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Joseph Lancaster

Joseph Lancaster



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Joseph Lancaster, the son of a shopkeeper, was born in Southwark, London, in 1778. As a boy Lancaster began to have religious visions that convinced him that he should become a missionary in the West Indies. At fourteen he left home and made his way to Bristol where he intended to catch a boat to Jamaica where he hoped "to teach the poor blacks the word of God." Unable to afford the fare, Lancaster found work in the city and soon afterwards joined the Society of Friends.

Lancaster returned to London and at the age of twenty opened small school in Southwark. Outside Lancaster put up a notice that read "All who will may send their children and have them educated freely, and those who do not wish to have education for nothing may pay for it if they please." The school was extremely popular but as most of the children were unable to contribute money towards their schooling, Lancaster found it difficult to employ people to teach them. After reading a pamphlet written by Andrew Bell about his attempts to form a school in Madras, Lancaster decided to introduce the monitorial system. Under this system one master taught a select group of older pupils, the monitors, and these in turn taught the rest.

Lancaster devised a very elaborate system of punishments that encouraged children to feel a sense of shame. As a Quaker Lancaster was unwilling to inflict physical pain on his pupils. In 1803 he published his first pamphlet, Improvements in Education, which explained the teaching methods that he used at the school.

The school grew rapidly and within a couple of years he had over a 1,000 pupils. Members of the aristocracy became aware of Lancaster's school and he was visited by the Duke of Bedford, Lord Somerville and the Duke of Sussex. In 1805 George III asked Lancaster to visit him in Weymouth. At the meeting the king promised to help fund Lancaster's monitorial school.

Despite some generous donations, Lancaster was always in debt and in 1808 two Quakers, Joseph Fox and William Allen, and the radical politician, Samuel Whitbread, took over the running of the school. They then formed the Royal Lancasterian Society that gave support to the formation of schools that were not controlled by the Church of England. Lancaster always argued that education should be Christian but not sectarian. A report published in 1811 revealled that of the 7,000 children that Lancaster had educated, not one had become a Quaker.

Joseph Lancaster now spent most of his time touring the country advocating his views on schooling. Between 1798 and 1810 he travelled 3,775 miles, delivered 67 lectures in the presence of 23,480 people, and helped form fifty new schools for 14,200 scholars.

John Edward Taylor, who was later to establish the Manchester Guardian, became secretary of the Manchester Lancasterian School Committee. Other reformers in Manchester such as Absalom Watkin, Archibald Prentice, John Shuttleworth, Joseph Brotherton, William Cowdray, Thomas Potter and Richard Potter were also supporters of the Joseph Lancaster School that opened in Manchester in 1813.

In 1816 Lancaster argued with the trustees of the Royal Lancasterian Society. Lancaster left the organisation and attempted to form his own school at Tooting. This failed and he ended up bankrupt. After a period where he was imprisoned for debt, Lancaster emigrated to America. He formed a school in Baltimore but it failed to make money. Lancaster also established schools in Venezuela and Canada. These schools were also unsuccessful and he was forced to return to New York. In October, 1838, Joseph Lancaster had an accident in New York and soon afterwards died of his injuries.


Joseph Lancaster

Joseph Lancaster (25 November 1778 – 23 October 1838) was an English Quaker and public education innovator. He developed, and propagated on the grounds both of economy and efficacy, a monitorial system of primary education. In the first decades of the 19th century his ideas found application in new schools established in growing industrial centres.


Lancaster, Joseph (1816&ndash1874)

Joseph Lancaster, journalist, was born in Devonport, England, on March 30, 1816. After being apprenticed as a printer, he stowed away on a vessel bound for New York and landed there about 1831. He migrated westward, worked on newspapers in Lexington and Louisville, Kentucky, and went to Tuscaloosa, Alabama, where he was employed by the Flag of the Union. There he met John (Dr. Jack) Shackelford and joined the Red Rovers. After his arrival in Texas, Lancaster was assigned to courier duty between James W. Fannin, Jr., and Sam Houston. He was saved from capture near Goliad by a Mexican woman. After making his way back to Houston, he was hospitalized because of exposure and illness. He accompanied Anson Jones to San Jacinto and participated in the battle. After discharge from the Texas army, he returned to Alabama and resumed the newspaper business. Lancaster did not file for bounty land before leaving Texas or for several years after his return. When he did file, his claim was denied because his service could not be confirmed. He is not listed in the muster rolls or any other list of soldiers.

He was editing the State Advocate at Carrollton, Mississippi, when he met Mary Evalina Barnett, whom he married on May 23, 1842. After their marriage, Mrs. Lancaster worked with him on newspaper ventures. The Lancasters bought the Patriot at Houston, Mississippi, and through its columns advocated annexation of Texas. After Texas became a state they moved their printing plant to Washington-on-the-Brazos and on January 16, 1849, first published the Texas Ranger and Brazos Guard. As editor of this paper Lancaster began a crusade to promote steamboat navigation of the Brazos River. The first printing house was the old Capitol. The Ranger was Democratic in politics and loyally supported Anson Jones. Much of Jones's Republic of Texas is composed of editorials and articles taken from the Ranger. The printing office was burned in 1852, possibly by an arsonist. Lancaster subsequently purchased the Washington Semi-Weekly Star, which he renamed the Texas Ranger and Lone Star.

He and his two sons, Franklin Briscoe and William, joined the Confederate Army and served four years. Eva Lancaster managed and edited the Ranger without missing an issue during the war. The policy of the Ranger after the war was to accept the fait accompli of Southern defeat and make the best of it, and the office was burned again. Lancaster was appointed to head the Texas State Library and moved his paper to Austin, where under the administration of Governor E. J. Davis the Ranger received state patronage. Its publication was discontinued when Lancaster died on January 8, 1874.

