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15 February 1942
Surrender of Singapore, the worst disaster in British military history. British and Empire casualties are 9,000 killed and wounded and 130,000 captured
War at Sea
Mediterranean closed to Allied shipping due to threat of aerial attack
Naval Action at Darwin – 19 February 1942
Nine ships were lost on the 19th February 1942, seven within Darwin Harbour, and two in waters north of the harbour. Many others were damaged, and in the main, this was where most of the hundreds of casualties were killed and injured.
Stoker Frank Marsh was on board the corvette HMAS Deloraine, which was at anchor quite a distance from the wharf. He remembers seeing the first bombs falling into the sea between Deloraine and Neptuna very close to 10 am.
The harbour shipping was struck badly. The tanker British Motorist was sunk so too were the coastal trader Zealandia, the lugger Mavie, and the US transports Meigs and Mauna Loa. A huge explosion marked the end of the transport Neptuna, which blew up alongside the wharf about an hour after the first raid ended as her 200 depth charges ignited.
Half a kilometre from Darwin’s wharf, the USS Peary’s captain was on the bridge of his ship when the Japanese fighters came sweeping in. Anchored, the four-funnel destroyer was an easy target, but the ship still had steam up. The Captain, Lieutenant-Commander John M. Bermingham, gave immediate orders to weigh anchor so he could head for searoom and present the attacking aircraft with a moving target.
The ship’s guns engaged the Japanese fighters but the vessel was hit almost immediately by five bombs and began to settle by the stem, her guns still firing. Her official history noted:
(Peary) was shaken (by) a blast which wrecked her fantail, demolished the depth charge racks, sheared off her propeller guards, and flooded her steering-engine room. She was next hit by an incendiary bomb which crashed into her galley and left Peary inflames.
Manunda and U.S.S. Peary (sinking)
According to Dallas Widick, a cable-party survivor, the anchor probably was never raised. Mel Duke, who was the Peary’s bosun’s mate, thinks that the anchor was “short stayed” – just resting on the bottom – and the rising tide lifted the ship enough to move her to the final sinking spot.
Finally, according to some reports, the ship was apparently blown up by a bomb that had hit her magazine and exploded there. Other suggestions include the theory that the ship’s depth charges exploded. Frank Marsh disagrees, saying: “… there were several explosions aboard Peary but not a final big sinking. It sank nearer to the hospital ship Manunda… It went down stern first.”
Fifty-two of the crew survived the sinking but 91 were killed – almost half of the total of people lost in the Darwin attack. Stories of the guns still engaging as the ship went down are borne out by Mel Duke’s memory of the galley-roof machine-guns firing, but not the forward gun, of which he was the captain.
The RAN’s ships were fiercely attacked, with one small vessel – HMAS Mavie – being sunk. Two of the harbour boom ships lost crew members due to strafing: HMAS Kara Kara two the Kangaroo one sailor. Kookaburra was strafed and so too was the auxiliary minesweeper Tolga.
The sloop HMAS Swan was near-missed by a bomb and damaged. Twenty-two sailors were wounded and three killed on board. Corvette sailor Frank Marsh’s diary sums up the situation: “…ships sunk all around us and hundreds killed and wounded, a bloody terrible day. Second Pearl Harbour.”
Merchant Ships in Flames and Sinking
The tanker British Motorist received two direct bomb hits in the raid, catching fire and sinking quickly with a heavy list to port. Two men were killed in her sinking: the master and the wireless operator. Built in 1924 at Newcastle-on-Tyne shipyards, she had an overall length of 440 feet and was thus an easy target for the aircraft.
The Meigs was a US Armed Transport built in San Pedro, California, in 1921. She was the largest ship in the harbour during the raid and consequently was a primary target for the attacking aircraft. Lightly armed with guns on the forecastle, her 430-foot length was an easy mark and the ship was attacked extensively throughout the raid. The Third Officer later died in hospital of wounds received.
15 February 1942 - History
Original Air Date—17 April 1974. The successive and increasingly bloody land battles on tiny islands in the expansive Pacific, aimed towards the Japanese heartland. Following the bombing of Darwin, the over-extended Japanese are progressively turned back at Kokoda, Tarawa, Peleilu, the Philippines, Iwo Jima and finally Okinawa.
THE WORLD AT WAR (1973)
The World at War is a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II and the events leading up to and immediately following it. It was produced by Jeremy Isaacs, narrated by Laurence Olivier and its score composed by Carl Davis. A book, The World at War, was written by Mark Arnold-Forster to accompany it.
The series was commissioned by Thames Television in 1969. Such was the depth of its research, it took four years to produce at a cost of £900,000 (2006 equivalent: £10.9 million). At the time, this was a record for a British television series. It was first shown in 1973, on ITV.
The series interviewed leading members of the Allied and Axis campaigns, including eyewitness accounts by civilians, enlisted men, officers and politicians, amongst them Albert Speer, Karl Dönitz, Walter Warlimont, Jimmy Stewart, Bill Mauldin, Curtis LeMay, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, Alger Hiss, Toshikazu Kase, Mitsuo Fuchida, Minoru Genda, J.B. Priestley, Brian Horrocks, John J. McCloy, Lawrence Durrell, Arthur Harris, Charles Sweeney, Paul Tibbets, Anthony Eden, Traudl Junge and historian Stephen Ambrose.
In the programme The Making of "The World at War", included in the DVD set, Jeremy Issacs explains that priority was given to interviews with surviving aides and assistants rather than recognised figures. The most difficult person to locate and persuade to be interviewed was Heinrich Himmler's adjutant, Karl Wolff. During the interview, he admitted to witnessing a large-scale execution in Himmler's presence.
It is often considered to be the definitive television history of the Second World War. Some consider it the finest example of the documentary form. It also presented rare colour film footage of some of the war's events.
In a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes drawn up by the British Film Institute in 2000, voted for by industry professionals, The World at War ranked 19th.
THE WORLD AT WAR
Episode 1: A New Germany: 1933-1939
Original Air Date&mdash31 October 1973. The rise of the Nazis in Germany and German territorial gains prior to the outbreak of war. Interviewees include Werner Pusch and Christabel Bielenberg.
Episode 2: Distant War: September 1939-May 1940
Original Air Date&mdash7 November 1973. The German and Soviet invasions of Poland, the Winter War, the sinking of the Graf Spee and Britain's apathy during the "phony war" until Britain's defeat in its first military engagement with German land forces in Norway, which led to the rise of Winston Churchill. Interviewees include Lord Boothby, Lord Butler, Admiral Charles Woodhouse, Sir Martin Lindsay and Sir John "Jock" Colville.
Episode 3: France Falls: May-June 1940
Original Air Date&mdash14 November 1973. France in ferment, the Maginot Line, Blitzkrieg warfare, and the Nazi invasion of France and the Low Countries. Interviewees include General Hasso von Manteuffel and General André Beaufre.
Episode 4: Alone: May 1940-May 1941
Original Air Date&mdash21 November 1973. The Battle of Britain, retreats in Greece, Crete and Tobruck, and life in Britain between the evacuation at Dunkirk and Operation Barbarossa. Interviewees include Anthony Eden, J.B. Priestley, Sir Max Aitken, Lieutenant General Adolf Galland and Sir John "Jock" Colville.
Episode 5: Barbarossa: June-December 1941
Original Air Date&mdash28 November 1973 . After dominating southeastern Europe through force or intrigue, Germany embarks on the massive invasion of Soviet Union. Despite a string of lightning victories, the invasion ultimately stalls after a failed assault on Moscow in Russia's harsh winter. Interviewees include General Walter Warlimont, Albert Speer, Paul Schmidt and W. Averell Harriman.
Episode 6: Banzai! Japan: 1931-1942
Original Air Date&mdash5 December 1973. The rise of the Japanese Empire, the Sino-Japanese war, Pearl Harbor and the early Japanese successes, and the fall of Malaya and of Singapore.
Episode 7: On Our Way: U.S.A. - 1939-1942
Original Air Date&mdash12 December 1973. The opposition by various factions to the United States of America entry into the war, U-boat attacks on Atlantic convoys and America's gradiated responses, the mobilization of America after Pearl Harbor, the fall of the Philippines, the Doolittle Raid, Midway and Guadalcanal. Interviewees include John Kenneth Galbraith, John J. McCloy, Paul Samuelson, Isamu Noguchi, Richard Tregaskis and Vannevar Bush.
Episode 8: The Desert: North Africa - 1940-1943
Original Air Date&mdash19 December 1973. The desert war, starting with Italy's unsuccessful invasion of Egypt and the successive attacks and counter-attacks between Germany and Commonwealth forces, and the Afrika Korps's eventual defeat at El Alamein. Interviewees include General Richard O'Connor, Major General Francis de Guingand and Lawrence Durrell.
Episode 9: Stalingrad: June 1942-February 1943
Original Air Date&mdash2 January 1974. The mid-war German situation in Southern Russia leading to the Battle of Stalingrad &ndash and its ultimate German catastrophe.
Episode 10: Wolf Pack: U-Boats in the Atlantic - 1939-1944
Original Air Date&mdash9 January 1974. The submarine war focusing mainly on the North Atlantic. Tracks the development of both the convoy system and German submarine strategy. Interviewees include Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz and Otto Kretschmer.
Episode 11: Red Star: The Soviet Union - 1941-1943
Original Air Date&mdash16 January 1974. The rise of the Red Army, mobilization of Soviet production, the siege of Leningrad, the Soviet partisans and the Battle of Kursk.
Episode 12: Whirlwind: Bombing Germany - September 1939-April 1944
Original Air Date&mdash23 January 1974. The development of British and American strategic bombing in both success and setback. Interviewees include Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, Albert Speer, James Stewart, William Reid, General Curtis LeMay, Werner Schröer, Lieutenant General Adolf Galland and General Ira C. Eaker.
