Akhenaten Making Sacrifices

Akhenaten Making Sacrifices

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SINCE Freud first showed the similarity between the religions of Moses and Akhenaten fifty years ago in his book Moses and Monotheism, there has been endless argument about the identity of the first monotheist. As we saw in the introduction to this book, attempts have been made to place the Jewish Exodus long before the Amarna period, thus ensuring the honour for Moses. Then, when this approach failed and all the evidence pointed to the Exodus having taken place after the Amarna reigns, the focal points of attack became the discrediting of Akhenaten himself and efforts to demonstrate that the beliefs he introduced into Egypt were not monotheistic at all.

The holy books establish Moses as the first monotheist although, while the Hebrew patriarchs believed in one God, they accepted that other peoples had other gods to worship, as in the case of Laban (Genesis, 31:43–55). Yet, from historical sources, Akhenaten is the first person we know of to introduce worship of one God. An examination of their respective religious beliefs makes it clear that Moses and Akhenaten should not be looked upon, as has been largely the case, as rivals but as the same person.

The early representations of Akhenaten&rsquos God showed the deity as of human shape with the head of a falcon, surmounted by a solar disc. Towards the end of his Year 2 or early in his Year 3 an important development took place in this representation. The human figure disappeared and in its place a golden disc was shown at the top of the scene with extended rays that came down over the members of the royal family as well as the temple, altar and palace. These rays ended in hands that held the symbols of &lsquolife&rsquo and &lsquopower&rsquo. To indicate the kingly status of Akhenaten&rsquos God, an uraeus (cobra) hung from the disc in the same way as an uraeus adorned the brow of the king. At the same time the name and epithet of the God was placed inside two cartouches, matching the manner in which the ruling king&rsquos name was written.

The God introduced by Moses to Israel is often spoken of and addressed as a &lsquoking&rsquo (Isaiah, 41:21 44:6 52:7) and the so-called Enthronement Psalms of Jehovah (Psalms 47:93 96–9) emphasize this kingly idea of the Lord. Yet the attribution of kingship to Jehovah was certainly foreign to Israelite thought at the time of the Exodus.

Akhenaten seems to have drawn on the traditional worship of the solar god of Heliopolis in many ways. The early name for Akhenaten&rsquos God was the same as the name of the Heliopolitan god Re-Harakhti (Horus of the horizon). Furthermore, the name given by the king to his early Karnak temple, ben-ben (obelisk), was the same as that of the Heliopolitan temples where the ben-ben (a small pyramid on a square base) was a characteristic of the solar temples. Meryre II, the high priest of Akhenaten&rsquos God, the Aten, was also given the same title – &lsquogreatest of seers&rsquo – as the high priest of Heliopolis.

From the inscriptions both at the Karnak temple and at the rock tombs of Amarna, especially that of Aye, we can see how Akhenaten regarded his God:

&lsquoThe living Aten, there is none other than He&rsquo

&lsquoWho Himself gave birth to Himself&rsquo

&lsquoHe who decrees life, the Lord of sunbeams&rsquo

&lsquoThe world came forth from Thy (Aten) hand&rsquo

&lsquoThou createst the earth when Thou were afar, namely men, cattle, all flocks, and everything on earth which moves with legs, or which is up above flying with wings. The foreign countries of Syria (north) and Kush (south), and the land of Egypt, Thou placest every man in his place, and makest their food. Everyone has his food, and his lifetime is reckoned and similarly their languages are wholly separate in form. For their colours are different, for Thou hast made foreign peoples different&rsquo

&lsquoThou … creator of months and maker of days, and reckoner of hours&rsquo.

We find echoes of these attributes in the God of Moses. He was:

Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord. (Deuteronomy, 6:4)

Thou shalt have no other gods before me. (Exodus, 20:3)

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. (Exodus, 20:4)

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. (Genesis, 1:1)

The Lord shall reign for ever and ever. (Exodus, 15:18)

And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my firstborn. (Exodus, 4:22)

The way the patriarchs who preceded Moses worshipped their God was by building an altar of stone at the spot where the Lord had spoken to them:

And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land and there builded he an altar unto the Lord, who appeared unto him. (Genesis, 12:7)

And he erected there an altar, and called it El-elohe-Israel. (Genesis, 33:20)

They made offerings of drink and oil:

And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and oil thereon. (Genesis, 35:14)

And they also offered sacrifices:

Then Jacob offered sacrifice upon the mount, and called his brethren to eat bread: and they did eat bread, and tarried all night in the mount. (Genesis, 31:54)

And Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to Beer-sheba, and offered sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac. (Genesis, 46:1)

Moses was the first person to introduce a temple into Israelite worship when he created the tabernacle in Sinai. It is true that the Canaanites did build their own kind of stone temples in Palestine, and even in some locations in the Eastern Delta during the Hyksos period, but we have no evidence that the Israelites had, or made use of, any such construction before the time of Moses. For his part, Akhenaten adapted the Heliopolitan solar form of the Egyptian temple – the same form used by Moses in the desert – to be used as the place of worship for his new religion.

Accordingly, there was no Israelite priesthood before the time of Moses. It was he who arranged the priesthood in two main levels, the high priest and the ordinary priests, and instructed them on what garments to wear, how to be purified and anointed and how to go about fulfilling the duties of their office. Ritual and worship at the newly-established Israelite tabernacle were similar to those introduced by Akhenaten, who instructed his followers to sacrifice the sacred Egyptian animals for his new God, again echoing an incident that we find in the story of Moses:

And Moses said, It is not meet so to do for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the Lord our God: lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us? (Exodus, 8:26)

Moses also introduced the ark, the receptacle in the temple in which the Pentateuch scrolls were to be kept (Exodus, 25:10). The ark is regarded as being the holiest part of the Jewish temple after the Pentateuch itself. This again was an Egyptian practice, as Akhenaten adopted the Egyptian holy boat, usually kept in the temple where it was used to carry the deity during processions.

Before the time of Moses, the patriarchs identified their God in a variety of terms, all of which were names of ancient Canaanite deities, such as:

El &lsquoElyon (The Most High): (Psalms, 73:11)

El &lsquoOlam (The Everlasting God): (Genesis, 21:33)

El Shaddai (God Almighty): (Genesis, 17:1)

El Ro-i (The God Who Sees Me, or The God Of Vision): (Exodus, 6:3)

Elohim: Elohim, the plural of Eloho, meaning &lsquoa god&rsquo and thought to be a lengthened form of &lsquoEl&rsquo, is used in the Bible more than two thousand times and is usually replaced in English by the word &lsquoGod&rsquo, but it is also used for pagan gods and goddesses (Exodus, 12:12 and I Kings, 11:5).

Jehovah: This, the personal name of the God of Israel, is written in Hebrew with four consonants, YHWH, which is understood to mean &lsquoI am&rsquo and is referred to as the &lsquoTetragrammaton&rsquo. Like Elohim, this name occurs frequently in the Bible and is usually replaced in English by the word &lsquoLord&rsquo.

Adonai (My Lord): The Hebrew word &lsquoAdonai&rsquo is also usually rendered in English as &lsquoLord&rsquo. It is used in the Bible to refer to human beings (&lsquoThe man, who is the lord of the land …&rsquo, Genesis, 42:30&rsquo) as well as God. We also find the combined form &lsquoAdonai Jehovah&rsquo (My Lord Jehovah):

And Abram said, Lord God, what wilt thou give me…? (Genesis, 15:2)

And he said, Lord God, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it? (Genesis, 15:8)

O Lord God, thou hast begun to shew thy servant thy greatness, and thy mighty hand … (Deuteronomy, 3:24)

The &lsquoai&rsquo can be removed from the word &lsquoAdonai&rsquo as it is a Hebrew pronoun meaning &lsquomy&rsquo or &lsquomine&rsquo and signifying possession. We are then left with &lsquoAdon&rsquo (Lord) which, as correctly noted by Freud, is the Hebrew word for the Egyptian &lsquoAten&rsquo as the Egyptian &lsquot&rsquo becomes &lsquod&rsquo in Hebrew and the vowel &lsquoe&rsquo becomes an &lsquoo&rsquo. The name of the God of Moses, Adon, is therefore in the above references the same as the name of the God of Akhenaten, Aten.

What of Jehovah? The Book of Exodus account of the argument that took place in Sinai between Moses and his God over the question of his return to Egypt to rescue the Israelites does not make any real sense unless Moses and Akhenaten were one and the same person. When his new religion was rejected, Akhenaten fled to Sinai, leaving the throne to his son, Tutankhamun, who was followed by Aye, then Horemheb. When Horemheb died, there was no Tuthmosside heir to the Eighteenth Dynasty apart from Akhenaten himself in desert exile. Pa-Ramses, Horemheb&rsquos vizier, commander of the army and mayor of Zarw in the Eastern Delta – where he resided and where the Israelites and Egyptian followers of Akhenaten had been imprisoned – prepared to proclaim himself the new King of Egypt as Ramses I.

Having been rejected by the majority of Egyptians, Akhenaten now decided to choose the Israelites as his own people. However, when the Lord urges him in the Book of Exodus story to challenge the new Pharaoh, it becomes clear that his main concern is not confrontation with Ramses I but how he is to succeed in obtaining the support of the Israelites. His first problem is that he does not speak their language sufficiently well:

And Moses said unto the Lord, O my Lord, I am not eloquent … I am slow of speech and of a slow tongue. (Exodus, 4:10)

For this reason, Aaron, the Israelite feeding brother of his early childhood (see page 182), had to be enlisted as his spokesman:

And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak well … (Exodus, 4:14)

The second problem facing Akhenaten in enlisting the support of the Israelites was to establish a relationship between his God and the God of the Israelites&rsquo ancestors. Both Gods were the same in the sense that, unlike the ancient gods of Egypt, they had no image. The question of God&rsquos name, however, seems to have been a matter of compromise, giving rise to two strange passages in the Book of Exodus. The first arises when Moses asks which name he should use:

And Moses said unto God, Behold when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?

And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM (i.e. Jehovah) hath sent me unto you. (Exodus, 3:13–14)

The second passage, in which God informs Moses that he never appeared to the patriarchs under the name Jehovah, is even stranger in the light of the fact that we encounter this name in several chapters of the preceding Book of Genesis:

And I appeared unto Abraham, and unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JE-HO-VAH was I not known to them. (Exodus, 6:3)

It seems that Akhenaten would not reject the name of his God, the Aten, simply to secure the support of the Israelites. Therefore a compromise had to be reached. Its nature was that, while the Hebrew word &lsquoYHWH&rsquo could be written, it could not be read aloud but had to be pronounced as &lsquoAdonai&rsquo. Nobody knows when this Jewish practice started although I believe it dates from the time of Moses. Nor has any convincing explanation ever been put forward for the interdict. To say that a ban on uttering God&rsquos personal name was intended as a sign of respect is contradicted by the fact that all the other names given to the Israelite God before the time of Moses, as well as Adonai, are spoken aloud by the Jews. In fact, as Freud has noted, the God of Akhenaten is the same as the God of Moses, as can be clearly seen from the way the verse from Deuteronomy cited at the beginning of this chapter is written in Hebrew:

Shema Yisrael YaHWaH Elohina YaHWaH Ekhod.

Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our God is the only God.

However, according to this ancient tradition, when read aloud by Jewish believers, it becomes:

Shema Yisrael: Adonai Elohina Adonai Ekhod

This confirms that a compromise was reached in Sinai under which the old personal name of God, Jehovah, before the time of Moses would never be pronounced again and should in every case be replaced by Adonai, the name of the God of Akhenaten.

We know from the biblical story that Moses fled to Sinai after killing the Egyptian – after falling from power according to the Talmud – and lived there until his return after the Pharaoh of the Oppression had died. What about Akhenaten? Although we do not have conclusive evidence that Akhenaten followed a similar course, there are many indications that point to this being the case.

In the early years of this century, Flinders Petrie led an expedition into Sinai where he recorded what he was able to find of ancient inscriptions. The resulting evidence showed that the Egyptians had sent expeditions to the mountains of Sinai since early dynastic times, mainly for the purpose of mining turquoise.

Sinai is in the form of a triangle with its apex to the south between the two arms of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. At its northern base runs the road from Egypt to Asia, from Kantarah to Gaza along the Mediterranean coastline. To the south of this low northern land is a lofty limestone plateau, crossed by only a few narrow passes. The southern triangle, between the two arms of the Red Sea, is a mountain mass including Mount Sinai or Mount Horeb (modern name, Gebel Musa, which means the Mount of Moses). En route from the Eastern Delta through the valleys, before arriving at Mount Sinai we come to another important site, Sarabit el-Khadim, a mountain area with many turquoise mines.

On the high peak of Sarabit, 2600 feet above sea level, a shrine was constructed, originally in a cave, although by the time of the New Kingdom it had been extended outside and reached a total length of 230 feet. This temple was dedicated to Hathor, the local deity. Petrie found fragments of a limestone stela at Sarabit, made by Ramses I. Although the stela is not actually dated, this poses no problem as Ramses I ruled for little more than a year. What is surprising about the stela is that in its inscription Ramses I describes himself as &lsquothe ruler of all that the Aten embraces&rsquo.1 Of this unexpected reappearance of the fallen Aten, Petrie commented: &lsquoTo find the Aten mentioned thus after the ruthless Amunism of Horemheb is remarkable. Hitherto the latest mention of it was under King Aye.&rsquo2

The name of the Aten had been missing for thirteen years during the reign of Horemheb: now in the time of his successor, Ramses I, the hated God has reappeared, not in Egypt proper but in Sinai. The stela made more than a quarter of a century after Akhenaten&rsquos fall from power, also features the Amarna realistic style: &lsquoThe portion which is preserved of the figure [Ramses I&rsquos figure at the top of the stela] is carefully wrought, and in the dress resembles the work of Akhenaten.&rsquo3

This was not the only surprising discovery. At the temple Petrie found the dark green head, executed in the Amarna style, of a statuette of Queen Tiye, Akhenaten&rsquos mother. The complete statuette must have been about a foot high. Why should it be at Sarabit? &lsquoIt is strange that this remotest settlement of Egypt has preserved her portrait for us, unmistakably named by her cartouche in the midst of the crown,&rsquo Petrie remarked. &lsquoThe haughty dignity of the face is blended with a fascinating directness and personal appeal. The delicacy of the surfaces round the eye and over the cheek shows the greatest delicacy in handling. The curiously drawn-down lips with their fullness and yet delicacy, their disdain without malice, are evidently modelled in all truth from the life.&rsquo4

Petrie was also able to find evidence indicating that the rituals performed in the temple at Sarabit were of Semitic nature:

• The Offering of Burnt Sacrifices: He found a bed of clean white ash under a considerable portion of the temple, amounting to more than fifty tons, which he took to represent the remains of burnt sacrifices over a long period.5 This practice is known from the Bible to have been Israelite.

• The Dedication of Conical Stones: Two cones of sandstone, alike in shape and size, were found in the temple. Stones of this type were used in certain forms of Syrian ritual and are not to be found in Egypt.

• An Elaborate Ceremony of Ablutions: At Sarabit there were three rectangular tanks and a circular basin, placed to be used at four different stages of entering the temple. This makes it clear that ablutions played a great role in the form of worship at Sarabit as they do in both Judaism and Islam.6

• The Practice of Visiting Sacred Places for the Purpose of Obtaining Oracular Dreams and the Setting Up of Memorial Stones at the Spot Where the Dream Occurred: Scattered over the area around the temple Petrie came across many slabs of sandstone, set upright. The slabs ranged in height from a few inches to a couple of feet, propped up by other stones if necessary to make them stand on end. Similar piled stones were found around Mount Sinai, indicating that both areas were regarded as sacred places. This archaeological find agrees with what we find in the Bible:

And he (the Lord) said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. (Exodus, 3:5)

Petrie noted that this piling of stones is part of a well-known system of sacred stones, set upright in adoration, that is not Egyptian, and for him the only explanation for this ritual would be the custom of sleeping at or near a sacred place in order to obtain some vision from the deity, which he compared with what the patriarch Jacob is said to have done:7

And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran.

And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep.

And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. (Genesis, 28:10–12)

If Akhenaten lived at the Sarabit temple for twenty-five years, although he would not have changed any of his original beliefs it is easy to envisage his adopting some of the local Semitic rituals that did not conflict with them. But why Sinai – why would he choose Sinai for his place of refuge in exile?

Although Sinai was regarded as part of Egypt from the early days of Egyptian history, no army garrison was stationed there. Nor did it have a resident governor. Instead, during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties the area was placed under the control of two officials, the Royal Messenger in All Foreign Lands and the Royal Chancellor.