Hobart Huson, "Story of an Old Washington Hand Press," Frontier Times, April 1937. Pamela A. Puryear and Nat Winfield, Jr., Sandbars and Sternwheelers: Steam Navigation on the Brazos (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1976). Marilyn M. Sibley, Lone Stars and State Gazettes: Texas Newspapers before the Civil War (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1983). Vertical Files, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin.


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1 Gay , Peter , ed., John Locke on Education (New York, 1964 ), 36 .

2 Smith , Adam , The Theory of Moral Sentiments ed. Macfie , A. L. and Raphael , D. D. (Indianapolis, 1976 ), 259 .

3 Goodlad , John , A Place Called School (New York, 1984 ), 241 , 105–6, 123–25, 213. See also Sizer , Theodore , Horace's Compromise (New York, 1984), pt. 1, chs. 4, 5 and pt. 11, ch. 1 Powell , Arthur , Farrar , Elizabeth , and Cohen , David , The Shopping Mall High School (Boston, 1985), ch. 1, 2 Gerald Grant, The World We Created at Hamilton High (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), intro., chs. 1, 4 Connell , Robert , et al., Making the Difference (Sydney, 1983) Jackson , Philip , Life in Classrooms (New York, 1968), ch. 1 Henry , Jules , Culture against Man (New York, 1965), 296 Lightfoot , Sarah L. , The Good High School (New York, 1983), ch. 3 Parsons , Talcott , “ The School Class as a Social System: Some of Its Functions in American Society, “ Harvard Educational Review 29 (Fall 1959): 297– 318 Dreeben , Robert , On What Is Learned in School (Reading, Mass., 1968) Davis , Kingsly and Moore , Wilbert , “Some Principles of Stratification,” American Sociological Review 10 (Apr. 1945): 242–49.

4 My argument is not that Lancaster's pedagogy was the only point of entry of the market and disciplinary revolutions into educational practice, rather that it was an especially important one. The notion of a disciplinary revolution is derived from Michel Foucault's writings on “disciplinary power,” although “disciplinary revolution” is not a term Foucault himself used. For Foucault's notion of “disciplinary power,” see Foucault , Michel , Discipline and Punish trans. Alan Sheridan (New York, 1977 ), pt. 3 idem, The History of Sexuality, vol. 1: An Introduction, trans. Hurley , R. (New York, 1978) idem, Power/Knowledge, ed. Gordon , C. (New York, 1980) idem, The History of Sexuality, vol. 2: The Use of Pleasure (New York, 1986) idem, The History of Sexuality, vol. 3: The Care of the Self (New York, 1986) idem, Language, Counter-Memory, Practice, ed. Bouchard , D. (Ithaca, 1977) Rabinow , P. , ed., The Foucault Reader (New York, 1985).

5 For instance, one prominent historian, Kaestle , Carl , concludes that Lancaster is “a central figure in the period 1800–1830, a crucial transition period for education in both England and America.” Above all, “Lancaster popularized the idea of a uniform system of instruction, and in America, the broader concept of organized systems of schools… under central direction.” Indeed, Kaestle claims that the “efficiency ethic in education found its early expression in the monitorial movement” and that “the seeds of school bureaucracy were borne on the wings of Lancaster's instructional scheme.” Finally, Kaestle concludes that Lancaster's “nonsectarian religious and moral training… cleared the way for uniform, tax-supported schools.” Kaestle , Carl F. , ed., Joseph Lancaster and the Monitorial School Movement: A Documentary History (New York, 1973 ), 46 , 47. For similar views, see Jones , M. G. , The Charity School Movement: A Study of Eighteenth Century Puritanism in Action (London, 1964), 336 Silver , Harold , The Concept of Popular Education (London, 1965), 43 McCadden , Joseph , Education in Pennsylvania, 1801–1835, and Its Debt to Roberts Vaux (Philadelphia, 1937), 44 and Cubberley , Ellwood P. , Public Education in the United States (Boston, 1919), 94. In the past decade or so, a number of historians have mounted two kinds of revisionist challenges to the conventional wisdom about Lancaster—one identifying Lancaster's connection to the triumph of capitalism, the other linking Lancaster to the disciplinary revolution. On the one hand, David Hamilton suggests that the “moral economy” of the Lancasterian classroom is very similar to the moral economy recommended by Adam Smith and that Lancaster's innovations in school organization were to the creation of the classroom system what the emergence of factory production was to the creation of modern manufacturing. On the other hand, Keith Hoskins and Ian Macvie link Lancaster to the disciplinary revolution, although not to the market revolution. Karen Jones and Kevin Williamson link Lancaster to the disciplinary revolution and to nineteenth-century class politics, but not to the market revolution. Hamilton , David , “ Adam Smith and the Moral Economy of the Classroom System, “ Journal of Curriculum Studies 12 (1980): 281– 98 Hoskin , Keith and Macvie , Robert , “Accounting and Examination: A Genealogy of Disciplinary Power,” Accounting, Organizations, and Society 11 (1986): 105–36 and Jones , Karen and Williamson , Kevin , “The Birth of the Schoolroom,” I and C: Governing the Present 6 (Autumn 1979): 58–110.

6 “Bourgeois” here designates not so much a particular social group as a particular structure of social relations—and its ideological representations—characterized by competition, isomorphic contractual commitments, individual achievement, meritocratic mobility, and free markets in land, commodities, and labor. Broadly speaking, bourgeois social relations began to appear piecemeal during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, but it was not until the triumph of capitalism during the eighteenth century that they came into their own as a recognizably distinct social formation qualitatively different from the estates world of feudal Europe or the ancien régime.

