted a number of rebuilding projects, destroyed tons of munitions, and patrolled the local area. In February 2004, the 4th redeployed back to its home at Fort Carson, Colorado, where it presently continues training and awaits notice of major changes planned for Army units.

In October 2004, the 4th Engineer Battalion will reflag as the 4th Special Troops Battalion as part of the 3d Brigade Combat Team’s transition to “Unit of Action.” The line companies will become part of their maneuver battalions permanently. B Company will become E Company, 1-8 Infantry, and C Company will become E Company, 1-68 Armor. A Company will be deactivated.


Combat of Liebenau, 26 June 1866 - History

14th Infantry Regiment
COAT OF ARMS

DISTINCTIVE INSIGNIA

The distinctive insignia is a gold imperial Chinese dragon placed against a red conventionalized Spanish castle with the Regimental motto "The Right of the Line" in gold letters on a blue ribbon scroll. The dragon is the crest of the coat of arms and the castle is one of the charges on the regimental shield.

The following Lineage and Honors furnished by the U.S. Army Center of Military History. Additional information provided by Larry Weist and Thomas Jones and is available on the 25th Infantry Division Association web site

14TH INFANTRY REGIMENT LINEAGE AND HONORS

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Civil War
Peninsula
Manassas
Antietam
Fredericksburg
Chancellorsville
Gettysburg
Wilderness
Spotsylvania
Cold Harbor
Petersburg
Virginia 1862
Virginia 1863

Indian Wars
Little Big Horn
Bannocks
Arizona 1866
Wyoming 1874

War with Spain
Manila

China Relief Expedition
Yang-tsun
Peking

Philippine Insurrection
Manila
Laguna de Bay
Zapote River
Cavite
Luzon 1899

World War II
Rhineland
Central Europe

Korean War
UN Summer-Fall Offensive
Second Korean Winter
Korea, Summer-Fall 1952
Third Korean Winter
Korea, Summer 1953

Vietnam
Counteroffensive
Counteroffensive, Phase II
Counteroffensive, Phase III
Tet Counteroffensive
Counteroffensive, Phase IV
Counteroffensive, Phase V
Counteroffensive, Phase VI
Tet 69/Counteroffensive
Summer-Fall 1969
Winter-Spring 1970
Sanctuary Counteroffensive
Counteroffensive, Phase VII
Consolidation I
Consolidation II
Cease-Fire

War On Terrorism
Iraq

DECORATIONS


Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company A, 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry

Organized 8 July 1861 at Fort Trumbull, Connecticut

Reorganized and redesignated 30 April 1862 as Company A, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry

Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company A, 14th Infantry

Consolidated 26 July 1869 with Company G, 45th Infantry, Veteran Reserve Corps (constituted 21 September 1866), and consolidated unit designated as Company A, 14th Infantry

( 14th Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division assigned 10 July 1943 to the 71st Light Division [later redesignated as the 71st Infantry Division] relieved 1 May 1946 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division)

Inactivated 1 September 1946 in Germany

Activated 1 October 1948 at Camp Carson, Colorado

( 14th Infantry assigned 1 August 1951 to the 25th Infantry Division)

Reorganized and redesignated 1 February 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battle Group, 14th Infantry, and remained assigned to the 25th Infantry Division (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)

Reorganized and redesignated 26 August 1963 as the 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry

Relieved 1 August 1967 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division and assigned to the 4th Infantry Division

Relieved 15 December 1970 from assignment to the 4th Infantry Division and assigned to the 25th Infantry Division

Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment

Relieved 16 October 2005 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division, and assigned to the 2d Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division
(Or - On 15 August 2006, relieved from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division and assigned to the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division)

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Civil War
* Peninsula
* Manassas
* Antietam
* Fredericksburg
* Chancellorsville
* Gettysburg
* Wilderness
* Spotsylvania
* Cold Harbor
* Petersburg
* Virginia 1862
* Virginia 1863

Indian Wars
Little Big Horn
Bannocks
Arizona 1866
Wyoming 1874

War with Spain
* Manila

China Relief Expedition
Yang-tsun
Peking

Philippine Insurrection
* Manila
* Laguna de Bay
* Zapote River
Cavite
* Luzon 1899

World War II
* Rhineland
* Central Europe

Korean War
* UN Summer-Fall Offensive
* Second Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer-Fall 1952
* Third Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer 1953

Vietnam
* Counteroffensive
* Counteroffensive, Phase II
* Counteroffensive, Phase III
* Tet Counteroffensive
* Counteroffensive, Phase IV
* Counteroffensive, Phase V
* Counteroffensive, Phase VI
* Tet 69/Counteroffensive
* Summer-Fall 1969
* Winter-Spring 1970
* Sanctuary Counteroffensive
* Counteroffensive, Phase VII

War On Terrorism
* Iraq
*Transition of Iraq
*Iraqi Governance

DECORATIONS

* Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), Streamer embroidered CHU LAI
* Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered SAMARRA, IRAQ
* Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered TAJI, IRAQ
* Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation, Streamer embroidered MUNSAN-NI
* Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1967
* Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1967-1969
* Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1969-1970
* Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1967-1969
Company A additionally entitled to:
Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered QUANG NGAI PROVINCE

