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North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity

North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity



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The Mediterranean Sea was the economic focal point of the Roman Empire. Rome's armies first established an empire across these waters beginning back in the times of the Roman Republic. In 200 CE, the Mediterranean was still the channel that connected the vast Roman Empire. The greatest imperial cities were located along the seacoast, and ships could cross the waters in a fraction of the time it would take to traverse the empire on land. Among the ships that carried people, news, and goods across the Mediterranean were vessels from North Africa. The region held a special position inside the Mediterranean economy as it contributed a variety of goods to the markets of the empire, notably grain, olives, slaves and pottery. North Africa's loss to the Vandals in 439 CE greatly affected the economy of the Roman world, but it did not end North Africa's important role inside the Mediterranean economy. The wares and grain of North Africa continued to flow out across the Mediterranean, just in a changed position of trade between different states rather than a single monolithic empire.

Late Roman North Africa

North Africa, as defined by the Roman Diocese of Africa, was the region from the Straits of Gibraltar to Tripolitania, or present-day Libya. The province of Africa, roughly corresponding to present-day Tunisia, had its capital at Carthage, one of the five largest cities of the Mediterranean world at this time. This region had been an important province in the Roman Empire since the conquest of Carthage in the 2nd century BCE but it gained added significance in the 3rd century CE. The 3rd century CE was a time of crisis in the Roman Empire: emperors rose and fell by the year, civil wars raged, and persecution was rampant. Many Roman provinces were damaged by this strife and suffered economic downturns. North Africa, by comparison, was relatively unscathed. The region only had two connections to the civil strife of the 3rd century CE. Septimius Severus (r. 193-211 CE) came from this region, but his reign predated the main chaos of the century, which began in earnest after 235 CE. The imperial claimants Gordian I (r. 238 CE) and Gordian II (r. 238 CE) lost the Battle of Carthage, where their imperial ambitions were cut short. North Africa was mostly spared from the battles of the next century. North Africa managed to produce large amounts of produce during this period while other regions suffered economic downturns due to armies damaging their land, population, and crops. In addition, low amounts of piracy during the 4th century CE benefited trade and access to ports, which was of great benefit to North Africa and its extensive trade routes in the Mediterranean.

North Africa produced large quantities of olives for trade throughout the Mediterranean during late antiquity. Olives were not native to the region, but had been introduced from the east. North Africa proved ideal for the crop, which grew easily in the hot, humid Mediterranean climate around Carthage. Olives held an important position in the diet of peoples throughout the Roman Empire. Olive oil was the lifeblood of Mediterranean diets, as much during the Roman Empire as today. In addition, olive oil was used for lighting lamps. Olive oil could be transferred by ship relatively easily in jars or amphorae and was not very perishable. These traits allowed it to be easily transferred to other ports, especially the Western Mediterranean, where regions like Southern Gaul could not produce olives on the same scale as North Africa.

African red slipware was incredibly popular & is one of the most widely dispersed types of pottery found in the territory of the old Roman Empire.

A variety of other goods, including garum and pottery, were produced in North Africa for trade across the Mediterranean. Fishing was an important part of commerce and garum, a fermented fish paste, was produced and transported to various other ports. Garum constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet, especially since fresh meat or fish was not always available, and was thus in demand as a source of protein.

Crafts such as pottery were also traded across the sea. African red slipware was incredibly popular and is one of the most widely dispersed types of pottery found in the territory of the old Roman Empire. Archaeologists have found samples of African red slipware in most of the major cities of the empire as well as the majority of the provinces. The pottery also enjoyed a relatively long period of popularity, being traded up into the 7th century CE, when North Africa was under Byzantine rule.

Slaves were also traded from North Africa with the rest of the Roman Empire. Slavery did not experience any noticeable growth during the period from 200 to 500 CE, but the slave trade was still an important aspect of the Mediterranean economy. Slaves could be captured from the autochthonous tribes of North Africa and traded around the Mediterranean as laborers, household slaves, and even entertainers in games. Although the North African region was by no means the only or necessarily even the primary producer of slaves, the area still held an important position in the slave trade.

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One of the most important goods produced in North Africa was grain, especially wheat. The province of Africa was especially fertile and it had the ideal soil and climate to produce vast amounts of wheat. Since the city of Rome had long since outstripped the size where just the surrounding villages could produce enough grain to feed the population, North Africa had long shared a special relationship with Rome relating to the grain trade. By the reign of Augustus, Rome was expanding to several hundreds of thousands of people and the city would maintain a vast size into the 5th century CE. The province of Africa had a specific task in the imperial system: it had to provide Rome with grain. Many tons of wheat and barley from Africa and Egypt were loaded onto barge fleets that carried grain to the city of Rome to feed its many inhabitants. Some of this grain went to the annona, or grain dole, to feed the city's poorest citizens for free. These trading relationships sustained the city of Rome, and it became dependent on the North African grain fleets.

Arrival of the Vandals

These relationships became increasingly important in the 4th century CE. The grain fleets from Egypt were diverted to the fast-growing city of Constantinople after its foundation in 330 CE. This left North Africa as the primary guarantor of grain for Rome. North Africa, the furthest Western Roman province from the invading barbarians, maintained its safe position for a time, but in 429 CE the Vandals landed there. By the end of 439 CE, the Vandals had taken Carthage and the rest of the region. This had immediate, drastic consequences for the Roman economy. This greatly hurt the supply of food to Rome and Italy in general. Rome lost its annona since North Africa and its important supplies of grain were now controlled by the Vandals. However, the Vandal conquest did open North African grain to more markets. North Africa, despite its new rulers, was too deeply embedded in the Mediterranean economy to just disappear from it instantaneously. Although the Vandals occupied and re-divided land in North Africa, the region was still a productive and relatively prosperous one. Modern scholars Andy Merrills and Richard Miles cite the continued trade of African red slipware during both the Vandal and Byzantine periods to show that trade did persist and was not stopped by the Vandal occupation (Merrills and Miles, 150).

In addition to being the greatest grain-producing region of the Western Roman Empire, North Africa was also the wealthiest. North Africa was a significant source of wealth from taxes for the Western Roman Emperors and would serve the same purpose under the Byzantine Empire in the 6th and 7th centuries CE. North Africa, due to its minimal damage during the crisis of the 3rd century CE, was still wealthy, but it had always had substantial wealth in its prosperous land, especially compared to other regions in the western half of the empire. Once the Vandals took North Africa, this substantial financial wealth and potential tax income was lost to a Western Roman Empire that was already facing significant financial shortages.

In addition to its wealth, Carthage also served as an important coin mint in both Roman and Vandal times. Carthage was one of the largest mints in the Roman Empire, which befitted the large city, and Roman coins inscribed with “Karthago” have been found across the Mediterranean. The Vandals later created their own bronze coinage, complementing older Roman coins as the currency of the region. In addition, substantial amounts of wealth were stored in Carthage by the Vandals, especially after the Vandal sack of Rome in 455 CE. After the capture of Carthage, Vandal piracy was widespread in the Mediterranean, inflicting damage as far as Greece. North Africa, however, as the core of the Vandal Kingdom, was not damaged by Vandal piracy and its ships could still trade at various Mediterranean ports. Ships were a substantial and risky investment in the ancient world given the danger of storms and pirates, but having the Vandal pirates as their rulers only helped North African ships safely arrive at their ports of call.

Conclusion

North Africa was a crown jewel of the Roman Empire. Its wealth was broad-based in a variety of commodities such as olives, fishing, ceramics, and grain. The vast amounts of grain produced in North Africa were crucial for sustaining Rome through the annona. North Africa's wealth was also important for the financial state of the Roman Empire, especially in the western half, where it was the wealthiest province. North Africa's trade extended across the Mediterranean world and the Roman Empire, as represented by the breadth of African red slipware, which has been found from Gaul to Constantinople. Roman gold solidi were minted at Carthage, one of only a limited number of official Roman mints, and coins from Carthage have been found around the Mediterranean. The Vandal occupation of North Africa caused significant consequences for the fading Roman state. The loss of the annona and of North Africa's wealth greatly hurt the already significantly declining Western Roman Empire. Vandal occupation, however, did not end North Africa's integration into the greater Mediterranean economy. The trade of North African goods continued during the Vandal era and agriculture was still producing substantial amounts of crops, even after the initial damage by the sometimes violent Vandal occupation. North Africa remained an important part of the Mediterranean economy during the Late Roman and Vandal periods, and North African trade and wealth were integrated into the greater spheres and markets of the Roman and Mediterranean worlds. The Vandal occupation of North Africa did not end the economic importance of North Africa in the Mediterranean but merely redefined it, changing the manner in which North Africa fit into the broader economic system. North Africa was still an important component in the Mediterranean economy; it was just no longer a component of the Roman Empire.