7 Lancaster , Joseph , Improvements in Education As It Relates to the Industrious Classes of the Community 3d ed. (London, 1805 ), in Joseph Lancaster, ed. Kaestle , , 62 – 63 . Because I found significant passages missing from Kaestle's expurgated edition (the third edition published in 1805), and because other editions include important passages not included in the 1805 edition, I have also used the original unexpurgated 1805 edition and other editions. When I have used Kaestle's edition, I have noted this in parentheses.


LANCASTER:

Town founded in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 1730 one of the six or seven cities in the United States containing pre-Revolutionary Jewish settlements. The earliest record of this interesting Jewish settlement seems to be that of a deed, dated Feb. 3, 1747, from Thomas Cookson to Isaac Nunus Ricus and Joseph Simon(s), conveying a half-acre of land in the township of Lancaster "in trust for the society of Jews settled in and about Lancaster, to have and use the same as a burying-ground." At this time there were about ten Jewish families at Lancaster, including Joseph Simon, Joseph Solomon, and Isaac Cohen, a physician. In 1780 the list of Jews included also Bernard Jacob, Sampson Lazarus, Andrew Levy, Aaron Levy, Meyer Solomon, Levy Marks, and Simon Solomon, all shopkeepers, and Joshua Isaacs, later of New York, father-in-law of Harmon Hendricks. The leading figure in the settlement was Joseph Simon, one of the most prominent Indian traders and merchants and one of the largest landholders in America, his enterprises extending not only over Pennsylvania, but to Ohio and Illinois and to the Mississippi river. In his Lancaster store Levy Andrew Levy was a partner, and Simon's sons-in-law, Levi Phillips, Solomon M. Cohen, Michael Gratz, and Solomon Etting (1784), were also associated with him at various periods. In partnership with William Henry, Simon supplied the Continental army with rifles, ammunition, drums, blankets, and provisions. He died Jan. 24, 1804, at the age of ninety-two and his grave is still preserved in the above-mentioned cemetery.

A list of twenty-two residents of Lancaster to whom various Indian tribes in Illinois conveyed a tract of land comprising the southern half of the present state of Illinois, includes the following names of Jews: Moses, Jacob, and David Franks, Barnard and Michael Gratz, Moses Franks, Jr., Joseph Simon, and Levy Andrew Levy.

Aaron Levy, a native of Amsterdam, Holland, and a partner of Joseph Simon at Lancaster, lent large sums of money to the American colonists during the Revolution. Joseph Cohen, a native of Lancaster, was on guard at Philadelphia, in the Continental army, on the night when Lord Cornwallis was captured. Among attorneys at Lancaster are found Samson Levy, admitted to the bar in 1787, and Joseph Simon Cohen (grandson of Joseph Simon), admitted in 1813, and from 1840 to 1853 prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.

There was probably no permanent synagogue or congregational organization at Lancaster during the eighteenth century, although it has been stated that one was formed in 1776 but regular religious services were held in a sort of private synagogue in the house of Joseph Simon. A portion of the Ark there used has been presented to the American Jewish Historical Society.

Many of the Jews of Lancaster were supporters of the Congregation Mikve Israel of Philadelphia. The Jewish families mentioned above seem to have moved from Lancaster at the beginning of the nineteenth century. No interment took place in thecemetery from 1804 until 1855. In the latter year there was a new Jewish influx into Lancaster, the newcomers being unrelated by descent to the former Jewish residents.

The old Jewish cemetery, which is still preserved, came into the possession of the Congregation Shaarai Shomayim soon after the latter's organization by residents of Lancaster and the vicinity (Feb. 25, 1855). This congregation was incorporated Nov. 18, 1856 and Jacob Herzog was the first president. Its synagogue was dedicated Sept. 22, 1867 and it has about forty-eight members and seat-holders. The exclusive right of the congregation to control the cemetery was recognized by the Superior Court of Pennsylvania in a recent decision (Congregation Shaarai Shomayim vs. Moss, 22 Penn. Superior Court Rep. 356 [1903]). This congregation is at present the leading one in Lancaster the Rev. Isadore Rosenthal, who succeeded the Rev. Clifton H. Levy, is its rabbi. There are also the following other Jewish organizations at Lancaster: Congregation Degel Israel (Orthodox), founded Sept. 25, 1895, and having about fifty members and seat-holders United Hebrew Charities of Lancaster County Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society, founded 1877 and the Harmonie Club (social).

At present (1904) there are in Lancaster about fifty Jewish families of German descent and about 150 of Russian extraction, the latter having come to Lancaster since 1884.

On an old Indian trail leading from the Conestoga to the Swatara, and not far from Lancaster, is a place pointed out as the site of one of the first synagogues in America, referred to by J. F. Sachse in his "The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania" as "at one time the most distinctive and populous congregation of the ancient faith in the colonies." He further says that many of the German Christians adopted the Jewish customs (which he states still obtain among the families of old settlers in Berks, Lebanon, and Lancaster counties) as a result of the potent influence of the Jews of Lancaster, Heidelberg, and Schaefferstown. Some of the Christian settlers even became members of this congregation. The Jewish cemetery established about 1732 near Schaefferstown (now in Heidelberg township. Lebanon county, but originally in Lancaster county) is almost obliterated.