2ND BATTALION, 14th Infantry Regiment LINEAGE AND HONORS


Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company B, 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry

Organized 8 July 1861 at Fort Trumbull, Connecticut

Reorganized and redesignated 30 April 1862 as Company B, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry

Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company B, 14th Infantry

Consolidated 26 July 1869 with Company A, 45th Infantry, Veteran Reserve Corps (constituted 21 September 1866), and consolidated unit designated as Company B, 14th
Infantry

( 14th Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division assigned 10 July 1943 to the 71st Light Division [later redesignated as the 71st Infantry Division] relieved 1 May 1946 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division)

Inactivated 1 September 1946 in Germany

Activated 1 October 1948 at Camp Carson, Colorado

( 14th Infantry assigned 1 August 1951 to the 25th Infantry Division)

Inactivated 1 February 1957 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and relieved from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division

Redesignated 17 May 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battle Group, 14th Infantry (organic elements concurrently constituted)

Battle Group activated 25 May 1957 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Assigned 1 July 1958 to the 1st Infantry Brigade

Inactivated 16 May 1960 at Fort Benning, Georgia

Relieved 25 June 1960 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Brigade

Redesignated 21 June 1963 as the 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry, and assigned to the 25th Infantry Division

Activated 26 August 1963 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii

Inactivated 5 June 1972 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii

Relieved 17 January 1986 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division, assigned to the 10th Mountain Division, and activated at Fort Benning, Georgia

Relieved 16 September 2005 from assignment to 10th Mountain Division and assigned to the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division

Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Civil War
* Peninsula
* Manassas
* Antietam
* Fredericksburg
* Chancellorsville
* Gettysburg
* Wilderness
* Spotsylvania
* Cold Harbor
* Petersburg
* Virginia 1862
*Virginia 1863

Indian Wars
* Little Big Horn
Bannocks
* Arizona 1866
Wyoming 1874

War with Spain
Manila

China Relief Expedition
Yang-tsun
Peking

Philippine Insurrection
Manila
* Laguna de Bay
* Zapote River
Cavite
* Luzon 1899

World War II
* Rhineland
* Central Europe

Korean War
* UN Summer-Fall Offensive
* Second Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer-Fall 1952
* Third Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer 1953

Vietnam
* Counteroffensive
* Counteroffensive, Phase II
* Counteroffensive, Phase III
* Tet Counteroffensive
* Counteroffensive, Phase IV
* Counteroffensive, Phase V
* Counteroffensive, Phase VI
* Tet 69/Counteroffensive
* Summer-Fall 1969
* Winter-Spring 1970
* Sanctuary Counteroffensive
* Counteroffensive, Phase VII

War On Terrorism
* Iraq

DECORATIONS

* Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered MOGADISHU
* Valorous Unit Award, Streamer embroidered EUPHRATES RIVER VALLEY
* Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), Streamer embroidered IRAQ 2004-2005
* Army Superior Unit Award, Streamer embroidered 1997
* Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation, Streamer embroidered MUNSAN-NI
* Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1968
* Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1968-1970
* Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class, Streamer embroidered VIETNAM 1966-1970

3D BATTALION, 14th Infantry Regiment LINEAGE AND HONORS


C onstituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company F, 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry

Organized 8 July 1861 at Fort Trumbull, Connecticut

Reorganized and redesignated 30 April 1862 as Company F, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry

Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company F, 14th Infantry

Consolidated 26 July 1869 with Company C, 45th Infantry, Veteran Reserve Corps (constituted 21 September 1866), and consolidated unit designated as Company C, 14th Infantry

( 14th Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division assigned 10 July 1943 to the 71st Light Division [later redesignated as the 71st Infantry Division] relieved 1 May 1946 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division)

Inactivated 1 September 1946 in Germany

Activated 1 October 1948 at Camp Carson, Colorado

( 14th Infantry assigned 1 August 1951 to the 25th Infantry Division)

Inactivated 1 February 1957 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and relieved from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division concurrently, redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battle Group, 14th Infantry

Withdrawn 11 May 1959 from the Regular Army, allotted to the Army Reserve, and assigned to the 102d Infantry Division (organic elements concurrently constituted)

Battle Group activated 1 June 1959 with Headquarters at Kansas City, Missouri (Headquarters and Headquarters Company concurrently consolidated with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 406th Infantry, and consolidated unit designated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battle Group, 14th Infantry

Reorganized and redesignated 1 April 1963 as the 3d Battalion, 14th Infantry

Inactivated 30 December 1965 at Kansas City, Missouri, and relieved from assignment to the 102d Infantry Division

Withdrawn 6 December 1969 from the Army Reserve, allotted to the Regular Army , assigned to the 25th Infantry Division, and activated at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii

Inactivated 15 December 1970 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii

Relieved 2 March 1986 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division, assigned to the 10th Mountain Division, and activated at Fort Benning, Georgia

Inactivated 15 April 1996 at Fort Drum, New York, and relieved from assignment to the 10th Mountain Division