II - The Late Antique economy and the shift to medieval structures (sixth–early eighth centuries)

In the first half of the sixth century, the Byzantine economy went through the last flourishing period of the Late Antique Roman civilization. It stood in sharp contrast with the West where most of the regions were severely affected by invasions, civil wars and social unrest in the fifth century, while the former imperial unified government was replaced by fragmented, often unstable and competing, barbarian kingdoms which maintained only partly the administrative and legal Roman traditions. The longer resilience of the Roman institutions and economy in the East was due to a virtuous circle of political stability and economic prosperity that enabled it to buy off or fight enemies in the Balkans while maintaining a by and large peaceful equilibrium in the east with Persia. These general comments are not applicable to every region and will be qualified below, when we examine the considerable differences in wealth and settlement between Illyricum and the eastern prefectures. Following Justinian's reconquest of North Africa and Italy, part of the Roman West was reunited with the East, a development which created a revival of Mediterranean trade. The costly long war against the Ostrogoths (535–55) and the devastation it caused in Italy have long been considered a major error of policy and a waste of state resources. Such criticism, however justified by the Byzantines' inability to defend the greatly extended territory, does not take into account the benefits which accrued to Byzantium in the long run from the recovery of the resources of southern Italy and Sicily.


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

Networks and Neighbours (N&N) is thrilled to be organizing this international numismatics colloqu. more Networks and Neighbours (N&N) is thrilled to be organizing this international numismatics colloquium at the American Numismatic Society (ANS) in New York City.

This colloquium gathers scholars to NYC to work together for a few days with the renowned ANS collection and address questions relating to the currency. Speakers and guests will consider problems of materiality, identity, images and art, economy, minting, metallurgy and mining, as well as pertinent political, religious and cultural matters of Iberia and the broader Mediterranean economy in the Visigothic period.

The ANS collection of Visigothic coins is the largest in the world, comprised of over 900 imitative, pseudo-imperial and Visigothic gold pieces. It includes specimens of all the major kings of the early medieval kingdom and one usurper (Iudila) and represents a great number of the nearly one hundred mint sites in Iberia. A couple hundred of the coins can be traced back to nineteenth-century collectors such as Rafael Cervera and Luiz José Ferreira, and many of Cervera's coins can be traced to the exceptional seventh-century hoard of La Capilla near Seville.

In this colloquium, we will engage a range of artifacts and research methods over the course of a keynote and four plenary seminars, each with a presenter and a discussant. The keynote will prompt questions and encourage debate about methodological and historiographical issues related to the research and history of early medieval coins from around the Mediterranean. The rest of the colloquium will be divided according to complementing topics: the Visigothic coin collection and the historical, archaeological, archival and other issues involved in interpreting, narrating, uncovering and preserving the collection issues of economy, circulation and identity in the Iberian Peninsula during the Visigothic period and, the wider early medieval economy of the Mediterranean.

The program for the colloquium is nearly full, but we warmly invite students, scholars and others interested in the topic to attend. To register your interest in participating, please write to us at: [email protected]

For more information, please see the colloquium website www.visigothiccoins.org, the N&N website, or email us.

As with all N&N events, this colloquium is entirely fees-free and open to anyone, and all pertinent costs for speakers are covered. The event will be [vegetarian] catered and followed by a formal dinner.

N&N would like to thank The Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation for their generous support of this colloquium and its research.


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

Reviews: Bonifay, M. 2016. Journal of Roman Archaeology 29: 880-85 Stone, D.L. 2016. American Jo. more Reviews: Bonifay, M. 2016. Journal of Roman Archaeology 29: 880-85 Stone, D.L. 2016. American Journal of Archaeology (online) 120.4 (October) McCarty, M. M. 2016. Bryn Mawr Classical Review (2016.04.36).

This study attempts to evaluate the social implications of economic changes that
occurred in Roman North Africa between the fall of Carthage in 146 BC and the arrival
of the Vandals in the mid-5th century AD. Several authors have argued that Africa
experienced significant economic growth during this period. Some have even argued
that this increase in economic activity resulted in the lower orders being substantially
better off by late Antiquity than they had been previously. Here, as well as assembling
much quantitative information, I examine the qualitative elements which
characterised this specific period of expansion in economic activity, manifested most
clearly in the increasing exportation of African ceramics to Rome in the late 2nd century
AD and the intensification of agricultural production visible in the remains of farms
specialising in the production of olive oil and wine.

I repudiate the use of certain modern economic concepts such as GDP, per
capita income, and consumer behaviour, which I see as reflecting the
neoliberalisation of the study of the Roman economy. In their place, I attempt to
substitute an approach that examines the changing structure of ancient North African
society in its particular historical context. Substantial use is made of archaeological
data, as well as literary and epigraphic sources, to try to piece together this structure.

A primary conclusion is that, from the point of the Roman conquest onward,
high levels of inequality existed between Afriac's various social classes. Whilst the
landscape of North Africa changed hugely during the course of the Roman period,
privileged elites were able, at all times, to secure a high degree of personal wealth at
the expense of an exploited mass of peasants and agricultural labourers. The structural
inequalities between classes that existed in the aftermath of the conquest, although
qualitatively altered, still existed nearly six centuries later, in spite of considerable
economic growth having occurred.

Reviews: Bonifay, M. 2016. Journal of Roman Archaeology 29: 880-85 Stone, D.L. 2016. American Jo. more Reviews: Bonifay, M. 2016. Journal of Roman Archaeology 29: 880-85 Stone, D.L. 2016. American Journal of Archaeology (online) 120.4 (October) McCarty, M. M. 2016. Bryn Mawr Classical Review (2016.04.36).

This study attempts to evaluate the social implications of economic changes that
occurred in Roman North Africa between the fall of Carthage in 146 BC and the arrival
of the Vandals in the mid-5th century AD. Several authors have argued that Africa
experienced significant economic growth during this period. Some have even argued
that this increase in economic activity resulted in the lower orders being substantially
better off by late Antiquity than they had been previously. Here, as well as assembling
much quantitative information, I examine the qualitative elements which
characterised this specific period of expansion in economic activity, manifested most
clearly in the increasing exportation of African ceramics to Rome in the late 2nd century
AD and the intensification of agricultural production visible in the remains of farms
specialising in the production of olive oil and wine.

I repudiate the use of certain modern economic concepts such as GDP, per
capita income, and consumer behaviour, which I see as reflecting the
neoliberalisation of the study of the Roman economy. In their place, I attempt to
substitute an approach that examines the changing structure of ancient North African
society in its particular historical context. Substantial use is made of archaeological
data, as well as literary and epigraphic sources, to try to piece together this structure.

A primary conclusion is that, from the point of the Roman conquest onward,
high levels of inequality existed between Afriac's various social classes. Whilst the
landscape of North Africa changed hugely during the course of the Roman period,
privileged elites were able, at all times, to secure a high degree of personal wealth at
the expense of an exploited mass of peasants and agricultural labourers. The structural
inequalities between classes that existed in the aftermath of the conquest, although
qualitatively altered, still existed nearly six centuries later, in spite of considerable
economic growth having occurred.

Panel 8.5 Day and Time: Wednesday | 23 May | 14:30-16:30 Room: Bonn - University | HS XIV Or. more Panel 8.5

Wednesday | 23 May | 14:30-16:30

Matthew Hobson (Leiden University)
External Discussant:

Tønnes Bekker-Nielsen (University of Southern Denmark)

Conference session: Neoliberalism and the Study of the Roman Economy Theoretical Roman Archaeo. more Conference session: Neoliberalism and the Study of the Roman Economy

Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference/TRAC 2013 (April 5th, King’s College London)

Session organiser:
Dr Matthew S. Hobson
University of Leicester

Abstract
This session will address the impact of the growing influence of neoliberalism in world politics and university institutions on the study of the economic history of the Roman period (Harvey 2005 Howard and King 2008 Klein 2004). Subtle shifts and changes in approach over the last thirty years have resulted in a radically different agenda currently being adopted by ancient historians to that of the 1970s (Boldizzoni 2011 Hobson 2012). A range of modern economic concepts, once deemed inappropriate for application to the ancient world, have been implemented: firstly, those that tend to smooth over and ignore social inequalities: per capita income, per capita growth, GDP, and so on (Hopkins 1980, 1983, 2002) and secondly, those that have been adopted wholesale from the current brand of economic imperialism practised by international organisations such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund: Human Development Indices (HDIs) being the most significant recent addition (Scheidel 2010a, b Silver 2007).