Joseph Lancaster - History

In 1855 Michael Trissler, a butcher in Lancaster City purchased land in West Lampeter township along the Conestoga River which he called Rocky Springs. There he built a brick 2 1/2 story hotel. The hotel was run by several different innkeepers from 1860 - 1875. During those first 20 years the grounds were used for picnics. One such event, held in 1871, was the Lancaster Maennerchor annual picnic. The Lancaster Intelligencer Journal (Intell), reporting on the event, says, "There was plenty of music, the Maennerchor singing several selections very finely. The dancing was kept up throughout the day and evening with great spirit." Transportation to the grounds was by omnibus service from Lancaster City.

In 1899, Rocky Springs was sold to Mr. Thomas Rees of the Pittsburgh area. For the next 36 years the brick house was occupied by Mr. Herman Griffiths who managed the park. Many amusements were planned throughout the summer months including water shows on the river, rough riding and horse training shows, dancing in the pavilions and bathing in the resort area by the Conestoga River. A 2,000 seat auditorium was built and hosted vaudeville, music and variety shows. (This is the current site of the Bowling Lanes.) During these years John B. Peoples, who owned a competing bathing resort across the river, transported people to both parks on the Lady Gay steamerwhich ran a mile long circuit from Witmer's Bridge at Bridgeport to the bathing resorts. On May 10, 1903 the Conestoga Traction Company began service to Rocky Springs with the only double track line on the system. During the summer months, as many as 20 Birney cars would be assigned to the line at one time, to handle the crowds. This was the last line to operate trolleys in Lancaster, being abandoned on Sept. 21, 1947, when Rocky Springs closed for the season. The trolley station still stands in the park.

In addition to the regular events at the park many large private events were hosted on the grounds. For example from 1899 until 1921 the Christian and Missionary Alliance held their annual conventions at Rocky Springs. As many as 10,000 people came from the districts of Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and D.C. and camped in tents for a week each summer.

Mr. Griffiths' management at Rocky Springs rides were added to the amusements including a figure 8 roller coaster and carousel. In 1923 the present carousel building was added and housed the Denzel Carousel. About this time a young Italian immigrant named Joseph Figari moved to Lancaster from New York and began working for Mr. Griffiths. Joseph Figari began selling shaved ice with syrup drizzled over it and later began other concessions at the park. In 1935 Mr. Figari became owner of the park. He also owned the candy factory in Lancaster city where he had once been an employee. Mr. Figari brought employees from the candy factory to the park to work during the summer months. During the years that Mr. Figari owned Rocky Springs, the park included rides such as the the Wildcat, the whip, cuddle-up, fun house, ferris wheel, miniature train, Auto Skooter, and Airplane swings. Shows were held on the stage area and in the amphitheater. The park also had a baseball field and a swimming pool. Young people spent much time at the Penny Arcade and the shooting gallery as well as the refreshment stands. Near the entrance to the park stood the Roller Rink which had an organ and organist supplying the skating music. The roller rink closed in the 70's and burned down in the 1980's.

The park closed in 1966 and set empty for several years until it was purchased in the late 70's by Ben Brookmyer, Mary Corthouts, and Michael Ranck. These three fixed up Rocky Springs and reopened the park in 1979 and 1980 but the attendance was slim and the park closed its doors again. An auction was held in 1984 and the rides were sold. Soon after, the east side of the park was sold for condominiums.

Rocky Springs Park played an important role in the social lives of the residents in Lancaster County. The events held at Rocky Springs varied somewhat over time beginning with the days of the hotel and picnics on the grounds through the amusement park, trolley, and dancing years and into the 1970's with the roller-skating years. Because Rocky Springs was just outside of the city limits and the trolley ran to it, the attendance was high. Many people living in Lancaster County today remember Rocky Springs as a center of social activity. This was the place to be. Many young people met their future spouse here and brought their dates here. It was a place to bring young children and develop family relationships and have fun. The rides may be gone but many of the buildings remain intact. The grounds and walkways, stage and spring still evoke memories of events which occurred at this park.

The above information was gathered from deeds, tax records, news articles and personal interviews.


Ближайшие родственники

About Colonel Joseph Ball, of "Epping Forest"

Parents: William Ball b: 2 JUN 1611 in London, England and Hannah Atherold b: 2 FEB 1617/18 in England.

The Ball family line connects to George Washington through his maternal lineage. Joseph Ball was the father to George Washington's Mother, Mary Ball Washington. DNA studies do not bear out this relationship with President George Washington (see comments on Col. William Ball's profile).

Joseph Ball (1649-1711) was born in England and came to Virginia sometime before his father's death, making his home at a plantation called Epping Forest. (This was also the estate where Mary Ball Washington, mother of the first President of the United States, was born). Joseph served as a justice of the county court, a vestryman for his church parish, as a Member of the House of Burgess (in 1698, 1700, and 1702), and as a lieutenant colonel in the county militia. Possible middle name: Matthaus.

Captain Joseph Ball's will was proven 15 Nov 1721. Abstracts of Lancaster County, Virginia Wills 1653-1800 BALL, Joseph,. Psh. St. Mary's White Chapel. Will. 25 June 1711. Rec. 11 July 1711. Wife Mary son Joseph daus. Hannah Travers Anne Conway Esther Chinn Elizabeth Cornegie Mary Ball Eliza Johnson (dau. of his wife), dau. Mary, 400 acres of land in Richmond county grandson James Cornegie (not 21) acknowledges gift to son Joseph Ball, and daus. Hannah Travers, Anne Conway and Esther Chinn made 11 Feb. 1707 Overseer John Hagan negroes formerly belonging to Jon. Carnegie, decd. Extr. Joseph Ball. Wits. Geo. Finch, Elizabeth Finch, Margaret Miller, Joseph Taylor. W.B. 10, p. 88.