Episode 13: Tough Old Gut: Italy - November 1942-June 1944
Original Air Date&mdash30 January 1974. Focuses on the difficult Italian Campaign beginning with Operation Torch in North Africa, the invasion of Sicily Salerno, Anzio, Cassino and the capture of Rome. Interviewees include General Mark Wayne Clark, Field Marshal Lord Harding, Bill Mauldin, and Wynford Vaughan Thomas.
Episode 14: It's a Lovely Day Tomorrow: Burma - 1942-1944
Original Air Date&mdash6 February 1974. The jungle war in Burma and India - what it "lacked in scale was made up in savagery". Interviewees include Mike Calvert, Sir John Smyth and Vera Lynn (the episode title is the name of one of her songs), and Lord Mountbatten of Burma.
Episode 15: Home Fires: Britain - 1940-1944
Original Air Date&mdash13 February 1974. Life and politics in Britain from post-Battle of Britain to the first V-1 attacks. Interviewees include Lord Butler, Lord Shinwell, Lord Chandos, Tom Driberg, Michael Foot, Cecil Harmsworth King, and J.B. Priestley.
Episode 16: Inside the Reich: Germany - 1940-1944
Original Air Date&mdash20 February 1974. German society and how it changes as its fortunes in war are reversed. Censorship and popular entertainment, the transformation of German industry, the recruitment of female and foreign labour, allied bombing, German dissent - including the 20 July plot, and the mobilisation of the Volkssturm towards the war's end. Interviewees include Albert Speer, Otto John, Traudl Junge, Richard Schulze-Kossens, and Otto Ernst Remer (English translation spoken by Lawrence Olivier).
Episode 17: Morning: June-August 1944
Original Air Date&mdash27 February 1974. The development and execution of Operation Overlord followed by the allied breakout and battles at Bocage, and Falaise. Interviewees include Lord Mountbatten of Burma, Kay Summersby, James Martin Stagg and Major General J. Lawton Collins.
Episode 18: Occupation: Holland - 1940-1944
Original Air Date&mdash13 March 1974. Focuses on life in the Netherlands under German occupation, when citizens chose to resist, collaborate or keep their heads down. Interviewees include Louis de Jong (who also served as adviser for this episode) and Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands.
Episode 19: Pincers: August 1944-March 1945
Original Air Date&mdash20 March 1974. The allied breakout in France and the setback at Arnhem, the Warsaw Uprising, the Battle of the Bulge, and the crossing of the Rhine. Interviewees include Lieutenant General Brian Horrocks, Wynford Vaughan Thomas, General Hasso von Manteuffel, Major General Francis de Guingand, W. Averell Harriman and Major General J. Lawton Collins.
Episode 20: Genocide: 1941-1945
Original Air Date&mdash27 March 1974. Begins with the founding of the S.S. and follows the development of German racial theory. It ends with the implementation of the Final Solution.
Episode 21: Nemesis: Germany - February-May 1945
Original Air Date&mdash3 April 1974. The final invasion of Germany by both the Western and Eastern allies, the denouement at Dresden, and the events in the Führerbunker. Interviewees include Albert Speer, Traudl Junge and Heinz Linge.
Episode 22: Japan: 1941-1945
Original Air Date&mdash10 April 1974. Japan's society and culture during wartime, and how life is transformed as the country gradually becomes aware of increasingly catastrophic setbacks including the Doolittle raid, defeat at Midway, the death of Isoroku Yamamoto, the Battle of Saipan and the relentless bombing of Japanese cities.
Episode 23: Pacific: February 1942-July 1945
Original Air Date&mdash17 April 1974. The successive and increasingly bloody land battles on tiny islands in the expansive Pacific, aimed towards the Japanese heartland. Following the bombing of Darwin, the over-extended Japanese are progressively turned back at Kokoda, Tarawa, Peleilu, the Philippines, Iwo Jima and finally Okinawa.
Episode 24: The Bomb: February-September 1945
Original Air Date&mdash24 April 1974. The development of the atomic bomb, the ascendency of President Harry Truman, emerging splits in the Allies with Joseph Stalin, and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ultimately leading to the surrender of Japan. Interviewees include Toshikazu Kase, Yoshio Kodama, Marquis Koichi Kido, Major General Charles Sweeney, Brigadier General Paul Tibbets, Alger Hiss, W. Averell Harriman, Lord Avon, McGeorge Bundy, John J. McCloy, General Curtis LeMay and Hisatsune Sakomizu. Following the events from the death of US President Roosevelt through to the dropping of the two bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki that prompted Japan's surrender.
Episode 25: Reckoning: 1945. and After
Original Air Date&mdash1 May 1974. The situation in post-war Europe including the allied occupation of Germany, demobilisation, the Nurenburg trials and the genesis of the Cold War. The episode concludes with summations about the ultimate costs and consequences of the war. Interviewees include Charles Bohlen, Stephen Ambrose, Lord Avon, Lord Mountbatten of Burma and Noble Frankland.
Episode 26: Remember
Original Air Date&mdash8 May 1974. How the war - both good and bad experiences - was experienced and remembered by its witnesses.
Product Description , from Amazon.com
This landmark incomparable remembrance of world war ii includes rare interviews with veterans & survivors amazing archive footage & chilling narration by sir Laurence Olivier. Studio: A&e Home Video Release Date: 08/24/2004 Run time: 1199 minutes
Sir Jeremy Isaacs highly deserves the numerous awards for documentaries he has earned: the Royal Television Society's Desmond Davis Award, l'Ordre National du Mérit, an Emmy, and a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II. His epic The World at War remains unsurpassed as the definitive visual history of World War II.
The Second World War was different from other wars in thousands of ways, one of which was the unparalleled scope of visual documents kept by the Axis and Allies of all their activities. As a result, this war is understood as much through written histories as it is through its powerful images. The Nazis were particularly thorough in documenting even the most abhorrent of the atrocities they were committing--in a surprising amount of color footage. The World at War was one of the first television documentaries that exploited these resources so completely, giving viewers an unbelievable visual guide to the greatest event in the 20th century. This is to say nothing of the excellent, comprehensible narrative. Some highlights:
* A New Germany 1933-39: early German and Nazi documentation of Hitler's rise to power through the impending attack on Poland
* Whirlwind: the early British losses in the blitz in the skies over Britain and in North Africa
* Stalingrad: the turning point of the war and Germany's first defeat
* Inside the Reich--Germany 1940-44: one of the most fascinating documentaries that exists on life inside Nazi Germany, from Lebensborn to the Hitler Youth
* Morning: prior to Saving Private Ryan, one of the only unromantic views of the Normandy invasion
* Genocide: this film is one of the most widely shown introductions to the Holocaust
* Japan 1941-45: although The World at War is decidedly focused more on the European theater, this is an important look into wartime Japan and its expansion--early 20th-century history that lead to Japan's role in World War II is superficial
* The bomb: another widely shown documentary of the Manhattan Project, the Enola Gay, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki
The World at War will remain the definitive visual history of World War II, analogous to Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. No serious historian should be missing The World at War in a collection, and no student should leave school without having seen at least some of its salient episodes. Rarely is film so essential. --Erik J. Macki
Source: Amazon.com / Essential Video, Editorial Reviews
REVIEW , from Amazon.com
440 of 446 people found the following review helpful:
5.0 out of 5 stars Without a doubt. the best. January 10, 2002
By Charles W. Adams (Adel, Iowa USA)
Assuming that a filmmaker can't go on indefinately, let's say making a history of World War II in hundred or more hours of videotape, Jeremy Isaacs has done a masterful job of capturing the essense of World War II, including its causes and the Cold War that evolved out of its conclusion.
Please note, "The World At War" was produced between 1971 and 1974, which means the interviews with veterans and other war survivors were filmed close to thirty years after the conclusion of World War II.
I watched much of this series when it was first telecasted in the 1970s, and continued to view reruns of programs over the last 25+ years. I had thought that I had seen every episode two or three times, but after finishing the complete DVD collection, I'm pretty sure I completely missed some programs and saw only bits-and-pieces of others.
What a tremendous production. Beautiful reproduced on DVD, with excellent color and superb graphics (maps).
I especially appreciated the opening special, "The Making of. " with producer Jeremy Isaacs, as well as Isaacs' brief introductions to each of the 26 programs. I only wish he had prepared similar introductions to the supplementary material on Discs 4 and 5, but you can't have everything.
"The World At War" is hundred times better than the typical fare found on A&E, The History Channel, and even PBS. That's not to say that quality productions are not being made today, but Jeremy Isaacs' production is just plain better than most things regularly scheduled documentaries on cable and broadcast television.
Special mention must be made of the music by Carl Davis and the writers, who are too numerous to mention. Everyone familiar with this series knows the contribution of Sir Laurence Olivier, definitely the finest documentary narration I've ever heard.
As an American, I particularly appreciate the British perspective, which offers a different view of the breath, scope and horror of the war. The series really puts the current War on Terrorism in perspective.
The supplementary material begins with an extended interview/commentary by Traudl Junge who served as Hitler's secretary. She's a fascinating person, speaking calmly and thoughtfully about her former employer, especially the events leading up to his suicide.
There is an equally interesting interview with historian Stephen Ambrose, filmed in the early 1970s. While looking 25+ years younger, Ambrose sounds almost the same as he does today during his numerous C-Span and PBS appearances.
The most fascinating of the eight hours of supplementary material are the programs dealing with the Death of Adolf Hitler and the extended two part examination of the Final Solution.
An Economic Review of 1941
From The New International, Vol. VIII No. 2, March 1942, pp.㺥.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’Callaghan.