Aligning itself with a recent brand of American economic history that evolved from the cliometrics revolution of the 1960s (The New Institutional Economics), the stated aim of the recent Cambridge Economic History of the Graeco-Roman World (Scheidel et al. 2007) is to compare the structure and performance of economies of different historical epochs. This has manifested itself in the use of the quantitative approaches just mentioned, as well as an interest in finding possible proxies for economic growth: the number of shipwrecks recorded through time, or alterations in the quantity of pollution in the ice-core data, for example. Is it, therefore, possible to describe the current paradigm as neoliberal?

The session includes papers from scholars with a range of different viewpoints: Dr Matthew S. Hobson (University of Leicester), Dr Willem M. Jongman (University of Groningen) and Dr Koenraad Verboven (University of Ghent). Professor Andrew Wilson (University of Oxford) has kindly agreed to be a discussant. The intention is to encourage healthy debate and to drive the discipline forward in a positive new way.

Paper titles
Matthew S. Hobson, University of Leicester: ‘The growth of neoliberalism and the study of the Roman economy.’
Willem M. Jongman, University of Groningen: ‘Why modern economics applies - even to the distant past.’
Koenraad Verboven, University of Ghent: ‘Markets, institutional change and economic development in the Roman World’.
Andrew Wilson, University of Oxford: 'Discussion'.


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

Cristina Nervi è nata in Piemonte a Costa d’Ovada nel 1969.
Ha studiato Lettere Classiche con Indirizzo Archeologico all’Università di Genova nel medesimo ateneo ha conseguito due diplomi di II livello: Specializzazione in Archeologia Classica e Dottorato in Scienze storiche dell’Antichità.
Il suo campo di indagine è la ceramica romana e tardo antica della Sardegna, per compiere i suoi studi si avvale della collaborazione di esperti stranieri, integrati in équipe di ricerca in Spagna, Francia, Portogallo e della Soprintendenza Archeologica della Sardegna con la sua Sezione Subacquea.
E’ fondatrice con Gianluca Minetto dell’”Ensamble” Blimunda, con cui svolge, e svolgerà, le proprie ricerche future.
Attualmente è docente di materie letterarie presso il Ministero dell'università, dell'istruzione e della ricerca, presso l'Istituto Comprensivo di Molare

Dicono di lei:
"Persona seria, impegnata, competente per il settore di archeologia classica, manca fortunatamente di paraocchi, anzi ha uno sguardo scientifico positivamente aperto e curioso" (Giovanni Leonardi)
Supervisors: Paul Reynolds и Marco Rendeli

Join us in Budapest Submit a paper in this EAA session Session: 371 Hybridization, transcultura. more Join us in Budapest

Submit a paper in this EAA session

Session: 371
Hybridization, transculturation, assimilation and cultural change are crucial concepts in our society. In broad terms, they show how cultural links between different social groups are powerful indicators of the emergence of new societies. They rise spontaneously or triggered by external events, but the picture is not so simplistic: it is worth to address shades and variables in order to characterize certain contexts, in which these processes took place by questioning the nature of the cultural links. Recognizing their presence/absence in foreign objects, skills and ideas, as well as in the continuity of certain past features, styles and functions will allow a wide analysis of the cultural encounters, going beyond mere chronological schemes. To do so, it is fundamental that different disciplines, such as archaeology, history, art history, ethnology, anthropology and sociology contribute to the debate, discussing their own subjects and their methodologies, providing their own insight. This session deals with evidences from the Mediterranean basin between the Prehistory and the Late Antiquity. The analysis will be focused on the cultural links established between humans (e.g. transfer of knowledge), non-humans (e.g. associations in archaeological contexts) and between them (e.g. emergence of new spatial vocabulary or cultural setting). To compare different experiences a brief questionnaire will be provided after the session. Contributors from different geographical, chronological domains and from different humanities' disciplines are strongly encouraged to apply.

On the Journal of Roman Studies in Fabruary 2019 appeared this review by A. Roppa. In Italy we ar. more On the Journal of Roman Studies in Fabruary 2019 appeared this review by A. Roppa.
In Italy we are used to say: lots of enimies, a lot of honour some words from a very famous Italian movie fit, too: "you can't kill a man (a woman, in this context) already dead"

BAR S2833 Il paesaggio di Nora (Cagliari – Sud Sardegna) by Cristina Nervi. British Archaeologica. more BAR S2833 Il paesaggio di Nora (Cagliari – Sud Sardegna) by Cristina Nervi. British Archaeological Reports 9781407315225, 2016. Order Online: www.barpublishing.com

This book studies the imported and local pottery from 238 BC to 700 AD that was recovered during a survey of the territory of Nora (Cagliari - South Sardinia) in diachronic and synchronic terms. The pottery provides a stimulus for the reconstruction of the development of the territory of Nora, underlining the presence of farms, villas, necropolises and quarries, which were located in the land behind Nora. The huge quantity of pottery, coming from the whole Mediterranean area, covers a rich and varied spectrum, which reveals the different attitudes of each historical period, from the first arrival of the Romans in Sardinia till Late Antiquity, just before the Arab occupation of the island.

This book studies the imported and local pottery from 238 BC to 700 AD that was recovered during a survey of the territory of Nora (Cagliari - South Sardinia) in diachronic and synchronic terms. The pottery provides a stimulus for the reconstruction of the development of the territory of Nora, underlining the presence of farms, villas, necropolises and quarries, which were located in the land behind Nora. The huge quantity of pottery, coming from the whole Mediterranean area, covers a rich and varied spectrum, which reveals the different attitudes of each historical period, from the first arrival of the Romans in Sardinia till Late Antiquity, just before the Arab occupation of the island.

Nora est une ville d'origine phénicienne situé sur une péninsule dans le sud de la Sardaigne. Le. more Nora est une ville d'origine phénicienne situé sur une péninsule dans le sud de la Sardaigne.

Le port a eu une vie liée au commerce à l'époque romaine et de l'Antiquité tardive il a été traversé par des routes, dont il existe des étapes, qui reliaient à l'ouest avec Bithia et à l'est avec Cagliari (le plus grand port dans le sud de la Sardaigne.)

Le territoire de Nora riche en ressources (agriculture, mines, carrières) a été traversé par des routes qu'ils le mettent en communication avec la ville côtière et que ont donné chance de transporter vers le port des marchandises produites dans la campagne: le bois, les céréales, les olives, le vin, l'huile, pierres de construction et les métaux.

Par les mêmes routes, provenaient de Nora dans les fermes et les villas de la région, les produits qui sont venus de toute la Méditerranée: l'huile d'olive, vin, produits de la pêche conservés.

Cette communication vise à analyser le développement des axes routiers entre Nora et son territoire et dans le territoire même.

Nous allons essayer de comprendre comment ils ont changé les voies de communication qui sillonnent la campagne et pourquoi certaines routes ont eu une continuité d'utilisation plus étendue dans le temps que d'autres, dans la période de temps allant de la fin du III siecle av. JC, jusqu' a VII siecle ap. JC de la notre er, apportant de la République, à travers l'Empire, à la fin antique, a la règle byzantine.

Join us in Budapest Submit a paper in this EAA session Session: 371 Hybridization, transcultura. more Join us in Budapest

Submit a paper in this EAA session

Session: 371
Hybridization, transculturation, assimilation and cultural change are crucial concepts in our society. In broad terms, they show how cultural links between different social groups are powerful indicators of the emergence of new societies. They rise spontaneously or triggered by external events, but the picture is not so simplistic: it is worth to address shades and variables in order to characterize certain contexts, in which these processes took place by questioning the nature of the cultural links. Recognizing their presence/absence in foreign objects, skills and ideas, as well as in the continuity of certain past features, styles and functions will allow a wide analysis of the cultural encounters, going beyond mere chronological schemes. To do so, it is fundamental that different disciplines, such as archaeology, history, art history, ethnology, anthropology and sociology contribute to the debate, discussing their own subjects and their methodologies, providing their own insight. This session deals with evidences from the Mediterranean basin between the Prehistory and the Late Antiquity. The analysis will be focused on the cultural links established between humans (e.g. transfer of knowledge), non-humans (e.g. associations in archaeological contexts) and between them (e.g. emergence of new spatial vocabulary or cultural setting). To compare different experiences a brief questionnaire will be provided after the session. Contributors from different geographical, chronological domains and from different humanities' disciplines are strongly encouraged to apply.