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Civil War
* Peninsula
* Manassas
* Antietam
* Fredericksburg
Chancellorsville
Gettysburg
* Wilderness
* Spotsylvania
* Cold Harbor
* Petersburg
* Virginia 1862
* Virginia 1863

Indian Wars
* Little Big Horn
* Bannocks
Arizona 1866
Wyoming 1874

War with Spain
* Manila

China Relief Expedition
Yang-tsun
Peking

Philippine Insurrection
* Manila
* Laguna de Bay
* Zapote River
Cavite
* Luzon 1899

World War II
* Rhineland
* Central Europe

Korean War
* UN Summer-Fall Offensive
* Second Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer-Fall 1952
* Third Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer 1953

DECORATIONS

* Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation, Streamer embroidered MUNSAN-NI

5TH BATTALION, 14th Infantry Regiment LINEAGE AND HONORS


Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company E, 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry

Organized 8 July 1861 at Fort Trumbull, Connecticut

Reorganized and redesignated 30 April 1862 as Company E, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry

Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company E, 14th Infantry

Consolidated 26 July 1869 with Company D, 45th Infantry, Veteran Reserve Corps (constituted 21 September 1866), and consolidated unit designated as Company E, 14th Infantry

( 14th Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division assigned 10 July 1943 to the 71st Light Division [later redesignated as the 71st Infantry Division] relieved 1 May 1946 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division)

Inactivated 1 September 1946 in Germany

Activated 1 October 1948 at Camp Carson, Colorado

( 14th Infantry assigned 1 August 1951 to the 25th Infantry Division)

Inactivated 1 February 1957 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and relieved from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division concurrently, redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 5th Battle Group, 14th Infantry

Redesignated 21 December 1960 as Company E, 14th Infantry

Activated 24 December 1960 in Korea

Inactivated 1 January 1966 in Korea

Activated 30 June 1971 in Vietnam

Inactivated 26 November 1972 in Vietnam

Redesignated 16 December 1986 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 5th Battalion, 14th Infantry, assigned to the 25th Infantry Division, and activated at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)

Battalion inactivated 15 August 1995 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and relieved from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division

CAMPAIGN PARTICIPATION CREDIT

Civil War
* Peninsula
* Manassas
* Antietam
* Fredericksburg
* Chancellorsville
* Gettysburg
* Wilderness
* Spotsylvania
* Cold Harbor
* Petersburg
* Virginia 1862
* Virginia 1863

Indian Wars
Little Big Horn
* Bannocks
Arizona 1866
Wyoming 1874

War with Spain
* Manila

China Relief Expedition
* Yang-tsun
* Peking

Philippine Insurrection
* Manila
* Laguna de Bay
* Zapote River
* Cavite
* Luzon 1899

World War II
* Rhineland
* Central Europe

Korean War
* UN Summer-Fall Offensive
* Second Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer-Fall 1952
* Third Korean Winter
* Korea, Summer 1953

Vietnam
* Counteroffensive, Phase VII
* Consolidation I
* Consolidation II
* Cease-Fire


2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment "Bobcats"

In March 2008, the 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division was inactivated and was reflagged as the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division. The 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division was subsequently reorganized and redesignated as the 3rd Brigade Combat Team, an infantry brigade combat team, and reactivated at Fort Bliss, Texas. The reorganization to an IBCT required the activation of a second infantry battalion as part of the Brigade. The 2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry was assigned on 16 August 2009 to the 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, and activated at Fort Bliss, Texas.

The 2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment as traces its history back to 12 April 1808, when it was first constituted as a company of the 4th Infantry. It was organized in May or June 1808 in New England. The 4th Infantry as a whole served with distinction in the war of 1812 in Canada and at Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. The unit's motto originated at Lundy's Lane where Colonel James Miller, the regiment's first commander after the war, spoke those words when asked to take the objective.

The unit was consolidated between May and October 1815 with a company each of the 9th and 13th Infantry (both constituted 11 January 1812), a company of the 21st Infantry (constituted 26 June 1812), a company of the 40th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813), and a company of the 46th Infantry (constituted 30 March 1814) to form a company of the 5th Infantry Regiment. This unit was designated on 22 May 1816 as Company B, 5th Infantry.

The 5th Infantry Regiment saw service in the Mexican War from Palo Alto with General Zachary Taylor's Army, all the way to Chapultepec and Vera Cruz in 1847 with General Winfield Scott's Army. For the 5th Infantry, the Civil War was a quiet time, as the Regiment remained deployed in New Mexico protecting the Union's western flank, participating in minor campaigns.

The Regiment participated in a number of campaigns against the Indians both before and after the Civil War from Florida to Montana. It was during Colonel Nelson A. Miles' long tenure as commander after the Civil War that the Regiment created some of its most glories history. There were 48 Medals of Honor presented to soldiers of the 5th Infantry who fought against the Sioux, the Nez Perces, and the Bannocks. It was at that time that the Regiment adopted its crest. The Regiment had 54 recipients of the Medal of Honor prior to 1869, the most of any infantry regiment during that time period. It was the third oldest regiment in service.

