USS Lea (DD-118), Boston Navy Yard, 1943

USS Lea (DD-118), Boston Navy Yard, 1943

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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.

This Day in US Navy History – 31Aug

1911 – USS Utah (BB 31) is commissioned. During WWI, she serves in the Atlantic protecting convoys. In 1931, she is converted to a radio-controlled target ship and is redesignated (AG 16). Utah spends the rest of her career in this role, with additional duties as an anti-aircraft gunnery training ship beginning in the mid-1930s. On Dec. 7, 1941, while moored at Pearl Harbor, Utah is hit by a Japanese aerial torpedo attack, rolls over and sinks. A few years later, her hull is partially righted and moved closer to Ford Island, where she r! emains t oday.

1942 – USS Reid (DD 369) and PBYs (VP 42 and VP 43) sink Japanese submarine (RO 61) off Atka, Aleutians.

1962 – The last flight of a Navy airship was made at Naval Air Station, Lakehurst, N.J.

Ropemakers for the Navy: Part I

“Friday last, the cable of the CONSTITUTION frigate was conveyed on the shoulders of two hundred and ninety three men from the walk to Navy yard. It was preceeded [sic] by Col. Claghorn, and attended by a party of drums and fifes and three American ensigns.” – The Boston Gazette, and Republican Weekly Journal, September 18, 1797


Twisting fibers of different materials into rope is one of the world’s oldest handicrafts. Nearly every industry needs cordage of some sort to function, be it thread for clothing, string for tying bundles, or different-sized ropes for the intricate rigging of sailing vessels. A ropemaker from England arrived in Boston in 1641 to launch the industry in the British colonies. Rope, which is made by twisting layers of fibers in opposing directions, was first manufactured in open fields at man-powered rope-laying equipment. The length of the longest piece of rope was determined by the strength of the ropemakers maintaining the twisted fibers at the laying-up equipment. By the 18th century, long wooden sheds, called ropewalks, were being used to house the ropemaking equipment and the product. A great danger in ropemaking was fire because of the prevalence of hemp fibers and dust and the hot tar used to waterproof the rope. According to Samuel Eliot Morison’s The Ropemaker’s of Plymouth: A History of the Plymouth Cordage Company, there were fourteen ropewalks in Boston by 1794. That same year, on July 30th, a fire began in Edward Howe’s ropewalk consuming it and five others, culminating in ninety-six buildings being lost altogether.

“Wednesday morning, about four o’clock, the melancholy cry of fire grated on the ears of our citizens. They immediately assembled to stop, if possible, the ravages of this destructive element. The fire caught in the Rope Walk of Mr. Howe, by an accident in heating some tar, and before the Inhabitants could be alarmed and assembled, it had gained so great a head as to render abortive all attempts to secure, from the flames, any of those elegant and valuable Rope Walk, which formed a row from Milk Street, to the west part of Fort Hill their attention, therefore, was turned to the preservation of the dwelling houses, which from the intense heat arising from the burning tar and hemp, were taking fire in every direction at the distance of several rods…By this accident, many citizens, who by many years laborious industry had acquired a little property–in one instant the ‘twinkling of an eye’ are reduced to poverty” – August 1, 1794 [Boston] Mercury

Map of a portion of Boston drawn by Jeremy Belknap that locates the July 30, 1794 ropewalk district fire. [Courtesy Massachusetts Historical Society]

Rope for USS Constitution

“A Plan of Boston…by Osgood Carleton, 1796” shows the city’s new ropewalk district, west of Boston Common. [Courtesy Massachusetts Historical Society]

By the time USS Constitution was ready for launch in the autumn of 1797, more ropewalks had been constructed to the west of Boston Common. It was probably one of these ropewalks that manufactured Constitution‘s 22-inch circumference anchor cable which was paraded through the Boston streets to Edmund Hartt’s North End shipyard in September, 1797. Because one sailing vessel could, literally, require miles of standing and running rigging, a maritime center such as Boston needed several ropewalks to supply the required cordage.