Neby, the Troop Commander and Mayor of Zarw, was also the Royal Messenger in All Foreign Lands. Zarw was Tiye&rsquos city, where the Israelites lived until their Exodus, and there are also indications that Zarw remained faithful to the Aten during the reigns of Tutankhamun and Aye. It was only when Horemheb appointed Pa-Ramses (later Ramses I) to the posts previously held by Neby that the climate changed. At least until that time, therefore, Akhenaten could count on being able to live in peace in his chosen refuge.

Nor was he under any threat from the Royal Chancellor, who was responsible for the mining expeditions sent to Sarabit. We know from inscriptions found in Sinai and other sources that, up to the time of Amenhotep III, the treasury was placed in the hands of one family, that of Pa-Nehas, for three generations. Akhenaten himself also appointed Panahesy, a descendant of Pa-Nehas, as his chancellor and Chief Servitor of the Aten in his temple at Amarna as well as the Servitor of the King in the temple. Thus the family of Pa-Nehas was not only involved in Akhenaten&rsquos government, but in his worship. It would therefore have been normal for them to suggest Sarabit as a place of exile where they would have been able to give him support.

Although there is as yet no complete proof, it is easy to see that, in the prevailing circumstances, Sarabit offered the best, if not the only, location for Akhenaten&rsquos exile – a holy place, close to another holy place, Mount Sinai, away from Egyptian control, where he could meditate and develop his religious ideas until, when Horemheb&rsquos death brought the Eighteenth Dynasty to an end, he came back to try to reclaim his throne.

The Ten Commandments given by the Lord God of Moses to the Israelites in Sinai are clearly in an Egyptian tradition and would seem to have common roots with the Egyptian Book of the Dead.

Egyptians believed that, after their death, they faced a trial in the underworld before Osiris and his forty-two judges in the Hall of Judgement. Spell 125 of the Book of the Dead contains a Negative Confession that the dead person has to recite on this occasion, containing such assurances as:

The Ten Commandments are a kind of positive form of this Egyptian Negative Confession:

Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

It therefore seems likely that Akhenaten, who did not believe in Osiris or his underworld, turned the moral code according to which the Egyptians believed their dead would be judged into an imperative code of behaviour for his followers in this life.

The Chernobyl Three

On the morning of April 26, 1986, scientists got to work on a new series of tests in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine. Soon after the tests began, things started going wrong. Very wrong. Two explosions rocked through the unit. Two unfortunate engineers were killed instantly. But that was just the start of the problem. More seriously, a fire had started in the light water graphite moderator reactor. Plumes of radioactive smoke were sent into the sky. A further 49 workers quickly fell ill and died over the next few weeks &ndash often enduring slow, agonizing deaths.

The accident meant that more radioactive fallout was sent into the atmosphere than was caused by either of the nuclear bombs dropped on Japan at the end of the Second World War. The damage was massive. But it could have been so much worse. A second explosion could have caused the whole Chernobyl complex to go into full meltdown. Had this happened, experts estimate that nuclear fallout would have spread over half of Western Europe, killing untold numbers as well as destroying land and food crops. Tensions between the Western world and the Soviet Union might have also deteriorated significantly.

Thankfully, a second explosion was avoided, thanks to the three men who have gone down in history as ‘The Chernobyl Three&rsquo &ndash or, testament to their bravery, as the Chernobyl ‘Suicide Squad&rsquo. The story goes that, several weeks after the first explosion, the plant chiefs became seriously worried that radioactive material was traveling in a molten flow towards the huge pool of water under the reactor. If the two came into contact, it would have caused a second steam explosion, potentially destroying Chernobyl&rsquos three other reactors. Someone needed to go into the pool and drain it.

According to most accounts, two plant workers and one soldier stepped forward to take on the job. Undoubtedly, the plant workers &ndash and most likely the soldier, too &ndash would have known that the basement of the reactor was highly radioactive. Even if they could get the job done quickly, they would still be exposed to lethally high doses. In short, it was a true suicide mission, and the Soviet authorities even assured the men that their families would be looked after financially.

Some historians have tried to separate myth from reality. It&rsquos been pointed out that all the men may well have been plant workers who were just unfortunate enough to be on shift at that time rather than actively volunteering for the work. The depth of the water in the cooling pool is also disputed. But what can&rsquot be denied is that, in darkness and in treacherous conditions, the three men put concerns of their own safety to the back of their minds and, after much trying, finally found the correct valves to open and drain the pool.

Since the Soviet authorities were determined to downplay the Chernobyl &ldquoaccident&rdquo, what happened to the three men is also a question of historical debate. It&rsquos believed that none of them actually died in the immediate aftermath of their heroic actions. Even if they didn&rsquot die of radioactive fallout &ndash and many workers did &ndash their heroism is by no means diminished. The three men stepped into the darkness beneath a molten radioactive core and put the good of humanity before their own safety.

Disruptive Dissertation

Amenhotep, Divine Ruler of Thebes (also known as Amenophis IV), ascended the throne in 1358 BCE and ruled for 17 years. This was the 18th dynasty in Egypt's New Kingdom period.

"I am not really interested in Akhenaten himself," wrote Dominic Montserrat, "but in why other people are interested in him and find his story relevant and inspirational when he has been dead for three and a half thousand years." (Montserrat, p. 2) "He has become a simulacrum, an endlessly repeated copy with no original. His immortality lies precisely in what is not there." (Montserrat, p. 184)

"To the early scholars in the field Akhenaten was a disguised female or a eunuch form the south (at a time when such were still common). to the perspicacious classicist Toynbee his sun-cult was a prototype of the Roman imperial Sol Invictus of the 3rd century. " (Redford, p. 4)

Contrasting with the violence of his predecessors, Akhenaten's motto was Ankh em maet, Live in truth (or harmony). During his rule, maet began to be spelled phonetically, rather than with the hieroglyphic of a squatting goddess.

He changed his name to Akhenaten five years into his reign. As Redford explained, during a planned move to the Akhetaten site, Akhenaten decided to break with the worship of Amun as king of the gods. That god's name was made anathema. Akhenaten's public inscriptions referencing his name were blotted out, objects weredefaced, and people named after Amun (including the king himself) were required to change their names. Hence Amenophis (meaning Amun is satisfied) became Akh-en-aten (meaning something like giving power or aid to the sun).

The typical king's title, "the good god," was changed to "the good ruler." He rejected idolatry and said God was formless and transcendental. His god's name was Re-Herakhte and he was manifested in the sunlight that came from Aten, the sun. The sunlight brought the ankh of life to the nostrils of the royalty. The sun was no longer a personal deity to him. Freud argued that monotheism originated with Akhenaten. (See Freud's essay "Moses and Monotheism," which in turn inspired Kahlo's painting "Moses".) Note, however, that just because he represented only one god doesn't indicate what he may have personally believed.

Having abandoned the city of Luxor within Thebes, he built a capital city at Tell el-Amarna, but it was quickly abandoned after his death. While the Amarna site was rediscovered in the 18th century, the Luxor site was lost until archaeologists uncovered it in 2020.

His predecessor Amenophis III had also been known by the same name, minus the "Divine" (Amenhotep, Ruler of Thebes). Amenophis III buried the Apis bull which incarnated Ptah. Akhenaten, for his part, promised to bury the Mnevis bull, sacred to the solar worship at Heliopolis, in the eastern hills. (Aldred, p. 43)

In the reliefs at the rock tombs at Amarna, Aldred writes, "Akhenaten is represented with the same elongated neck, broad hips, swelling breasts and plump thighs as Nefertiti. Since he occasionally wears a long clinging robe similar to a woman's gown, figures of the king have often been confused with those of the queen. " Eugene Lefebure, a French scholar near the turn of the twentieth century, believed that Akhenaten, like Hatshepshut, was a woman dressed as a man. Others, after Elliot Smith's hypothesis in 1907, believed he had a pituitary problem known as Fröhlich's Syndrome leading to hypogonadism, a particular fat distribution, and a failure to develop sexually. Aldred points out that Akhenaten had multiple wives, a harem, six daughters with his chief queen Nefertiti, and sexual relations with those daughters, as was customary. The appearance of him in these reliefs may therefore be more of an innovation in artistic style than a scientific representation of him. Aldred calls it "not the least of the enigmas which his reign has bequeathed us."

Modern interpretations are tricky to impose. "The gay versions are misogynistic in that they write the prominent women of Akhenaten's family out of the plot the others recall Orientalist porn of the nineteenth century, in which pansexual Eastern potentates had sex with everybody imaginable." (Montserrat, p. 10) Glass's Akhenaten opera — in which the character is stripped to reveal sexually ambiguous body — was first performed in 1985. "In the London and New York productions, the singer who played Akhenaten, Christopher Robson, wore an elaborate bodysuit with certain attachments that took three hours to get into." (Montserrat, p. 181)

"There is now a broad consensus among Egyptologists that the exaggerated forms of Akhenaten's physical portrayal. are not to be read literally. These [contradictory] attributes render the king literally suprahuman, a divine body which goes beyond human experience." (Montserrat, p. 48)

Akhenaten Making Sacrifices - History

Akhenaten and the Birth of Monotheism

An Essay by John David Ebert

I. Blackboard

The religious pattern of Western monotheism that becomes evident when the lives of Moses, Christ and Mohammad are drawn out on the blackboard is already clearly sketched out in the life of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten, the West’s prototypal monotheist. There is no way to describe the founders of the three great monotheisms of the West without first glancing back at the pattern laid down by Akhenaten, whose great experiment already forecasts their advent.

It is no accident that the West’s first monotheist is also its first religious fanatic, for Akhenaten was the first to begin perseucting the beliefs of others. His religion of the sun god did not just amount to all the Egyptian religions plus the religion of the Aten: though it may have started this way, it gradually became more and more severely restrictive and intolerant until, with the construction of the world’s first utopian city, Akhenaten sent armies of men out across the Two Lands of Egypt to erase not only the name of the hated god Amun from all of the monuments, but also any occurrence whatsoever of the plural word “gods.” Temples were shut down, their priesthoods exiled monuments were defaced the practice of festivals forbidden the worship of any other gods than the Aten proscribed the Osiris cults and indeed, the entire cartography of the underworld, done away with.

Akhenaten was not only the first founder of a religion that we have on record as being founded by a single individual, but unlike Christ, Moses and others such as the Buddha, he was the first such religious founder to have the power of an entire state apparatus at his disposal. Akhenaten was no democrat, but an autocratic tyrant — nothing unusual for civilization at this time — with the power to effectuate any transformation of the state he wanted. His religion, like that of Christ’s, may have been a religion of love but, also like Christianity, it was not a religion of tolerance.

Indeed, Akhenaten establishes the prototype for the religious zealot with which the West, unfortunately, has become familiar over the millenia. His acts already look forward to those of the Emperor Theodosius the Great who, at the conclusion of the fourth century AD, would proscribe paganism and have all of its cults and practices shut down, including the writing of Egyptian hieroglyphics.

Akhenaten was the first man in history to go to war against polytheism.

Now we must try to understand why.

II. Egyptian Theology: A Primer

Prior to the time of Akhenaten, Egypt’s mythical cosmology had been three-dimensional and thanatocentric, that is to say, centered around the idea of the survival of the dead in the underworld. Spatially configured, we could imagine the Egyptian picture of the cosmos during the time of the New Kingdom in terms of the four aspects of the sun god Re: in his mode as the god Khepri, he was the sun at dawn at noon, he was known simply as Re at sunset, he was referred to as the god Atum, an ancient creator deity first referred to in the Pyramid Texts. In his mode at the sixth hour of the night, midnight, he became Osiris, the god of the dead in the underworld. Referred to as Re-Harakhty (“Horus of the horizon”), then, he was the god of both sunrise and sunset.

During the New Kingdom, the Egyptians had evolved a complex cosmology written out in what are called “The Books of the Netherworld,” a series of vignettes that were painted upon the walls of the tombs of the pharaohs who were buried in the Valley of the Kings, beginning with Tuthmosis I (c. 1494 – 1482 BC). The first of these books, which originated with this pharaoh’s tomb, was called the Amduat, or “The Book of What is in the Netherworld,” which described the journey of the sun god Re in his solar barque through the twelve hours of the night. Along the way, he encounters various helping deities and demons who try to stop him, such as the Apopis serpent. At the sixth hour of the night, Re is united with the corpse of Osiris from whence he is regenerated and prepared for rebirth. The deities known as Seth and Selket slay the Apopis serpent for him (pictured below), and his solar barge travels through the body of a huge serpent until he is reborn in the form of the scarab beetle known as the god Khepri on the eastern horizon at dawn. This netherworld cartography was painted on the walls of the tombs of the pharaohs clear down to the time of Akhenaten, who was the first pharaoh to eschew the rites and myths of the Egyptian netherworld, known as the Duat.

In his youth, Akhenaten may have served as the High Priest of the god Ptah in Memphis, although he also resided for a time in a palace at the city of Heliopolis, whose official god was Re-Harakhty, a god which Akhenaten adopted as his own. The god which Akhenaten later referred to as the Aten was actually the visible form of Re-Harakhty as the disc of the sun (Aten means simply ‘disc’).

The cult of the sun god Re at Heliopolis was extremely ancient, for Re had been the primary deity of the Old Kingdom since the time of the great pyramids of Gizeh, at which time we start finding his name turning up as part of the name of its reigning pharaohs (“Khaf-re” and “Menkau-re“). By the Fifth Dynasty, great sun temples are being built to glorify him, with huge obelisks erected as frozen sunbeams petrified in stone. The cult of the Heliopolitan priesthood was, then, as far as the young Akhenaten was concerned, the great, authentic religion of the founders of Egypt’s past.

During the Middle Kingdom, however, the cult of Re had fallen out of favor due to the rise of a hitherto obscure god from the city of Thebes known as Amun. After the civil wars associated with the time of the First Intermediate Period (c. 2150 BC), the center of Egyptian culture shifted from Memphis in the north — capital of the Old Kingdom — to Thebes in the far south, which would from henceforth until the 19th Dynasty, become the new cultural capital of Egypt (Memphis would always remain the administrative capital). Amun happened to be its local deity, and since the rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty hailed from Thebes, the god Amun began to come into prominence as Egypt’s new patron deity. Correspondingly, we start finding pharaohs with the name of the god as part of their throne name: Amenemhet I, Amenemhet III, and so on.

In the 17th century BC, Egypt was conquered and ruled by a series of Semitic rulers from Palestine known as the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. They ruled Egypt from the city of Avaris in the Delta for nearly a century and a half until they were expelled by Theban rulers. The pharaoh Ahmose was the first to completely expunge their presence from Egypt, and so, once again, a new dynasty, the 18th, ruled Egypt from the city of Thebes as its capital and with the god Amun as its patron. To Amun was given the credit for helping the Egyptians to expel the Hyksos, and consequently, we have more rulers who have taken his name: Amenhotep I, Amenhotep II, Amenhotep III, and Akhenaten himself, whose original throne name was Amenhotep IV.

Amun was known as “the Hidden One,” and he was a god of war and also, under his aspect of Amun-Min, a god of fertility. An attempt was made on the part of the Theban priesthood to compete with the old priesthood of Heliopolis by syncretizing their god with Re in the form of Amun-Re.

But the young pharaoh, Amenhotep IV (i.e. Akhenaten), having spent his apprenticeship years in the north of Egypt at the cities of Memphis and Heliopolis, regarded Amun as a mere usurper. It was Re-Harakhty, not Amun, who had been the god of his ancestors of the Old Kingdom, and so it was the god Re-Harakhty, under his aspect as the Aten or visible sun disc, that Amenhotep IV worshipped and eventually made the great, one and only god of Egypt.

In doing so, however, Akhenaten eventually banished the deities of the underworld — perhaps even more ancient than Re, ironically — Osiris, Sokar, Anubis, Thoth, etc., together with the entire Egyptian New Kingdom cosmology of the journey of the sun god Re to his union with Osiris in the depths of the Duat. Despite the fact that the older cults of Osiris had been synthesized with those of Re in the period of the building of the pyramids and in the writing of the Pyramid Texts, Akhenaten wanted only Re, and so he cut, as it were, the three dimensional Egyptian cosmos in half, retaining only the upper half, the realm of the sungod’s journey from one horizon to the other, and discarded his journey through the underworld altogether.

For Akhenaten, then, Egyptian cosmology would be only a world of Light a two dimensional world of light without shadows, of the sun without its nocturnal journey through the underworld, of the living without the dead, of Re without Osiris. In his religion of the Aten, all other gods would be banished, and a strangely flat, two dimensional world of light, and light only, would be put in their place as the religion of the one true god, Aten, with Akhenaten as his son and human avatar upon earth.

If Amun was the “Hidden One,” Akhenaten’s task, as he saw it, would be to shine light upon all the dark, murky chthonic depths of Egyptian religion and society, to pull the roofs off all the temples, to open and expose them to the bright, turquoise expanse of the Egyptian daytime sky. Thus, the expulsion of all the Dionysian dimensions of Egyptian culture in favor only of its Apollonian beauties a world of surfaces without depths, of light without shadows, of Good without Evil this was the Vision of Akhenaten’s new religion.