On the Journal of Roman Studies in Fabruary 2019 appeared this review by A. Roppa. In Italy we ar. more On the Journal of Roman Studies in Fabruary 2019 appeared this review by A. Roppa.
In Italy we are used to say: lots of enimies, a lot of honour some words from a very famous Italian movie fit, too: "you can't kill a man (a woman, in this context) already dead"

BAR S2833 Il paesaggio di Nora (Cagliari – Sud Sardegna) by Cristina Nervi. British Archaeologica. more BAR S2833 Il paesaggio di Nora (Cagliari – Sud Sardegna) by Cristina Nervi. British Archaeological Reports 9781407315225, 2016. Order Online: www.barpublishing.com

This book studies the imported and local pottery from 238 BC to 700 AD that was recovered during a survey of the territory of Nora (Cagliari - South Sardinia) in diachronic and synchronic terms. The pottery provides a stimulus for the reconstruction of the development of the territory of Nora, underlining the presence of farms, villas, necropolises and quarries, which were located in the land behind Nora. The huge quantity of pottery, coming from the whole Mediterranean area, covers a rich and varied spectrum, which reveals the different attitudes of each historical period, from the first arrival of the Romans in Sardinia till Late Antiquity, just before the Arab occupation of the island.

This book studies the imported and local pottery from 238 BC to 700 AD that was recovered during a survey of the territory of Nora (Cagliari - South Sardinia) in diachronic and synchronic terms. The pottery provides a stimulus for the reconstruction of the development of the territory of Nora, underlining the presence of farms, villas, necropolises and quarries, which were located in the land behind Nora. The huge quantity of pottery, coming from the whole Mediterranean area, covers a rich and varied spectrum, which reveals the different attitudes of each historical period, from the first arrival of the Romans in Sardinia till Late Antiquity, just before the Arab occupation of the island.

Nora est une ville d'origine phénicienne situé sur une péninsule dans le sud de la Sardaigne. Le. more Nora est une ville d'origine phénicienne situé sur une péninsule dans le sud de la Sardaigne.

Le port a eu une vie liée au commerce à l'époque romaine et de l'Antiquité tardive il a été traversé par des routes, dont il existe des étapes, qui reliaient à l'ouest avec Bithia et à l'est avec Cagliari (le plus grand port dans le sud de la Sardaigne.)

Le territoire de Nora riche en ressources (agriculture, mines, carrières) a été traversé par des routes qu'ils le mettent en communication avec la ville côtière et que ont donné chance de transporter vers le port des marchandises produites dans la campagne: le bois, les céréales, les olives, le vin, l'huile, pierres de construction et les métaux.

Par les mêmes routes, provenaient de Nora dans les fermes et les villas de la région, les produits qui sont venus de toute la Méditerranée: l'huile d'olive, vin, produits de la pêche conservés.

Cette communication vise à analyser le développement des axes routiers entre Nora et son territoire et dans le territoire même.

Nous allons essayer de comprendre comment ils ont changé les voies de communication qui sillonnent la campagne et pourquoi certaines routes ont eu une continuité d'utilisation plus étendue dans le temps que d'autres, dans la période de temps allant de la fin du III siecle av. JC, jusqu' a VII siecle ap. JC de la notre er, apportant de la République, à travers l'Empire, à la fin antique, a la règle byzantine.

Introduction. Nora – a Southern Sardinia port- presents a various common ware typology of forms, . more Introduction.
Nora – a Southern Sardinia port- presents a various common ware typology of forms, which is linked, sometimes, with its morphological prototypes.
Aim.
Is there a relationship between form and content? It is possible to reconstruct the functions of the vessels basing on their features?
Methodology.
Ancient authors report the connection between vessels and cooking practise, as well as the animal bones remains and the paleobotanical data allowed us to reconstruct partially the eating habits of Nora.
The morphological characteristics of the forms –in some cases- may be connected with the ancient eating trends and their function may be sometimes explicit, but at the same time hide obscure aspects.
Conclusions.
Common ware study linked with the use of the vessels (casseroles, pots, frying pans, lids, dish, jugs) reveals us the everyday uses of the inhabitants of Nora, strictly connected –in some cases- with their precursors: the Punics.

Keywords
Sardinia, Nora, common ware, function of the vessels, bone remains, paleobotanical remains, eating habits

2ª Sesión:
¿Tipologías? Nuevas metodologías aplicadas en los estudios ceramológicos

This volume explores processes of colonisation and cultural integration from the end of the last . more This volume explores processes of colonisation and cultural integration from the end of the last Ice Age to the present from a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary perspective.

All kinds of human mobility, short-distance as well as long-distance movements, short-term and long-term interactions are potential triggers for change and also cultural integration. The colonisation of an area most clearly brings into focus what kind of social fabric encompassed the actual historical processes. Recent perspectives on the social and cultural embeddedness of exchange, and how objects facilitate constructions of identities and political legitimacy, serve to frame and explicate the role of material culture in such processes.

The contributions to this volume shed light on various social aspects of movement, migration and colonisation among hunter-gatherers and Neolithic groups as well as in chiefdoms and state societies. Geographically, an area spanning from the Mediterranean to Central Europe and the North Sea Region, Greenland and Siberia is covered. Three social and historical processes – the social aspects of colonisation, cultural integration and maritime interaction – are particularly discussed as interrelated phenomena.

Olbia is the main port on the Eastern coast of Sardinia. It is settled in a gulf which allowed th. more Olbia is the main port on the Eastern coast of Sardinia. It is settled in a gulf which allowed the development of an important market since the Phoenician period.

In Late Roman period cargoes from the whole Mediterranean area (Hispania, Levant, Italic Peninsula, Calabria, Sicily, Africa and Gaule) joined the port.

The Lusitanian products arrived at Olbia since the 1st AD.: are attested Dressel.

Particularly interesting are the Late Roman importations in 4th and 5th AD the Lusitanian amphoras join Olbia, carrying fish products –contained in Almagro 50, 51 AB, 51C, Keay 78/Sado 1-.
Lusitania was at that time the major fish product exporter in the Western Mediterranean area its direct competitor was North Africa –mainly actual Tunisia-, but, among the amphorae attestations of Olbia, Africa seems not to be sufficiently competitive in this sector.

In conclusion this paper will deal with the importation of Lusitanian fish products to Olbia in Late Antiquity, analyzing this stuffs together with the whole mass of importation from the others Mediterranean area (Baetica, North Africa, and Levant).

Nobody till now has studied the commercial role of Olbia –the Sardinian port right in front of Rome in the Tyrrhenian sea- on the basis of the amphorae data, in general and on the Lusitanian products in detail.

Sardinia is a turning point in shipping routes and goods exchanges. The Soprintendenza archeologi. more Sardinia is a turning point in shipping routes and goods exchanges. The Soprintendenza archeologica of Cagliari and Oristano, several times in collaboration with the University and different specialists decovered, over the past years, various underwaters findings and wrecks, related to a wide cronology, carrying stuffs from all the Mediterranean area and from the Lusitinia, too.

In Cagliari during the Imperial period –1st AD-3rd AD- are attested pitched amphorae Pascual and Dressel 2-4 Catalan and Campanian –from the Vesuvian area-.
Are present Kapitan II and Aegyptian AE3, amphorae from Cilicia, a Pseudo-Cos en cloche with incision at the base of the handle and Gauloise 1, 4, 5 and pitched oil amphoraea from Baetica –Dressel 20-.
A wreck has been found dating half 3rd AD: it contains amphorae from Gaule, North Africa and Baetica (African IIA, IIC, Keay 25A, Gauloise 4 and Beltran IIB). All the amphoras reveal pitch remains.
In Late Roman period are attested Keay LII and amphorae with “ansa a fiorellino”. 6th and 7th centuries preserved LRA 1, 2 and 4 and a globular amphora with part of an incised Greek inscription on the shoulder.

On a promontory faced on the Gulf of Cagliari is Nora. It was a Phoenician, Punic and Roman port.
In Hellenistic period –among underwater findings- are present amphorae from Cos,Chios, maybe carried by Punic ships, because of the majority of the amphoras are Punic.
Near the Coltellazzo promontory is located a wreck which carried wine inside Dressel 1A, 1B and 1C of Italian production.
In Imperial period are documented pitched Haltern 70 dating 40-50 AD.
From Hispania are oil amphorae (Dressel 20 and Dressel 9) with a pitched PE 41 from Balears.
In 3rd AD are present pitched wine amphorae PE 25.
To end 3rd AD-strart 4th AD belongs a wreck with a mix cargo of pitched amphorae: Afriana IIA, IID, Keay 25 and 1B from Byzacena, Gauloise 4 and Beltran 72 from Cadiz.