Col. Joseph Ball signed a will on 25 Jun 1711 in Lancaster Co., VA. in which he named step daughter, Elizabeth Johnson, 100 A. of land for life this is used for proof of marriage in this source. He had an estate probated on 11 Jul 1711 in Lancaster Co., VA.

Marriage 1-Female MNU Ball b: ABT 1653 in London, England Married: ABT 1669 in London, England. This marriage and child are not firmly proven. Children: John Ball b: 1670 in London, England.

From his marriage to Elizabeth Romney, who died by the early 1700's, he had five children listed in his will of 1711. The oldest child, daughter Frances, died in 1699. This wife's name has been seen as Julia or Elizabeth Julia but I have seen no documentation for it.

Marriage 2-Elizabeth Romney b: ABT 1659 in London, England Married: 1675 in London, England. From his marriage to Elizabeth Romney, who died by the early 1700's, he had five children listed in his will of 1711. This wife's name has been seen as Julia or Elizabeth Julia but I have seen no documentation for it.

  1. Frances Ball b: 1680 in Lancaster County, Virginia, d: 1699.
  2. Hannah Ball b: 1683 in Lancaster County, Virginia
  3. Easter Ball b: 1685 in Millenbeck, Lancaster County, Virginia
  4. Elizabeth Ball b: 1685 in Lancaster County, Virginia
  5. Anne Ball b: 3 OCT 1686 in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, Virginia - Probate
  6. Joseph Ball b: 11 MAR 1688/89 in Morattico, Lancaster County, Virginia

Marriage 3-Mary Johnson (died 1721), a widow who had two children from her previous marriage. Together they had one child, a daughter named Mary Ball (1708-1789). Joseph passed away, however, soon after when Mary Ball was only three years old. Mary Johnson Ball was remarried the following year to a man named Richard Hewes, who left her a widow for the third time in 1713.

Marriage 3 Mary Bennett b: 1665 in West Chester, England Married: 1708 in Lancaster County, Virginia (conflict in surname of 3rd wife?)

  1. Roberts, Gary Boyd. Ancestors of American Presidents. (Boston, Massachusetts: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2009), p. 1. Maternal grandfather of George Washington. Joseph Ball, England. 24 May 1649, Epping Forest, Lancaster Co. between 25 June and 11 July 1711, c. 1707-8 (post 6 Feb. 1707) m. Mrs. Mary (___) Johnson. [Note that "Epping Forest" did not exist by that name until 1843. It was simply known as the "The Forest" or "The Forest Quarter." [1
  2. Lancaster Will Book 10, in Lancaster Will Book 10, p. 88-93, 88-93 .
  3. Ball Families of Virginia's Northern Neck, 45.
  4. Virginia Genealogies, 47, 56, 1885, Questionable quality.

The house at Epping Forest in Lancaster Co., VA was built in 1680 by Col. Joseph Ball. He named it after the Ball family estate in England. He gave the farm property and house to his son Joseph, Jr., and divided his personal property among all five of his children. He reserved the right to live in the manor until his death shortly thereafter, he married again, to Mary Montague Johnson.

In his will of June 5, 1711, he bequeaths to Mary Ball four hundred acres lying in the freshies of the Rappahannock, part of his patent of sixteen hundred acres. He also mentions his son, Joseph, his daughters, Anne Conway and Esther Chinn, and Eliza Johnson, "the daughter of my beloved wife, " but he does not include Hannah Traverse or Elizabeth Carnegie. True, they might have died without issue, but this, and conflicting statements as to the family record, leaves a doubt as to the authencity of the last two names.

In 1706 Joseph Ball Sr. deeded property, which he had purchased as late as 1698 and upon which he had already begun the plantation house to become known as Morattico Plantation, to his son, Joseph Ball II. Part of this property had been bought from Charles Cale, a relative of whom, Thomas Ives, continued to own land containing Ives Creek (now Ivey Creek), the northern boundary of Joseph Ball's Morattico Plantation.

Mary Sue BALL Wilson's book says 'Educated in England, settled in London married first there. Barrister of Law at the English Bar.' He was married to Elizabeth ROMENY (daughter of William ROMNEY) in 1675 in VA. Elizabeth ROMENY died before 1703 in VA.

Col. Joseph Ball signed a will on 25 Jun 1711 in Lancaster Co., VA. in which he named step daughter, Elizabeth Johnson, 100 A. of land for life this is used for proof of marriage in this source. He had an estate probated on 11 Jul 1711 in Lancaster Co., VA. The will was proven 15 Nov 1721. (Abstracts of Lancaster County, Virginia Wills 1653-1800 BALL, Joseph,. Psh. St. Mary's White Chapel. Will. 25 June 1711. Rec. 11 July 1711). Wife Mary son Joseph daus. Hannah Travers Anne Conway Esther Chinn Elizabeth Cornegie Mary Ball Eliza Johnson (dau. of his wife), dau. Mary, 400 acres of land in Richmond county grandson James Cornegie (not 21) acknowledges gift to son Joseph Ball, and daus. Hannah Travers, Anne Conway and Esther Chinn made 11 Feb. 1707 Overseer John Hagan negroes formerly belonging to Jon. Carnegie, decd. Extr. Joseph Ball. Wits. Geo. Finch, Elizabeth Finch, Margaret Miller, Joseph Taylor. W.B. 10, p. 88.