“We live and work in an era completely dominated by war, and we look forward to a future that will be shaped, and conditioned and determined, by the outcomes of the wars that are now under way, and perhaps by those of still other wars that may grow out of them.” – The Cleveland Trust Company Business Bulletin
The significance of the above-quoted description of the present era is accentuated by its terseness. The United States has entered the arena of the war as a belligerent. In the two months since the attack on Pearl Harbor the government has moved quickly toward perfecting the machinery necessary for the prosecution of what appears to be a long war extending in multiple directions over the entire globe. An economic review of the nation in this period, therefore, can be written only if one trains his vision on the panorama of the war and keeps it there constantly.
The outstanding feature of 1941, as of the entire period since September, 1939, is the conclusive development of America’s war economy. The speculative stage has ended! The future of the United States is completely joined to that of every member of the United Nations. But for that very reason, its responsibilities have been manifestly increased, since the problem of supplying war materials to all the Allies has been complicated and made more difficult by the need of equipping its own mass military forces.
In my article, Modern War and Economy (The New International, November 1941), I endeavored to outline the principal features of the new type of total warfare and the economic requirements arising therefrom. A series of fundamental measures, essential to the modern war effort, was cited to indicate the nature and extent of the required economic reorganization. Briefly stated, they are the following:
- Production: Augmentation of the production of the heavy goods of war reduction in output of consumer goods and the consequent reduction of national consumption, to be accomplished by conversion of the existing industrial plant reduction in investments of new capital (private) depletion of existing capital, particularly in light and non-war industries. The net result is a further strengthening of heavy metallurgical industries at the expense of light-consumer industries.
- Consumption: A sharp diminution of the standard of living of the masses, since it can be raised only at the expense of armament production “it is impossible to have both more guns and more butter.”
- State: The government intervenes more actively in the production process to the point where it is the final arbiter, planner, and supplier of money capital. The government has become the greatest market in the domestic economy and foreign trade is primarily a matter of supplying the material of war to the Allies and obtaining raw materials for war purposes.
- Balance: In the concrete manifestations of the war economy it is necessary to maintain class peace, especially in view of the inherent tendency of bourgeois war economy to increase the polarization of wealth expressed through the astronomical rise of war profits and the decline of the mass standard of living. The government seeks labor peace for the duration, a ceiling on wages for fear of inflation, control of prices, and control, not abolition, of the profit economy. The government, likewise, seeks to keep the public debt at the lowest possible point by a system of taxation destined to strike hardest at those least able to pay.
The End of the New Deal
This is certainly a far cry from the New Deal, which was the product of the severe crisis of 1929. The New Deal sought a stabilization of American economy on a lower level in a peaceful period. As an earnest of the difficulties faced by American capitalism ten years ago, it must be remembered that even then, the direction was not toward expanded production and a constantly rising index of industrial activity, or a rise in the living standards, but toward ever diminishing living standards and artificially stimulated production on depressed levels.
The New Deal experienced its own ebbs and flows it was primarily a series of stop-gap measures designed to bring about a halt in the precipitate decline of the economic curve. New Dealism represented the belated arrival of American reformism with state power in its hands. It was the era in which social legislation flourished and the labor movement grew by many millions. Achievements were necessarily temporary, because the New Deal endeavored to reach economic stabilization by restricting industrial and agricultural production, while seeking to enlarge the specific weight of America’s foreign trade in a contracted world market.
On a world scale, a genuine improvement of the bourgeois economic order was precluded. The economic prosperity of one nation, or group of nations, depended upon the veritable destruction of competing economies and a thorough subjugation of the colonial areas of the world. International competition was fraught with the danger of war, and it came once Hitler had consolidated national power. The outbreak of war over the domination of the continent, between the two principal European powers, Great Britain and Germany, was only the preliminary stage leading to the world conflict for a redivision of the earth. Thus, the New Deal was doomed at the outbreak of the war.
The war, while it expresses the deep-going stagnation and decline of bourgeois society, propels forward one-sided production because of the enormous requirements of materials of every kind and description. Economic developments in the United States since 1939, and especially during 1941, show rising indices. In this respect, the country is merely repeating the experiences of the other major powers engaged in war, and while some of these powers appear to have reached a maximum expansion and production and tend toward a stationary situation, or slow decline, American economy is first beginning its new production. No ceiling has yet been indicated in this experimental period since information relating to the limits of the native war economy is incomplete.
The Growth of Production
After the 1937 economic rise, American capitalism, still seeking a high level of revival through the New Deal, experienced a new decline. This situation, according to the Survey of Current Business of the U.S. Department of Commerce, continued up to the outbreak of the European war. Taking the figure of 100 for the period 1935, the report disclosed:
Since 1939, a rapid rise occurred in all economic fields. Between the period of September of the foregoing year and actual belligerency, American economy passed through the preliminary stages of war conversion. The transformation occurred slowly and by fits and starts. No little cause for this lay in the confusion of the Administration, inter-Administration conflict and the adamant refusal of big business to make the slightest concessions to Administration demands without prior guarantees of large profits and post-war relief of business by the government. Now, however, conversion takes place with giant strides.
The figures cited below indicate the sharp rise in economic activity as compared to the foregoing table. They include, for purposes of comparison, those of 1929 and 1932, at which time the economic crisis had reached its lowest point. The figures are taken from the Survey of Current Business. The period 1935 = 100.
The Monthly Review of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, for January 1942, records that industrial production rose to 167 for November, and its issue of February 1942 shows a figure of 168 for December, with the gauge pointed upward. Business Week for February 7 indicates that in the first month of the new year, the business index rose to 169.9. The production aims of the government are such that the business index may well reach 200 at the end of 1942.
The Influence of the War Budget
The new war budget adopted by Congress will have a revolutionizing effect upon all of industry. Whatever was accomplished, in 1941, however, was already due to the national budget and the stimulation induced by governmental orders. As of October 15, 1941, the authorized budget of the war program was more than $57,000,000,000, of which $37,000,000,000 was awarded in contracts as of September 30th, and $10,650,000,000 already disbursed. The latter figure explains the rise of business activity for the last year.
Money spent by the government for arms production rose from $157 million a month in June, 1940, to $1,347 million in September, 1941. The total expenditure for the year 1941 reached almost $15 billion. While this marked a tremendous rise in the war budget actually expended, it was only about 15 per cent of the national income.
Total war appropriations jumped from $5 billion in June of 1940 to $63 billion in September of 1941. The actual manufacture of war goods rose from $2 billion a year in June 1940 to an approximate $16 billion a year in September 1941. From the beginning of the fiscal year, July 1941 to December 1941, almost 72 per cent of all moneys spent by the federal government went for war purposes. It is in these figures that one must seek the explanation for the rise in the industrial index.
Change in the Character of Production
The process of conversion, though incomplete, registered sufficient changes in 1941 to indicate the degree and intensity of war production and what impends in 1942 and 1943. There was a rapid rise in the production of heavy durable goods (war) and the setting in of a decline in the production of non-durable goods (primarily consumers’ material).
The board of governors of the Federal Reserve Bank, in its report dated December 19, 1941, points out the following developments (1935 = 100):
The figures represent increases but the output of non-durable goods rose only 21 points in a year, while the output of durable goods rose by more than 51 points. This is only a partial story, for beginning in 1942 the production of non-durable goods began to decline while the production of durable goods has already passed the figure previously mentioned.
Breaking these figures down, we find this distinctive point of interest: iron and steel production, according to the Federal Reserve System reports, rose to 191, machinery to 234, shipbuilding to 659 and aircraft to 1,397. The implication of these figures are plain. Many plants engaged in the production of non-durable and overall consumers goods will be closed down as a result of priorities on raw materials. Washington has estimated that at least 20,000 business may very likely be destroyed as a result of the arms program.
This trend is accentuated by the death-like grip which monopoly capitalism maintains upon the war program by its control of the governmental agencies in charge of contracts. The concentration of contracts in the hands of an already highly monopolized industry only hastens the destruction of small business. Despite the avalanche of protest by the “little man” and the setting up of a special department to insure “a fair allocation of contracts,” the situation remains unchanged. Toward the end of the year, only 6,657 of the 12,000 plans chosen by the Army and Navy for utilization in war production, were employed. It is the little more than six thousand plants out of 184,000 manufacturing concerns which held prime defense contracts of $50,000 or more.
The Growth of Profits
The war program has boldly accentuated the class character of American economy and this is nowhere so sharply illustrated as in the tremendous rise in profits of monopoly capitalism contrasted with the decline in the living standards of the overwhelming majority of the people. In face of mounting taxes, the profits of industry grew continuously. According to the Economic Outlook for January, 1942, an organ of the CIO, preliminary reports “on industrial profits of 71 principal corporations for the year 1941 show an increase of 77 per cent over the year 1939. This is after all deductions for corporate and excess profits taxes, depreciation, depletion, contingency reserves, etc.” (Emphasis mine – A.G.)
The report further points out that for detailed figures up to the first nine months of 1941, the profits of 401 leading corporations increased 26.1 per cent over the corresponding period of 1940, and 78.6 per cent over the same period of 1939.
“The greatest increase in profits,” says Economic Outlook, “occurred in the durable goods and defense industries. For example, profits of five aircraft manufacturing companies increased 38.2 per cent in the first nine months of 1941 over the same period of 1940 and 171 per cent over the first nine months of 1939 . for the automobile industry, profits increased for 13 representative companies 29.7 per cent in the first nine months of 1941 over 1940. The increase over 1939 was 51.7 per cent.
“Profits for four copper and brass fabricators, mainly producers of shells and other ordnance equipment for the Army and Navy, showed profit increases of 77.5 per cent in 1941 over 1940 and 1270 per cent over 1930. The increase in profits for 28 industrial machinery and accessory corporations, mainly producers of machine tools for defense industries, was 153 per cent in 1941 over 1939. Some five copper mining companies showed an increase of too per cent in 1941 over 1939.” (Emphasis mine – A.G.)