Between Cagliari and Nora during the underwater excavations have been fund two big dolia, pitched in the external and internal parts of their bases. Near them there were Late Roman amphorae (pitched inside)

The data reveal importations of amphorae and stuff from all the Mediterranean sea: the ports and the city of South Sardinia were involved in the shipping routes crossing the Mare Nostrum.

Sites associated with the quarrying of sandstone, the «Cixerri Formation» and andesites were iden. more Sites associated with the quarrying of sandstone, the «Cixerri Formation» and andesites were identified during the surveying of the territory of Nora.
The extraction took place on outcrops, which prove to have been numerous in the proximity of the urban centre and in its territory. The areas identified show earthworks, cutting for extraction, blocks and fragments of worked stone. In some cases the toponyms may have conserved traces of the quarrying activities, as in the case of Sa Perdera, Sa Perderedda (probably from stone in Sardinian).
The first exploitation of such quarries dates back to the Punic period, continuing between the 2nd century BC and the 6th AD in the Roman age.


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

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The principal aim of my research is the study of the economy of the Classical to early Medieval Mediterranean and beyond through the analysis of the regional distribution of ceramics on coastal sites/major ports. This focuses on the long-distance movement of fine table-wares, amphorae (containing oil, wine, fish products, etc.) and cooking wares. I have worked primarily in Alicante, SE Spain (my PhD on the Vinalopo Valley) and north Africa (Carthage, Utica, Leptis Magna) in the western Mediterranean and in Beirut, Butrint (Albania) and in Greece (Athens, Corinth, Nicopolis-Actium) in the eastern Mediterranean.
Supervisors:


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

I completed a BA in Archaeology at the University of Nottingham. This was followed by a MA in Archaeology at the University of York and a DPhil in Roman Archaeology at the University of Oxford. My doctoral dissertation, finished in 2012, was entitled Demolition, Salvage and Re-use in the City of Rome, 100 BC - AD 315. Since completing my doctorate I have twice held an associate lectureship in Roman Archaeology at Birkbeck, University of London (2015, 2016). Between 2015-2016 I held a Fernand Braudel IFER Fellowship at the Centre Camille Jullian (Université d’Aix-Marseille) where I worked on Roman sculptural recycling in the Western Provinces. In 2016 I held the Henry Moore Fellowship in Sculpture at the British School at Rome, where I worked on sculptural production and re-carving practices in Rome and Italy (1st to 5th c. AD). Between 2017 and 2020 I held a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers (Alexander von Humboldt Foundation) at Universität Heidelberg (Zentrum für Altertumswissenschaften) and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Department für Kulturwissenschaften und Altertumskunde, Spätantike und Byzantinische Kunstgeschichte). My Project title: ‘Spolia and the making of Late Antique cityscapes (AD 300-600)’ was hosted by Prof. Christian Witschel and Prof. Franz Alto Bauer. During this period I was also a post-doctoral fellow at the Norwegian Institute in Rome.

I am currently working as a Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter for the ERC Consolidator Grant DECOR – Decorative Principles in Late Republican and early Imperial Italy, at Institut für Klassische Altertumskunde, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, where I am studying the the use of marble as a decorative tool in domestic settings during the early imperial period.

My current interests are in the re-use of architectural and sculptural material in the Roman Empire. My background is in the art, architecture and archaeology of Rome and Roman Italy, especially the production and supply of materials for construction and sculpture in the Roman period. I am also interested in ancient stone-working techniques provincial sculptural practices the architecture and archaeology of Rome during late antiquity and the early middle ages spolia in late antiquity and the use of historical records and nineteenth-century building manuals in Roman architectural studies.

I have worked on fieldwork projects in the UK and in Italy at Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis, the Palatine in Rome, and Ostia. I was involved in documenting the decorative lithic program and marble analysis of the sculpture at Villa A at Oplontis. Since 2011 I have been working on the marble finds from the Palazzo Imperiale at Ostia. I have started a project studying the lithic decoration at the Villas of Ancient Stabiae, and the houses of Pompeii and Herculaneum. This research has implications for studies of Roman urbanism beyond the focal topic of marble, contributing to current and ongoing discussions about status emulation and the spread of so-called ‘elite values and tastes’ across a broader social spectrum in the Roman world.
Address: Institut für Klassische Altertumskunde
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Johanna-Mestorf-Str. 5, Raum 12
24118 Kiel, Deutschland

Painted imitation marble can be seen in 94 houses at Pompeii, all datable between c. 150 BC and A. more Painted imitation marble can be seen in 94 houses at Pompeii, all datable between c. 150 BC and AD 79. The relationship of painted marble to the marble trade, however, has not been given the attention it deserves. The importance of this relationship is illustrated clearly, for example, at Pompeii from the fact that as the town gained greater access to imported stone during the Julio-Claudian period, the range of painted imitation stones depicted increased, with as best example the introduction of painted imitation Egyptian granites during the Fourth Style (AD 45–79). This strongly suggests that the use and choice of specific varieties of painted imitation marbles were in fact closely related to wider currents in the marble trade.

The examination of the different varieties of marble depicted in paint is presented in relation to an on-going survey of all 59 houses with real marble at Pompeii. Thus, painted imitation is explored in relation to the contemporary available market. Here we wish to stress the importance of local context and regional trends in marble use on painted imitation marble. Finally, the paper addresses the social dynamics and implications for the use of painted imitation marble. In particular, this focuses on what the depiction of marble varieties in paint can tell us about the choices behind the selection of marble types and the social prestige of marble during the Roman period.

Roman houses provided an environment for elite individuals to showcase power and prestige. This w. more Roman houses provided an environment for elite individuals to showcase power and prestige. This was expressed not only in the size of houses but also by their elaborate décor. From the Late Republican period onwards, lithic decoration developed as a powerful visual means of reflecting the social status of the house owner. Pompeii, Herculaneum and the villas preserved in the eruption of AD 79 testify to the demand for and use of marble. These sites have numerous well-preserved pavements from the first century BC to the first century AD with marble from all over the Mediterranean and Egypt’s Eastern Desert.

Architectural décor served a distinct social function but it also acted as an organising and structuring element within a building. This paper will examine marble insert pavements, i.e. mosaic or cement pavements decorated with inserts of irregular or geometrically shaped pieces of marble (often labelled opus scutulatum) at Villa A (Oplontis) and from other Vesuvian sites (Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae). The positions of specific varieties of stone within individual pavements will be examined to determine how marble was used as an organising element in the visual articulation of the room, and if stone placement was designed to suit the function of the spaces they decorated. In porticoes, rare or higher status marbles were often positioned to maximize their visibility by viewers entering and exiting rooms (as seen in Portico 60 at Villa A). In triclinia (dining rooms), the placement of rare or prestigious stones seems to be confined to the central areas of the floor so as to be most visible to dining guests (as seen in Room 3 of Villa Arianna). Overall this paper will argue that the placement of marble was part of a visual language that further helped articulate spatial organisation within the Roman house.

Painted imitation marble can be seen in 94 houses at Pompeii, all datable between c. 150 BC and A. more Painted imitation marble can be seen in 94 houses at Pompeii, all datable between c. 150 BC and AD 79. The relationship of painted marble to the marble trade, however, has not been given the attention it deserves. The importance of this relationship is illustrated clearly, for example, at Pompeii from the fact that as the town gained greater access to imported stone during the Julio-Claudian period, the range of painted imitation stones depicted increased, with as best example the introduction of painted imitation Egyptian granites during the Fourth Style (AD 45–79). This strongly suggests that the use and choice of specific varieties of painted imitation marbles were in fact closely related to wider currents in the marble trade.

The examination of the different varieties of marble depicted in paint is presented in relation to an on-going survey of all 59 houses with real marble at Pompeii. Thus, painted imitation is explored in relation to the contemporary available market. Here we wish to stress the importance of local context and regional trends in marble use on painted imitation marble. Finally, the paper addresses the social dynamics and implications for the use of painted imitation marble. In particular, this focuses on what the depiction of marble varieties in paint can tell us about the choices behind the selection of marble types and the social prestige of marble during the Roman period.