Eliza Johnson, Joseph Ball's step daughter, is remembered in the will of Joseph Ball with a 100 acres in 1711. "Col. Ball gave his wife a part of his estate during her natural life, with stock, slaves, etc. to his daughter Mary, he gave 400 acres in Richmond Co. to Eliza Johnson, 100 acres in Lancaster Co. The Lancaster Co. records could show what disposition she made of this land. She was probably 15 or 18 years old when Col. Ball died, born say 1695, and of suitable age to have married Thomas Lanier."

His estate has caused a considerable argument among researchers.Horance Edwin Hayden laid out the case against the Lanier family connection to George Washington's aunt in an article in ["William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine," Vol. 3, No. 1. (Jul., 1894), pp. 68-74.]

Record of Miltary Service: 1699 , Virginia - Militia Officers in Virginia, June 1699. Lancaster County - Col. Robert Carter - Commander in Chief and Lt. - Col. Joseph Ball.

Sources: Headlam, Cecil, ed., Calender of State Papers, Colonial Series (Volume 17), America and West Indies, 1699, also Addenda, 1621-1698. Preserved in the Public Record Office (Vaduz: Kraus Reprint Ltd., 1964) First Published London: HMSO, 1908. pp. 267-268. --------------------------

Source: wikitree Col Joseph Ball Born about May 24, 1649 in London, Englandmap [uncertain] Son of William Ball and Hannah Atherold Brother of Richard Ball, William Ball II and Hannah (Ball) Fox Husband of Elizabeth (Romney) Ball — married about 1680 in Englandmap [uncertain] Husband of Mary (Unknown) Hewes — married after February 11, 1707 in Virginiamap [uncertain] Father of Hannah Ball, Hannah (Ball) Travers, Elizabeth (Ball) Cornegie, Esther (Ball) Chinn, Anne (Ball) Conway, Joseph Ball II and Mary (Ball) Washington Died July 11, 1711 in probably Epping Forrest, Lancaster County VA, USAmap Profile managers: Misty Wood private message [send private message], Mary Hammond private message [send private message], Richard Draper private message [send private message], Jillaine Smith private message [send private message], Bill Rowan private message [send private message], Larry Chesebro' private message [send private message], Jean Ball private message [send private message], Sue Fitzpatrick private message [send private message], Steve Turley private message [send private message], and John Drinkwater private message [send private message] Last profile change on 29 July 2014 10:58: Jillaine Smith answered a question about Joseph Ball [Thank Jillaine for this] This page has been accessed 2,115 times.

Nominate for Profile of the Week by posting the link http://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Ball-168 in our G+ Community. Vote by clicking the +1 button above. Categories: Slave-owner: Virginia.

[hide] 1 Disputed Origins 2 Biography 3 Last Will & Testament 4 Children 5 Slaves Associated with Joseph Ball Family 6 Sources 7 Acknowledgements Disputed Origins

Previous edits suggest he had been incorrectly attached to a certain set of parents. Does this call for a short summary of that dispute?

That he was son of William Ball and Hannah (possibly) Atherold is supported by:

Around 1660 'Colonel' William's youngest son, Joseph, was apparently sent to join his father in Virginia, as an entry in the Lancaster County Orders Book in January 1660/61 records the grant of a certificate to William Ball for the transportation of twenty people, including Joseph Ball.[1] Appearance in William Ball's 1680 will.

He was born about 1649 in England. He emigrated to Virginia in early 1661.

The 1789 letter of James Ball to his cousin Burgess Ball, claims that Joseph was born May 25 1649 in England.[2] Joseph Ball married first, in England about 1675 Elizabeth Rogers or Elizabeth Romney, dau of William Romney of London.[3][4]

"Thereis no record of Col. Ball's marriages among the marriage bonds of Lanc'r Co., nor do I find any mention of the name of the first wife in the county or church books. The Letter Book of Joseph Ball, son of [this] Col. Joseph Ball by his first wife. [makes] No mention of the maiden name of his mother. But there is among his descendants a tradition that Joseph Ball's first wife was named Elizabeth Romney or Rumney. A tradition so trusted that the name Romney occurs frequently in this line in memory of his first wife." [He also describes an old parchment certificate with the arms of William Romney of London, dated 1593, in the possession of a Ball descendant.] "The Downman tradition, the frequency of the name 'Romney' in the line of descent from Col. Jos. Ball, the parchment certificate of the Romney arms, and the entire absence of the name 'Rogers' from the records of his descendants, appear to me to outweight the statement made in Col. James Ball's [1789] letter. "[5] Colonel Joseph Ball married second after 7 Feb 1707 and before 1709, the widow Mary____ (some say Bennet, not proven others suggest Montague) Johnson, who was perhaps (not proven)[citation needed] the daughter or near kin of Thomas Bennet of Westmoreland, Virginia, living in 1738/39.[6][7][8][9]

"That he married the widow Johnson in Lanc'r Co. appears from a deed recorded in the county Feb. 12, 1703, from Col. B, to his son-in-law, Raleigh Chinn, of 190 a., witnessed by George Frick and Mary Johnson."[10] [How this proves that the witness on the deed was the a) the woman he married and b) a widow is not explained by Hayne.] He made his residence in Epp[l]ing Forest, Lancaster Co., Virginia.

He served as Lieut. Colonel.[11]

He died between 25 June and 11 July 1711.

His widow married second Richard Hewes,[12].

The last will and testament of Joseph Ball Sr is very long its full text may be found in Hayne, pp 58-59 what follows are pertinent genealogical details.