In June 1869, Company B, 5th Infantry was consolidated with part of Company K, 37th Infantry. Company K, 37th Infantry had been first constituted on 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company K, 3rd Battalion, 19th Infantry. It was organized on 25 September 1866 at Fort Columbus, New York and reorganized and redesignated on 23 November 1866 as Company K, 37th Infantry. Elements of the company were consolidated in June 1869 with both Company A and Company B, 5th Infantry, and consolidated units designated as Company A and Company B, 5th Infantry (with Company A, 5th Infantry having a separate lineage).

The Regiment saw limited action during the Philippine Insurrection and Participated as one of the occupation forces after the First World War. Between World War I and into the interwar period, the unit was assigned to various divisions within the US Army. The 5th Infantry was assigned on 27 July 1918 to the 17th Division, before being relieved on 10 February 1919 from assignment to the 17th Division. It was assigned on 24 March 1923 to the 9th Division and then relieved on 15 August 1927 from assignment to the 9th Division. At that time it was assigned to the 5th Division. It was relieved on 1 October 1933 from assignment to the 5th Division and reassigned to the 9th Division.

The 5th Infantry was relieved on 15 July 1940 from assignment to the 9th Division. It was assigned on 10 July 1943 to the 71st Light Division (later redesignated as the 71st Infantry Division). During World War II, the 5th Infantry landed in France on 2 February 1945, where it participated in the Rhineland campaign and in Austria with the 71st Infantry Division. The 5th Infantry was relieved on 1 May 1946 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division. Company B, 5th Infantry was inactivated on 15 November 1946 in Austria.

Company B, 5th Infantry along with the rest of the Regiment was activated on 1 January 1949 in Korea. It served throughout the entire conflict and participated in 11 campaigns. Battles where the Regiment displayed extreme valor included the Punchbowl, Congnae-Dong, and Chinju (where the Regiment was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation).

After the Korean War, the Regiment was assigned on 10 October 1954 to the 71st Infantry Division. It was relieved on 25 August 1956 from assignment to the 71st Infantry Division and assigned on 1 September 1956 to the 8th Infantry Division. The unit was inactivated on 1 August 1957 in Germany and relieved from assignment to the 8th Infantry Division. It was redesignated on 19 November 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 5th Infantry, with its organic elements concurrently constituted. It was assigned on 1 December 1957 to the 9th Infantry Division and activated at Fort Carson, Colorado. It was inactivated on 31 January 1962 at Fort Carson, Colorado, and relieved from assignment to the 9th Infantry Division.

The unit was redesignated on 6 December 1969 as the 2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry. It was concurrently assigned to the 25th Infantry Division and activated at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. There it was inactivated on 5 June 1972 and relieved from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division.

The Battalion was reassigned on 16 August 1995 to the 25th Infantry Division and activated at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii.

The Battalion was redesignated on 1 October 2005 as the 2d Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment. It was inactivated on 15 November 2005 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and relieved from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division. This was part of the transformation of the 3rd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division to the US Army's new modular force structure. As part of the transformation, the Battalion was inactivated and reflagged as the 3rd Squadron, 4th Cavalry.

The Battalion was assigned on 16 August 2009 to the 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, and activated at Fort Bliss, Texas. This activation was part of both the transformation of the 3rd Brigade Combat Team to the Army's modular force structure, but also the conversion of the Brigade from a Heavy Brigade to an Infantry Brigade Combat Team.


Thank you!

Looking further south for the true origins of the holiday, Gardiner and Bellware dug up newspaper clips that suggest that a widow in Columbus, Ga., may have first had the idea.

Mary Ann Williams, secretary of the Ladies’ Memorial Association of Columbus, Ga., is thought to have encouraged the organization to start an annual holiday while regularly putting flowers on the graves of soldiers including her husband, who died in the war. A letter she wrote urging Southerners to come together one day a year to put flowers on the graves of the fallen was published in the Columbus Daily Sun in early March 1866.

“We cannot raise monumental shafts, and inscribe thereon their many deeds of heroism, but we can keep alive the memory of the debt we owe them by dedicating at least one day in each year to embellishing their humble graves with flowers,” she wrote. She proposed that April would be a good time for such an event &mdash in the South, April is a great time for flowers &mdash but originally asked for suggestions about which precise date would be best. The suggestion that ended up most widely published was April 26, the first anniversary of the Confederate surrender in North Carolina, which came just a few weeks after the better known surrender at Appomattox.

That letter got picked up throughout the state within a couple of weeks, and syndicated nationwide over the next month. But another misprint in a newspaper would preclude the holiday’s inventors from being the first to celebrate the holiday.

That honor, coincidentally and confusingly enough, has gone to residents of another American city named Columbus.

Gardiner says there’s enough primary evidence to prove that women in the Civil War hospital town of Columbus, Miss., celebrated the first Memorial Day because they followed what was written in March 1866 articles that appeared in the Memphis Daily Avalanche and the Pulaski Citizen. Those stories reported that Columbus, Ga., was urging people to celebrate April 25 instead of April 26 as Memorial Day. The fact that they celebrated a day before most people is why people such as President Barack Obama have given them the credit for celebrating Memorial Day, even if experts such as Gardiner say it wasn’t their idea.