It is also pointed out that of a representative group of thirty-two iron and steel corporations, profits increased 36.1 per cent in 1941 over 1940 and 338 per cent over 1939.
Reports from Other Sources
This is the prevailing tendency in profits. Anticipating objections to the foregoing figures of the CIO, I cite the resume on industrial profits made by the New York Times. In a report by Kenneth L. Austin, Industrial Profits in 1941 Near 1929, the writer states:
“Industrial profits in 1941 were second only to those of 1929 and, for some groups, exceeded the records of that boom year by a comfortable margin, a survey of the first seventy-one principal corporations to report last year’s results shows. Twenty-one of these companies earned more in 1941 than in 1929 or any other year in the last fourteen years. Five others bested the 1929 results but earned slightly less than in one or two intervening years.
“Combined net profits of the seventy-one companies for 1941 were $426,114,500, in comparison with $364,906,900 in 1940 and $526,302,400, the only better year, in 1929. This decline of $100,000,000 decline from the 1929 peak, however, consists mainly of a $90,000,000 shrinkage in the combined profits of five steel companies . Thus profits came within 7.7 per cent of the record results.” (Emphasis mine – A.G.)
This is only part of the picture. As Austin points out: “There is no doubt that 1941 earnings would have exceeded those of any prior year substantially had the same rates and principles of taxation applied.” There are additional reasons for this, among which are lower income tax rates and the absence of excess profits taxes in 1929, absence of social security taxes, a current higher total employment, lower income from investments and far greater current appropriations for contingency, inventory, self-insurance and other reserves in preparation for an “eventual return to peacetime operations.”
A subsequent report made for the New York Times by the same Mr. Austin, analyzing 337 industrial corporations, merely substantiates the trends he enumerated in his analysis of the 71 corporations. He adds that for the 337 corporations, “the cumulative earnings over twelve-month periods have not shown a single decline since 1938.”
Elsewhere he states that “it is clearly shown that the earnings have made an unbroken rise, although they were slowed up somewhat in the third and final quarters of 1940 by the first of the heavy tax measures, known as the Second Revenue Act of 1940.”
Moreover, the profits of manufacturing industries rose high enough to offset the even “harsher” tax program in the Revenue Act of 1941. This is illustrated by Mr. Austin in the following words:
Whereas in 1940 taxation required 30 to 40 per cent of earnings, the United States Treasury absorbed 50 to 65 per cent of earnings in 1941. Nonetheless, the twelve-month cumulative profits resumed a definitely upward trend last year.
The figures given are the following for 337 companies:
For 454 manufacturing corporations, the following combined net profits are recorded during the first two years of the war.
12 months ending June 30, 1940
12 months ending June 30, 1941
The increase is 18.28 per cent for 1941 over 1940.
From another source, Business Week (January 24, 1943), we learn that “corporation profits are rising – from about $4,000,000,000 in 1939, to 14,500,000,000 in 1940, to $6,250,000,000 in 1941, though they are still below 1929’s $8,100,000,000.”
The important point to be remembered, however, is that while these high profits were achieved in 1941 even with the setting aside of huge and varied reserves and higher taxes, profits will continue to increase to higher levels in 1942 as the war program operates more efficiently and production mounts.
Big Business Shows Indignation
Big business, with its accumulated knowledge of what had transpired during the last war, is out to get the limits of profits out of this one. The war of 1914 is as nothing as compared with the expenditures that will be made in the present carnage. A ruthless determination characterizes the mood of monopoly capitalism.
Whatever the many purposes of the Truman and Vinson reports, they disclosed incontestable facts which have remained uncontroverted by the most reactionary elements of a labor-hating Congress, that the profits of the large corporations are “unconscionable” in the most important instances. When these reports became public property, the business world retorted with the cry of “persecution.” And when big business was charged with hampering the war effort by delaying conversion in favor of large profits through normal production, they went veritably berserk.
The Automobile Manufacturers Association, in full-page ads, cried: “We stand under an attack and a challenge. This attack impugns our integrity, our ability, our loyalty to our country.” (Emphasis mine – A.G.)
The big business press denounced the congressional reports as extremely one-sided, since their condemnations, might be interpreted as directed at the profit system rather than individual culprits. By this charge they merely indicated either a lack of astuteness, or political purpose, on the part of the congressmen. As a matter of fact, the disclosures of the congressional committees were merely scratching the surface of the true situation.
The injured congressmen declare that they have far more “interesting” facts yet to announce, and unless big business becomes more amenable to certain unimportant restrictions, they will be compelled to take more drastic action, especially if the labor movement continues its pressure for “equality of sacrifice.”
Pearson and Allen, in their column of February 19, 1942, wrote:
“Not nearly has the whole story been told on war profiteering . There is information that certain big-money executives of war production firms with huge cost-plus orders kilted their salaries sky-high. The government pays all the freight so these self-given boosts come out of the taxpayers’ pocket . In one case the head of an aircraft company gave himself a raise of $35,000 a year. Another increase doubled the boss’ salary – from $25,000 to $50,000 . The Army and Navy resorted to cost-plus to expedite production. But the contracts were so loosely drawn by business-minded military bureaucrats and dollar-a-year ‘experts’ that the government has practically no protection against gouging.” (Emphasis mine – A.G.)
Labor and the War Economy
Be that as it may, the great monopolies go blithely on their way to grab everything, conscionable or unconscionable, legally or illegally. They are prepared to travel the legal highways and to fight any efforts to reduce their take in the war effort. They have little to fear of post-war litigation by the government since they know by experience that such legal entanglements stretch out over so many years that by the time decisions are reached, they can “prove” such enormous contributions and mitigating circumstances as to warrant anything they “earned.” (See the case of U.S. vs. Bethlehem Steel Co.) Or else they may file counter-charges against the government for additional bonuses for “extraordinary services,” certain that somewhere along the route, one or another of the courts will find for them. In the worst case, they can settle any dispute by compromise and still come out ahead of the game. After all, it is their game.
The position of the working class in the war economy is sharply contrasted to the bourgeoisie enjoying enormous profits made possible by monopoly capitalism. Undoubtedly a large section of the working class has increased its wage earnings, but these increases are already offset by the measures adopted in Washington to render them ineffective and the mounting cost of living.
The exact figures on wage increases are difficult to obtain because the numerous research bodies engaged in assessing the economic situation in the country do not always agree as to figures, but more important, their various approaches to the question often conflict. But in general, it is possible to state that the following situation exists:
Up to October 1941, hourly earnings in all manufacturing industries rose by 14.7 per cent. In the one year from October 1940 to October 1941, average weekly earnings in all manufacturing industries increased by 20.6 per cent. A variety of figures have been published to show how wages have risen not only in the last year, but from previous periods. For example, Labor Department researchers announced that factory wages increased 33.9 per cent from August 1939 to mid-November 1941. In order to make the pay rises appear more startling, figures were released to show that weekly earnings in all manufacturing groups rose “from $17.86 at the end of 1932 to $32.81 at the close of November 1941 . ” Note well, that this comparison is made between the year in which the economic crisis reached its lowest point and the year in which war production began to rise, the whole period covering an entire decade!
On the basis of the figures which disclose that the working class, more particularly the organized working class, has received wage increases, a national conspiracy is being organized to saddle labor with far heavier war burdens than it now suffers. It is necessary, however, to contrast real wages with wage increases in order to determine the actual position of the working class.
Real Earnings of the Workers
In the midst of the present war boom the state of unemployment has been completely overlooked. This is not unnatural since the tendency, in a. period of war production, is toward an ever-greater employment of the labor supply. Whatever the tendency, the fact remains that as of November 1941 there were 5,470,000 unemployed, an increase of 8.6 per cent over October. This growth in unemployment is partly due to the slow process of war conversion of industry, but this fact is balanced, too, by the fact that more than two million former and potential workers have entered the armed forces. Even before the problem of plant conversion arose in its acute form there were 4,871,000 unemployed workers (September 1941). The overall effect of such a large number of unemployed upon the working class is to reduce partially some of the gain achieved by a section of the higher paid employed workers.
While there has been an absolute increase in factory earnings, a large part of this increase is not due to higher employment but to overtime payments, double time for Sunday work and the seven day week. No appreciable change has taken place in shift-work to employ more workers. Monopoly capitalism, up to this point, at any rate, has sought to meet the demands of increased production by intensifying the exploitation of its present labor force.
The intensified exploitation of labor is manifested by a rise in productivity.
“From 1937 through November 1941,” writes Economic Outlook, “labor costs per unit of output, in spite of the 15 per cent rise in average hourly earnings for all manufacturing industries, is unchanged. This occurred because output per man hour in all manufacturing industries increased 15 per cent in the same period.” (Emphasis mine – A.G.)
In addition thereto the Office of Price Administration made public the fact that industry’s overhead costs have decreased by 3.6 per cent (the figure of Isidore Lubin) since the outbreak of the war and that this also resulted in a further reduction in overall production costs.
Thus the rise in hourly and weekly earnings of manufacturing labor was of no cost to industry since increased productivity cancelled out the wage increases. Actually then, increased wages in no way affected the profits of American capitalism.
Wages and the Cost of Living
Of infinitely more importance than the above mentioned factors is the relation of wages to the rising cost of living, because the latter automatically results in the destruction of the gains of at least that section of labor which won them by its organization and struggle. When the comparison is made of wage increases to the rising cost of living, it will be immediately noted that the real standard of living of the masses, following a short rise, has actually remained static for the past period.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics pointed out that between August 1939 and December 1941 the cost of living rose by 12.1 per cent. From January 15, 1941, the increase was 9.8 per cent!