Roman houses provided an environment for elite individuals to showcase power and prestige. This w. more Roman houses provided an environment for elite individuals to showcase power and prestige. This was expressed not only in the size of houses but also by their elaborate décor. From the Late Republican period onwards, lithic decoration developed as a powerful visual means of reflecting the social status of the house owner. Pompeii, Herculaneum and the villas preserved in the eruption of AD 79 testify to the demand for and use of marble. These sites have numerous well-preserved pavements from the first century BC to the first century AD with marble from all over the Mediterranean and Egypt’s Eastern Desert.

Architectural décor served a distinct social function but it also acted as an organising and structuring element within a building. This paper will examine marble insert pavements, i.e. mosaic or cement pavements decorated with inserts of irregular or geometrically shaped pieces of marble (often labelled opus scutulatum) at Villa A (Oplontis) and from other Vesuvian sites (Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae). The positions of specific varieties of stone within individual pavements will be examined to determine how marble was used as an organising element in the visual articulation of the room, and if stone placement was designed to suit the function of the spaces they decorated. In porticoes, rare or higher status marbles were often positioned to maximize their visibility by viewers entering and exiting rooms (as seen in Portico 60 at Villa A). In triclinia (dining rooms), the placement of rare or prestigious stones seems to be confined to the central areas of the floor so as to be most visible to dining guests (as seen in Room 3 of Villa Arianna). Overall this paper will argue that the placement of marble was part of a visual language that further helped articulate spatial organisation within the Roman house.

The study of spolia in Late Antiquity has been a subject of longstanding enquiry, though recent . more The study of spolia in Late Antiquity has been a subject of longstanding enquiry, though recent years have seen a resurgence of academic interest in the subject. The practice of recycling closely relates to the fate of cities during Late Antiquity, as large quantities of material produced in the Roman world ended up as spolia in all manner of late-antique buildings and monuments, including new building types like churches and city walls. The practice of recycling in Late Antiquity was undoubtedly varied and complex and therefore it becomes difficult to apply specific categories or labels to specific ways in which material was reused.

Nevertheless, the ‘spolia-habit’ was undoubtedly a characteristic of the late-antique period, and the term spolia remains an important means of identifying this practice as a distinctive feature of late-antique society. This paper will examine the use of spolia during Late Antiquity and seek to address how we should define recycling practices during this period and what constitutes a 'spolia-monument' during this period. It will address aspects of scale, aesthetics, attitudes to earlier materials, and differences to recycling in earlier periods as key differences in late-antique recycling practices and as important chatacteristics when defining late-antique spolia-use. Overall, the paper will conclude that we need to understand late-antique spolia-use as a ‘phenomenon’. This will emphase the historical dimension of the practice, allowing us to treat it as a conscious cultural choice that was both a product and a part of a specific mentality that characterised late-antique city life.

At the time of the eruption of Vesuvian in AD 79 more marble was on display than ever before. Thi. more At the time of the eruption of Vesuvian in AD 79 more marble was on display than ever before. This included the display of new varieties, including Egyptian granites, even if only in extremely small quantities (1 or 2 pieces). These granites were unusual even at Rome in this period, and generally thought to be absent from domestic contexts in the Vesuvian cities. Work by Fant-Russell-Barker (presented at ASMOSIA X in Rome) showed that eight fragments of Egyptian granites were identified in the marble-clad bars at Herculaneum and Pompeii. At Herculaneum, Bekhen stone from Wadi Hammamat was built into the bar at V.9-10 in Herculaneum. At Pompeii, the green-grey granite della sedia di San Lorenzo from Wadi Umm Wikala was used in the face of the bar at VI.10.1/19.

This poster will expand upon that data and present a survey of granite use in houses at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Several new instance of granite use can be identified, such as serpentina verde moschinata from the Wadi Umm Esh in Egypt’s Eastern Desert that was used for inserts in the large mosaic insert pavement in the atrium of the Casa di Umbricius Scaurus at Pompeii (VII.16.15). Overall, this poster will demonstrate that the elites of Pompeii and Herculaneum were engaging in the latest fashions for decorative stone current in the imperial capital and will provide further evidence Roman prospecting activities in Egypt attempting to find new and unusual stones.

Calcareous alabaster was one of the most valued and sought after decorative stones in the ancient. more Calcareous alabaster was one of the most valued and sought after decorative stones in the ancient world for its variegated hues, gold-shiny polished surface and its symbolic significance. Recent research shows that from the first century BC, the Romans used calcareous alabaster, especially of Egyptian origin, for the production of funerary vase-urns floor tiles, inserts and wall revetments for the interior décor of élite houses. The growing popularity of this stone led to the exploitation of alabaster sources around the Mediterranean from the early imperial period: onyx and banded types from Egypt, fiorito from Asia Minor (Turkey), pecorella from North Africa (Algeria and Tunisia) and other rare Italian (Latium and Tuscany) varieties. Moreover, the increasing favour met by alabaster was mirrored by its constant reproduction in First-, Second- and Fourth-Style Roman paintings. The high accuracy in the reproduction of the variegated patterning of alabaster, particularly in the Second- and Fourth-Style, reached unprecedented levels.

Several houses at Pompeii and Roman villas in the Vesuvian area, such as the Villa of Mysteries (Pompeii), Villa A (Oplontis) and the Villa Arianna (Stabiae), present remarkable examples of painted alabaster. Despite a certain level of “artistic” interpretation, it is possible to recognise the represented varieties as fairly faithful imitations of the most popular Egyptian and non-Egyptian types. For example, Egyptian onyx (cotognino and banded) is widely reproduced in the Second-Style frescoes (60-40 BC) at Villa A (Room 5, 11) and the Villa Arianna (Room 3), while some of those from the Villa of the Mysteries (60 BC) can be arguably identified as non-Egyptian fiorito alabaster. Preliminary results of a survey of painted alabaster carried out by the present authors at Pompeii show that 23 of the 59 houses (including the Villa of the Mysteries), which retain or are known to have had painted imitation marble, contained painted alabaster. At Herculaneum, only one house, the House of the Alcove, features painted imitation of alabaster (in all probability fiorito). We identified the most common varieties of painted alabaster as onyx alabaster (52% of the total) and alabastro fiorito (28%), while 20% remained unidentified due to the poor conservation of the painted surface or because the variety was not clear, especially in First-Style paintings (e.g. House VI.16.26). If we consider the total percentages of alabaster varieties represented during the Second-Style period, the period with the largest number of houses (13) with painted imitations of the stone, we find onyx is the predominant type depicted (7 locations). This ratio corresponds to the volume and popularity of real alabaster attested at Pompeii during this same period.
A remarkable case in point is the Villa of the Mysteries, where we record the highest number of painted alabaster examples in a single context. A total of 6 rooms present panels depicting alabaster, 4 of which (3, 6, 15, 16) can be identified as Egyptian onyx, huge quantities of whose real varieties decorate many of the villa’s floors. Triclinium 5, the “Mysteries room,” contained one of the most realistic painted representations of alabastro fiorito from the Vesuvian area, decorating the upper frieze of the famous cycle of paintings depicting Dionysiac rites. The alabastro fiorito can be confidently classified as fiorito from Asia Minor as it presents close similarities with varieties quarried near Hierapolis. The choice of this stone would thus seems to be a way to underline the link with the country of origin of the god of wine, Dionysius/Bacchus, and the related mysteric rites to which the frescoes allude.

Indeed, the settings where painted alabaster appears seem to suggest that its use went beyond aesthetics and that it might have had an underlying symbolic message. Just like real alabaster, painted imitations of this stone may well have been imbued with symbolism motivated by both the real or imagined link with its country of origin (e.g. Egypt or Asia Minor) and by the “magical” ritual powers, such as that of rebirth, conferred onto it. The poster seeks to demonstrate that painted alabaster, in all its varieties, possessed an aura of “sacredness” and to illustrate the possible reasons behind this through a selection of case studies from the ancient Roman Vesuvian sites.

The popularity of stone decoration was not static and could be subject to change, with different . more The popularity of stone decoration was not static and could be subject to change, with different varieties going in and out of fashion. This poster examines the decorative tastes for stone at Pompeii and Herculaneum during the years preceding the eruption of AD 79. It seeks to examine the selection of specific varieties of stone and their position within individual mosaic and sectilia pavimenta.

This study reveals preliminary results regarding ancient tastes towards marble during the first century AD on the Bay of Naples. One trend in marble use that is evident in Campania is a preference for the display of new varieties of stone. This is reflected in sectila pavimenta, which make use of multiple varieties of stone in the same composition. As a consequence of the increased availability of “new” marble types, pavements excluded popular Republican stones like palombino, paesina, ardesia, other Italian materials, as well as white marble, which appears to have been viewed as old fashion or outdated during this period.