Newspapers reporting on those early Memorial Day celebrations noted that ladies throughout the South were leaving flowers not only on the graves of Confederate soldiers, but also of Union soldiers. As a May 9, 1866, article in the New York Commercial Advertiser, described the gesture made by Columbus, Ga., attendees, “Let this incident, touching and beautiful as it is, impart to our Washington authorities a lesson in conciliation, forbearance, and brotherly love.” A May 30, 1866, Cleveland Plain Dealer article said of the gesture made by Columbus, Miss., attendees, “It kindles a spark of hope…We have one God one language, on Government and may we not hope that we shall eventually become indeed one people.”

After reading an account of the Columbus, Miss., celebration, Ithaca lawyer Francis M. Finch was inspired to write a poem “The Blue and the Gray,&rdquo published in the Atlantic Monthly in Sep. 1867, which is thought to have spread the word even further about Southern Memorial Day celebrations.

General John A. Logan, who ran the Union Army veterans organization the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), must have heard of the 1866 Memorial Day activities in Georgia. In a speech he delivered in Salem, Ill., that summer, he commented derisively on the &ldquotraitors in the South [who] have their gatherings day after day and strew garlands upon the graves of rebel soldiers.” Yet nearly two years later, on May 5, 1868, he issued a proclamation from his Washington, D.C., office urging members of the GAR to celebrate Memorial Day &mdash “Decoration Day,” as he called it &mdash on May 30. By then, he believed, the “choicest flowers of springtime” would have bloomed. The press reported on the proclamation, and it stuck.

So the women of Columbus pioneered the idea but Logan made it go national, Gardiner’s and Bellware’s research argues.

Congress made May 30 a national holiday in 1889. (A 1968 law moved it to the last Monday in May.) Perhaps not surprisingly, around the turn of the 20th century, more towns and cities start claiming they started Memorial Day.

The confusion is understandable.

“So many people are claiming they started Memorial Day because they remember a cemetery dedication or remember going to a graveyard and throwing flowers on graves earlier than 1866,” says Gardiner. “In many cases they’re telling the truth. But, in my view, they didn&rsquot necessarily start an annual tradition. They didn&rsquot say, ‘Let&rsquos do this every year.'”


On July 28, 1866, the Thirty-Ninth Congress passed the Act to increase and fix the Military Peace Establishment of the United States thus the federal government created six all-Colored Army Regiments. The units identified as the 9th and 10th Colored Cavalry Regiments and the 38th, &hellip Read More Formation of the Buffalo Soldiers, 1866

The Tampa Bay Race Riot was one of dozens of race riots that occurred in U.S. cities during the spring and summer of 1967. The riot took place between June 11 and June 14, 1967 after nineteen-year-old Martin Chambers who was a suspect in the &hellip Read More Tampa Bay Race Riot (1967)


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Combat of Liebenau, 26 June 1866 - History

We are delighted that you are interested in learning more about the unparalleled cultural heritage and history of the Muscogee Creek Indian Freedmen! Our desire is that the untold history of the African Creek Indian is presented factually through historical documents, and preserved in the pages of history.

Our website is designed to serve two purposes. First, it will serve as a resource, providing historical facts regarding the history and cultural heritage of the African Creek Indian Freedmen. Second, it will provide information regarding our plight as citizens of the Muscogee Creek Nation as it pertains to our political rights, defined by the Creek Treaty of 1866, Article 2.

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Treaty of 1866
Article 2 of the Creek Treaty of June 14, 1866, it is provided that

The Creeks hereby covenant and agree that henceforth neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted in accordance with laws applicable to all members of said tribe, shall ever exist in said nation and inasmuch as there are among the Creeks many persons of African descent, who have no interest in the soil, it is stipulated that hereafter these persons lawfully residing in said Creek country under their laws and usages, or who have been thus residing in said country, and may return within one year from the ratification of this treaty, and their descendants and such others of the same race as may be permitted by the laws of the said nation to settle within the limits of the jurisdiction of the Creek Nation as citizens [thereof,] shall have and enjoy all the rights and privileges of native citizens, including an equal interest in the soil and national funds, and the laws of the said nation shall be equally binding upon and give equal protection to all such persons.

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Legends of America

Indian Attack on a Wagon Train by Charles Marion Russell

As more and more emigrants began to pass through Wyoming on their way west, the Native Americans who called the region home or used it as hunting grounds, began to resent the traffic through their lands, especially after the California Gold Rush. As a result, the U.S. government began to negotiate with the Plains tribes living between the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers to ensure a protected right-of-way for the many travelers. To accomplish this the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed with representatives of the Cheyenne Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations on September 17, 1851. The treaty set forth the Indians’ traditional territorial claims, guaranteed safe passage for settlers, and allowed the government to build forts and roads across the territories. In return, the government was to provide annuities of $50,000 for fifty years to the tribes. Later, the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty, adding Article 5, which adjusted the compensation from fifty to ten years, if the tribes accepted the changes. All tribes accepted the change with the exception of the Crow.