Prices for staple commodities directly affecting the consumer, i.e., retail food, which makes up the most important part of the cost of living, increased in the corresponding period by 21.8 per cent. From January 15, 1941, the rise was 15.7 per cent. Wholesale food prices increased by 38.6 per cent from August 1939 to January 10, 1942, while 29.1 per cent of this increase occurred since January 15, 1941. In the case of a limited number of food items reported in the Daily Basic Commodities Index of the Bureau of Labor Statistics an increase of 76.7 per cent is recorded, with 49.7 per cent of this rise taking place during the past year.
Prices will continue to rise in the coming year and they will be hastened in their upward march by the constantly declining production of consumer goods and the increased national demand for the dwindling total of available consumer commodities. As of October 1941 the cost of living had soared to the point where, according to Economic Outlook, the net increase of wage earnings was only 10.5 per cent. The most important aspect of this relationship lies in the fact that since then wages have remained virtually static. Prices, however, continued to rise.
Labor’s Living Standards and Taxes
The economic position of the working class is further depressed by the taxation program passed for the year 1941 and will be greatly aggravated by impending legislation. By the simple expedient of reducing the taxable income of the head of a family to $1,500 a year and of a single person to $750 yearly, the Administration has created an estimated new group of taxpayers of many millions among the lowest income earners. This is only one aspect of the question.
The steadily mounting war budget has the financial experts of Washington busily engaged in figuring new ways and means of raising additional funds. In the President’s budget message, he indicated that the Administration would soon propose measures which would increase the Treasury income another seven billion dollars and thus reduce the simultaneously mounting national debt. Although the precise aims of the Administration are not yet known, sufficient feelers have been put out by the President and his aides in Congress to permit of some forecasts.
There is no doubt that there will be an increase on corporation profits (the enormous earnings of the corporations from governmental war contracts makes certain that the Administration will seek some return of these funds in this manner). Increased corporation taxes will be accompanied by a still further lowering of exemptions on incomes, those on heads of families to $1,000 and on single persons to $500. The tax laws now in the making will carry provisions for “selective” excise and sales taxes. With the decline in the production of consumer goods, Congress will seek to drain off considerable sums from consumer purchasing power. In each instance, whatever the final determinations of the Administration and Congress, the working class will suffer the burden of new forms of taxation.
Consider for a moment the fact that, without a single new increase in taxation, workers’ families with incomes ranging between $1,000 and $3,000 yearly, pay approximately 17 per cent of their incomes in variety of federal, state and local taxes.
It is no wonder then, why E.A. Evans, writing in the New York World-Telegram for February 19, stated:
The money income of Americans is going up. In 1942, it will reach a record-smashing total of at least $95,000,000,000 (only one-third of this income will go to the working class).
But their average standard of living is going down to depression depths. In 1942 they can buy civilian goods and services worth only, at present prices, $65,000,000,000 or less. There can’t be any more, because more than half of the country’s industrial capacity must be devoted to war. (Parenthetical comment and emphasis mine – A.G.)
The Income of the Proletariat
Thus the rising cost of living, the decline in consumer goods, the continued existence of a large number of unemployed and the creation of a series of new taxing measures, will have the cumulative effect of sharply smashing the standard of living of the masses, which had not yet completely emerged from the devastating effects of the ten years’ economic crisis.
This condition is brought out in bold relief by the investigation of all committees devoted to estimating minimum requirements for a minimum standard of living. The Department of Labor once estimated $2,100 a year as the minimum amount required for a reasonable standard of living for a family of five. The Heller Committee of the University of California, narrowing its investigation to the City of San Francisco, raised this figure to $2,211 yearly, which the CIO corrected, in the light of the increased cost of living, to $2,400 yearly.
The Economic Division of the CIO, in a study of incomes among the higher paid workers, revealed that the average yearly wage per family was $2,000, at least $400 below the minimum requirements stated in the Heller Committee report. But there are only 7,747,000 workers in this category. More than 24,516,000 workers early less than $30 a week, or $1,500 yearly. Of this number, more than half, or 13,769,000 workers, earn less than $20 a week ($1,000 a year). This figure may be broken down once more to reveal that of this number, 4,9750,00 people earn between $10 and $15 a week ($500 to $750 yearly), and 3,324,000 people earn below $10 a week. There is the real picture of American society as revealed by the income earning groups. (The figures are taken from a report by Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau.)
Some Future Prospects
Let us try to simplify several of the problems posed before America’s class society. As visualized by the Administration leaders in charge of war production and by big business, the national income, variously estimated at $92,200,000,000 (New York Sun, January 21) for the year 1941 and anywhere from ninety-five to a hundred billion dollars for 1942, will undergo a sharp change in composition.
During 1941, the production of war materials of every type consumed only 15 per cent of the total national income (fifteen billion dollars). Stated in another way by the Department of Commerce, production for military purposes aggregated only 21 per cent of total production in 1941. The initial estimates produced by the Administration for the impending year is that 53 per cent of the total industrial output will be devoted to military production, with expenditures reaching more than 50 per cent of the total national income.
The following are some of the projected production increases planned for 1942:
- In the durable goods field, an estimated per cent of the total output will be for war purposes, compared with 35 per cent in 1941.”
- Total industrial production is expected to climb to 15 per cent over 1941, which when added to the 25 per cent increase between 1940 and 1941, will show a total industrial production increase of 42 per cent since 1939. The lower estimated rate of increase for 1942 is primarily due to the curtailment of the production of consumer goods.
- One-third of the estimated 1942 increase will occur in the aircraft industry. Machine industry will contribute almost another third of the increase. Shipbuilding will be the third highest contributor to this growth.
- A drop of 31 per cent in the “civilian portion” of production “will be more than offset by a gain of 188 per cent in the war portion.”
Wages, Taxes and Profits
We have already indicated that profits continue to rise, while wages have reached a static stage with “real wages” tending downward. Taxes continue to rise with a heavier share placed on the masses.
An increasing class tension is visible as monopoly capitalism is determined that the major burden for the war be taken by the working class. Since profit is the quintessential aim of big business, it fiercely resists any measures that will interfere with this pursuit, and thus far, with Congress in its vest pocket, has experienced no little success. Currently, all decisive measures to control war profits have been defeated and the latest attempt to tax excess war profits has been shelved by the Administration.
The National Association of Manufacturers, the kept press and a servile Congress have launched a successful drive against all wage increases on the theory that wage increases on the basis of a diminution of consumer goods must result in inflation. The Administration has come around to the point of view of big business, because in its calculations, based on a profit economy, war production is paramount, consumer goods must decline sharply and wages must remain static for the duration. Not only that, but bond sales and taxes must be so devised as to drain off large sums of the workers’ static wages. This will halt inflation, say the bourgeois minded “experts.” Other measures to halt inflation by invading the province of profit economy are hastily rejected.
The organized labor movement resists and in its resistance reflects the deep pressure of the workers who are completely aware of the profits of big business and the general enrichment of the ruling class through war production.
Wage Ceilings – A National Wage Cut
The approach of the industrialists and financiers has been so crass that it led Business Week, January 31, to say:
Labor’s action is understandable (demanding an increase in wage levels and heavier taxes on profits). So far, in the United States, a lot of us have treated defense as a national grab-bag. (!)
Elsewhere it points out that:
Congressional tax leaders are bucking the Administration . They favor going easy on corporations, heavy on individuals. (Parenthecated matter mine – A.G.)
The present increase in labor militancy, precisely at a time when Washington exhorts all workers to sacrifice everything to raise war production, is indicative o£ the tension between the classes. The workers acutely feel their living standards declining while that o£ the ruling class increases and remains unaffected by the countless measures produced in Congress. They realize that all the forces o£ reaction are allied in the conflict over who is to pay tor the war. They instinctively feel that, as Economic Outlook wrote:
. the amount of national income available for consumption may be reduced to as low as forty billion dollars during the coming year. (This is in conflict with the estimate of E.A. Evans, but is more nearly correct – A.G.) This would be at the lowest level of the depression year 1932. If such a reduced income for consumption were to be distributed at the same ratio as present shares, workers would be forced to levels of poverty and starvation. (Emphasis mine – A.G.)
Faced with such a prospect, the labor movement demands an increased share of the national income and a reduction of the share of the ruling classes. In reply to the charge that increased wages would result in inflation, the labor organizations have stated that governmental price controls, taxation and rationing would balance the tendency and, therefore, urge a reduction of the profits of big business.
Since Congress has already precluded any sharp measures against monopoly capitalism and thrown some crumbs in the direction of the upper stratum of the farming population (the small farmers will receive no benefits by the congressional action hiking farm prices, and the large group of farm laborers remain one of the lowest income-earning groups in the country), it is their determination to compel the working class to pay for the war effort.
A ceiling on wages, a reduction in consumer goods and consequent reductions of the means of existence for the proletariat and lower middle class, is only another form of a national wage cut for the overwhelming majority of the population. Given a small and weak labor movement, the course of big business and the Administration would have been a direct national wage cut. But in face of a powerful trade union organization, this national wage cut is being accomplished by devious ways, and only for that reason difficulties and apparent confusion exist.
A veritable crusade has been organized against the labor movement, with a large part of the leadership of the labor movement already succumbing to the conspiracy of big business, Congress and a section of the Roosevelt Administration. The absence of labor unity, the deep inner conflict of the trade union leadership and the strike-breaking, reactionary role of the Stalinists in the labor organizations, have greatly weakened the struggle of labor for its existence. These subjective factors hinder the American proletariat and prepare it for some crushing economic blows.
In résumé, it will be observed that the tendencies of a war economy described in the early part of this review and contained in previous articles, have become the standards of measurement for American economy today. Obviously, we have not exhausted the subject since we treated only with several of its main features. But we shall often have occasion to return to these matters to examine their variegated manifestations.