An illustration from Antique views of ye towne of Boston, by James Henry Stark, published in 1901. The long buildings in the foreground are identified as 18th century ropewalks in the Beacon Hill area. [Courtesy Boston Public Library via Internet Archive]

The United States Navy Needs Rope

During the War of 1812, the workers of the small, ill-equipped Charlestown Navy Yard struggled to fit-out and repair the Navy’s frigates for the conflict against Great Britain. Under Commandant William Bainbridge (Constitution‘s second War of 1812 captain), some much-needed improvements were made to the Yard. The Charlestown Navy Yard received its first stone wharf (the wooden wharfs were quickly decimated by ship worms), its first ship house (where the 74-gun ship-of-the-line USS Independence was built), and a three-story brick Navy Store (Building 5, the third oldest surviving building in the Yard that is the National Park Service Visitor Center today). In late 1813, Independence was far enough along in her construction to begin letting contracts for outfitting the ship. Rope for the ship-of-the-line’s rigging was needed and the privately owned ropewalks near the gates of the Navy Yard received the contracts. Bainbridge, however, urged Secretary of the Navy William Jones to consider building a public, i.e. federally-sponsored, ropewalk in the Charlestown Navy Yard in the not-too-distant future.

Twenty-eight years after William Bainbridge proposed a ropewalk for the Boston yard, the Navy assigned Commandant Charles Morris to look into the costs and feasibility of building two public fireproof ropewalks. Very specifically, Morris investigated Daniel Treadwell’s spinning machines that were employed at local ropewalks. Morris’ research helped to justify the expense of using machines to make the U.S. Navy’s cordage, as opposed to the more traditional method of hand-spinning ropemakers. Congress balked at appropriating $140,000 to build two ropewalks. In May, 1833, Jesse Duncan Elliott, the new Charlestown Navy Yard commandant, took up the ropewalk cause, articulating the need of the U.S. Navy to have complete oversight of its cordage.

“When we consider that the safety of a ship, and the lives of her crew are often dependent upon small cordage and cables it seems to be right and proper that the government should take all proper measures in their power to have the articles good.” [Jesse Duncan Elliott to Secretary of the Navy Levi Woodbury, August 13, 1833, as quoted in Edwin C. Bearss, Historic Resource Study, Charlestown Navy Yard – 1800-1842, Volume II, 729]

Congress eventually appropriated $50,000 for the Charlestown Navy Yard ropewalk’s construction in December, 1833. Alexander Parris, architect of Boston’s Quincy Market, not only designed the brick and granite structure, but oversaw the construction, too. Work on the ropewalk was well underway by June, 1835. In August, the Boston Commercial Gazette noted:

“During our visit to the [Charlestown] navy yard…we noticed one of the greatest improvements that…has ever taken place in the establishment. We allude to the new granite rope-walk…which, when completed, will be nearly 1400 feet in length. This large, commodious, and…splendid building, [is] extremely well adapted to the purposes for which it is intended….It is said that this rope-walk when finished will be competent to furnish sufficient cordage for the entire navy of the United States.”

Eighteen months later, the ropewalk was operational, as noted by the Boston Evening Transcript on November 29, 1837: “THE ROPEWALK AT THE NAVY YARD. We understand that the extensive and well constructed Ropewalk at the Navy Yard, Charlestown, went into operation yesterday, for the first time. This building does honor to the Government, and credit to the Commissioners of the Navy, under whose direction it was built…” By May of the following year, commandants of the other U.S. navy yards were notified that the Charlestown Navy Yard ropewalk was ready to “furnish considerable quantities of rigging for the use of our vessels…” [Quoted in “The Ropewalk at the Charlestown Navy Yard: A History and Reuse Plan”, Leslie Larson for the Boston Redevelopment Authority, 1987] The sloop-of-war Natchez placed the first order for topmast rigging

“A Series of Illustrated Views of the Charlestown Navy Yard”, Gleason’s Pictorial Drawing Room Companion, c. 1852. [Courtesy Boston Public Library]

“Another object of interest…is the rope-walk connected with the Navy Yard. This extensive structure, the finest in this country, is an object worthy the attention of strangers, and will give some idea of the vast amount of expenditure defrayed for public works at this superb naval station. The whole of the cordage for the navy is manufactured here…the daily manufacture amounts to about forty hundred weight the quantity of hemp kept on hand for use is about eight hundred tons, and there are fifty-five men employed in the establishment.”- From “A Series of Illustrated Views of the Charlestown Navy Yard” Gleason’s Pictorial Drawing Room Companion, c. 1852

Earliest known view of the ropewalk. “View of the Ropewalk, at the Charlestown Navy Yard” from Gleason’s Pictorial Drawing Room Companion, c. 1852. [Courtesy Boston Public Library]

As the nineteenth century progressed, the Charlestown Navy Yard ropewalk received some upgrades. In 1858, the steam boilers in the ropewalk were removed and steam power then came from the enlarged Coal House which became the Boiler House. And between 1856 and 1866, the second floor of the ropewalk was extended. In October, 1869, a Navy Board on Yards & Dock recommended a new master plan for the Yard which included the recommendation that the ropewalk be moved to the grounds of the Chelsea Naval Hospital. The suggested move was never funded. Two of the last major improvements in working conditions in the ropewalk occurred near the end of the century. Electric lighting was installed in 1895 and new sprinkling machinery in 1899, and the installation of a fire sprinkler system took place in 1900.