The treaty produced a brief period of peace but, as several tribes did not receive the commodities promised as payments and the government chose not to enforce the treaty to keep out the emigrants, especially during the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush of 1858, the tribes began to retaliate. As attacks began on settlers intruding upon their lands, the military presence along the trails was increased and a number of forts were established. When the Bozeman Trail was blazed in 1864, yet more emigrants intruded on Indian lands resulting in more attacks. As a result, Major General Grenville M. Dodge ordered the first Powder River Expedition to attempt to quell the violence in 1865. The expedition ended in a battle against the Arapaho in the Battle of Tongue River. However, the fighting escalated again the very next year in what has become known as Red Cloud’s War which was the first major military conflict between the United States and the Wyoming Indian tribes. The second Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868 ended the war by closing the Powder River Country to white settlers.

This treaty was also broken by miners who flocked to the Black Hills after gold was discovered. This land, sacred to the Sioux, led to the Black Hills War, which was fought mainly along the border of Wyoming and Montana.

A number of skirmishes, battles, and massacres occurred during these turbulent years. Fort Phil Kearny saw some of the most dramatic incidents such as the Wagon Box Fight and the Fetterman Massacre.


Combat of Liebenau, 26 June 1866 - History


Appendix 1: Commanding Officers of Fort Union, 1851㭗

Officer Rank Unit Period served
Edmond B. Alexander 1 Capt. and bvt. lt. col. 3d Infantry July 26, 1851—Apr. 22, 1852.
James H. Carleton 2 Capt. and bvt. maj. 1st Dragoons Apr. 22, 1852—Aug. 3, 1852.
William T. H. Brooks Capt. and bvt. maj. 3d Infantry Aug. 3, 1852—Dec. 18, 1852.
Gouverneur Morris Maj. 3d Infantry Dec. 18, 1852—June 30, 1853.
Horace Brooks Capt. and bvt. lt. col. 2d Artillery June 30, 1853—Aug. 3, 1853.
Nathanial C. Macrae 3 Capt. 3d Infantry Aug. 3, 1853—Nov. 4, 1853.
Philip St. George Cooke 4 Lt. col. 2d Dragoons Nov. 4, 1853—Sept. 17, 1854.
Thomas T. Fauntleroy 5 Col. 1st Dragoons Sept. 17, 1854—June 29, 1856.
William N. Grier Capt. and bvt. maj. 1st Dragoons June 29, 1856—Aug. 21, 1856.
Henry B. Clitz 1st lt. 3d Infantry Aug. 21, 1856—Sept. 27, 1856.
William W. Loring 6 Col. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. Sept. 27, 1856—May 35, 1859.
John S. Simonson Maj. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. May 31, 1859—June 7, 1859.
Robert M. Morris Capt. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. June 7, 1859—Oct. 22, 1859.
John S. Simonson Maj. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. Oct. 22, 1859—Aug. 15, 1860.
Charles F. Ruff Maj. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. Aug. 15, 1860— Sept. 17, 1860.
George B. Crittenden 7 Lt. col. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. Sept. 17, 1860—Feb. 28, 1861.
Thomas Duncan Capt. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. Feb. 28, 1861—May 18, 1861.
Henry Hopkins Sibley 8 Maj. 1st Dragoons May 18, 1861—June 13, 1861.
William Chapman Maj. and bvt. lt. col. 2d Infantry June 23, 1861—Dec. 9, 1861.
Gabriel R. Paul Col. 4th New Mexico Infantry. Dec. 9, 1861—Apr. 6, 1862,
Asa B. Carey Capt. 13th Infantry Apr. 6, 1862—June 4, 1862.
Peter W. L. Plympton Capt. 7th Infantry June 4, 1862—Aug. 1862.
Henry D. Wallen Maj. 7th Infantry Aug. 1862—Sept. 25, 1862.
Peter W. L. Plympton Capt. 7th Infantry Sept. 25, 1862—Aug. 12, 1863.
William R. McMullen Capt. 1st California Infantry. Aug. 12, 1863—Sept. 1, 1864.
Henry R. Selden 9 Col. 1st New Mexico Infantry. Sept. 1, 1864—Jan. 1865.
Francisco P. Abreu Lt. col. 1st New Mexico Infantry. Jan. 1865—Aug. 1865.
Edward B. Ellis Lt. col. 1st New Mexico Infantry. Aug. 1865—Dec. 23, 1865.
Christopher Carson 10 Col. 1st New Mexico Cavalry. Dec. 23, 1865—Apr. 21, 1866.
John Thompson Maj. 1st New Mexico Cavalry. Apr. 22, 1866—Aug. 22, 1866.
Elisha G. Marshall Col. and bvt. brig. gen. 5th Infantry Aug. 12, 1866—Feb. 20, 1867.
William B. Lane Maj. and bvt. lt. col. 3d Cavalry Feb. 20, 1867—Oct. 15, 1867.
John R. Brooke 11 Lt. col. and bvt. brig. gen. 37th Infantry Oct. 25, 1867—July 22, 1868.
William N. Grier 12 Col. and bvt. brig. gen. 3d Cavalry July 12, 1868—June 1, 1870.
J. Irvin Gregg Col. and bvt. brig. gen. 8th Cavalry June 1, 1870—Aug. 28, 1873.
John W. Eckles 1st lt. and bvt. maj. 15th Infantry Aug. 28, 1873—Sept. 15, 1873.
Andrew J. Alexander Maj. and bvt. brig. gen. 8th Cavalry Sept. 15, 1873—July 9, 1874.
Henry A. Ellis Capt. 15th Infantry July 9, 1874—Nov. 21, 1875.
James M. Ropes 1st lt. 8th Cavalry Nov. 21, 1875—Dec. 20, 1875.
James F. Wade 13 Maj. and bvt. brig. gen. 9th Cavalry Dec. 20, 1875—Nov. 24, 1876.
Nathan A. M. Dudley 14 Lt. col. and bvt. col. 9th Cavalry Nov. 24, 1876—Aug. 23, 1877.
Edward W. Whittemore Capt. and bvt. maj. 15th Infantry Aug. 23, 1877—Sept. 3, 1877.
A. P. Morrow Maj. 9th Cavalry Sept. 3, 1877—Nov. 26, 1877.
Edward W. Whittemore Capt. and bvt. maj. 15th Infantry Nov. 26, 1877—Jan. 14, 1880.
Nathan A. M. Dudley Lt. col. and bvt. col. 9th Cavalry Jan. 24, 1880—June 1880.
Edward W. Whittemore Capt. and bvt. maj. 15th Infantry June 1880—July 1880.
Harrison S. Weeks 1st lt. 8th Cavalry July 1880—Oct. 25, 1880.
John B. Parke Capt. and bvt. lt. col. 10th Infantry Oct. 25, 1880—Nov. 1880.
Harrison S. Weeks 1st lt. 8th Cavalry Nov. 1880—Dec. 9, 1880.
Edward W. Whittemore Capt. 15th Infantry Dec. 9, 1880—Feb. 25, 1881.
Nathan W. Osborne Maj. 15th Infantry Feb. 25, 1881—June 11, 1881.
Edward W. Whittemore Capt. 15th Infantry June 11, 1881—Aug. 13, 1881.
James J. Van Horn Maj. 13th Infantry Aug. 13, 1881—Sept. 4, 1881.
Harrison S. Weeks 1st lt. 8th Cavalry Sept. 4, 1881 Oct. 22, 1881.
Granville O. Haller Col. 23d Infantry Oct. 21, 1881—Feb. 8, 1882.
George K. Brady Capt. and bvt. lt. col. 23d Infantry Feb. 8, 1882—May 29, 1882.
Thomas MacK. Smith Capt. 23d Infantry May 29, 1882—July 12, 1882,
George K. Brady Capt. and bvt. lt. col. 23d Infantry July 12, 1882—Oct. 16, 1882.
Henry M. Black Col. 23d Infantry Oct. 16, 1882—Jan. 6, 1884.
Henry R Mizner Lt. col. 10th Infantry Jan 6, 1884—Aug. 10, 1885.
Henry Douglass Col. 10th Infantry Aug. 10, 1885—Dec. 31, 1888.
A. P. Morrow Lt. col. 6th Cavalry Dec. 31, 1888—Dec. 2, 1890.
Edward W. Whittemore 15 Maj. 10th Infantry Dec. 2, 1890—Feb. 21, 1892.
John H. Schollenberger 1st lt. 10th Infantry Feb. 21, 1891—May 15, 1892.