To flatten Egyptian culture out by forcing it into the mold of a god who was ubiquitous, just as light is ubiquitous a god who sees all things everywhere, and from whom no one could hide, since there are no dark corners left for anyone to retreat to: the world’s first divinely inspired Panopticon, in other words.

III. The Truth Event

The peculiar geometry of the flattening out of the Egyptian mentality which Akhenaten imposed upon his culture also extends to its famous art style, in which the figures of Akhenaten and his family appear as strangely elongated forms, with extended skulls, long arms and torsos and legs, as though they had been compressed with enormous force and then squeezed until they had flattened out and lengthened, like Giacometti sculptures.

When these images of Akhenaten were first unearthed by archaeologists in the 19th century, it was thought that they were naturalistic representations of a sickly ruler whose body had obviously been deformed by some sort of illness, Frohlic’s Syndrome, perhaps. But in fact, as early representations of the young Amenhotep IV show, he was not at all deformed, as the yellow limestone statuette of him in the Louvre shows us (pictured below), and as he is depicted on reliefs such as those from the tomb of his father’s vizier Ramose indicate. Physiologically, he was perfectly normal, as recent genetic studies performed under the supervision of Zahi Hawass have shown.

The so-called Amarna style, then, is not naturalistic at all, but rather very highly stylized as part of the transformation of his own image avatar in Akhenaten’s mind’s eye with the birth of his new religion. And although the Amarna style radically departs from the canon of traditional Egyptian art, it is not true to say that it is a complete innovation, either.

Rather, as Arthur Weigall who, in the 1920s, wrote the very first biography of Akhenaten, was the first to point out — and which seems to have been forgotten since — the Amarna style was actually a retrieval of an extremely archaic canon of Egyptian proportions, one dating back, it seems, to the art of the predynastic period before the Old Kingdom. On several of these Egyptian Neolithic ivory statues of rulers, and also on relief work (see image below), we find forms represented with the same exaggerated proportions, with long, narrow faces, elongated torsos, rubbery arms and thick, bulky thighs. It is very likely, as Weigall pointed out, that Akhenaten, during the days of his apprenticeship in Lower Egypt, had encountered some of these ivory figurines and assumed that they represented the original canon of Egyptian art.

Akhenaten, then, saw himself as a conservator of archaic Egyptian culture forms, not an innovator. He was attempting an act of restoration, not some bizarre new stylistic eccentricity, and trying to go back in terms of both its religion and its art style to the early days of the founding fathers of ancient Egypt which he felt that the priesthood of Amun had unlawfully usurped.

The Truth Event of the birth of Akhenaten’s religion, then — which he unveiled for all of Egypt to see at the Sed Festival of his third year of rulership at Karnak in Thebes with the building of the so-called Gempaaten Temple — was actually an act not all that dissimilar from Heidegger’s description of the truth event as aletheia or unconcealment: truth, for Heidegger, is not a matter of simple matching, or correspondence of the agreement of knowledge with its object rather, it is an act of unconcealment, in which a dialogue with entities actually creates a clearing (Lichtung) or “open region” in which certain aspects of the entity in question are brought forth out of concealment and into the light of unconcealment.

Such a truth event, for Heidegger, necessitated an abbau or “destruction,” in which certain concealments — i.e. worn out ideas and cliches such as the subject-object dichotomy — are weeded out, as it were, in order that previously buried or repressed entities may be seen in the light of the open region in their true nature. As he puts it:

“…a phenomenon can be buried. This means that it was discovered before but once again got covered up. This not a total concealment. What was discovered before is still visible, though only as a semblance. But so much semblance — so much being this concealment understood as disguise is the most frequent and most dangerous kind, for here the possibilities of deceiving and misleading are especially great. The originally seen phenomena are uprooted, torn from their ground, and are no longer understood in their origins, in their ‘extraction’ from their roots in a particular subject matter.”

Such, for Heidegger, was the fate of the West’s understanding of Being since Plato: for the Pre-Socratic philosophers, Being had been immanent in the marvel of phenomena, in the physis of things flashing forth and then vanishing again and the attendant wonder that this process inspired in these philosophers. Beginning with Plato, however, this understanding of Being was covered up, for with him, Being became transcendent, above and apart from phenomena, and accessible only to the mind as the Platonic categories. Truth, ever since, had been covered up and forgotten by Plato’s concealments until Heidegger’s act of abbau or “destruction” created a fresh clearing by weeding out the cliches of philosophy and its then worn-out understanding of Truth as correspondence in order to bring forth out of centuries of concealment this understanding of Being as immanent within phenomena.

So, too, Akhenaten’s Truth Event: the ancient religion of the Old Kingdom, the cult of the god Re-Harakhty, along with the art style of the ancient tribal founders of Egypt, had been forgotten, repressed and covered over by centuries of inauthentic religious history, in which the god Amun, and his Theban priesthood had slowly usurped and covered over this original religion. Akhenaten, in unveiling his new art style at Karnak in Thebes during the first few years of his reign, was performing an act of restoration, an abbau or deconstruction of Egyptian religion in order to recover its lost and authentic culture forms.

Now this Event, as I have said, was made actual at the time time of his Sed Festival, celebrated to mark the third anniversary of his accession to the throne. He had not yet built, or perhaps even imagined, his new city of Akhetaten. That would not come until Year Five of his reign.

But it was in Year Three when, at the ancient religous capital of Thebes, in the temple precinct at Karnak, Akhenaten unveiled the so-called Gempaaten Temple which he had spent the previous year or so having constructed to the east of the gigantic temple of Amun. It was in the great relief work and colossal statuary of this temple that the new art style was revealed for the first time: in the facade of the south colonnade, for instance, we see a row of sandstone statues of Akhenaten (see image below) with his arms crossed over his chest in the traditional gesture of rulership with flail and crook, but his body is distorted, with a potbelly, short legs, long torso and spindly arms. His skull, furthermore, is shockingly narrow, as though it had been pinched by a giant.

In the representations of himself along this row, his headgear alternates the feathered crown of the air god Shu with the Double Crown of the god Atum (see image at top of article), Shu’s father. Another statue found at this site, which was originally thought to represent Akhenaten as a woman, since it is naked and has no genitals (below), may actually be a representation of his wife, Queen Nefertiti, in the role of the goddess Tefnut, Shu’s sister and consort. Elsewhere, such as in the case of the famous sculptured head of Nefertiti in the Berlin Museum, she wears the flattened crown which is identified with the headgear of Tefnut in her mode as the Sphinx.

Now, what is interesting about this cosmology is that it is not yet fully monotheistic: other gods are admitted into the pantheon, gods associated with the Heliopolitan Ennead. According to this ancient cosmogony, in the beginning, a primeval mound had emerged out of the watery abyss of Nun, upon which sat the god Atum, who then masturbated and from his semen sprang forth Shu and Tefnut, the gods, respectively, of the atmosphere and earthly moisture. From their union sprang the primordial pair Geb, the earth god, and Nut, the sky goddess, whose act of copulation Shu, as the personification of the rising air, then proceeded to separate, raising Nut with his arms up to become the Milky Way, the heavenly Nile. Geb, lying upon the ground, had one of his knees raised, and that raised knee symbolizes the pyramid, or the primordial mound upon which Atum had arisen in the beginning.

Now Atum, as we have noted, was also associated with Re-Harakhty in his mode as the setting sun. Akhenaten had earlier depicted his god Re-Harakhty at Karnak on relief work from one of the pylons there which show this god still in human form as a hawk-headed man carrying a disc of the sun on his head. In a slightly later relief from Karnak, Re-Harakhty is no longer depicted anthropomorphically, but for the first time, as a sun disc with rays extended, each ray ending in a human hand, while Akhenaten is shown making offerings to his god, his physical form still represented in accordance with the traditional stylistic canon. This new vision of the sun disc with extended hands is a total innovation, as far as we know.

Egyptian deities often occur as triads hence, Amun, together with his wife Mut and their child Khonsu, were the Theban triad Osiris, Isis and Horus constitute another such triad while Ptah, his consort Sekhmet, and their child Nefertum represent yet another. It would seem then that, based on the observable iconography at Karnak, Akhenaten and his god Aten, together with his wife Nefertiti were analogizing themselves to the triad of Atum and his two children Shu and Tefnut. But these are all varying modes and hypostases of the one god Re-Harakhty, for Atum, as we have seen, was a manifestation of this god at sunset, while Aten represened his visible form as the disc of the sun.

So, at this point, the religion of Akhenaten was not yet a full monotheism: the worship of other gods was still allowed, and Akhenaten’s own religion still drew from the iconography and names of other gods.

By the Fifth Year of his reign, Akhenaten would have his name changed form Amenhotep IV (“Amun is satisfied”) to Akhenaten (“he who serves the will of the Aten”). And in that same year, he would begin work on building a city for his new god, which he called Akhetaten (“the horizon of the Aten”). Shortly thereafter, the name of the god Amun would be stricken from monuments throughout Egypt, and the worship of all other gods condemned.

IV. The City of the Sun God

We’re not entirely sure what event finally so exasperated Akhenaten that he decided it was necessary to abandon the city of Thebes altogether and go further downriver to found a new city on virgin soil perhaps there was an assassination attempt, as Nicholas Reeves suggests but whatever the event was, it so offended him that he decided it was necessary to withdraw from the city altogether and build his own city from scratch, right in the middle of the Egyptian desert at a site roughly 250 miles from Thebes to the south and 200 miles from Memphis in the north. What is important about this site, known locally as Tell el-Amarna, is that it was on virgin soil: nothing, save maybe a small ramshackle village or two had ever occupied this spot on the eastern bank of the Nile a few miles upriver from the city of Hermopolis (sacred to the god Thoth) on the western bank.

Here the cliffs curved away from the land, leaving a lowland area about eight miles long and three miles wide, thus creating a natural bay in the desert area east of the cultivation along the riverbank. There was, however, an important and interesting cleft in the rocks along the cliffs bordering this site, a cleft that mimicked the architectural arrangment of the two pylons of the temples at Thebes which are meant to represent twin mountains from between which the sun emerges out of the netherworld each day. It was in the area of this cleft that Akhenaten had his own Royal Tomb built, with a cemetery for the nobles of his court located a couple of miles to the north and one a couple of miles to the south.

Though Akhenaten’s religion was an act of conservation, its exigencies were making it necessary for him to innovate after all, for his relocation of the cemeteries to the east of the city was contrary to the tradition of locating the Egyptian necropolises on the west bank of the Nile, where the dead followed the setting sun down on his nighttime journey into the realm of Amenti. In Akhenaten’s new cosmology, as we have seen, the underworld was not even recognized, except to say that each morning, when the sun rose, the dead emerged from it into the daylight along with everyone else and mingled about in the temples, where they received offerings. People were still mummified, it is true, and buried in tombs burrowed into the rocks they were still equipped with grave gear like shabtis and canopic chests, but the inscriptions on these objects were carefully modified to give all praise to the Aten as the source of the power of resurrection. Osiris was not spoken of, and neither were any of other of the mortuary divinities of Egypt.

The Great Aten Temple was aligned with this cleft, and was open to the east so as to receive the radiant powers of the Aten disc when it arose each morning. Indeed, the entire city was conceived in such a way as to imagine that all of its power radiated from the Aten, and from the cleft in the rocks where the Royal Tomb of Akhenaten was laid out, again contrary to tradition so that it emanated, rather than received, the sun’s power, as though the tomb were somehow the causal source for the energies of the entire city.

Indeed, Akhetaten was a dream city of two dimensionality, laid out in such a way as to eliminate shadows, depths and dark corners wherever possible. There are no tall buildings here, the tallest structures are the twin pylons of the Great Aten Temple there are only flat, bone-white buildings of one, occasionally, two storeys, spread out across a vast, flat white plain of desert landscape, the lime-green fronds of palm trees stirring with the occasional faint desert breeze. Sunlight soaks the city, banishing the shadows. The buildings compose a vast field of squares and rectangles curves are as anathema here as are shadows. The structures are built of mudbrick cased with limestone, upon which bright, gaily painted reliefs of the sun and the Royal Family are depicted. Some of the buildings are equipped with balustrades of alabaster, granite and hard limestone. There is a lot of open space with large roofless corridors and long, expansive courtyards, for there are no dark shadows within which to hide from the searing gaze of the reddish copper disc of the burning Aten. The nearby suburbs are composed of fields of box-like houses stretching as far to the horizon as the eye can see. They are one or two storeys high, brown and tan and umber boxes of mudbrick with very few trees about.

This was Akhenaten’s dream city, the translation into physical structures of the religious vision beheld by his middle eye, a world in which all depths have been bansiehd, a world in which darkness no longer exists, a world in which even the realm of the dead has been peeled away like the skin of an orange from the world’s underside. Here there is no longer any need for a Judgment of the Dead, for you are always on trial here, since you are always watched over by the luminous crimson gaze of the Aten disc, which sees all.

It is a shallow, two dimensional world, as close as it is possible for a city to approximate pure surfaces shorn of depth. There is no blood here (Akhenaten banished the custom of sacrificing war prisoners) war does not exist violence is a thing of the past the Empire crumbling away in Palestine as the kings of its cities send clay letters of distress to Akhenaten, letters telling of their kings’ towns being sacked and raided by bands of Habiru and Amorites go largely unanswered by Akhenaten. Violence, war and empire belong to the world of three dimensions, the world of depths as well as surfaces, but this was not a world that Akhenaten’s religion was willing to admit existed. In the religion of the Aten, shadows were banished, and nothing existed but the blistering sunlight that casts no shadows, for at Amarna, it is always noon.

Consistent with this vision, there were no underclasses or poor people at Amarna: this was a city of villas and palaces only slaves and servants had no houses of their own but lived within their masters’ households. All inhabitants were assigned their set functions, so there was no opportunity for an urban proletariat to take root. To the north and south, sections filled with villas surrounded an official center containing a palace, temples, barracks, government bureaus, storehouses and archives. There was no set quarter for workshops. A street life could not have developed at Amarna.

The city was laid out along the Nile on a roughly north-south axis, with a large central road going down its middle. This road was approximately 30 feet wide, and it was apparently used as the main axis by means of which Akhenaten traveled in his horse-drawn two-wheeled chariot. Akhenaten never seems to have gone anywhere in the city except via chariot, and he is in fact the first pharaoh in Egyptian history to be depicted in artwork using it for other than military purposes. An ecstacy of speed, as Erik Hornung puts it, pervades these chariot scenes.

Thus, in the case of Akhenaten, we have a classic example of how the founding of a religion makes possible the creation of an entire world. The religious vision precedes the construction of civilization, without which civilization cannot exist and would never have come into being in the first place. Akhenaten’s example provides us with an illustration in miniature of the fact that the Visions that come to the founders of religions are what bring civilization into being in the first place. The Visions provide culture with its blueprint.

V. What Was Missing

Now, what was missing from Akhenaten’s religion should by now be evident: it was only half of a cosmology. It is like Zoroastrianism without its god of darkness it is only a religion of Light Darkness has no ontological reality in this world whatsoever.

And consequently, there is a failure in Akhenaten’s religion to address the question of Evil: human suffering is not admitted to exist at all, for the Aten is a beneficent god who sees to the welfare of all his worshippers. Akhenaten himself is to be imagined in a way similar to how Rudolf Steiner pictured Jesus Christ, as a human avatar of the sun god, come down to earth on its behalf, in order to address, not human suffering, in this case, but only to provide for human well-being. To admit of suffering in this cosmos would be to admit to a failing in the Aten, and Akhenaten simply was not prepared to do any such thing. His god was a perfect god: simple, serene, luminous, beatific. Evil was not a problem because it did not exist.

It is, therefore, not a surprise that he never bothered to go to war in Palestine to prevent the disintegration of the Egyptian Empire, which tumbled into virtual non-existence on his watch. He sent a half-hearted campain on one occasion to Nubia, but that is about it as far as bellicose activities were concerned. The Aten was not a god who promoted warfare.

However, when the city was completed around Year 9 of Akhenaten’s reign, he made a change in the so-called didactic name of the god, in which he dropped the names for Shu and Harakhty from the Re-form of the Aten’s name. The new name of the god was: “Live Re, Ruler of the Horizon, Rejoicing in the Horizon in His Name ‘Re, the Father, who has come as the Sun-disc.'” The plural word ‘gods’ at this time was now stricken from all the monuments, and Akhenaten himself launched a campaign of terror and persecution against, not just the priesthood of Amun, but against all the gods of Egypt. As Nicholas Reeves describes the situation, around the Year 10 of Akhenaten’s reign:

“An order went out from the palace to smash up the divine statues and hack out the names and images of these gods wherever they occurred — on temple walls, on obelisks, on shrines, on the accessible portions of tombs. This was accompanied by a focused attack on the divine birth scenes both of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri and, to a lesser though still discernible extent, on the similar reliefs of his father Amenophis III also, at Luxor mythological fantasies of this sort were no longer to be tolerated. But it was not only the Theban gods Akhenaten had in his sights: since there was only one true deity, the Aten, the plural hieroglyphic group for ‘gods’ was similarly excised wherever it was found. Henceforth there would be recognized but a single power, and that was Akhenaten himself.