Date: 25 JUN 1711 Proven: 11 JUL 1711 Joseph Ball identifies himself of "County of Lancasr and p'ish of St. Mary's Wt Chappell in the Colony of Virga" and that at the time he wrote he was sick and weak. He makes reference to the 11 Feb 1707 deed referenced earlier where he named his son and daughters: son Joe Ball, my daughter Hannah Travers my daughter Anne Conway and my daughter Esther Chinn He clarifies that the bequest in that deed of "a negro wo: named Murcah and her Increase. I do therefore hereby declare that it then was my full Intent and meaning & still is my will and Pleasure That thereby be meant the future increase only of ye sd. Murcah to be to my sd son and no other children born of her body wch by ye sd. deed I have given to Mrs Anne Conway and Mrs Esther Chinn -- viz Jack and Janney and no other children therefore. to my Loving wife Mary Ball very specific items including (among other things) feather bed, all the chairs that are single nailed, the chest of drawers in the hall chamber standing under the window and the Looking Glass with a narrow frame. to my wife a negro man named Tony and a negro wo: named Dinah and Irish woman for the time she is to serve her, named Ellen Grafton' to my daughter Mary 400 (out of 1600) acres of land in Richmond County to my son Jos Ball the balance of 1200 acres of Richmond county referenced above to Eliza Johnson ye daughter of my beloved wife 100 acres bought of Wilb Lut late of this county my wife shall have the use of a negro Girl Jenny that he'd formerly given to his daughter Eliz Cornegie until my grandson Jos Carnegie shall come of age (21) that the negroes "now on the plantation" under the care of John Hogan my overseer. after they finish the crop they be equally divided between my son Jos Ball my daughter Ann Conway and my daughter Esther Chinn. my daughter Hannah Travers nominate and appoint my son Jos Ball Executor. The will was signed in the presence of George Finch, Eliz. Finch Mart, M. Miller, Jos. Taylor.

A deed dated 7 February 1707 from Col. Joseph Ball to his son, Joseph indicates that a) at this time the father is not married and b) if his son should die without heir, then the land should pass to his daughters. This indicate that he had an earlier marriage and that most of his children were by that first wife. Tradition holds that Joseph had remained in England until the death of his first wife, sugesting that their children together were born in England:[13]

Hannah, b abt 1683 m. before 1707 Raleigh Travers Elizabeth, b 168- d. before 1711 m. before 1707 Rev. John Carnegie. Had one child, Joseph a minor in 1711. Esther, b 1685, d May 1751 m. bef 1703 Raleigh Chinn Anne, b 1686? m. 1704 Col. Edwin Conway Joseph Ball Jr or II, b in Virginia 11 Mar 1689 d 10 Jan 1760 m 3 Dec 1709 Frances Ravenscroft. At least one source claims he had an additional daughter, Frances Ball, born in 1681, married in 1698 John Carter, then died the following year.[14] This source provides no supporting evidence for this additional child, so we have detached her from this profile for the time being.

His last daughter-- and by his second wife-- was Mary, mother of president-to-be George Washington. At her 25 Aug 1789 death she was "in her 82nd year" (i.e., 81), placing her birth before August 1708, but after the above 7 Feb 1707 deed. Joseph died leaving Mary orphaned at the age of three. His probate requested that Colonel George Eskridge look after her.[15]

Slaves Associated with Joseph Ball Family

As recorded in Joseph's 1711 will:

Murcah (woman, 1711) Tony (man, 1711) Dinah (woman, 1711) Jenny (girl, 1711) the negroes "now on the plantation" (1711) under the care of overseer John Hogan Tome (boy, 1711) Jo [formerly belonging to Jo Carnegie who dec'd 1711] Jack [formerly belonging to Jo Carnegie who dec'd 1711] Sources

↑ D. J. French, "The Ancestry of the Balls of Berkshire, Northamptonshire and Virginia," 2013, v1.2 (PDF) (accessed 18 July 2014) see the discussion p 40 ↑ French, p ?? ↑ Horace Edwin Hayden, Virginia genealogies : a genealogy of the Glassell family of Scotland and Virginia : also of the families of Ball. Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: E.B. Yordy, printer, 1891, c1885., p 56 ↑ French, pp 70, 134 without citing his source. French does say that Joseph Ball II was son of the first wife, and that Mary Ball Washington was daughter of the second wife. ↑ Hayden, p 56 ↑ Gary Boyd Roberts and Julie Helen Otto, Ancestors of American Presidents, Santa Clarita, CA: Published in Cooperation with the New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Mass. by C. Boyer, 3rd, 1995. Print. ↑ Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd, Burke's Presidential Families of the United States of America, London: Burke's Peerage, 1981. Print. P. 15. ↑ Hayne, p 57-58 ↑ Elizabeth Combs Peirce, "Mary Johnson, Second Wife of Col. Joseph Ball," in William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, Second Series, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 1935, pp. 176-177. ↑ Hayne, p 57 ↑ The Ball Family, Mount Vernon Association. ↑ Gary Boyd Roberts, Ancestors of American Presidents, Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society 2009, p 1 [check] ↑ Hayne, p 58 ↑ Untitled Family Group sheet for Joseph Ball ↑ Virginia Carmichael, Mary Ball Washington, Fredericksburg: Colonial Press (1967), pg.9. Accessed Jan 24 2014 See also:

Robert K. Headley, Married Well and Often: Marriages of the Northern Neck of Virginia, 1649-1800, Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co. (2003). Also available digitally to subscribers of Ancestry.com. Family of Mary Ball Washington D.J. French, "The English ancestry of George Washington's mother, Mary Ball - a history of the Balls of Berkshire, Northamptonshire and Virginia," 2013. Mary Ball Washington, in "Genealogy and Ancestry of Barack Obama and other U.S. Presidents," (Blog). Rev. Horace Edwin Hayden, Virginia Genealogies, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania (1885), pp. 56 - 59.