[Note: Post commanders frequently were absent on field or detached Service. At such times the next ranking officer acted as post commander. Acting post commanders are not shown on this list. At other times an officer senior to the post commander served for a short period at the fort and by virtue of superior rank took temporary command of the post until his departure, when the command reverted to the previous incumbent. These officers are not listed either. Brevet (Bvt.) ranks were conferred for gallant or meritorious service. If ordered by proper authority, an officer might serve and be paid in his brevet rank. This happened frequently before the Civil War but was rare after the war, when more high-ranking officers were available for top commands]

1 Although Fort Union was established by Col. E. V. Sumner, he remained department commander while Captain Alexander served as post commander. Alexander received a brevet of brigadier general in 1865 for meritorious service in recruiting Federal armies during the Civil War.

2 Carleton played a conspicuous role in New Mexico history. After the outbreak of the Civil War, he raised and commanded a brigade of California volunteers that helped free New Mexico of Confederate invaders. As commander of the Department of New Mexico from 1862 to 1866, he prosecuted vigorous campaigns against the hostile Apaches and Navajos. At the close of the war he held commissions of major general of volunteers and brevet major general of the Regular Army, but in the post-war reduction of the Army received a regular commission as lieutenant colonel of the 4th Cavalry. He died in 1873.

3 Macrae's career illustrates the slow promotion that was the lot of many frontier officers. Graduating from West Point in 1826, he was posted as 2d lieutenant to the 3d Infantry. Promotion to 1st lieutenant came in 1835, to captain in 1839. After 18 years as a captain he reached the rank of major in 1857 and retired in 1861, having served 35 years in the same regiment. In 1865 the Army recognized his "long and faithful service" by awarding him brevets of lieutenant colonel and colonel. He died in 1878.