This campaign was no academic exercise, but a true persecution which generated a real and tangible fear among the Egyptian people: for it was not only from Egypt’s large, public monuments that the offending hieroglyphs were excised. As the archaeological record shows, small, personal items such as pots for eye make-up and commemorative scarabs were dealt with in the same relentless fashion. Fearful of being found in possession of such seditious items, the owners themselves gouged or ground out the three offending signs which articulated the god Amun’s name, even in tiny cartouches containing the old king’s birth name. Such displays of frightened self-censorship and toadying loyalty are ominous indicators of the paranoia which was beginning to grip the country. Not only were the streets filled with pharaoh’s soldiers (predominantly Nubian and Asiatic) it seems the population now had to contend with the danger of malicious informers.” (Reeves, 154-55)

Akhenaten’s Egypt, it seems, was a police state.

And so, the only Evil in Akhenaten’s religion came, apparently, from its founder himself in the form of a zealous, monotheistic persecution of the cults of all the other gods. Akhenaten is the first man in Western history to go to war against polytheism: his actions are a preview of the coming attractions fulfilled by the religious reforms that took place in the seventh century BC under King Josiah in Judah and under Ezra after the return of the Jews from their Babylonian exile, and then later, with the Emperor Theodosius. As Arthur Weigall, in his proto-biography of Akhenaten wrote:

“The erasing of the name of Amon had been, after all, a direct war upon a certain priesthood, and did not very materially affect any other localities than that of Thebes. But the suppression of the numerous priesthoods of the many deities who held sway throughout Egypt threw into disorder the whole country, and struck at the heart not of one but of a hundred cities. Was the kindly old artificer Ptah, with his hammer and his chisel, to be tumbled into empty space? Was the beautiful, gracious Hathor — the Venus of the Nile — to be thrown down from her celestial seat? Was it possible to banish Khnum, the goat headed potter who lived in the caves of the Cataract, from the life of the city of Elephantine the mysterious jackal Wepwat from the hearts of the men of Abydos or the ancient crocodile Sebek from the ships and fields of Ombos? Every town had its local god and every god its priesthood and surely the Pharaoh was mad who attempted to make war upon these legions of heaven.” (Weigall, 220)

Indeed, whenever it was necessary to refer to the names of specific gods, such as Mut or Ptah, Akhenaten banned the use of their hieroglyphs, insisting that the words be spelled out phonetically instead. This aniconism is already looking ahead to Moses’ descent from Sinai when he sees that the Hebrews have reverted to the religion of the golden bull and smashes the tablets of the laws against the rocks in a furious outburst of pious, aniconic rage. He has just spent forty days and forty nights at the top of the mountain communing with Yahweh and inventing a new script, the phonetic alphabet, in which graven images of any kind need no longer be used in order to communicate, and when he descends to the base of the mountain and sees that the Hebrews have reverted back to a religion of iconic gods worshipped in graven images, it is not surprising that his response would be so vitriolic. It is, however, the archetypal response of Western monotheism — beginning with Akhenaten — to polytheistic ways of worship.

VI. The End of the Beginning of Monotheism

And then, from about Year 12, disaster began, slowly but surely, to creep its way in.

The religion that was incomplete because it had been built on a cosmology emphasizing only one side of the world, namely, the bright half, the realm, that is, of Apollo or Vishnu or Re (while the necessary supplement provided by Dionysus, Shiva and Osiris was carefully edited out) began to chip, then crack, and then the cracks to ramify, as Akhenaten’s brittle Symbolic edifice, not sufficiently rooted to withstand impacts from the realm of the Real, began to collapse.

If religion is an extension of the human immune system which provides a protective macrosphere around the psyche sheltering it from the impacts of the Real, then we may say that with its collapse, the body will become very quickly prey to disease, and indeed, at this time, a plague was apparently running rampant throughout both Egypt and Palestine.

In Year 12, Akhenaten’s second beloved wife, Kiya died. In Year 14, his mother Queen Tiye died. In the same year, his second daughter, 11 year old Meketaten, died. It is possible, though we have no substantive proof, that this cluster of deaths was the result of the plague, as Donald Redford remarks: “The sudden deaths attested from about the year 11 on might find an explanation in the effects of a plague which, as Professor Helck has pointed out, was ravaging the Levant at the time.” (Redford, 187)

Nefertiti disappears from the inscriptions at about this time as well, and it used to be thought that her death was followed by the accesssion of a co-regent to the throne named Smenkhare, the evidence for whose actual existence has always been a bit scanty. Smenkhare’s name starts turning up in the inscriptions in about the Year 15, but as Nicholas Reeves has shown, it is more likely that Smenkhare was actually Nefertiti herself, for both personages bore the same nickname of Nefernefruaten. Not only that, but a stela from Berlin which shows the royal couple, Nefertiti and Akhenaten, but which has four cartouches inscribed above them, apparently indicates her co-rulership, since only the pharaoh was allowed two cartouches, while his consort only had one.

Amarna, at this time, was also running out of money. The shutting down of the Amun priesthood had also cut off the state’s primary source of revenue, and the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Palestine also meant that no more tribute would be coming in from subject peoples.

Akhenaten died in Year 17 of his reign we don’t have any idea how. Perhaps it was the plague, or perhaps the stress of the realization that his utopia was collapsing inward on him was too much for him to bear. In any case,his reign was survived by Nefertiti-Smenkhare, who ruled for about another year before she, too, disappeared from the records.

But before she died, the desperate straits that she had found herself in is indicated by a letter written by one of the priests associated with Year 3 of her reign — in which she is referred to by one of her throne names as Ankhkheprure-Nefernefruaten — by a man named Pawah who, it appears, was a priest of Amun in the mortuary temple of Nefertiti. The letter is actually a prayer to the god Amun:

“Come back to us, O lord of continuity! You were here before anything had come into being, and you will be here when they are gone. As you have caused me to see the darkness that is yours to give, make light for me so that I can see you. As your ka endures and as your handsome, beloved face endures, may you come from afar and allow this servant, the scribe Pawah, to see you! Grant him the condition of ‘Re awaits him!’ for indeed the following of you is good.” (Reeves, 164)

Thus, no sooner is Akhenaten dead than the priests of Amun associated with the reign of Nefertiti are already begging him to return and lift them out of penury.

There is also another sign of Nefertiti’s desperation in the form of a letter that was written to the Hittite king Suppiliumas, from an unnamed pharaoh’s widow, asking the king if he will send her a son to marry, since the previous pharaoh had died without a son to follow him. “My husband died,” the letter reads. “A son I have not. But to you, they say, the sons are many. If you were to give me a son of yours, he would become my husband. Never shall I pick out a servant of mine and make him my husband!…I am afraid.” (Reeves, 175)

It was originally thought that this letter was written by Ankhesenamun, the wife of Tutankhamun, after his death. But since it has been pointed out that the time frame between the death of Tutankhamun (in December, with his burial 70 days later in early March) and the writing of the letter (which Hittite archives indicate was received in the autumn) would have to have been about nine months, it seems unlikely to have been penned by her. Nine months is too long a time to go by for such a crisis situation and as Reeves points out, the author of the letter is more likely to have been Nefertiti, who is referred to in the letter only by the mysterious name of ‘Dahamanzu.’ The Hittite king, though suspicious, did indeed send a son by the name of Zanzana, but he was assassinated en route, “presumably by forces inimical to the king’s plans.” (Reeves, 176)

In any event, Nefertiti-Smenkhare’s reign was followed by that of the famous boy king Tutankhamun, who ascended the throne at about the age of nine years old and ruled it — undoubtedly under the advice of Ay, the brother of Queen Tiye and also master of Akhenaten’s chariotry and one of his most trusted advisors — for about nine years. Ay seems to have advised him to change his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun and to have convinced him to abandon the city of Akhetaten and return to Thebes. Indeed, the city was evacuated with some haste, for animals were found left behind to starve to death. Very soon, it had become a ghost town, with the desert sands proceeding to efface it from memory.

Recent genetic studies have shown that Tutankhamun had a club foot and was definitely the son of Akhenaten by one of his sisters, which one we don’t know. He contracted malaria several times in his life and may possibly have died of the disease. The old theory that he was killed by a blow to the head, and hence, possibly murdered has been disproven by this study, which showed that he hole was made during the mummification process and not by an aggressor.

Ay ruled immediately after Tutankhamun, for a brief period of about three years. He died without offspring and after him, whether on Ay’s nomination or perhaps by military coup, we do not know, the war general Horemheb stepped forward to replace him. Horemheb had been busy in Palestine attempting to restore the empire and he was only too happy to take control of Egypt and steer her back toward the course of empire once more.

But Horemheb, who had been one of Amenhotep III’s primary generals, was a practical man, and he realized — probably due to pressures put on him by the Theban priesthood — that all traces of Akhenaten’s religion would have to be eradicated if the country was ever to be restored to a state of peace. Ay and Tutankhamun had tried to fly a middle ground by keeping the Aten religion in the picture — the rayed sun disc is depicted on the back of Tutankhamun’s throne chair — but Horemheb proceeded to wipe it out completely. As Donald Redford remarks:

“Not one block was left upon another at Akhetaten. Walls were torn down to their foundations, mud-bricks pillaged, and steles and statuary hopelessly smashed. Thereafter the ruins provided a quarry for over a century, most of the known blocks gravitating across the river to Hermopolis, where the Ramessides used them extensively but some ended up as far away as Abydos, over 100 miles to the south. The fate of the sun temples at Memphis and Heliopolis can only be imagined the one at Memphis was undoubtedly torn down.” (Redford, 227)

The four temples which Akhenaten had built in Thebes were dismantled and their blocks were used by Horemheb as masonry fill for new pylons at Thebes and Luxor. Thus, swallowing up the blocks of Akhenaten’s temples inside the new pylons, Horemheb actually reversed Akhenaten’s Truth Event, placing back into concealment that which Akhenaten had brought forth into the unconcealment of the open region of Egyptian waking consciousness. And in doing so, he inadvertently preserved the remains of Akhenaten’s temples for archaeologists to later piece back together.

But the precedent had been set: Western monotheism had come into being, perhaps a few centuries too early, but the Event had taken place, and the new symbol system that had come forth from out of the collective unconscious was merely anticipating, by centuries, what would eventually become the religious norm of Western civilization.

There is currently one response to “On the Pharaoh Akhenaten”

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Hi John,

Interesting stuff. I can’t help but think–along lines laid down by Julian Jaynes–that the repression of astrality represents an individuation process in the formation of a stabile ego. The labile ego is always getting reabsorbed by psyche in archaic blood sacrifice, sacrifices that Axial Age figures like Orpheus and Quetzalcoatl try to eliminate, but both Orpheus and the Plumed Serpent are blocked. The women tear Orpheus apart in a return to Asiatic Dionysian sacrifice and the sorcerers banish Quetzalcoatl. Ikhnaten seems like an early and pathological version of what will become Axial Age reform in the shift from thymos and psyche to ego in Greece–a classical age project continued by Virgil with his rejection of Phoenician Dido for duty and Rome with Pius Aeneas.

The funny thing about Ikhnaten is the body image which seems a reformist re-appropriation of the neolithic feminine body. (See attached image of hips and thighs.) But as the Gnostic Christ said in the Gospel of Thomas, “I will make the male, female, and the female male–a code for the tantric process in which the semen is reversed, the spinal column becomes a male interior vagina, and the penis withdraws into the abdominal wall to become a clitoris and for women, the menstrual cycle ceases, the initiate shifts from lunar time to eternity as she now gives birth to herself rather than producing an ovum.

Ikhnaten seems to have produced an aborted religion, a monstrous parody, sort of the Scientology of its day.

Anyway, keep up the good work!


Elongated Skulls

Experts have contemplated whether Akhenaton’s elongated skull was merely a stylistic canon, and depictions of his skull have served to further thicken the mystery shrouding the radical reign of this ancient king. Some scholars have interpreted his egg-shaped skull to be a symbol for spiritual rebirth or as a representation of his heightened state of consciousness . But it is also argued by myriad scholars that his skull’s proportions were, in fact, realistic. These so-called elongated skulls have been excavated not just from Ancient Egypt, but also from sites the world over, including the British Isles , Peru, Bolivia, and Germany .

The origin and cause of elongated skulls is unclear, though there is a spectrum of theories that ranging from deformative disease affecting the body’s normal growth to the fervent belief that elongated skulls are related to extraterrestrials .

In Search of Black Assassins

“Capture and Kill the Divine One”

The Black Diva “Divine One” of the Ancients, Queen Ahmose Nefiteri, (1562-1495 BC), reigned at one of the most important religious paradigm shifts in human recorded history. During her time, Rulers of Foreign Countries (Hyskos) had overrun the Land of Kemet (Egypt) for the first time in its history. The Hyskos and the God Set (Chaos) ruled Kemet for over 200 years. Somehow, they had been forewarned that the “Divine One” represented Kemet’s Providence and Prophesy. For decades, the “Divine One” had been one of the “Most Wanted” of the Ancient World “Capture and Kill the Divine One” had to have been their battle cry.

Their premonition of Kemet’s Providence was correct. When they found the Black Diva, it was at the head of the nation’s armies. Queen Ahmose Nefiteri had rallied her nation to resist their occupation and rule. The “Divine One” and her brother, King Ahmose I (1550–1525 BC), expelled the Hyskos from Kemet and brought the cosmic forces (Order-Chaos Good-Evil) in balance once again.

Queen Ahmose Nefiteri was the grandmother of the 18 th Dynasty, the Golden Age of Kemet (Egypt). In her line of descent are the Great Pharaohs’ Thutmoses, Hatshepsut (Queen Makere), Amenhoteps, and Tutankhamen. The Queen’s great grandson, Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV 1353-1335 B.C.E.), has to be one of the most important pre-Christianity figures of human history. Without Akhenaten, there most likely would be no “Moses.” There would have been no Christianity as we know it today. It is a turning point in history that the Lords of Chaos have never forgotten, if only for a twinkle of time.

Whitney Houston, The Symbolic Black Diva

In the 21st Century, the Black Diva was no myth. For the week summing up the 2012 Grammys, Whitney Houston had to have been one of the Grammy’s most important, celebrated and influential international musical icon and poster girl. Whitney Houston was the most awarded female artist of all time, according to Guinness World Records, with two Emmy Awards, six Grammy Awards, 30 Billboard Music Awards, 22 American Music Awards, among a total of 415 career awards as of 2010. She held the all-time record for the most American Music Awards of any female solo artist and shared the record with Michael Jackson for the most AMAs ever won in a single year with eight wins in 1994. Houston won a record 11 Billboard Music Awards at its fourth ceremony in 1993. She also had the record for the most WMAs won in a single year, winning five awards at the 6th World Music Awards in 1994. [1]

In May 2003, Houston placed at number three on VH1’s list of 󈬢 Greatest Women of the Video Era”, behind Madonna and Janet Jackson. She was also ranked at number 116 on their list of the � Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time”. In 2008, Billboard magazine released a list of the Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists to celebrate the US singles chart’s 50th anniversary, ranking Houston at number nine. Similarly, she was ranked as one of the “Top 100 Greatest Artists of All Time” by VH1 in September 2010. In November 2010, Billboard released its “Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years” list and ranked Houston at number three whom not only went on to earn eight number one singles on the R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, but also landed five number ones on R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. [2]

Houston’s debut album is listed as one of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time by Rolling Stone magazine and is on Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s Definitive 200 list. In 2004, Billboard picked the success of her first release on the charts as one of 110 Musical Milestones in its history. Houston’s entrance into the music industry is considered one of the 25 musical milestones of the last 25 years, according to USA Today in 2007. It stated that she paved the way for Mariah Carey’s chart-topping vocal gymnastics. In 1997, the Franklin School in East Orange, New Jersey was renamed to The Whitney E. Houston Academy School of Creative and Performing Arts. In 2001, Houston was the first artist ever to be given a BET Lifetime Achievement Award. [3]

The Black Diva was also one of the world’s best-selling music artists, having sold over 200 million albums and singles worldwide. Although she released relatively few albums, she was ranked as the fourth best-selling female artist in the United States by the Recording Industry Association of America, with 55 million certified albums sold in the US alone. Premiere magazine named Whitney Houston as one of the 100 most powerful people in Hollywood. In October 1994, she attended and performed at a state dinner in the White House honoring newly elected South African president Nelson Mandela. [4] The Black Diva was also a priceless human commodity. She could make stock corporate rise and fall.