A total of 13 thresholds composed of one or more blocks of 'alabaster' survive in situ at Villa A. more A total of 13 thresholds composed of one or more blocks of 'alabaster' survive in situ at Villa A at Oplontis. They decorate the elegantly Second-Style painted rooms, such as atrium (5), triclinium (14), salone (15) and cubiculum (11), as well as (surprisingly) some service areas. The thresholds, which belong to Villa A’s original phase of construction in the middle of the first century BC, arguably represent the most spectacular example of 'alabaster' use to survive from the villas and houses preserved by the eruption on Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79. Visual characteristics – dark beige to light gray with wavy patches and no banding, coarse to very coarse compact crystalline calcite - suggest that the source of the 'alabaster' could be either in Italy (close visual characteristics are with the 'alabasters' from Iano di Montaione, being most likely, or Quercetoin Tuscany Camerino or Iesi in the Marche region Collepardoin Latium) or Egypt (W.Samnur, El-Qawatir? Fayum’svarieties of alabasterine gypsum?). Due to the difficulty of positive identification via visual analysis a total 7 samples from 6 thresholds have been subjected to analysis with the aim of determining the source of the stone but we also seek to determine if more than one variety had been put together to compose the thresholds, particularly in the case of the thresholds of rooms 13/14 and 23/24.

The poster presents the results of a minero-petrographic and isotopic study – minero-petrographical (by XRD and OM on thin section) and geochemical (Sr isotopes by mass spectrometry, and chemical quantitative analysis by XRF) conducted by LAMA (Laboratorio di Analisi dei Materiali Antichi) and the Institut für Geologie at the Universität Bern – carried out on the ‘alabaster’ thresholds of Villa A, Oplontis. Sr isotope analyses are under way their comparison with the Castelnuovo quarry (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70798 ± 0.00003) and the Thyatira quarry (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7081-0.7091) will be presented. The results should provide further data regarding the potential sources and uses of this ornamental stone during Antiquity.

In occasione del XX Colloquio AISCOM 2014 è stato presentato un breve contributo incentrato sul r. more In occasione del XX Colloquio AISCOM 2014 è stato presentato un breve contributo incentrato sul rinvenimento di due nuovi piani pavimentali in mosaico portati alla luce nel corso delle indagini 2010/2013 condotte dal Museo Statale Ermitage di San Pietroburgo e dalla Fondazione Restoring Ancient Stabiae sul sito di Villa Arianna a Stabiae. Nel corso della stessa campagna di scavo, con la continuazione delle indagini nell’area del complesso termale, sono stati individuati alcuni ambienti già scavati in età borbonica e parzialmente riportati in luce negli anni ’50 e ’60 del secolo scorso. Mentre il caldarium e il laconicum furono definitivamente liberati dai materiali di riempimento da Libero d’Orsi, il primo tra il 7 e il 10 luglio del 1950, il secondo a partire dal novembre del 1966, altri ambienti come il tepidarium e il frigidarium/apodyterium non vennero mai indagati nel corso del XX secolo. Lo scavo del 2011 ha permesso pertanto di ottenere nuovi ed importanti elementi sull’assetto planimetrico dell’intero complesso termale, sui diversi ambienti che lo compongono e sull’apparato decorativo di questi ultimi. Nello specifico, le indagini degli ultimi quattro anni hanno rivelato l’esistenza sul piano pavimentale del tepidarium della traccia, impressa nella malta e ancora perfettamente conservata, della decorazione in opus sectile. La stessa situazione era già stata documentata nei decenni passati anche all’interno del caldarium. Purtroppo della decorazione marmorea originaria presente in entrambi gli ambienti non rimane quasi nulla, se non qualche frammento, dal momento che questa fu completamente asportata nel corso degli scavi borbonici.

Nell’estate 2013 il dott. Paolo Gardelli della Fondazione RAS, il dott. Simon Barker, University of London, e il dott. Clayton Fant, University of Akron – questi ultimi due responsabili del progetto denominato “Marmo al Mare” – hanno dato vita ad un progetto di analisi e studio della decorazione marmorea dell’intero quartiere termale. Con il presente contributo si intende pertanto esporre i risultati raggiunti dal recente lavoro di studio dei motivi decorativi e di analisi dei frammenti marmorei supersiti ancora presenti nei due ambienti.

Sia il tepidarium sia il caldarium si caratterizzano per una pianta rettangolare dotata di una grande abside a sud-ovest. L’ambiente centrale delle due stanze presenta una decorazione costituita da formelle rettangolari bordate da sottili listelli, mentre lastre a esagoni e a losanghe costituiscono il motivo delle due absidi. Tracce di rivestimento marmoreo sono state documentate anche nel registro inferiore delle pareti di entrambe le stanze. Il poster e il relativo contributo scritto approfondiranno tre aspetti: (1) le ultime indagini 2010/2013 e la storia degli scavi passati, (2) la decorazione in opus sectile e (3) i resti marmorei.


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

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I am specialist in Roman pottery. My research focuses on the study of the economy of the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman period as evidenced by the ceramic evidence and commercial exchanges between Spain, Italy and North Africa in Antiquity, with emphasis on coastal Algeria.
Currently I hold a position as a post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Archaeology at the University of Murcia. For my PhD I focused on the analysis of pottery contexts from Carthago Nova between the High Empire and Late Antiquity and their implications for the urban transformation of the city.
In recent years I have been a postdoctoral researcher at both the Centre Camille Jullian (Aix-Marseille University, France) and at the Spanish School of History and Archaeology in Rome (Spanish National Research Council), and also visiting postdoctoral fellow in the University of California, Berkeley Roman Material Culture Laboratory (United States).

The so-called Early Roman Ware 1 was identified by P. Reynolds in the Alicante region and it was . more The so-called Early Roman Ware 1 was identified by P. Reynolds in the Alicante region and it was widely distributed in the Eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The presence of this ware in Elche (Alicante) and Valencia opened the possibility that this ware was widely distributed across the region. In fact it has been considered as a possible regional product of the area of Valencia. In Cartagena (ancient Carthago Nova), where our study concentrated originally, ERW1 is relatively common in 2nd and 3rd centuries AD contexts and it has been considered as a local production. The question here is ERW1 detected in Cartagena the same as known in Elche and Valencia regions for instance? Were they the product of the same workshop or production center and distributed across the region? Or do we have several production centers sharing a technological tradition operating in different areas?

To explore this problem, we have initially archaeometrically characterized, using a combination of techniques, 20 samples from this Early Roman Ware 1 found in Cartagena (Murcia) and Elche (Alicante). WD-XRF was used for the chemical characterization, XRD for the mineralogical characterization, and, finally, optical microscopy by thin-section analysis was applied to investigate the petrographic features. The results of the petrographic characterization indicate the existence of a major petrographic fabric group sharing compositional features. Chemistry reveals a further complexity. One sample is originated in a metamorphic area, possible in Cartagena, while the other samples although its provenance is still unknown were more probably originated somewhere else using kaolinitic clays.

The so-called Early Roman Ware 1 was identified by P. Reynolds in the Alicante region and it was . more The so-called Early Roman Ware 1 was identified by P. Reynolds in the Alicante region and it was widely distributed in the Eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The presence of this ware in Elche (Alicante) and Valencia opened the possibility that this ware was widely distributed across the region. In fact it has been considered as a possible regional product of the area of Valencia. In Cartagena (ancient Carthago Nova), where our study concentrated originally, ERW1 is relatively common in 2nd and 3rd centuries AD contexts and it has been considered as a local production. The question here is ERW1 detected in Cartagena the same as known in Elche and Valencia regions for instance? Were they the product of the same workshop or production center and distributed across the region? Or do we have several production centers sharing a technological tradition operating in different areas?

To explore this problem, we have initially archaeometrically characterized, using a combination of techniques, 20 samples from this Early Roman Ware 1 found in Cartagena (Murcia) and Elche (Alicante). WD-XRF was used for the chemical characterization, XRD for the mineralogical characterization, and, finally, optical microscopy by thin-section analysis was applied to investigate the petrographic features. The results of the petrographic characterization indicate the existence of a major petrographic fabric group sharing compositional features. Chemistry reveals a further complexity. One sample is originated in a metamorphic area, possible in Cartagena, while the other samples although its provenance is still unknown were more probably originated somewhere else using kaolinitic clays.