4 Cooke's career spanned almost the entire era of the opening of the West, and he himself played a prominent role in the westward movement. He graduated from West Point in 1827, and after 6 years as an infantryman became an officer in the 1st Dragoons. Thereafter he was identified exclusively with the mounted arm, whose organization, equipment, and concept of employment he profoundly influenced through published writings. One of Gen. Stephen W. Kearny's most trusted officers in the conquest of the Southwest during the Mexican War, Cooke led the Mormon Battalion in opening a wagon road from Santa Fe to San Diego, a road used by thousands of immigrants in the California gold rush. He became colonel of the 2d Dragoons in 1859 and brigadier general in 1861. One of the frontier army's outstanding officers, he proved less brilliant in the ""civilized" combat of the Civil War. He retired in 1873 and died in 1895.

5 Fauntleroy is chiefly remembered for his frontier service before the Civil War, especially in the victorious Ute Campaign of 1855. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he resigned from the U.S. Army and accepted a commission in the Confederate Army as brigadier general of Virginia volunteers. He died in 1883.

6 Loring's career was diverse and colorful. He served as an officer in the Florida volunteers during the Seminole war in 1837 and in 1846, with the outbreak of the Mexican War, he received an appointment as captain in the newly formed Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. Brevetted for gallantry at Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec (where he lost an arm), he rose through the ranks to command the Mounted Riflemen. Resigning his commission in 1861, he cast his lot with the Confederacy and served with distinction as a major general. After Appomattox he led a group of ex-Confederates abroad to join the armies of the Khedive of Egypt. For 10 years Loring fought for the Khedive, rising to the rank of general of division before returning to the United States and retirement.

7 One of the prominent Kentucky Crittendens, George B. Crittenden had been with the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen since 1846. Brevetted for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco in 1847, he had been cashiered from the Army the same year and reinstated the following year. He resigned in 1861 and became a major general in the Confederate Army. He died in 1880.

8 Sibley was promoted to major, 1st Dragoons, on May 13, 1861, and on the same day submitted his resignation from the Army. Five days later, while awaiting action on the resignation, he assumed command of Fort Union. On June 13, acceptance having reached him, he turned over command of Fort Union to Major Chapman and left for the South. The following year, 1862, he was back in New Mexico as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army leading the abortive invasion of New Mexico.

9 Colonel Selden died at Fort Union in 1865, and Fort Selden, established in the spring of that year on the Rio Grande at the southern end of the Jornado del Muerro, was named for him.

10 The legendary Kit Carson, trapper, hunter, explorer, guide, and soldier, led his New Mexico volunteer cavalry in several outstanding campaigns against hostile Indians during the Civil War years. Brevetted brigadier general of volunteers in March 1865 for gallantry in the Battle of Valverde and distinguished service against hostile Indians, Carson was mustered our of the volunteer service on Nov. 22, 1867. He died the following year.

11 Brooke had risen from captain to brigadier general of volunteers during the Civil War and had been brevetted for gallantry at Gettysburg and Spotsylvania Court House. At the close of the war he accepted a Regular Army commission. As brigadier general in 1890㭗, he managed the campaign against the Sioux Ghost Dancers at Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak., and as a major general fought in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. He retired in 1902.

12 As a captain, Grier had commanded Fort Union in 1856.

13 Major Wade was the son of the powerful Republican senator from Ohio, Benjamin F. Wade. Later, in 1886, as lieutenant colonel of the 9th Cavalry, Wade managed the removal of the Chiricahua Apaches from San Carlos Agency, Ariz., to Florida, a move that proved instrumental in persuading Geronimo to surrender. During the Spanish-American War, Wade served as a major general of volunteers, and in 1903 attained the rank of major general in the Regular Army.

14 The New Mexico historian W. A. Keleher says this about Dudley: ". . . stormy petrel of the military in the Southwest for over a decade. . . . On November 26, 1877, Dudley, then commanding officer at Fort Union, New Mexico, was tried before a court martial on several charges, including alleged disobedience of orders of Brig. Gen. John Pope, commanding the Department of Missouri villification of and refusal to cooperate with Capt. A. S. Kimball, when ordered to do so by Col. Edward Hatch, commanding the Ninth Cavalry drunkenness while on duty on April 27, 1877. Dudley was found guilty of some of the charges, not guilty of others, suspended from rank, relieved of command at Fort Union, and deprived of half-pay for three months. On March 8, 1878, Gen. W. T. Sherman ordered the unexecuted portion of the sentence remitted." This was Dudley's second court-martial, the first having occurred at Camp McDowell, Ariz., in 1871. In April 1878 he took command at Fort Stanton, N. Mex., and immediately became involved in the famous Lincoln County war between rival factions of cattlemen. His role in this affair is still controversial. He retired as colonel of the 1st Cavalry in 1889 and spent some years attempting to vindicate his reputation.

15 Whittemore holds the record for number of separate tours as post commander at Fort Union, having served in that capacity eight times between 1876 and 1891.


Watch the video: Königgrätz 3 July 1866 PM battle (August 2022).