Whitley Houston was not only a Mega Super Star, but a Symbolic Black Diva if every there could be one. She wasn’t controversial, but you must understand her awesome power in very being on the world stage. Her mere presence destroys and dispels global racial myths and stereotypes. Her brief solo below is still counted among America’s most electrifying singing performances and moments in television history. Official U.S. Policy, “Prevent the rise of a “Black Messiah, who could unify and electrify the masses…”

She was a woman with a “Treasury of Melanin” [5] played out in the international entertainment world domain that all could see. When you experience Whitney Houston, you actually see the explosion of divine life force and creative energy. The true magic of Whitney is that she could absorb energy from sources such as light, heat electricity, sound (music) and use this energy in the body as fuel to explode into other dimensions. In Whitney, you can see the miraculous works of the Black Dot (Pineal Gland) and “Melanin Magic” that rises from the lower nature to higher untapped spiritual natures.

If I fail, if I succeed
At least I’ll live as I believe
No matter what they take from me
They can’t take away my dignity
Because the greatest love of all
Is happening to me
I found the greatest love of all
Inside of me
The greatest love of all
Is easy to achieve
Learning to love yourself
It is the greatest love of all

The Black Diva taught the global poor and oppressed that to truly see (discovery) ourselves amidst great odds (psychological warfare) and power ( ILLUMINATI) in the divine (GOD) was the greatest of gift of all to liberation. Her very essence transcended race, class and power and that is what made her dangerous and a threat to the ruling classes and power structure of the LUCIFERIAN ILLUMINATI.

The Devil in the Details: The Setup

FEBRUARY 2 to 7, 2012

Whitney arrived in Los Angeles sometime around or before Thursday, February 2, 2012 with a large entourage of family, friends and co-workers. On Thursday, she was spotted leaving a Beveley Hills doctor’s office. On Satruday, February, 4, 2011, she was spotted with Brandy’s littler brother, Ray J, at West Hollywood’s La Petit Four.

For whatever reasons, mass media reports have been very selective about Ray J and Whitney Houston from February 2 to Thursday, February 9, yet it appears from some sources that he had been her constant secret companion.

You would assume that the U.S. Homeland Security, LAPD, and Beverly Hilton Hotel Security Staff would have been under some type of terrorism alert Grammy VIPs and clients would be under tight security and surveillance preceding the event. You would think that traffic would be controlled, employees, guests, and visitors surrounding the 2012 Grammys would be checked and cleared.

Ordinarily, at the least, hotel security would coordinate with VIP protective details well ahead of the event and their arrival in Los Angeles. Yet, they want us to believe that this nation’s biggest and most important entertainment industry celebrity VIP and precious corporate human commodity was left to run “Willy Nilly” in Los Angeles to romp, skip and jump through the city and the Beverly Hilton Hotel without security or surveillance.

The Times reported that days before her death, Whitney was reportedly wandering aimlessly alone through the Beverly Hilton, inebriated “smelled of alcohol and cigarettes”, roving through the lobby, halls and ballrooms disoriented, disheveled in mismatched clothes and hair dripping wet, acting strangely skipping around a ballroom and reportedly doing handstands near the hotel pool. [6]

During this time, they want the public to really believe that America’s most important and visible entertainment icon attending the 2012 Grammys Award Celebrations was open to being kidnapped, assaulted or assassinated by a foreign terrorist, stalker or sick assailant. It would have been like 9-11, it could have caught U.S. Homeland Security, Local and State Police and America’s Private Security Industry with their draws down again.

They want the public to believe that Whitney Houston was left Willy Nilly disheveled, disorientated, stumbling, bleeding, [7] and alone in Los Angeles. If Whitney Houston was left alone on this national high profile occasion -it’s because it had been planned. They know exactly who she was with minute by minute, and hour by hour of every day that she was at the Beverly Hilton. Yet, Ray Jis always allowed to lurk in the background.

If Whitney Houston was left without eyes and ears, a professional security team, its because Clive Davis wanted it that way. They wanted her in corrupt and compromised Los Angeles, the site and center of the cover-up of Michael Jackson’s assassination by the ILLUMINATI.

The Black Diva was setup from the beginning, drugged, programmed with self destruct alters, and dropped in the middle of a bunch of dysfunctional and messy MK ULTRA/ILLUMINATI/LUCIFERIAN BLOOD OATH Negroes and all they had to do was just walk away. It’s a perfect backdrop for a powerful racialist multi-million dollar white corporate structure to get away with first degree murder and cash in on multi-million dollar insurance policies. That’s exactly what Philip Anschutz (AEG) did to Michael Jackson in the very same venue. [8]

The Devil in the Details: Clive Davis and the Paradigm Shift

Clive Davis born in 1932 in New York is an elite music industry executive made and maintained by privilege, class, race and oligarchy. In 1966, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) reorganized its corporate structure which made CBS Records a separate-special unit of CBS controlled by Clive Davis.

Davis was born and rose from the Columbian ILLUMINATI of New York. [9] According to the late investigative reporter Eustace Mullins, Clive Davis’ benefactor in 1966, CBS’s late Founder and Chairman of Board William S. Paley, was both a conduit and operative for the CIA. Many directors of CBS had CIA ties. [10]

The CIA learned the art of deception by overlaying its inner core group with members of elite secret blood oath societies from the country’s fore fathers and most recently from the Nazis. Whereas, their primary duties become maintaining secrecy instead of the U.S. Constitution.

The CIA has had long covert associations with major mainstream news publications. By far the most valuable of these associations, according the CIA officials, have been CBS. “The CIA even ran training programs to teach agents to be journalists who were then placed or ‘embedded’ in major news organizations with help from management. The goal is informational-management designed by leading behavioural scientists from academia, or in CIA jargon, a psychological operation with which to secure a specific and predictable reaction from unsuspecting consumers of news.” [11] The specific and predictable reaction that they want is undoubtedly forms of white supremacy (oligarchy), mind and behavior control of the masses.

The CBS Records Group was led by Clive Davis until his dismissal in 1972, after it was discovered that he had used CBS funds to finance his personal life, including an expensive bar mitzvah party for his son. We call it elite white collar corporate felony embezzlement with criminal impunity. [12]

In March 1968, CBS and Sony formed CBS/Sony Records, a complex Japanese business joint venture. It also started the process of bringing Arista Records back under common ownership with its former parent Columbia Pictures, a Sony division since 1989. It also brought Arista founder and corporate embezzler Clive Davis back into the spotlight as Sony Music’s Chief Creative Officer. [13] White corporate ILLUMINATI criminals like Clive Davis from an ILLUMINATI background and CIA asset like CBS, they have their privileges that transend the law.

Davis lives with a male partner who’s a physician. They live in a Vicente Wolf-decorated apartment on East 57th Street and spend weekends in Pound Ridge, NY. [14] Reportedly, he first discovered 19-year-old Whitney Houston in her gospel-singer mother’s cabaret act in a club called Sweet Waters in Manhattan. He signed Whitney to a contract with Arista Records. Clive Davis was responsible for molding and guiding Houston’s early career.

Remember before his assassination, Michael Jackson exposed Sony and its business executives, and administrators, such as Sony President Tommy Mottola as “devils” and “racists,” and blamed people at that company as well as others for creating a “conspiracy” against him by tarnishing his image with child sex abuse accusations because they wanted to emotionally and financially break him to gain the rights to his 50 percent share ownership of the Sony-ATV music publishing catalog that includes the lucrative Beatles Music Catalog

In June 2011 on L.A. radio station KOST 103.5′s morning show, Davis admitted that he had lost interest in Whitney Houston. Davis flat out said he would never get back on the bandwagon with Whitney unless her graceful voice returned. Davis said “Whitney has admitted that she’s had to conquer a drug addiction. That takes all of her energy. She also has had a very difficult time giving up cigarettes. In comparison, it sounds slight. But if you do have a cigarette problem in this instance, you can’t give it up. It is taking all of her energy. I know that she’s committed to do it. I know that she loves music. Right now she’s dealing with that situation and we’re not going to make another record or an album until that golden voice is there and is fully capable to knock everyone out.” [15]

Contrast Davis’ statement with the music industry treatment of white British Pop Singer, Adele. She received a lot of attention when she developed voice problems that affected her singing. Her voice problems were attributed to her inability to stop smoking. To protect her very special voice as some sort of national treasury, doctors ordered her to cancel tour and promotional appearances rest, recovery and special attention for almost a year.

Subsequently, the 23-year-old Grammy winner was sent to the United States- Boston to undergo special throat laser microsurgery with Dr. Steven Zeitels, Director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Voice Center. [16]

As Whitney Houston lay in the Los Angeles Coroner’s office, Adele with surgical repaired vocal cords performed and took home six Grammys including the prestigious trifecta of record, song and album of the year. [17] Adele’s record label is Columbia Records. [18] Columbia Records is an American record label, owned by Sony Music Entertainment. [19]

Clive Davis is not interested in Whitney Houston as a human being and friend, or her music for the sake of uplifting, healing and spiritual inspiration. His concern is mass media manipulation, regulation and control. He is a Luciferian/ILLUMINATI regulator that conspires in all things in a secret paradigm shift to ruthlessly control the flow, content and message of Black Music and artists, and the minds of the masses, globally.

The Devil in the Details: the Suppression, Fall and Death of Another Black Diva, Phyllis Hyman

The late beautiful and spiritual Phyllis Hyman had an extraordinary voice and remarkable stunning 6’ 2” presence. Phyllis was signed to Buddha Records who came under Arista’s ownership while Clive Davis was president of the label. During the four years that Hyman was under Davis’ mentorship, she came to loathe him. According to some, Phyllis was a very proud and opinionated woman who irked Davis, who was rumored to be a closeted homosexual pedophile.

Reportedly, Hyman became stunned that Clive Davis would not consider giving her R & B ballads a chance. Hyman remade the hit of the Stylistics “Betcha By Golly Wow”. She thought that its success would demonstrate a continuous trend of the success of R&B for the future. However, Davis had a different global agenda that they could manipulate and control through Pop Music. He wanted to control Hyman’s music, content and message. Davis demanded that she drop R&B and Jazz Genres with its deep African roots and influences crossover and sell and promote corporate controlled Pop music.

Queen Divine as she knew that she had been, Hyman rebelled and was left deliberately unrecorded for four years to quell her message. Due to contractual obligations to Clive Davis and Arista, she couldn’t sign with another label. Like Michael Jackson and Sony-Arista records tried to destroy Hyman’s career by deleting her key albums and CDs. They also conspired to prevent her from recording full length albums elsewhere. During Phyllis’ legal battles with Arista, Clive Davis promoted Dionne Warwick, Aretha Franklin, Angelea Bofill and 22 year old Whitney Houston in 1985.

In June 1995, 46 year old Phyllis Hyman was found dead in her New York apartment. The coroner listed the cause of death as an intentional overdose of pentobarbital and secobarbital (sleeping pills). [20] Five months after her death, Clive Davis released her last album, “I Refuse to Be Lonely.” The album reached #12 in the Billboard R&B album chart, and peaked at #67 in the Billboard 200. [21] In regards to Phyllis Hyman, nobody seemed to have questioned her death and looked for the Devil in the Details. If anyone wanted her dead, it was Clive Davis. Queen Diva had been extremely vocal and public in exposing Clive Davis as a high level pedophile.

The Devil in the Details: The Fall of the Black Diva


At Whitney Houston’s funeral, Clive Davis spoke. He said that he accepted Whitney Houston at his private bungalow at the same Beverly Hilton Hotel on Tuesday, February 7, 2012 before her death. He noted, particularly, that she was without security. It appears after her stay alone in Clive Davis’ private bungalow on Tuesday that she started exhibiting and playing out bizzarre behaviors Wednesday through Thursday, February 9, 2012.

It is established that Clive Davis financially sponsored Whitney’s week long jaunt at the hotel before the Grammys. She had been contracted to be one of his scheduled performers for his pre-Grammy party. It was Clive Davis that drew Whitney into the notoriously corrupt LADP jurisdiction and venue. Whitney checked into the hotel accompanied by an entourage of family, friends and co-workers, but no security detail. If Whitney didn’t have security, it appears that is the way it was meant to be. It was the way that Clive Davis wanted it to be. The LUCIFERIAN/ILLUMINATI elite wanted her alone without professional eyes and ears.


Whitney Houston: False Pretext to Murder, “I’m a cougar!”

After Whitney Houston’s death, some are still trying to figure out why Whitney broke down speculating that her cause of death could have been a downward spiral after seeing Ray J talking to US ‘X Factor’ contestant, 42 year old Stacy Francis. On February 9, Whitney attended rehearsals for Davis’ Pre-Grammy celebration. However, before rehearsals, Whitney made what appeared to be a filmed desperate appeal to Brandy, discussed below. After rehearsals, she ended up with Ray Jin her hotel room before going to the Kelly Price’s Pre Grammy Party“For the Love of R&B Grammy Party” at the Tru Club.

At the club, Whitney got into the very public and explosive altercation with Stacy Francis involving Ray J. A witness described Whitney going berserk loudly proclaiming, “This is my man! I’m a cougar! Bitch, get away from my man!”Francis claims that even though she tried to reason with Houston that there was nothing going on between her and Ray J — they are old family friends who go back 20 years — Houston kept yelling at Francis. [22] This irrational and uncharacteristic “I am a cougar” stuff really doesn’t make any common sense if she really cared for him. Does it? Unless, it was an implanted alter state.

According to Francis, Whitney, who reportedly appeared extremely sweaty and visibly out of control, got in her face, yelling, “Why are you here? Who’s the bitch?”Whitney continued the rant spiraling further out of control and reportedly put her hand in Francis’ face and pushed her forehead. Francis then allegedly shoved Houston back, Ray J and security guards tried to pull Houston away from Francis. At some point during the altercation, Houston fell against the stage and scratched her leg. [23] Where is Whitney’s security detail?

Whitney Houston, “Who’s the bitch?”

Reportedly, people pleaded for Whitney to chill out, but she continued to spiral out of control and the two women began pushing and shoving each other. What is so incredibly bizarre and odd about Whitney’s behavior is that she knew exactly who X Factor Stacy Francis was.

According to Francis, she and Houston had enjoyed and exchanged pleasant conversations minutes earlier at the club about her and the X-Factor show. Francis even reportedly showed Houston a picture of her 1-year-old baby, and the award-winning entertainer reportedly mentioned how much she loved her only child, Bobbi Kristina. [24]

Recently, Stacy revealed on the Dr. Drew (Drew Pinsky) on CNN that she had been drawn over to the stage area later in the evening where Whitney and Ray Jwere standing. She said something happened with Whitney. Dr. Drew then cut in suggesting that Whitney’s paranoia had been suddenly “triggered” then stopped, because he had pushing it over the air the illusion that Whitney had been acting out the sickness of drug and alcohol addiction all along. It seems odd that mass media never revealed who was part of Whitney Houston’s entourage at the club. We are also led to believe that Ray J just happened on the scene.

Above, Whitney was described as sweating profusely and disheveled (disordered) as she left Tru nightclub after the incident with Stacy. The sweating is suggestive of post-hypnotic symptomatic “chills” and amnesia barriers, which has best been illustrated by Manchurian Candidate Sirhan Sirhan demeanor coming out of an alter (sweating-disordered among other things) immediately after the assassination of Sen. Robert F. Kennedy.

Here and in the picture above, she appears uncharacteristically calm and collective as if nothing had taken place. Whitney had to have been triggered into an altered state of conscious (Cougar Alter). You can see Whitney Houston in the classic calm down after an alter personality takeover indicating that she had indeed acted under “hypnotic suggestion and compulsion”deliberately triggered by Ray J.

It is also interesting to note that there is no Whitney Houston recorded reaction to the Stacy Francis incident, whether vebral or written. You could think that her side of the story would have been pursued by mass media. I suggest that it doesn”t exist is because she couldn’t recall or remember the incident due to implanted amnestia barriers just ike the Manchurian Candidate, Sirhan Sirhan. In this case, the girl in the polka dot dress was Ray J.Whitney had been deliberately triggered into the cougar alter to set the stage and set up a false pretext (jealousy) to her homicide.


Back at the Beverly Hilton on Friday nite, reportedly, Whitney Houston was partying with her daughter, Bobbi Khristina, Ray J,and Houston’s god daughter, Brandi Burnside. Brandi is believed to be a “sex toy” of major black pro athetees out of Chris Stoke’sMK ULTRA/MONARCH barn discussed below.