While aces are generally thought of exclusively as fighter pilots, some have accorded this status to gunners on bombers or reconnaissance aircraft, observers in two-seater fighters such as the early Bristol F.2b, and navigators/weapons officers in aircraft like the F-4 Phantom. Because pilots often teamed with different air crew members, an observer or gunner might be an ace while his pilot is not, or vice versa. Observer aces constitute a sizable minority in many lists.
In World War I, the observer Gottfried Ehmann of the German Luftstreitkräfte was credited with 12 kills,   for which he was awarded the Golden Military Merit Cross. In the Royal Flying Corps the observer Charles George Gass tallied 39 victories, of which 5 were actually confirmed.  The spread was caused by the lavish British system of aerial victory confirmation. 
In World War II, United States Army Air Forces B-17 tail gunner S/Sgt. Michael Arooth (379th Bomb Group) was credited with 19 kills,   the B-24 gunner Arthur J. Benko (374th Bomb Squadron) with 16 kills. The Royal Air Force's leading bomber gunner, Wallace McIntosh, was credited with eight kills, including three on one mission. Flight Sergeant F. J. Barker contributed to 12 victories while flying as a gunner in a Boulton Paul Defiant turret fighter piloted by Flight Sergeant E. R. Thorne.   On side of the Luftwaffe Erwin Hentschel, rear gunner of the Stuka ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel, had 7 confirmed kills. The crew of the bomber pilot Otto Köhnke from Kampf-Geschwader 3 is credited with the destruction of 11 enemy fighters (6 French, 1 British, 4 Soviet).
With the advent of more advanced technology, a third category of ace appeared. Charles B. DeBellevue became not only the first U.S. Air Force weapon systems officer (WSO) to become an ace but also the top American ace of the Vietnam War, with six victories.  Close behind with five were fellow WSO Jeffrey Feinstein  and Radar Intercept Officer William P. Driscoll. 
15 February 1942 - History
103d INFANTRY DIVISION WORLD WAR II ASSOCIATION
103d Infantry Division History: General Orders
The Army order system has changed slightly since World War II, but the basic intent and purpose of issuing orders remains largely unchanged.
Army Regulation mandated an order numbering system. They required that units issue consecutively number orders beginning each year with order number 1. For example: the first order issued in January, regardless of date, would be labeled: GENERAL ORDER NUMBER 1. The next order, which came on January 15, 1944, was named: GENERAL ORDER NUMBER 2.
The last order issued for the year, i.e. December 31, 1944, contained a notation specifying that this was the last order. The first order of the next year would indicate the last order number for the preceding year was the last in the series for that year, in this case 1944.
General Orders during World War II were used to award individual and unit decorations, activate, inactivate, organize, reorganize, designate, and assign General Staff.
The 103d Infantry Division (Cactus) World War II Association is extremely fortunate to have acquired the General Orders for the Division for the period from activation, November, 1942 through September 1, 1945. This period covered training at Camp Caliborne, Camp Howze, movement to Camp Shanks, movement overseas, and the entire period of combat from November 11, 1944 through V-E Day May 8, 1945.
Orders are presented in Microsoft Excel, which is a searchable database, by name, by date, by award, and by unit. Also included are instructions relative to abbreviations used in the database and the unit designation protocol.
In addition to the Microsoft Excel database, we have put the sections into a PDF file which is accessible by name, date, award, unit, and the instruction sheet.
To access the Microsoft Excel database, Click Here.
For those who are searching for a specific name, or awards, or units, look up the specific information you seek on one of the above database files. Once you find the date and General Order number, you can then find a copy of the General Order. This is particularly helpful for awards, such as the Silver Star, Soldier's Medal, and Bronze Star as it allows the researcher to pull up a copy of the General Order and read the citation for that award.
Notice some of the sections are broken into Months, others Weeks, and yet others Days. The reason for this was the file size and to keep them small enough to open quicker.
February 24, 1942: Forced Internment of Japanese During World War II
On February 24, 1942, the government passed a law under the “War Measures Act” allowing the government to relocate and intern citizens of Japanese origin. The government that enacted this law was the Canadianfederal government! The sorry history of the United States treating its own Japanese citizens in such a hysterical and racist manner is far more well documented and familiar to Americans, and little attention is paid to the fact our genial neighbors to the North did the same thing.
On February 24, 1983, the United States Congress Special Commission passed a resolution condemning the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, over 40 years late for an apology! The US internment had taken place from February 19, 1942 (Executive Order 9066) and lasted until March 20, 1945. The “relocated” Japanese Americans were forced to quit their jobs and sell their property, usually at enormous loss and move with only those items they could carry. Sent to hastily constructed camps with armed guards and barbed wire, it was as if these innocent Americans were prisoners. (They were.) The West Coast of the United States was stripped of Japanese Americans, but curiously in Hawaii where Japanese Americans made up a third of the population, only about 10% were interned.
President Carter ordered an investigation into this shameful chapter of American History, and in 1988 President Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act that apologized to the Japanese Americans interned and authorized a $20,000 payment (reparations) to each person surviving that had been interned. Of course, this paltry amount did not come close to making up for the ruined lives the internment had caused. Various investigations into the internment policy found that differences of opinion existed among government employees and advisers, and that those reports and opinions against internment were covered up.
It is often pointed out that Italian and German Americans were not interned, although we were at war with those countries during World War II, but in fact small numbers of German and Italian Americans were interned, sometimes in the same camps as the Japanese Americans!
After Canada followed the American lead and interned Japanese Canadians under the Defence of Canada Regulations, the Canadian government seized the property of the internees, justifying this grab by claiming the sale of this property would fund the government relocation program. While the American “relocation” or “internment” camps have been characterized as actually being concentration camps, the Canadians did without the pretext and sent Japanese Canadians to prisoner of war camps, including stables, barnyards, and unheated shacks. The Canadian atrocity did not end until 1949 when full voting and citizenship rights were finally restored to Japanese Canadians. Mass deportation to Japan was mandated for many Japanese Canadians after the War! Intense discrimination and restrictive laws also followed the War.
In 1988, the Canadian government, facing the same sort of activism that prompted US apologies and reparations, issued an apology and a payment of $21,000 to each surviving internee.
Today, with hindsight, the rough treatment of Japanese Americans and Japanese Canadians seems harsh and racially motivated, and had no substantial evidence of being necessary other than hysteria. Question for students (and subscribers): Is the current situation with Muslim Americans and Muslim Canadians likewise a case of hysteria and racial hatred over-ruling logic and facts? Please feel free to give us your opinion about the World War II internment of Japanese in Canada and the US, and whether or not such action (to a greater or lesser extent) should be taken to regulate Muslims in the US and Canada in the comments section below this article.
If you liked this article and would like to receive notification of new articles, please feel welcome to subscribe to History and Headlines by liking us on Facebook and becoming one of our patrons!
Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.
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Bypaths of Kansas History - February 1942
Reproduced below is a fragment of martial music of the American Revolution. The manuscript was received by the Kansas Historical Society from Ellen G. Parkhurst, of Topeka, to whom it was given in 1910 by Samuel J. Reader. Across the top Reader wrote "The tune my grandfather (Wm. James, of the New Jersey Minute men) played when fifer of his company during the Revolutionary war, 1776." Samuel Reader came to Kansas in 1855 and settled at the now extinct town of Indianola near present North Topeka. Extracts from his diaries, preserved by the Historical Society, have been published in previous issues of the Quarterly. An entry for November 29, 1910, records the copying of the tune for Miss Parkhurst. Reader was then seventy-four years old.
GIFTS FOR THE GREAT SPIRIT
Included in the series of Kansas Historical Marker inscriptions published in the last issue of the Quarterly was one on "Waconda, or Great Spirit Spring." This item, from the Cawker City Free Press of sixty years ago (June 30, 1881), lists some of the "tokens," intended as gifts for the Great Spirit, which were found in the pool.
The work of cleaning out the Spring is progressing finely.
As the pressure, by removal of the mud, is relieved the water accumulates faster, and to get rid of it Mr. Michener has devised a new sort of pump that throws a three-inch stream of water and is very easily managed. Many relics of "original proprietors" are being taken out of the Spring, among which we noticed the much dreaded scalping knife, a tomahawk, bows, arrows, javelins, rings, chains, brass or copper kettles, some old time flint lock guns and pistols, many parts of which are in a good state of preservation. . . .
94 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
NOT ONE REDEEMING QUALITY?
From the Kansas City (Mo.) Enterprise, August 22, 1857 (reprinted from the Hericon Argus).
We are sorry to see the girls of the present day have such a tendency to utter worthlessness. . . . Years ago, . . . it was fun to go a dozen miles afoot, with mud knee deep to see them, nature instead of art. But now it is different. The dentist supplies the teeth, . . . an artist furnishes the paint, a yankee the hoops, some "French milliner" gets up artificial maternal founts, and the very devil robs himself to give them a disposition to lie, tattle, gossip, make mischief and kick up all sorts of hobberys among people generally.
BYPATHS of KANSAS HISTORY 97
NO "CLINGING VINES" WANTED
From the Cawker City Sentinel, copied in the Netawaka Chief, July 30, 1872.
Mrs. Mary C. Hawes, of Crooked creek, four miles north of Bulls City, has this season, with a yoke of oxen driven by herself, broken 25 acres of prairie drove the oxen to break 25 acres more has shot two buffalo with her rifle, which she calls "Betsey." Her plowing is very well done and with the rifle she is an expert. She has the best crops of corn, etc., that there are in her neighborhood.
Our "devil" is very anxious to know if Mrs. Hawes is a widow. Says he wouldn't mind settling on that farm!
JAKE STOTLER COULD DISH IT OUT, TOO
From the Emporia News, December 21, 1861.