Joseph was the father of Mary Ball, wife of Augustine Washington, and mother of President George Washington. Therefore, Joseph is George Washington's maternal grandfather.

SOURCE: Married Well and Often, Marriages of the Northern Neck of VA, 1649 - 1800, Headley

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=113366639 John Ball (Richard , Colonel William , William, John II, John Paris, William, Robert) was born 1670 in Stafford County , Virginia, and died abt. 1722 in Stafford County, Virginia. He married Winnifred Williams abt.1694 in Stafford County, Virginia. She was born 1676 in Charles town, Charles County, Maryland. This Joseph (b. 1649) couldn't be the son of Richard (b. 1640) and Elizabeth Ball (b. 1646), but I don't know who he belongs to? Any help welcome! Joseph Ball (1649-1711) was born in England and came to Virginia sometime before his father's death, making his home at a plantation called Epping Forest. He served as a justice of the county court, a vestryman for his church parish, as a Burgess (in 1698, 1700, and 1702), and as a lieutenant colonel in the county militia. Ball was married twice. From his first marriage to Elizabeth Rogers (or Romney), who died by the early 1700's, he had five children: Anne Ball (later the wife of Colonel Edwin Conway), Elizabeth Ball (later the wife of the Reverend Joseph Carnegie),Esther or Easter Ball (later the wife of Rawleigh Chinn), Hannah Ball (later the wife of Rawleigh Travers, II, and afterwards the wife of Simon Pearson), and Joseph Ball (died 1760).

After the death of his first wife, Joseph Ball married Mary Johnson (died 1721), a widow who had two children from her previous marriage. Together they had one child, a daughter named Mary Ball (1708-1789). Joseph passed away, however, soon after when Mary Ball was only three years old.

Mary Johnson Ball was remarried the following year to a man named Richard Hewes, who left her a widow for the third time in 1713. Her daughter, Mary Ball, was completely orphaned by the age of 12 or 13 and was subsequently raised by a guardian named George Eskridge, a local lawyer, land speculator, and Burgess, whose plantation was called Sandy Point. In 1731, at the age of 23, she married Augustine Washington (1694-1743), a middle-aged widower with three children, who ranged in age from 13 to 9. Their first child, a little boy they named George Washington (1732-1799), was born early the following year.

Bibliography: Broun, Thomas L. "The Ball, Conway, Gaskins, McAdam and other kindred of William and Janetta Broun of Northern Neck, VA," William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine 20, 60-8.

Freeman, Douglas Southall. George Washington: A Biography, Volume I. New York: Scribner's, 1948. See particularly, 42-47 and 530-534.

Heck, Earl Leon Werley. Colonel William Ball of Virginia, the great-grandfather of Washington. London: S.M. Dutton, 1928.

Jones, Christine Adams. Queenstown: Early Port Town of Lancaster County, Virginia, 1692. Lancaster, Virginia: Mary Ball Washington Museum & Library, 1980.

Pierce, Elizabeth Combs. "Mary Johnson, second wife of Col. Joseph Ball," William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine 15, no. 2: 176-7.


REDEFINING STYLE

Oh, and me. Well, I’m the middle one of Ricky’s three sons. As a child I would spend hours watching him work. I would be fascinated looking through his fabric pattern books, imagining what each fabric sample would look like made up into a suit. The patterns he used as templates for the suits were made from brown paper. He had them all rolled up in a cupboard behind his work table. I loved watching him roll out the fabric on his large table, root through his numerous self made patterns, then chalk around the selected pattern. Pattern removed, there was the outline of a suit.

Next out of the cupboard would come out the biggest scissors that I had ever seen, his best scissors, only ever used for ‘cutting’. Over the coming days this roll of fabric morphed into a stunning suit. Fitting the client both perfectly and beautifully. In clothing terms, it was what I would imagine to be the equivalent of watching an ‘Old Master’ at work with every brush stroke the paint evolves into an image, it takes on a depth and can even tell a story.

Through my early teens I would earn extra pocket money shortening trousers for him a pound a pair and I could do four pairs an hour. I wanted to follow in his footsteps, but he advised against. After leaving school I tried a few jobs but my heart was in clothing. Joe Corris, owner of JOSEPH+CO, initially offered me a Saturday job which I did alongside my Monday to Friday office job. After several months, Joe offered me a full time position and I gratefully accepted.

The years have rolled on and in 2010 Joe decided to hand the reigns over to me both daunting and exciting, equally. Sewing something together is an easy enough task, but understanding the body form and how the fabric and garment should fit to compliment the person is somewhat more difficult. I never became a tailor but I had a bespoke tailor as a father and mentor.


Joseph Lancaster

As a young man, Joseph Lancaster overheard a young street girl lamenting “Oh that I could read!” He devoted the rest of his life to the cause of universal elementary education. Millions of children across the globe were to owe their access to education directly to Lancaster’s vision, energy and legacy.

Lancaster was well ahead of his time. He attempted to offer free education for all, 93 years before the government finally did so.

Unable to afford a second teacher at his first school, and with huge demand for his school, he devised the ‘Monitorial Method.’ The brightest child from each year group was given extra tuition and coached to deliver simple lesson plans to their peers. Up to 500 children could be taught in one room by one master.

This project has enabled us to better tell his story and achievements, through exciting new interactive tables permitting visitors to delve into his story and methods in as much detail as they wish. Character videos chart the impact his ideas had through the eyes of key contemporaries. A full Monitorial lesson has been filmed with a local school, enabling visitors to see the lessons in action. New benches offer a tactile aspect to our interpretation.


Watch the video: Meet Joseph Lancaster part 1 (August 2022).