At about 1230 a.m., according to a TMZ story, friends of Bobbi Kristinatried knocking on her door repeatedly Friday night … but she didn’t answer. They were told they called security to get them to unlock the door and help them get Bobbi out of the tub. It happened on the same floor of the hotel where Whitney would be found dead the next day. They were told the room Bobbi Kristina was in was booked under Whitney’s name. Bobbi Kristina had been found unconscious in the bathtub just hours before her mother died the same way. Undoubtedly, Bobbi Kristinahad also been drugged. It may have been either Bobbi or Whitney’s life for the ILLUMINATI. However, we know as in the case of Bruce Lee. They will take your seed, Brando Lee, too.

Nevertheless, the common thread in the attempted murder of Bobbi Kristina and and the death of Whitney Houstion is Ray J. Some sources in the Hip Hop community have reason to believe that Ray J is a protected major Black Hip Hop and HollyWeird drug trafficker and Whitney’s source and illegal drugs.


To set the stage to explain Ray J and the False Pretext in the death of the Black Diva, first let’s look at his famous sister, Brandy. On Thursday, February 9, 2012, just 2 days before her death, Whitney Houston reportedly crashed an E! Interview while Clive Davis was speaking with Brandy and R&B singer Monica.

Some described Whitney’s behavior to be “some bit manic” and weird as she told Monica about swimming “2 hours a day” and conspicuously handed a note to Brandy. “The 48-year-old was strangely frazzled (stressed out) as she told daughter Bobbi Kristina to come say hello to “godfather” Davis.

Meanwhile, Brandy did not have a noticeable reaction to the note but is seen hugging Whitney as the clip ends. Brandy is the older sister of 31-year-old “Sexy Can I?” singer Ray J, so perhaps it was something of personal nature, but nobody but the two women know what was written on that piece of paper.” [25]

However, Brandy appeared somewhat caught by surprise with Whitney’s quick of hand suddenly passing the note to her. She briefly looked at it then was filmed quickly passing the note off to an assistant off stage area. It is absolutely no surprise that Brandy refuses to discuss the contents of the note.

In a 2004 Issue of Vibe Magazine, Brandy unveiled herself prostrated to a higher power on the cover of Vibe Magazine in what some described as “puzzling.”[26]

On the cover, she has a tattoo of a large Monarch Butterfly on her spine. The picture positions the Monarch hovering over her head. The overall positioning of the Monarch Butterfly and her prostrated position indicates that Brandy underwent Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) Monarch Sex Slave Mind Control Programming.

Briefly, “Monarch’ programming (I use that as a loose term for organized trauma-based mind control not necessarily under the specific umbrella of the CIA Project Monarch) to be used as a child sex-slave for “elite” and government pedophiles.” [27]

Brandy’s hand symbol is the sign of an occulted pagan worship personality layer. The hand symbol is down in what appears to be the female vulvar Goddess position.

HollyWeird Stars are often implanted with complex triggers that set off personality switches. They can be an upstanding member of a community and then murder someone on command with an alter, and then switch back to the primary personality who has no recollection of committing a crime. Most mind control slaves also have numerous alters to keep them in line. For example, if a primary alter starts to discover what is happening and attempt to rebel or breakdown, a suicide alter is triggered which will work to keep the primary alter in line and protect exposure. [28]

Brady’s implanted MK ULTRA/MONARCH self destruct alteris incredibly drawn out and exposed in darkened black & white in an extremely rare situation in the public domain in one of those “don’t believe your lying eyes” moments. The pictures show the self destruct alter programming, self destruct layer from the primary to the alter, and then alter to the primary personality, below.

These pictures are worth a thousand words which gives a greater insight of what Whitney Houston was playing out with implanted self destruct alters beginning to engulf her just days before her Grammy Night Ritual Death. I suspect that the self destruct programming began Tuesday, February 7, 2012 at the Beverly Hilton bungalow of Clive Davis when Whitney was alone –no security –bodyguards.

Undoubtedly, Whitney’s note to Brandy moments before she was killed was her desperate lonely cry for help. Whitney Houston’s slaughter happened, February 11, on Brandy’s 33rd Birthday.

Whitney’s death and her call to Brandy just a couple of days before she was killed didn’t stop her show either.

Brandy dressed in black partied the night away on her 33rd with Ray J, Whitney’s last Appeal for Help, and friends at the Supperclub in Hollywood. There may be some occulted significance to the number 33 (33rd Degree).

At the end of all of Whitney’s implanted nightmares was Ray J to setup the false pretext of jealousy as the justification for her own self destruction by drugs and alcohol. Ray J-JESUS was Whitney’s self destruct alters’ implanted trigger.

The days leading up to her death, Whitney was desperately fighting against herself as plainly demonstrated by the Brandy implanted self destruct alters above. Whitney Houston told friends she “really wanted to see Jesus” in the days before her death … and claimed she had a feeling the end was near for her … this according to several of Whitney’s friends.

TMZ has learned … Whitney had been very spiritual in her final days … quoting the bible, singing hymns and engaging in intense conversations about Jesus Christ and the afterlife with her close friends and family members.

We’re told …. on Friday , one day after she performed, “Yes Jesus Loves Me” at Tru nightclub in Hollywood, Whitney told one of her friends, “I’m gonna go see Jesus … I want to see Jesus.”

The next morning, hours before her death, Whitney was discussing a bible passage involving John the Baptist and Jesus … when Houston flashed a big smile and remarked, “You know, he’s so cool … I really want to see that Jesus.”

Another source tells us … Whitney had been telling friends she “felt like her time was coming” … and wanted to make sure she spent her time praising her lord and savior whenever she could. Unfortunately, Whitney’s premonition came true. [29] It wasn’t premonition. It was mind control programming.

Brandy couldn’t tell what was in Whitney’s note. The Devil is in the Details. She is part of the cover-up and conspiracy. She sold her soul in an ILLUMINATI Covenant for Fame and Fortune. Her brother, Ray J, had to have been part of the package. They would do anything for paper (money, fame) and join Lucifer’s Servants most wittingly on any project even if it involved murder, the assassination of Whitney Houston.


At about 3:55p.m., reportedly, an unnamed-unidefenitifed female hairdresser became alarmed that Whitney was still in the bathroom after a hour. At the time of her death, two of her bodyguards finally appear in her room.

It’s far too late. One of them, Ray, pulled her from the tub. Oddly, he recalled that she was already cold. Cold? It is also being reported that Whitney’s face was below the water and her legs were up like she had slid down the back of the tub. She had been drugged unconscious like Bobbi Kristina. Or, she was killed with drugs then slid under water, but why would her legs be straight up?

On the afternoon she died, there had been two people in the room 434. One person was eating a hamburger, frys and drinking a Heniken. The other person had been eating a turkey sandwich. The other person had been her secret companion that everyone have been so hush-hush or hushed up about. It is also interesting that the Beverly Hilton has fired most of its low level employees covering the times and events around Whitney Houston’s stay at the hotel. Below, the ILLUMINATI’s aggressive efforts to stop aggressive independent investigative journalist from getting too close to the Whitney Houston death probe is led by Occultist-ROMAN POLANSKI’S defender Whoopi Goldberg.

After hearing Nancy Grace and Dr. Drew bring up some probing questions on CNN in regards to Whitney Houston’s death, Goldberg rushed to the air to aggressively hush-hush mass media independent inquires and questions into Whitney Houston’s death like who was with her in the room at the time of her death, supplied her with drugs, and may have pushed her under water.

It is highly unusual for a television network like ABC to aggressively attack the journalistic independence of another network like CNN. Yet, ABC did it. They personally attacked Nancy Grace and Dr. Drew, and CNN appears to have dropped its investigative journalistic independent interests in Whitney Houston’s homicide. Why?

Additionally, Whitney Houston’s note is material evidence. It would be possible evidence of her STATE OF MIND immediately prior to her death. Why is Brandy holding on it as if the case isn’t a homicide investigation? WHY ISN’T THE MEDIA, LAPD AND CORONER’S OFFICE INTERESTED IN THE NOTE TO ESTABLISH WHITNEY HOUSTON’S STATE OF MIND PRIOR TO HER DEATH?

It’s about that MK ULTRA/LUCIFERIAN Boy Toy, Ray J

Above, Lucifer’s Servants, Brandy and Ray J. He plannly exhibits an upright Masonic-ILLUMINATI Pyramid hand symbol. One day while channel surfing, I first came across the show “The Love of Ray J.”I wondered who this Ray Jis supposed to be. Ray J appears to be a Hip Hop poster boy for the ILLUMINATI that I call “Little Lucifer.”

5′ 7 tall- Willie Ray Norwood, Jr. was born on January 17th, 1981, in McComb, Mississippi. He is a son of a gospel singer and the younger brother of R&B award winning star, Brandy. Ray J is a musician and rapper-singer with no particularly distinguishing musical talent that I could point to or hit records.

However, Ray J is infamously noted for being a February 2007 porno home movie sexual partner of Kim Kardashian. The Devil is in the Details. The home movie seemed to have been leaked deliberately in the public domain to create a sensation and public stir.

Ray J and Kim’s sex tape was no innocently leaked consensual act between two adults. The porno movie put both Ray J and Kim Kardashian on the roadmap to celebrity status as the mass media darlings of the Hip Hop generation to push the moral paradigm to the edge.

Above, Kim and Ray Jin classic hypnotic Luciferian/ILLUMINATI stare Kim is the daughter of the Late Robert Kardashian. Kimberly Noel was born on October 21, 1980 in Los Angeles, CA. Robert Kardashian, most likely linked with Russian-Armenian Mob, was one of O.J. Simpson’s best friends and one of his attorneys in the infamous murder trials in Los Angeles. Kim’s family history background is literal dysfunctional. Robert Kardashian died on September 30. 2003, eight weeks after being diagnosed with esophageal cancer.

Kim and Nicki Minaj in classic MK ULTRA/MONARCH Barbie Doll Complex.

Kim, above, playing out another classic MK ULTRA/MONARCH Sex Kitten Black Cat Theme and alter.

Little Lucifer, above, has been linked with an underground MK ULTRA/MONARCH type boy farm connected to Los Angeles Music Producer/Manager and Filmmaker, Chris Stokes. Musician Raz B of B2K exposed the boy farm in a series of YouTube charges and accusations.

In March 2003, B2K had been voted in “Favorite Group” at the Nickelodeon’s Kids’ Choice Awards and were the recipients of two Soul Train Awards for Best R & B/Soul Single (Group, Band, or Duo) and Best R & B Soul Album.

Raz B accused Stokes, left, below, of ritual sexual abuse turning them into sex boy toys.

The Devil is in the Details. Raz B subsequently secretly taped a conversation between himself, Ray J and Young Buck. Young Buckis a former member of G-Unit.

Ray J, Raz B and Young Buck. Young Buck, right, below.

Clearly, Raz B understands that Ray Jand Young Buckare together getting loaded. He also understands that contact with Ray Jis through Young Buck.

The GAME and Young Buckcaught in a real strange and suspect HollyWeird moment. Young Buckshows that he can offer little if any resistance to the overly aggressive GAME and the GAME knows it.

Monica Leon, aka Danger, from Ray J’sVH1 reality TV dating show “For The Love of Ray J”, first publicly outed that Ray Jand Young Buckwere secret lovers.

Subsequently, Danger was committed to a mental hospital, most likely, until she stopped publicly exposing multi-billon dollar HollyWeird ILLUMINATI moments.

Raz B implied in one of his tapes that Ray Jalso had been one of Stokes’ sex boy toys out of the mill. On Raz B’s recorded tape, you can hear Ray Jdesperately asking Raz to clear his name in the whole molestation fiasco. To substantiate Raz B’s charges, a photo was leaked of Stokes’ boy group Immature/IMX in bed.

If you are aware of the Franklin Credit Union Cover-Up MK-Ultra-Pedophile Scandal, then the picture above is eerily familiar to the picture below that was exposed in the Johnny Gosch Kidnapping affair in that case.

On the tape, Ray J clearly told Raz B that the Chris Stokes stuff had be quashed before it got out of hand and lead to other things (Pandora’s Box).

He told Raz B that among the powerful, rich and famous that had his back was ABC TELEVISION NETWORK, VH-1, Steve Rinfkind, Oprah, Gayle King and Sarah Palin. On the tape, Ray J can clearly be heard exposing the hip hop musical industrial being secretly controlled by a powerful underground homosexual subculture.

“I’m getting a lot of paper now. I can’t diss anybody that’s homosexual in any kind of way,” Ray explains. “If you like men, if you like women whatever. You do what you do, I respect you, I love you. I f*ck with a lot of niggas and females thats homosexuals and bisexuals, thats cool. So I don’t want to ever get it twisted like I’m saying it aint cool to do sh*t and cross that path. And then on top of all that , I got the head of VH1, and I got the head of a couple other n*ggas on some fruity sh*t. Calling, trying to get my number, taking me out on dates and I don’t need that sh*t either. It’s going down because of the rumors and I’m in a f*cked up position. Because I will never go out and say anything in the f*ggot name or anything. Anything you say like that your career is over. Because people that are in that world, run the industry.” [30]

Clive Davis also appears to have had Little Lucifer’sback. Here is Ray J and one of the main Devils in the Details behind Whitney Houston’s assassination strangely huddled up on the third floor of the Beverly Hilton at the very moment that the Black Diva is being slaughtered upstairs on the 4th floor.

Ray J said that he been at the Beverly Hilton helping Clive Davis pictured with unknown woman setup for his Pre-Grammy celebration. However, when Whitney was found dead. Ray Jwas allowed to slip out of the hotel.

It is not clear why Little Luciferfound it necessary to mark the occasion with black and the number (3) three. I believe it was some part of his organized planning then mere coincidence. In the occult, three is the “equilibrium of unities.” It would be Spirit, Mind, Body Father, Son, Holy Ghost Past, Present, Future or Creator, Destroyer, Sustainer. Three may also represent promising new adventures, and assurance of cooperation from others whom you may require help. Three typically symbolizes reward and success in most undertakings. In Christianity, an “Unholy Trinity” is composed of Satan, Antichrist, and the False Prophet.

There is another Devil in the Details, the “Power of ONE.”

Both Whitney and Ray J received some type of mind control programming involving the concept of the “Power of ONE.” It is essentially the programmed use of the power of one’s mind to control auras to protect, attract, influence, maim or kill. It can used to control yourself, others, and the environment.

Undoubtedly, Little Lucifer, above, is afraid of the hulking GAME. Ray J invokes the mental exercise, “Power of ONE” to overcome his fear of the GAME. Flip it as in the Case of Whitney Houston, the “Power of ONE” may be used by a dominate alternative MPD personality (Implanted Cougar Alter) to control the primary personality and other alters.


Lucifer’s Servants Play No Games: The Devil in the Details of Clive Davis’ Pre-Grammy Celebration & The Scarlet Woman

There is a lot of speculative stuff on the internet about the ritual sacrifice of Whitney Houston and Queen Elizabeth nonsense. However, there is no doubt that in the evening of Saturday, February 11, 2011, while the Black Diva was lying dead in a Beverly Hilton hotel room, there were predominately 800 white guests, Alicia Keys and other black entertainers, a floor below, chillingly, celebrating her death.

One of Satan’s newest playgirls of the Occult, Alicia Keys with the “Devil Horns” and “Veiled Eye of Horus” was the headliner of the the Clive Davis affair. Above, she is appropriately dressed for the occasion. Dressed in red, it is the color of the Oriental Dragon. She also tells the world that she has reached a new low. She had taken one more bite of forbidden fruit, “Adam’s Apple.” In the Garden of Eden, Adam universally partaken sin by eating the red apple. The color of the apple from religious, Greek mythology, and history was red. The color red is also the color of symbolic sacrifice. “And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe.” Matthew 27:28 It is also one of the colors of the Scarlet Woman of Revelation [Revelation 17:1-6]. Red is also the color of Blood Sacrifice.


Lucifer’s Servants Play No Game: GRAMMYS, The Whore of Babylon, Roman Polanski & the Sharon Tate Satanic Slayings

The next day on Sunday, February 12, 2012, while Whitney Houston lay dead in the Los Angeles County Coroner’s Office LUCIFERIAN/ILLUMINATI Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) Nicky Minaj enters the Grammy’s ceremony also dressed in scarlet (color of blood scarifice) as the Whore of Babylon of Revelation with a Roman Catholic Pope.

The red dress has a picture of figure most likely Medusa of Greek Mythology. Medusa was a legendary Gorgon, a BEAST. Nicky performed a ceremony at the Grammys that was dubbed, “The Exorcism of Roman“, which I believe was directly related to the Symbolic Sacrifice of the Black Diva-Messiah.

One of Nicky Minaj’s widely mass media cerebrated alter MPD personalities is ROMAN ZOLANSKI. It is actually ABC’s The View-Whoopi Goldberg’s friend and her former boyfriend’s Satanic Mentor, ROMAN POLANSKIi, the Devil in the Details. They play no games.