By the way, Jake, we observe in your last issue that there has been a revival in your town [Emporia], lately, and that about thirty sinners have been reclaimed from the embraces of the Old Boy and we also notice in the same issue that you publish several selections of a serious and religious character. Are we to infer from them-the "hard times," the revival and your pious selections-that you are one of the redeemed? If so, good boy! Nothing like adversity to bring a youth to his milk: [Burlington] Neosho Valley Register.
No, [S. S.] Prouty we are sorry to inform you that we are not among the number of our citizens who were made happy by being convinced of the "error of their ways," at the late religious awakening here. Our readers, unlike yours, are an enlightened and Christian set of people and this may account for our publication of articles of a religious and moral character. Of course, we publish something for them as well as for the politicians and others. We are glad to see that you have read those articles-for if you had not told us, we would never have known that you had any taste for anything of that character. It would take something more than an ordinary run of adversity to bring you to your milk, you dried up (morally, not fleshy) old sinner, you. . .
A NEW TYPE OF SEED
From the Netawaka Chief, July 23, 1872.
TEXAS Cows: The best time to plant them is the last of July, and from the number running around town, destroying gardens and breaking fences, there will be a large number planted. To do it properly, prepare a hole about four feet wide, three feet deep, and six feet long, cover them deep. Any place outside of town on the prairie, where a friendly bullet will fetch them, will do. That is what I know about farming.-A CITIZEN.
From the Newton Republican, June 8, 1888.
Miss Tosa Jones, of Argonia, aged 18 years, daughter of J. W. Jones, has this spring broken forty-five acres of land and planted it in corn and intends to cultivate it herself. She can husk and crib sixty bushels of corn per day. She also attends to the feeding of a large number of cattle every winter. Miss Jones should succeed Mrs. Salter as mayor of Argonia.
From the Wilson County Citizen, Fredonia, May 29, 1874.
The accomplished burglar and thief, Mr. Chase Noble, Esq., who knows how to pick five locks and break jail twice all in one-half hour, has concluded, by unanimous request of twelve of his countrymen, to accompany the sheriff of this county to Leavenworth soon for the purpose of inspecting the public improvements of that place. He contemplates remaining about ten years.
From the Oberlin Herald, April 10, 1884.
Mr. George Pratt and Eli Craig, of Museum, had a little circus over a claim a few days ago, and during the performance Mr. Pratt felt of Mr. Craig's head with a revolver after which Sheriff Batchelor organized a pleasure excursion, composed of Mr. Pratt, Mr. Craig and a few other invited guests, and made a trip to Sheridan, taking in the county attorney as they passed through Kenneth arrived at Sheridan they visited J. Leatherman, Esq., where they held a short entertainment. The programme consisted of short dialogues, off-hand speeches and a clincher by the host. All parties enjoyed themselves, and Mr. Pratt in his generosity paid the expenses of the excursion besides making a small donation to the school fund.
From The Commonwealth, Topeka, June 6, 1875.
And now comes Mary A. Spring as editress and publisheress of the Index, at Cherokee, Crawford county. The first Kansas editor who gets off anything about "lingering in the lap of Spring" is to be killed and fed to the grasshoppers.
96 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
GENESIS OF THE AUTO-TRAILER
From the Eureka Herald, June 1, 1876.
A Canadian gentleman, traveling for his health, passed through town Monday evening. He had the most comfortable traveling wagon we ever saw. It was large enough to contain stove, cooking utensils, bed, etc. He was accompanied by his wife, and had along an extra horse and nine dogs. He evidently enjoys himself as he goes along.
From the Garnett Weekly Journal, November 25, 1876.
The latest style of young ladies' hats is called the "Kiss-me-if-you-dare." When worn by a cross-eyed woman with a wart on her nose, the defiance is terrible and unanswerable, but when it is backed up by a pretty face, every youth with a spark of manhood in his bosom answers the challenge the first good chance, if it does take all the wax out of his mustache. Hawkeye.
HARDSHIPS OF THE PIONEER TOURIST
From the Eureka Herald, May 10, 1877.
The Emporia News calls for the building of a first class hotel in that city. One cf the most varying, indefinite and uncertain terms we have met in Kansas is that of "first class hotel." As we approached Topeka on our introduction to the state in 1870, we saw the Tefft House loudly advertised as a "first class hotel in every respect." We registered at this establishment and were introduced into as shabbily furnished apartment and to as poorly prepared food as we were ever accustomed to see at hotels not aspiring to be rated in any particular class. We heard of the fame of the Robinson House of Emporia on our approach to that city. It also said to the world it was par excellence "first class." We tried it on several occasions. On one occasion we were kept awake all night by native occupants, commonly called bed bugs, disputing our right Of possession by practicing tricks that only bed bugs know how to practice. On another occasion we were as effectually entertained by broad gauge rats disporting themselves over us in a most unceremonious manner. Our experience in these and similar instances in Kansas, causes us to feel a smiling sensation whenever we hear the term "first class" used with reference to hotels. If the "first class" hotels we have struck in Kansas are samples Of all hotels of said class in the state, we hope our neighbors will think better of it and not encourage the builder of another. We prefer a good hotel at any time to first class establishments as they have been dished up to us.
BYPATHS of KANSAS HISTORY 97
DODGE CITY PREPARES FOR THE CATTLE TRADE
From the Dodge City Times, May 4,1878.
In this delectable city of the plains the winter of discontent is made glorious by the return of the cattle trade. With the countless herds come the hordes of bipeds. Weeks and months before, through the blasts of winter and the gentle zephyrs of spring, has impecuniosity longed for the opening of the cattle trade, in which Dodge City outshines all envity and rivalry.
This "cattle village" and far-famed "wicked city" is decked in gorgeous attire in preparation for the long horn. Like the sweet harbinger of spring, the boot black came, he of white and he of black. Next the barber "with his lather and shave." Too, with all that go to make up the busy throng of life's fitful fever, come the Mary Magdalenes, "selling their souls to whoever'll buy." There is "high, low, jack and the game," all adding to the great expectation so important an event brings about.
The merchant and the "hardware" dealer has filled his store and renovated his "palace." There are goods in profusion in warehouse and On shelves the best markets were sought, and goods are in store and to arrive. Necessarily, there is great ado, for soon the vast plains will be covered with the long horn and the "wicked city" is the source from which the great army Of herder and driver is fed.
The season promises to be a remarkable one. The drive is reported to be larger, and the first herd will probably reach this point within a couple of weeks. There has been no undue preparation, and the earlier season has stimulated activity to the greatest measure Of expectation.
IT DOESN'T RAIN IN CALIFORNIA, EITHER
From the Lakin Eagle, May 20, 1879.
DOES IT BLOW IN KANSAS?-As a truth and no fabrication, Kansas is not a windy country.
We have here during twelve months of the year an imperceptible circulation of air from the south, west, north and east (varied to suit one's taste and inconvenience), that in other states as in Colorado, Illinois and Nebraska, might be called high wind, but here it is considered nothing but a gentle zephyr. In some states they have high winds but never in Kansas.
A two-gallon funnel turned flaring end windward and gimblet end downward will collect enough of Kansas Zephyrs in seven hours to drill a hole in solid sand rock one hundred and eight feet deep. We never dig wells in Kansas. Condensed air does the work most successfully.
The men here are all pigeon-toed and bow-legged. This is caused from an unceasing effort to stick the toes into the earth and trying to keep a strong foothold On terra firma. The gentlemen carry a pound of shot in each breaches leg to keep them (the gentlemen) right side out.
Why they are afraid of turning wrong side out we never knew, but the wind has nothing to do with it. We are often compelled to stay down town late of nights, and when we arrive home it generally strikes up a lively breeze, espe-
98 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
cially if our breath smells a little of cloves or coffee, yet strictly speaking Kansas is not a breezy country.
The fish are very tough in this country because when they walk out to eat grass the wind blows all of their scales off and makes the meat hard and sunburnt.
From the Junction City Union, May 10, 1873.
The Colorado papers think Kansas zephyrs are no-where because they can't budge a locomotive. Colorado winds can lift such light obstacles without the least effort.
BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 99
NO NEED TO CALL FATHER
From the Larned Optic, July 30, 1880.
The lightning struck a Great Bend girl last week. She was not injured in the least, but her corset ribs were sadly demoralized, as was also the arm of a young man who was trying to keep them in place. When asked by his friends why he keeps his arm in a sling he explains that he "didn't know she was loaded."
From the Dodge City Times, March 24, 1877.
On Wednesday a gust of wind removed seven dollars out of the stocking of Alice Chambers as she was walking up Front street. After a six-hour search, participated in by all the tramps in town, one dollar was recovered. We had supposed that the Kansas wind was of a higher order, and did not stoop to such larceny. The thing is now settled, that under some circumstances even the wind can be found feeling around in by and forbidden paths.
FAITH COMES TO THE WILD WEST
From the Dodge City Times, June 8, 1878.
The "wicked city of Dodge" can at last boast of a Christian organizationa Presbyterian church. It was organized last Sunday week. We would have mentioned the matter last week but we thought it best to break the news gently to the outside world. The tender bud of Christianity is only just beginning to sprout, but as "tall oaks from little acorns grow, so this infant, under the guide and care of Brother Wright, may grow and spread its foliage like the manly oak of the forest. Years ago John the Baptist preached in the wilderness of Judea, and his meat was locusts and wild honey, but he baptized many converts in the river of Jordan. Who can tell but that years hence another Luke may write a book about our minister preaching in the wilderness of Dodge City and baptizing in the river Arkansaw?
GET READY THE FATTED CALF
From the Inland Tribune, Great Bend, August 9, 1879.
The Colorado exodus has set in those who went there in the spring are on their return to their wifes' people to spend the winter. On Saturday a wagon passing through had large letters inscribed on the corner: "Prodigal sons going home for a square meal."