¿Eres de los que dudaría entre irse de cañas un miércoles por la tarde o asistir a una conferenci. more ¿Eres de los que dudaría entre irse de cañas un miércoles por la tarde o asistir a una conferencia de arqueología?
Pues se acabó el dilema, porque el Festival Internacional PINT OF SCIENCE te trae las últimas novedades científicas al mejor lugar para el intercambio de conocimiento jamás creado por la especie humana: EL BAR.

En los últimos años la investigación arqueológica ha puesto de manifiesto los problemas del model. more En los últimos años la investigación arqueológica ha puesto de manifiesto los problemas del modelo cívico a partir del reinado de Marco Aurelio. El endeudamiento y la falta de solvencia institucional constituyeron infirmitates habituales en muchos centros urbanos. En esta época empiezan a darse en las ciudades procesos de abandono o de cambio de función de los espacios públicos, huída de los cargos municipales, agotamiento del hábito epigráfico, arquitecturas de recuperación y spolia… Todo ello convirtió a muchas de estas ciudades –que las fuentes clásicas habían bautizado como eternas, diuturnae– en ciudades en dificultad, en oppida labentia, como las califica la Historia Augusta.

Hispania es un escenario de referencia en el Occidente romano para aprehender las claves de este fenómeno, que está obligando a la investigación a replantearse cómo las ciuitates pasaron a convertirse, sencillamente, en urbes, en aglomeraciones urbanas desprovistas del perfil jurídico y de la maiestas y decus que habían tenido en consonancia con su histórica condición de parua simulacra Romae.

Por su posición geográfica, Argelia se abre ampliamente sobre el Mediterráneo occidental. A pesar. more Por su posición geográfica, Argelia se abre ampliamente sobre el Mediterráneo occidental. A pesar de ello, los vínculos con otras regiones vecinas no han sido estudiados en profundidad. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta ahora se han centrado en aspectos cronológicos, temáticos y geográficos específicos. Con el fin de cubrir parte de este vacío, el presente coloquio pretende analizar desde una óptica transversal las relaciones entre esta parte del Magreb y el sureste de la península Ibérica, desde el período prerromano a la Edad Media. A partir de los datos arqueológicos, epigráficos y literarios, la finalidad del encuentro consiste en definir la naturaleza de estos contactos. Asimismo, las distintas comunicaciones que se presentan buscan comprender cómo evolucionaron las relaciones entre ambas orillas —continuidades / rupturas— en función de los cambios políticos, religiosos y culturales.

Par sa position géographique, l'Algérie se présente comme un territoire largement ouvert sur la Méditerranée occidentale. Pourtant ses liens avec les régions voisines ne sont encore que peu étudiés. Jusqu'à présent les travaux qui se sont intéressés à ces rapports se sont concentrés sur une période chronologique, une thématique particulière ou une zone géographique limitée. Ce colloque a pour objectifs d'analyser les relations entre cette partie du Maghreb et le sud-est de la péninsule Ibérique et leurs dynamiques dans une optique pluridisciplinaire, de la période préromaine au Moyen Âge. À partir des données archéologiques, épigraphiques et textuelles, le but est de définir la nature de ces contacts. Les communications présentées lors de cette rencontre devront aboutir à une analyse de l'évolution des liens entre les deux rives (continuités / ruptures) selon les changements d'ordre politique, religieux et culturel.


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

Between order and chaos: the crisis of the sewage system in Aquileia The paper tackles the cris. more Between order and chaos: the crisis of the sewage system in Aquileia

The paper tackles the crisis of the sewage system of ancient Aquileia it draws upon the data offered by the excavations which took place in the Fondi Cossar area: the investigations, carried out from 2009 to 2015 by
Dipartimento dei Beni Culturali, Università di Padova, brought to light a wide portion of an ancient urban plot. The sequence emerged is being studied and is about to be fully published. Through the proposal of a formative interpretation of the deposits excavated within the culverts and through the detailed analysis of the materials recovered, the crisis of the sewage system of this district of ancient Aquileia is firstly put within a solid chronological framework. This allowed in turn to relate the phenomenon to the economic and socio-political changes which involved the city between the Mid- and the Late Imperial period. The last part of the paper, through comparisons with other urban sites of Late Antique Northern Italy, is dedicated to the investigation of the causes which possibly led to the decline of the systems dedicated to the disposal of waste water.

Where: Congress hall of the National Archaeological Museum of Aquileia When: 22nd - 26th October. more Where: Congress hall of the National Archaeological Museum of Aquileia
When: 22nd - 26th October 2018
Number of places available: max 20 Students
Application fee: 100 € (incl. teaching materials, bibliography, books, coffee breaks, guided tours. Students of the University of Verona are exempt from the application fee.
How to apply: Send a CV to [email protected] no
later than 30th September 2018
Credits and information: 3 ECTS [email protected]

General information
Periods in the Summer School’s focus: Late Republican to Late Roman (2nd BC - 6th
century AD)
Major workshop activities: The main goal of the course is to provide theoretical and
practical training experience on Roman pottery. The students will evaluate and appreciate similarities and differences in typological problems, approaches, methods, technique, design and material choice applied on different pottery classes. The participants will work with authentic pottery from the ancient city of Aquileia. Practical excercises in dfferent techniques of pottery production will also be performed by the partecipants through the use of potter’s wheel and kiln especially arranged for the Summer School.

Scientific coordination: Diana DOBREVA (Dipartimento di Culture e Civiltà, Università di Verona), Martin AUER (Institut für Archäologien, Universität Innsbruck), Florian SCHIMMER (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz).

Main organising institutions: Università di Verona (Italy), Polo Museale del Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy), Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Aquileia (Italy), Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio del Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy), Fondazione Aquileia (Italy), Universität Innsbruck (Austria), Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz (Germany).


North Africa’s Place in the Mediterranean Economy of Late Antiquity - History

The production of amphorae and the export of commodities transported in them was a key activity f. more The production of amphorae and the export of commodities transported in them was a key activity for the Mediterranean world in Antiquity. Consequently, their study is of enormous value for analysing the agricultural and fishing economy, and also the commercial mechanism of that period. Through the typological and chronological analysis of these ceramic containers, a high degree of knowledge has been achieved, especially for the production of the different Mediterranean societies from the second millennium BC to the Middle Ages.

In The Ovoid Amphorae in the Central and Western Mediterranean between the last two centuries of the Republic and the early days of the Roman Empire, several series of amphorae created in the Late Republican Roman period (2nd and 1st centuries BC) have been studied – a group of material until now little studied. All of these groups of containers share a common feature in the shape of their bodies which is generally ovoid. The fact that they were conceived and developed in the economic and political context in which Rome expanded throughout the Mediterranean, transferring to its new territories its production and commercialization procedures, bears witness to the almost total integration of the Mediterranean markets.

This publication is based on the proceedings of the workshop held at Seville University in December 2015. The book brings together contributions on the main production areas of these ovoid amphorae from the Atlantic to the Greek mainland / North Peloponnese, analysing in detail the origins, evolution and disappearance of their main series. It also includes case studies that are particularly relevant in relation to their distribution, consumption patterns, contents and relationship with other groups of amphorae manufactured in the Roman Imperial era. The aim of this publication has been to present an updated and complete synthesis of the so-called ovoid amphorae, from an interdisciplinary, international and diachronic standpoint.

En este volumen el autor presenta los materiales anfóricos hallados en la antigua colonia romana . more En este volumen el autor presenta los materiales anfóricos hallados en la antigua colonia romana de Scallabis (Santarém, Portugal), ubicada en el valle del Tajo.

En la primera parte del libro encontramos una contextualización geográfica e histórica del lugar, además de un estado de la cuestión de las actividades arqueológicas que se han llevado a cabo en la zona hasta la actualidad.

En la segunda parte, el autor realiza su estudio sobre las ánforas recuperadas en Santarém. En primer lugar, expone la metodología aplicada. En segundo lugar, el estudio tipológico del material. En tercer lugar, estudia los productos transportados en esas ánforas.

Finalmente, se describen estratigráficamente y contextualmente los contextos arqueológicos y cerámicos que sirvieron como base y fundamento al estudio del conjunto anfórico. En la última parte del libro, se analizan y discuten los resultados de los capítulos anteriores desde dos perspectivas muy distintas pero que guardan una gran relación: la del punto de llegada-consumo y la del punto de partida-producción. Es este un novedoso libro que nos presenta unas tipologías anfóricas poco estudiadas hasta la fecha, lo que permite conocer mejor las corrientes comerciales en el occidente del mediterráneo romano.


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