ROMAN POLANSKI is a notorious elite fugitive pedophile and powerful international Luciferian. [31] During the 1960s, POLANSKI was part of an extremely dangerous and chilling Hollywood star studded satanic coven in Laurel Canyon near Lookout Mountain linked to the 1968 CIA assassination of U.S. Senator and presidential hopeful, Robert F. Kennedy and convicted MK ULTRA mass murderer Charles Manson. The Laurel Canyon coven of Lookout Mountain has also been linked to drug trafficking, mind control child sex slaves, pornography, snuff films, murder, and the occult of the BEAST 666, Aleister Crowley.

POLANSKI has produced and directed two of the most infamous clandestine Luciferian initiation rite and occulted horror movies in history, Rosemary’s Baby (1968), and the Ninth Gate (2000). [32]

POLANASKI was born in Paris, France in 1933. During the reign of Nazis in Eastern Europe, Polanski’s mother was murdered at Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. His father barely survived the Austrian concentration camp Mauthausen-Gusen. [33] In 1977, after a photo (child pornography) shoot at the home of actor Jack Nicholson near Lookout Mountain, Polanski was arrested for drugging and raping a 13 year old girl. He was charged with rape but pleaded guilty to unlawful sex with a minor. To avoid sentencing, POLANSKI fled to his home in London, and then moved on to France the following day. [34]

It is interesting to note that the primary prosecuting witness against POLANSKI was Actress Anjelica Huston, [35] the daughter of Hollywood actor and film director, John Huston. [36] Anjelica was the girlfriend of demented Bob Richardson, above, father of the infamous Satanist-Nazi loving fashion iconic photographer of Barack Obama and Kanye West, Terry Richardson. [37] They’re all part of the same secret powerful international Satanic Coven.

Ninth Gate like POLANSKI’s 1968 Rosemary’s Baby [calling forth the Great BEAST Aleister Crowley’s Moon Child (Satan’s Offspring)] is a slick covert Luciferian initiation rite film. The Ninth Gate is designed to subliminally draw in the unsuspecting and guide and initiate them into and through the nine gates of HELL.

So, why is Nicki Minaj reimaging in exorcism an international fugitive, ROMAN POLANSKI, in mass media on the day that Whitney Houston died?

Lucifer’s Servants Play No Game: the Sharon Tate Satanic Murders

In 1969, POLANSKI and his Luciferian Coven were involved in one of the most infamous horrific mass murder satanic sacrifices in American History, the Sharon Tate Murders.

On August 9, 1969, Sharon Tate, Victim 1,was eight and a half months pregnant when she and her unborn child were savagely slaughtered in her home, along with four others, by followers of Charles Manson. Tate was married to ROMAN POLANSKI. Sharon was two weeks from giving birth. She pleaded with the assassins, at least, save the baby. The unborn child died in her womb. The horrific mass murders took place at their home located near Lookout Mountain at 10050 Cielo Drive in Benedict Canyon.

One of their victims, Abigail Folger, Victim 2, must have put up a courageous struggle and made a frantic attempt to save her life. She was found blooded and dead just outside the house.

Folgersuffered massive and savage face stab wounds from the assassins. They no games.

Tate and her former lover, the infamous Hairdresser of the Stars, Jay Thomas Sebring, Victim 3, were hung from the rafters of the ceiling, stabbed, tortured, and strangled to death.

Their outer victim, Wojciech Frykowski, Victim 4, was also found outside the house blooded, savagely beaten and stabbed to death. Below, Steven Parent, 18, just happened on the crime scene to visit the Polanski’s dog keeper in a back house. He was also slain, stabbed and shot in the head. He became the infamous 5th victim at 10050 Cielo Drive. As they were leaving, the satanic assassins used a towel dipped in Sharon Tate’s blood to write DEATH TO PIGS on the wall and PIG on the front door.

Preston Guillory, a former deputy sheriff in Los Angeles, reportedly revealed that, “A few weeks prior to the [arrests at the] Spahn Ranch raid, we were told that we weren’t to arrest Manson or any of his followers the reason he was left on the street was because our department thought that he was going to launch an attack on the Black Panthers.”[38]

The Satanic Slaughters didn’t end on Cielo Drive. On August 10, 1969, Leno and Rosemary LaBiancawere heinously slain in their home down the way from Laurel Canyon and Hollywood.

WAR (racial) was carved out of Leno’s body. As the satanic assassins left, with the blood of the LaBiancas, they left a false calling call on the wall of the home, again, “Death to Pigs.”

Charles Manson’s handlers and the Aliester Crowley’s ‘Ordo Templi Orientis’ (OTO), the Process Church wanted to start a race war. The Manson Satanic Cult followers were sent in to kill sadistically part of Polanski’s Luciferian Coven, Sharon Tate, Jay Sebring, Abigail Folger, Wojciech Frykowski,and make it seem as though the Black Panthers did it. [39] They were slain and sacrificed in such a horrific manner to shock the world to start HELTER SKELTER, the Apocalyptic Race War and the wholesale annihilation of Black People. [40]

The Many Strange Faces of Tex Watson

Charles “Tex” Watsonis generally believed to have been one of the main butcher in the Satanic Tate and LaBrianca Murders. Texcame to California sometime during the summer of 1967. He was in the same Hollywood-Beverly Hills business as Jay Sebringin hair dressing products. Tex had been the co-owner of Crown Wig Creationson the corner of Santa Monica Boulevard and Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills. In the fall of 1968, Texjoined the Manson Family after allegedly meeting but most likely setup with Charles Manson at the Beach Boys Dennis Wilson’shouse in Laura Canyon.

POLANSKI’s old Polish friend, Wojciech Frykowski, and Jay Sebringwere involved in the Beverly Hills/Los Angeles drug trade linked to the Canadian Mob through the infamous French Connection. POLANSKI’s inner circle regularly supplied Tex and Manson Family with drugs, which included “Orange Sunshine”LSD. Texwrote in his prison memoir, Will You Die for Me?,that it was the use of the Orange Sunshine LSDthat finally convinced him that Manson’s Helter Skelter, apocalyptic vision was real.

Orange Sunshinewas primarily manufactured and distributed by a group known as “The Brotherhood of Eternal Love” who operated out of a beach resort near Los Angeles. One of the Brotherhood’s major drug manufacturers and dealers was Ronald Hadley Starkof New York. The Brotherhood was controlled by Ronald Stark, whom an Italian High Court concluded had been a CIA agent since 1960. The Brotherhood’s funds were channeled through Castle Bank in the Bahamas, a known CIA “proprietary.” Starkhad been secretly attached to a CIA project later to be revealed as MK ULTRA.

Additionally, Sharon Tatewas a well known and established “Witch”, who was inducted into witchcraft in London on the set of the POLANSKI-directed film, The Fearless Vampire Killers, by Alexander Saunders, “King of the Witches.” Saunders had received direct ‘training’ as a child from the BEAST 666, Aleister Crowley. The POLANSKI house had been a well known coven haven that practiced witchcraft and conducted regular satanic rituals and ceremonials that included Tex and the Manson Family.

Manson Family Member, Susan Atkins, above, had also been a well known and infamous “Witch” of Mendocino County that had been part of POLANSKI‘s secret Satanic Coven. Susan “Sexy Sadie” Atkins, who admitted stabbing Sharon Tate, was also an adept of the infamous Satanist Anton Szandor LeVay, Church of Satan. Below, Susan Aktins, nude, in a 1966 satanic ritual with her Luciferian Mentor, Anton LeVay.

LeVay, below left, with the familar demonic hypnotic stare was the technical advisor to POLANSKI’s legendary Rosemary’s Baby which Sharon Tate also played a small part in, and is generally believed to have played the part of the DEVIL in the movie.

After Tex’sextradition from Texas to face murder charges, a self destruct or termination alter personalitytook over Tex’s primary personality to protect his MK ULTRA handlers, the sources of his mind control programming. In October of 1970, Tex was sent to Atascadero State Hospital. He was adjudged insane and unable to stand trial. A report said the then 24-year-old was “turning into a vegetable.” He was being fed by a tube having lost 50 pounds and staring off into space and giggling. A UPI story quotes the report, “He remains mute and nonverbal,” it said. “At times he appears to understand and tears well up in his eyes.”

He subsequently was tried and convicted of murder, but his handlers remain unknown. However, we know that after he arrived in California and before joining the Manson Family in the fall of 1968, Texhad lived at 8584 Wonderland Avenuefor 5-6 months. It was enough time for him to be mind control programmed for a special operational project of MK ULTRA. The secret and classified 8935 Lookout Mountain Blvd facility sits directly opposite to and just down the way to the inamous Wonderland Avenue of Laurel Canyon.

Lucifer’s Servants & the Secret Lookout Mountain Laboratory

The Polanski Satanic Cult, Manson Family and the Sharon Tate sacrifices were secret projects of the Lookout Mountain Laboratory. For decades, the mountains and canyons, particularly Laurel Canyon, overlooking Hollywood hid a lot of things even outlaws of Wild-Wild West and racialist “White Knights” to a complete $4 million pre WWII Nazi Compound and Fort. [41] Hidden in a valley in Laurel Canyon on Wonderland Park Avenue during the 1960s was a Top-Secret U.S. Military propaganda machine, Lookup Mountain Laboratory.

In 1941, the United States, the Army Air Corps (1352d Motion Picture Squadron) secured a 21/2 acre hidden from view site in Wonderland Park Valley, now Wonderland Park Avenue in Laurel Canyon and turned it into a top secret electrical fenced movie production house identified as the Lookup Mountain Laboratory. [42]

In 1947, two years after the end of World War II, Lookout Lab operations suddenly covered post-war propaganda for all branches of the U.S. Military, which indicates it had come under the domain of the Pentagon. The Lab was turned into what had been claimed to be the world’s only completely self-contained movie studio. With 100,000 square feet of floor space, the covert studio included sound stages, screening rooms, film processing labs, editing facilities, an animation department, and seventeen climate-controlled film vaults. It also had underground parking, a helicopter pad and a bomb shelter. [43]

Lookup Mountain Laboratory also had something to do with developing secret weapon testing films for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The existence of this facility wasn’t acknowledged until the early 90s even though it had produced some 19,000 government propaganda films, and had the likes of John Ford, Jimmy Stewart, Howard Hawks, Ronald Reagan, Bing Crosby, Walt Disney and Marilyn Monroe working there with top-secret clearances on national security “undisclosed projects” [44].

Lookout Mountain Lab and CIA MK ULTRA Mind Control

Svali, an alias, an Illuminati defector revealed that there was a secret location in California which made all of the training films for “Trauma-based mind control”. [45] Most likely than not, it was the Lookout Mountain Lab and the referenced training films were undoubtedly part of the CIA MK-ULTRA mind control program which would be extremely significant and be of great implication.

Hollywood civilian studio staff from Warner Brothers, Metro-Goldwyn Mayer and RKO secretly worked alongside its military staff as producers, cameramen and directors. [46] The lab conducted top secret experiments and shot military training films and documentaries here until the clandestine studio was suddenly decommissioned in 1969 [47] most likely after or just prior to the Manson Family Helter Skelter Project in the canyons. [48]

The Secret Fort Hunt Treaty between Der Generalmajor Reinhard Gehlen, Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler’s SS and U.S. Government created an Unholy Alliances with the Nazis regarding the national security of the nation. Their collaboration was the roots of the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). [49]

Following the Fort Hunt Treaty, over tens of thousands ardent Nazi scientist, doctors, technicians, military, intelligence and counter intelligence operatives-specialists were secretly smuggled into the U.S through Project PAPERCLIP then clandestinely nested in federal national security departments military, and other U.S. agencies and departments local governments, universities, hospitals, and corporations.

The National Security Act of July 26, 1947 officially established the CIA. The Nazis, particularly the SS, Set-Baphomet Teutonic Knights of the Black Sun, officially went on the U.S. Government-Taxpayer payrolls, and the operations at Lookout Lab suddenly significantly expanded and increased that very same year.

I suspect that Lookout Lab was the result of yet another secret Nazi and U.S. Government collaboration. It was an extension of Reichsminister of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment, Paul Josef Goebbels’ Nazi Propaganda Machine into America. Reichsminister Goebbels had been largely responsible for creating the Nazi mass media propaganda program to control public and world opinion to among other things spin the rise of the mythic Fuehrer, expand Nazi Germany’s Wotan (Aryan Supremacy) Paganism and mask and veil its vast military and intelligence global aggression war machine for world domination racial genocide of Jews and People of Color.

The 2012 Super Bowl & the Rise of the Dark Forces of Baphomet

Above, “Rise”written in the blood of Leno and Rosemary LaBianca. Don’t disregard the CIA’s Occult Bureau as playing a major part in developing Nicki Minaj’s Grammy Satanic theme production and Madonna’s Kemetic (Egyptian) themed 2012 Super Bowl half time show that I call the Rise of Set (Baphomet).

By now, there should be question that Nicki Minajis one of Baphomet/Lucifer’s Servants appearing on the set as one of Madonna’s ceremonial Rise of the Devil.

Yet, I wondered about British Rapper M.I.A. (Mathangi Arulpragasam) of Sri Lankan Tamil descent. She has an extremely impressive record of philanthropy in the Mother Country.

However, she has undoubtedly gone through some type of MK ULTRA mind control programming involving the direct whitewashing and suppression of “Melanin Magic” and the Pineal Gland.similar to Alicia Keys on the left.

I am not sure if her expression at the Super Bowl was directed to America’s Racialist Imperialistic War Machine or a message from the God of Evil and Chaos, Set-Seth and his conspirators, the Guardians of Darkness to the keepers of Justice, Peace, and Divine Order?

M.I.A. is directly linked to Benjamin Bronfman. He is a son of Edgar Bronfman, Jr.,Warner Music Group chairman-CEO and billionaire heir to the Seagram fortune, and Black Actress Sherry “Peaches” Brewer. Yes, the same elite and powerful Bronfman Oligarchy of the ILLUMINATI. Get this. Whitney Houston’s cousin and Luciferian Psychic, Dionne Warwick, introduced the pair.

As just in the days of old, SET-LUCIFER seeks to destroy the balance of order, justice, peace and harmony on earth and rein Evil and Chaos. Once again, Set-Seth and the Guardians of Dark are searching the earth to assassinate the Sons and Daughters of the Divine Order. I don’t believe anything goes over the public airways of such national/international implications and proportions without clearances and collaboration from the Agency and U.S. Homeland Security.

It is also clearly unqualified documentation and undisputable evidence that the FBI’s COINTELPRO was a major veiled Luciferian program initiated to suppress the rise of the mysterious “BLACK MESSIAH” that would unity the world in universal peace, justice and harmony.

The FBI target March 4, 1968 COINTELPRO memo remains totally arbitrarily. It targets anyone, both heroes and heroines, who could unify and electrify the masses. The infamous COINTELPRO target memo is broad enough to include even targeting, WHITNEY HOUSTON, the “Divine” of the entertainment industry. That is what it says on official government business records. The covert war against the “DIVINE” and “BLACK MESSIAH” was and remains secret U.S. Government policy.

ROMAN POLANSKI was one of the secret “Boys from Lookout Mountain.” He is a Luciferian High Priest. However, the Luciferian fascination with POLANSKI is not his legendary satanic initiation flicks, but his links and the sacrifice of his wife and unborn child to one of America’s most legendary horrific murders of the 20 th Century, the Infamous Sharon Tate Slayings. There may have been more gruesome and grisly murders, but these were the paradigm shifting killings of human beings that set the ground and justification for a governmental campaign of an inhuman wave of terror against Black people and signaled the downfall of the entire Hippie peace-flower generation of the 1960s.

Lucifer’s Servants Play No Game: The Great BEAST 666 Aleister Crowley & Jack the Ripper

ROMAN POLANSKI is not unlike the Luciferian secret fascination in the Great BEAST 666 Aleister Crowley. Crowley is linked to the World’s most legendary horrific murders of the 19 th Century, the Whitechapel Slayings of Jack the Ripperin London. Crowley was about 13 years old at the time of the slayings. Both waves of Satanic terror involved 5 (five) brutally slain victims to shock the conscious of the human race.

Occultists believe the number 5 is the number of Death. The number 5 is a characteristic of the man. First, according to the Cabal, it is the number of the perfect Man (got rid from his animal side). According to the Bible, it is the symbol of the Man-God by the five wounds of the Christ on cross (for this reason, it is also considered as the number of the grace). But it is also associated to the man in general (2 + 3) having an unstable character of duality, 2, in spite of his divinity, 3. Edward (Little Eddie) Alexander Crowley, above, attracted the attention of Scotland Yard on various occasions.

Mary Ann Nichols, August 31, 1888, Jack the Ripper’s 1st Victim.