From the Daily Kansas State Record, Topeka, April 22, 1870.
They sell a little whisky occasionally in Leavenworth. The Conservative says that the liquor licenses in the city clerk's office make a strip nine feet long, one name to the line.
From the Logan Enterprise, September 23, 1880.
An Atchison county man Who had been bitten by a copperhead snake, carried the snake with him to the drug store in order to procure the necessary whisky.
From The Independent, Kirwin, January 26, 1881.
Since the saloons at Beloit closed, the residents of that burg are drinking water from the Spirit Springs at Cawker City.
From the Cawker City Free Press, August 18, 1881.
Strangers visiting the Great Spirit Springs will do Well to bear in mind that its waters are laxative as well as healing and soothing to the nervous system, according to the amount imbibed. Like intoxicating drinks, imbibed in moderate quantities and with judgment, it is beneficial, but if guzzled in immoderately large doses it won't stay with a fellow. At least this is the judgment of Put Smith, of Beloit, who visited the great phenomenal wonder the other evening and came home in another man's clothes-they were too large for him. He looked as if he had taken passage for Bulu Land.
SCOTT CITY INVADED IN 1894
During the depression following the panic of 1893 Jacob Coxey, of Ohio, proposed that the unemployed be put to work by the issuance of legal-tender currency to be spent for good roads and other public improvements. To arouse public and congressional interest he organized a march of a "living petition" of the unemployed to Washington. The movement, favored with considerable publicity, inspired the dissatisfied elsewhere and several "industrial armies" sprang up to join Coxey.
100 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
One brigade numbering half a thousand was recruited in eastern Colorado by "Gen." S. Sanders. The men appropriated a switch engine and cars and set out for Washington. Several attempts by the railroad company to halt them ended in failure. Not until the army reached Scott City, where it was met by a United States marshal and posse, was it overcome. The men were hauled to Leavenworth for trial. After a delay of more than a month, perhaps because the judges felt that "Populist Kansas was no place to convict industrial armies of train-stealing," those who had not escaped were brought before the court and convicted. They were distributed in county jails with sentences of varying lengths to prevent them from reassembling when released. [See Donald L. McMurry, Coxey's Army (Boston, 1929), pp. 206-213.]
An account of Sanders' march across eastern Colorado and the capture of the army at Scott City was printed in the Scott City Republican, May 17, 1894:
On Thursday morning the Mo. Pac. west-bound passenger train was ordered to stop here until further orders, on account of the expected approach of the Sanders Industrial Army. The army was from Cripple Creek, Coal Creek, Victor, Florence and Pueblo, Colo. and were under the leadership of "General" J. S. Sanders. The army had, as they claim, borrowed a D. & R. G. switch engine, and captured five flat cars from the Mo. Pac., and started east. The Co. ditched an engine in front of them. This obstruction the army built a track around, and came on. Five miles west of Chivington, Colo. the road unspiked the rails and turned a box car against the sides of a cut, and then raked the fire from an engine with a good head of steam its throttle pulled wide open, and left it to rush into the box cars. This effectually blocked the road. An engine is so heavy that no number of men unaided by machinery can move it when ditched. The army went to work chopping up the boxcars, burning the fragments for light by which to carry on the work. At this juncture Road Master Keelan received orders at Horace to take his force of 50 men and go to Chivington and clear the track. This was a ticklish duty to perform as he knew he and his train would be captured on his arrival. He started at once. When he arrived he and his train were at once seized, and the army prepared to proceed with the captured train. Mr. Keelan called for their leader, and so well plead his case before the "General" that he ordered the train to be returned to him, and also told him that if he needed the assistance of the army he could have it. He availed himself of the offer, and highly praises the will with which they responded. He hitched his engine to the boxcars and snaked them out. He then laid a track around the engine and the army prepared to start again. Mr. Keelan complained to Mr. Sanders, that his men had taken a lot of his tools, and that he would not sidetrack his train to let the army pass until they were thrown out. Mr. Sanders seemed vexed, and at once ordered the men to throw them out, which was at once obeyed. Both trains proceeded to Horace where the army took a sidetrack and waited for the east bound passenger train. At Horace the army
BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 101
abandoned the switch engine and seized one of the Mo. Pac. engines which had been recalled from the retreat ordered the day before. The one they chose was one of the best on the road. Now came a waiting match, each train wanting the other to lead out. After waiting a couple of hours the passenger led out, and the army followed.
Scott had been selected for the coup d'etat. At 4 P. M. the passenger came running like a scared antelope. It probably made the fastest time ever made on this part of the road. In the meantime the track had been torn up east of the switchyard, so the army could not seize one of the passenger trains blocking the tracks and escape, the object being to detain them here at all hazards until the special could arrive with the U. S. marshal and his posse. To prevent a retreat the track was also torn up this side of Selkirk after the army passed. To make matters doubly sure the road instructed Mr. T. A. Jenkins to have an order of replevin for the engine and cars, and to have warrants for the arrest of Mr. Sanders, his captains and 100 of his men, and put them in the hands of the sheriff, and to instruct him to summon an armed posse to enforce them, but not serve them unless it became necessary to detain the army. District Clerk W. A. Thomson issued the order of replevin, and Esquire T. C. Carroll issued the warrant of arrest charging the army with bringing stolen property into this state, and they were placed in the hands of Deputy Sheriff J. F. Moreau.
The eastbound passenger train took the sidetrack, leaving the westbound train on the main track. About half past 4 the army came in, 450 men closely packed on five flat cars with stars and stripes and motto banners flying. As it approached the westbound train pulled out beyond the switch and stopped. The army stopped within 30 feet, and sent a "Lieutenant" asking that the track be cleared so they could pass. The answer was, that the train was carrying the U. S. mail and demanding the right of way. This brought Mr. Sanders who answered they would not obstruct the mail, but would back and take the first siding to let it pass, at once backing to, and sidetracking at Modoc. While at Modoc, the army committed the only depredation we have heard of, except against the road. Mr. R. B. Irwin complains that they took a robe and a lot of tools at least worth $25. We suppose they thought a friend would not object to this little donation. The passenger did not follow until the Special came an hour later, when it pulled west.
The Special contained Genl. Sup. H. G. Clark, Sup't. S. T. Shanklin, Asst. Master Mechanic W. J. Hill, Gen. Atty. B. P. Waggener, U. S. Marshal S. T. Neeley, with 55 armed deputies, and reporters for the Capital, the K. C. Star and Times, Chicago Times, and Denver News. The track was repaired. As soon as the passenger passed Modoc the army added a box car to their train and returned to Scott. As they came in the special pulled in on the switch leaving the passenger on the main track at the depot. A flagman went out and signalled the army to stop. It obeyed, pulling in on the switch at the coal chute, while the deputies began to leave the special with their guns. At this moment things looked warlike. Messrs. Neeley, Clark and Waggener came up and called for Mr. Sanders who promptly joined them. Marshal Neeley explained the charge of stopping the mails, and demanded their surrender. Mr. Sanders took a half hour for consultation with his men. The army was ordered from the cars and formed in companies and drilled. This afforded us a good opportunity to see the men and observe their discipline. The army is
102 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
a mixed crowd. A few were well dressed, but the great majority are miners and mechanics in their labor soiled clothes, there were comparatively few Americans among them. Their discipline and order was surprisingly good, they are governed by written laws adopted before they left Cripple Creek. We were told that they blacklisted all disorderly and tough characters and expelled them, and that 100 such had been weeded out. Mr. Sanders is a tall fine looking, intelligent and quiet appearing young man, with a graceful easy bearing. His word is law. After a consultation with his captains permission was asked of Mayor L. L. Bingaman to make a camp, which was granted, and the different detachments marched to camp between the roads. The surrender had been unconditionally made, and Marshal Neeley made a short speech to each company, explaining that they were under arrest and would be made as comfortable as possible in the coaches, his words were received with cheers by the men. They were told to be ready to start by midnight. Camp-fires were quickly lighted, and the men proceeded to butcher, dress and cook a beef which the citizens gave them: Many begged their suppers from one house to another, while some few offered to pay for what they received, about half of those who got cheese, crackers and tobacco at the stores voluntarily paid for them, we have not so far heard of any ungentlemanly conduct of these men in town.
So closed the most exciting day Scott ever witnessed. Our whole city population witnessed the spectacle. Business had been suspended al] day in expectation of no one knew what. The time was divided between looking towards the west for the smoke of the Sanders army engine, and toward the east for the U. S. army engine's smoke. Our officers were not called on to serve their papers. The Santa Fe train was held at Dighton until the morning after the.surrender so as to be out of danger. The road had emptied its water tanks in front of the army and they had to carry water for their engine a quarter of a mile in buckets. We were told that Mr. Sanders is an electrician and a practical miner, and a schoolfellow of "General" Kelley, of the Denver army now in Iowa. It is said that at one time in Cripple Creek, his check was good for $70,000, and that he now carries a check given him by the people of Cripple Creek, for $7,000. The most rational theory of the situation was given us by one who had the best opportunities for observation. He says they are mostly ignorant foreigners, they are single men who have no home or local ties, and were out of work and money, and excited by agitators, like the Indians, believe that if they can only get to Washington, and just get to see the Great Father that he will take pity on them. Of course the leaders know better, and have more definite ideas, and expect to petition Congress: 1st. For free and unlimited coinage of silver 2d. Adequate aid in irrigation 3rd. Restriction of foreign immigration.
Our opinion is that the rank and file is thoroughly ignorant, thoroughly earnest and thoroughly misled.
At midnight the army was put on the Special and taken to Topeka, and from there to Leavenworth for their preliminary hearing. Four of the men were asleep when the train pulled out, and so got left, but were taken on by Mr. Tester, who left Monday morning to attend the trial.
Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains
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