Annie Chapman, September 8, 1888, Jack the Ripper, 2nd Victim

Crowley claimed he had personal information concerning Jack the Ripper’s identity. [50]

Catherine Eddowes, Whitechapel, September 30, 1888, Jack the Ripper, 3rd Victim

“It was London, 1888. A teenage boy called “Little Eddie,”went to work with red stains on his hands. Little Eddie was a sex worker, a new attraction to the Cleveland Street boy’s brothel. He was the latest teacher’s pet of the aristocratic gay community. But he took it the wrong way. When he arrived for his birthday bash with blood on his hands, some gentlemen wondered: Was it from the bite of a dog or the beak of Poe’s raven? But others knew better. It was London, 1888, and the horrors of Whitechapel weighed heavily on everyone’s mind. A few men suddenly grasped that Jack the Ripper was a teenager.” [51]

Elizabeth Stride, Whitechapel, September 30, 1888, Jack the Ripper, 4th Victim

Prince Eddy of the British Royal Family (Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale) was sometimes said to visit the Cleveland Street sauna baths. But there was another Little Eddie in the same murky dwelling. He was one of the telegraph messenger “rent boys” or liveried squires that filled the baths and laundered the towels (according to “Jack the Ripper: The Final Solution” by Stephen Knight, published in 1976). As soon as the stabbing rumors started, he changed his name and slipped through the police dragnets. Edward Alexander Crowley changed his name to “Aleister” after he was about 14 years old. [52]

Mary Jane Kelly became Jack the Ripper’sInfamous 5th Victim of Whitechapel, November 9, 1888

Among the underground, Crowley was known to have secret possession of a bloody talisman given to him by Jack the Ripperthat had attained magical properties. I serious doubt that the Great BEAST had been Jack the Ripper. However, he was there. I believe that he was part of the secret British Royal Family-Satanic Whitechapel cleanup team of the affairs of Prince Albert and the Whitechapel prostitutes and the British Royal Crown has been indebted to him for that service and secrets he kept. I certainly do believe that the Great BEAST knew who he or they were.

So the secret significance of Madonna’s 2012 Super Bowl Halftime Show again highlights the popular rise of the Egyptian God Set (Baphomet). Nicky Minaj’s ceremonial invocation and resurrection of an alter of ROMAN POLANSKI (Zolanski) at the Grammys celebrate the Fall of the Symbolic Black Diva-Messiah (Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, 17 th Dynasty of Ta-Merry [Egypt])and signal yet another generational united secret campaign among the followers of Set in the spirit of ROMAN POLANSKI (Greater Sacrifice) to promote a more vicious and covert war against the God, humanity, goals and aspirations of People of Color on a global basis.

Before recorded time, the usurper Set mutilated his brother Osiris, a wise lord, king, and bringer of civilization. Osiris’ wife Isis reassembled Osiris’ corpse and embalmed him. Osiris’ son Horus sought revenge upon Set, and the ancient myths describe their conflicts to restore Osiris’ throne, Peace and Justice to the Land of Kemet.

Queens of the 1st Dynasty once bore the title “She Who Sees Horus and Set.”The Pyramid Texts present the pharaoh as a fusion of the two deities. Evidently, pharaohs believed that they balanced and reconciled competing cosmic principle, basically order, peace and justice and chaos. In the 15 th Dynasty, Kemet was invaded by the Hyskos “Rulers of Foreign Countries.” The invading Hyskos adopted God Set-Seth [mythology] Chaos to represent their deity.

The God of Evil and Chaos, Set-Seth and his conspirators, the Guardians of Darkness soured all of the ancient lands for Queen Ahmose-Nefertari and the Black Osirian Messianic lineages of the country that opposed them and that would restore cosmic order to Kemet. A horrible death was their fate if unearthed and exposed. The Hyskos ruled the country for about 233 years from the 15 th to 17 th Dynasties of Kemet (1783-1550bce).

Queen Ahmose-Nefertari resurfaced anew in Kemet with her brother, Ahmose I, they heroically expelled the ruling Hyskos (Chaos) from Kemet in a series of bloody battles from South to North. Kemet was restored once again. Once more, the two competing cosmic principles of Order-Good and Chaos-Evil was balanced. Queen Ahmose-Nefertari is the grandmother of the 18 th Dynasty (The Golden Age of Kemet). She remains one of the most venerated and inspirational women in Kemetic (Egyptian) history, if quiet is kept.

There is no doubt that America is out of Symbolic cosmic balance, and the forces of darkness that rule over the country continue the cosmic battle between God and Evil of the Ancients, unabated. They are slowing coming out of the darkness through mass media as seen in the news, television, movies, music, and the 2012 half time show of the Super Bowl, the Grammys, and murder of Michael Jackson and Whitney Houston. They are becoming even bolder, emblazon and tyrannical to control the global masses with an iron fist of inhuman brutality and indifference. Any God, figure or Messianic musical voices like Michael Jackson and Whitney Houston who promise like Queen Ahmose-Nefertari Symbolic Order, Love, Peace and Justicethrough their music have been mutilated, dismembered and destroyed.

Both Michael Jackson and Whitney Houston were surrounded by Lucifer’s Servants. Michael was MK ULTRA drugged like something out of the pages of Jonestown, left comatose until his life was extinguished. Whitney Houston was mutilated and dismembered with MK ULTRA drugs and highly sophisticated and scientific advanced COINTELPRO electronic harassment devices that slowly consumed her and left her being haunted by Demons.

Yet, the battle is far from over. There will be others Symbolic Sybmols of Justice and Peace like God’s Son Jesus, Queen Nefertaris, Ahmoses, Huey Ps, Dr. Kings, Michael Jacksons, Whitney Houstons, Phyllis Hymans and Donny Hathaways and others to resurface and lead us into cosmic and spiritual battle over Evil and Chaos.

As Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., said, We shall overcome because the arch of the moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice. We shall overcome because Carlyle is right: “No lie can live forever”


Preparations for a Sacrifice

Animal sacrifice played an important role in ancient Roman religion, but what was involved in the preparation?

An animal sacrifice

The scene depicts a group of four males and a bull preparing for a sacrifice. The bull, bedecked in finery—including its pelta-shaped frontalia —is the intended victim. One attendant (a tibicen) provides music by playing the flute (tibia), two others hold the bull, and the fourth is perhaps the officiant who will conduct the ceremony. The latter figure, wearing a toga, stands at the viewer’s far left, looking toward the sacrificing priests.

Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris) [note: the date for this relief from the Louvre’s website—beginning of the second century C.E.—is at odds with the Louvre’s publication of its catalog, Roman Art from the Louvre (2009) and given the arguments of Koeppel and Torelli, the assignment of a date in the second or third quarter of the first century C.E. is more likely]

Ox (detail), Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

Public sacrifices such as the one depicted in this relief played a major role in the Roman state religion. The animal sacrifice itself served multiple functions, chief among them honoring the divinity in question, but also providing a context within which ritual communal feasting could take place after the event. These communal feasts provided valuable nutrition to city dwellers and served to reinforce community ties within the locus of the sanctuary.

The scene is set against a sculpted background that depicts a Corinthian temple (to the left) and a distyle building (to the right) that has two Aeolian capitals flanking a double door this latter façade is decorated with a laurel garland.

The temple’s pediment (see image below) includes depictions of various Roman ritual equipment including the aspergillum (for sprinkling sacred water), simpulum (a ritual ladle for libations), lituus (the curved wand of a religious official known as an augur), and an apex (a flamen’s hat). Such a background serves not only to situate the main scene but also to add realism and contextualization to these activities as they took place within the city of Rome.

Pediment (detail), Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

As we look closely, it’s important to keep in mind that the relief has been heavily restored—with art restorers adding elements to replace those that had been lost. Archival records suggest that the restorations were carried out by the sculptor Egidio Moretti in 1635, when the relief was a part of the collection of Asdrubale Mattei. The main restored elements are the heads of the two sacrificial priests, as well as the beard of the togate man. Also restored are the hands and the flute of the musician, the right portion of the bull’s frontalia, the bull’s muzzle, and the raised arm of the priest nearest to the bull. These restorations must all be considered to be conjectural.


This fragmentary historical relief comes from Rome but unfortunately lacks a secure findspot (the relief was in the possession of the Mattei family when it was purchased by the Louvre in 1884). Objects such as this one—which was long ago removed from its archaeological context—are incredibly difficult to date.

Based on comparative stylistic analysis, the relief has been dated by some scholars to the beginning of Hadrian’s reign (117-138 C.E.), based upon its supposed similarity to the so-called adventus relief of Hadrian (now in the Capitoline Museums). If this reading is correct, the setting for the relief is the forecourt of the Temple of Concord (a temple in the Roman Forum), although this assignment is based on an undocumented impression that the relief’s findspot was in or near the Forum of Trajan. This is an important reminder that stylistic dating is subjective and often inaccurate.

Ara Pietatis, cast of the Della Valle-Medici slab, detail with scene of sacrifice before the temple of Mars Ultor, 43 C.E., marble, 3 feet, 9 inches high (original in the Villa Medici, Rome)

An alternative and more compelling argument promoted by G. Koeppel called for an earlier dating of the relief. Koeppel argued that the most apt stylistic comparison is a fragment of a relief from the Ara Pietatis Augustae (the Altar of Augustuan Piety, a Julio-Claudian monument from Rome’s Campus Martius, image above), which would place the date of the Louvre relief either at the close of Claudius’ reign (41-54 C.E.) or at the beginning of Nero’s reign (54-68 C.E.). Koeppel based his argument on a comparison of the architectural background visible in both reliefs, as well as on the stylization of the bull’s head in both reliefs.

Architecture (detail), Preparations for a Sacrifice, fragment from an architectural relief, c. mid-first century C.E., marble, 172 x 211 cm / 67¾ x 83⅛ inches (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

Mario Torelli posits that the buildings in the background of the Louvre relief should be identified as the house of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (the father of the emperor Nero), at right, and, at left, Aedes Penatium, a temple once located on the Velia in Rome.

Context: historical art

It is clear that the creation of historical art forms—meaning those that aim to encapsulate and document actual events in a permanent medium—stands out as a key achievement within the vast corpus of Roman art. As a medium, historical relief sculpture defines public art of the Roman imperial period. These reliefs, most often carefully composed and well executed, capture the Roman interest in detailed depictions of actual events that had transpired. One clear outcome of creating such a corpus of sculpture is the creation (and reinforcement) of communal memories that served not only to remind the human participants and witnesses of things that they had seen but also to serve as a cohesive agent, binding together the constituent members to the body of the community.

The celebratory element of reliefs of this type remind viewers of communal rituals (in which some of them may well have participated) that occurred in the city of Rome on a regular basis, manifesting an interchange between state ritual and the urban populace. These reliefs also serve a didactic function, capturing snapshots, of a sort, to reflect the traditions, customs, and iconography of the Roman culture. In their hyper-detailed nature they are not only beautiful artifacts to behold today, but they also encode important documentary evidence that aids in our understanding of details large and small related to the Roman civilization.

Additional resources:

D. E. E. Kleiner, Roman Sculpture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).

G. M. Koeppel, “The Grand Pictorial Tradition of Roman Historical Representation during the Early Empire,” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.12.1 (1982), pp. 507-535.

G. M. Koeppel, “Official State Reliefs of the City of Rome in the Imperial Age: a Bibliography,” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.12.1 (1982), pp. 477-506.

G. M. Koeppel, “Die historichen Reliefs der römischen Kaiserzeit I: Stadtrömische Denkmäler unbekannter Bauzugehörigkeit aus augusteischer und julisch-claudischer Zeit,” Bonner Jahrbücher 183 (1983), pp. 61-144.

G. M. Koeppel, “The Role of Pictorial Models in the Creation of the Historical Relief during the Age of Augustus,” in The Age of Augustus, edited by R. Winkes (Providence RI: Center for Old World Archaeology and Art, Brown University, 1985), pp. 89-106.

D. Roger and C. Giroire, Roman Art from the Louvre (Hudson Hills Press, 2009).

I. S. Ryberg, Rites of the State Religion in Roman Art (Rome: American Academy in Rome, 1955).

M. Torelli, Typology and Structure of Roman Historical Reliefs (Thomas Spencer Jerome Lectures) (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982).

FAR LEFT: "Goddess of Freedom", sculpture by Thomas Crawford, placed atop the US Capitol in 1863. CENTER: from the painting "Bacchante", by William Adolphe Bouguereau, 1894. FAR RIGHT: "The Tyrannicdes", Roman copies of the original sculpture by Antenor from Athens (ca. 408 BC), commemorating Harmodius and Aristogeiton. ALSO shown are a practitioner of African Traditional Religion, Hypatia and her father Theon, the Saxon Heathen war leader Widukind, Crazy Horse, Sri Aurobindo and Alexandra David-Neel.

The familiar phrase "Jesus died for your sins" is normally stated as if it needs no explanation. Yet to me, it never made any sense. Eventually I learned that the Jews had, for centuries, practiced a ritual of sacrificing goats as "scape goats". The idea goes something like this: "the LORD" demands the shedding of blood for remission of sins:

Hebrews 9:22 And almost all things are by the law purged with blood and without shedding of blood is no remission.

However, instead of our own blood, God will accept the blood of a substitute, a goat whom we kill instead of ourselves. Apparently the LORD wanted blood, but it was ok if it wasn't our own, as long as someone's blood was shed for our sins. So, contemporary Christians saw Jesus as a scape goat who was killed instead of us, and whose blood absolves us of our sins. Unfortunately, this still made no sense to me. How can our killing of a goat or Jesus make the LORD willing to forgive us of our sins? I wanted to understand this. In fact when I started reading the Old Testament, this was the number one question I wanted answered, and I felt sure it would all be explained in there somewhere. But it wasn't. Instead, what I found is that this ritual of "sacrifice" has its roots in a very simple idea: the idea that the LORD liked roasted meat as much as we do:

Genesis 8:20-21 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
And the LORD smelled a sweet savour and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.

and that we could please him by offering him a goat, or other meats. Later, through Moses, he even gave elaborate instructions on preparing the meats, including salt.

Of course, for any of this to make sense, the LORD would have to actually take the offering. And guess what? He did take it, and in dramatic fashion, as the verses below show (for "fire", maybe we should read "beam of light"):

Jasher 1:15 And it was at the expiration of a few years, that they brought an approximating offering to the Lord, and Cain brought from the fruit of the ground, and Abel brought from the firstlings of his flock from the fat thereof, and God turned and inclined to Abel and his offering, and a fire came down from the Lord from heaven and consumed it.

Leviticus 9:24 And there came a fire out from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat: which when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces.

1Kings 18:38-39
Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench. And when all the people saw it, they fell on their faces: and they said, The LORD, he is the God the LORD, he is the God.

1Chronicles 21:26 And David built there an altar unto the LORD, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, and called upon the LORD and he answered him from heaven by fire upon the altar of burnt offering.

2Chronicles 7:1 Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices and the glory of the LORD filled the house.

And in this example, the beam of light is used not only to consume the sacrifice but to transport the angel of the LORD back up to heaven!

Judges 13:20
13:20 For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the LORD ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoah and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground.

But now we have a glaring question: If the LORD was a spirit, how could he enjoy eating meat? In the following verses, the LORD and his angels do in fact eat meat with Abraham:

Genesis 18:1-8 And the LORD appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day 18:2 And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him: and when he saw them, he ran to meet them [. ] And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetcht a calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young man and he hasted to dress it. And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.

As time passed, however, the LORD stopped consuming the sacrifices, but the Israelites did not stop the ritual. Now the ritual twisted into something which involved the shedding of blood for remission of sins. The idea of the scape goat emerged. Instead of providing food for the LORD, they were shedding the blood they believed he demanded for the remission of sins, in order to get back in his favor. So what started as a simple act of giving the LORD some good food eventually became something completely different: a ritual shrouded in mystery and making no sense, but which nevertheless persists to this day as the basis of our salvation through Jesus. For an alternative basis, see The Passover Event.

Plague and Exodus

During the Amarna period there seems to have been widespread famine and disease. It is thought that the plague, or the first recorded epidemic of influenza spread through Egypt and the Middle East, killing thousands. It seems that the Hittite King, Suppiluliumas, died in the epidemic and it is also possible that it claimed the lives of a number of his children. Of course, many commentators have suggested that this was the biblical plague which accompanied the exodus, but there is no evidence in support of this view.

It has also been suggested that Amenhotep III had tried to placate the (solar) goddess Sekhmet, “the lady of pestilence” to avert the plague, and when this failed his son Akhenaten went one step further and appealed directly to the sun god for deliverance. In any case, later Egyptians may well have viewed the plague as retribution for the neglect of the traditional gods of ancient Egypt.

Akhenaten’s Names

Amenhotep Netjert Heka Iunu – Amen is satisfied, God-king of Heliopolis