In 1858, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who had grown up in the maritime world, romanticized the toils of the rope-spinners and their product in his poem “The Ropewalk.”

An excerpt from “The Ropewalk” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

In that building, long and low,
With its windows all a-row
Like the port-holes of a hulk,
Human spiders spin and spin,
Backward down their threads so thin
Dropping, each a hempen bulk.

At the end, an open door
Squares of sunshine on the floor
Light the long and dusky lane
And the whirring of a wheel,
Dull and drowsy, makes me feel
All its spokes are in my brain.

As the spinners to the end
Downward go and reascend,
Gleam the long threads in the sun
While within this brain of mine
Cobwebs bright and more fine
By the busy wheel are spun…

Ships rejoicing in the breeze,
Wrecks that float o’er unknown seas.
Anchors dragged through faithless sand
Sea-fog drifting overhead.
And, with lessening line and lead,
Sailors feeling for the land.

All these scenes do I behold,
These, and many left untold,
In that building long and low
While the wheel goes round and round,
With a drowsy, dreamy sound,
And the spinners backward go.

Part II of “Ropemakers for the Navy” will continue the story of the Charlestown Navy ropewalk into the 20th and 21st centuries.

The activity that is the subject of this blog article has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Maritime Heritage Grant program, administered by the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the Massachusetts Historical Commission, Secretary of the Commonwealth William Francis Galvin, Chairman. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior, or the Massachusetts Historical Commission, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation by the Department of the Interior, or the Massachusetts Historical Commission.

The Author(s)

Margherita M. Desy
Historian, Naval History & Heritage Command

Margherita M. Desy is the Historian for USS Constitution at Naval History and Heritage Command Detachment Boston.

Phaedra Scott
Content Developer, USS Constitution Museum

Phaedra Scott was the Content Developer at the USS Constitution Museum from 2016 to 2017.

The USS Croaker SS-246 is a decommissioned Gato-class submarine that served in World War II.

SS-246 is on the National Register of Historic Places and represents the U.S. Navy’s “silent service.” One of 77 Gato class submarines constructed, she was part of the most lethal submarine class of WWII. Commissioned in 1944, she celebrated her 75 th birthday in 2019. Conducting six war patrols in the pacific theater, she sank 11 Japanese vessels, four of which were capital or military vessels, and seven auxiliary or support vessels.

She is not in her original WWII Configuration, as after WWII she was converted to a “hunter-killer” submarine with added sonar, radar and quieting capabilities to combat the Russian threat during the Cold War. She was decommissioned in 1971 and brought to the Buffalo Naval Park in 1988. Head below to see what it was like to be part of the 80-man crew.

USS Independence

USS Independence The first ship built in the Navy Yard was the USS Independence, the US Navy's first ship-of-the-line to enter service. Construction began in May 1813, thirteen years after the yard was established, and almost one year after the start of the War of 1812. An immensely powerful ship, with a complement of 90 32-lbs cannons and a crew of 790 sailors, Independence never achieved the heroic war-record of the smaller USS Constitution, or was able to counter the threat posed by Britain's military blockade.

Construction of Independence fell under the direction of the yard's first superintendent, Captain William Bainbridge, former captain of Constitution. An initial challenge was simply having the funds and material necessary to expand the yard's infrastructure to permit shipbuilding on the scale Bainbridge imagined.

Throughout the thirteen months of her construction, Independence was vulnerable to British attack. The frigate USS Chesapeake was captured in battle with the HMS Shannon just outside Boston on June 1, 1814, indicating the British controlled the seas practically up to Boston's doorstep. British saboteurs from the HMS Nymphe then attempted to set Independence ablaze but were unsuccessful.

Three weeks after the Chesapeake was lost, Independence was launched on July 22, 1814, after several attempts failed to get her in the water. However, she never had the opportunity to engage the British before the war ended in 1815. That same year Independence sailed to the Mediterranean to counter the threat posed by the piratical Barbary Coast states to American merchant shipping. Although her presence displayed a daunting show of force, a peace settlement had already been agreed to by the time she arrived.

Independence was placed "in ordinary" in 1822. Regarded as somewhat unsuccessful, largely because of the ill-advised modifications made by Bainbridge during construction, the ship was taken into Dry Dock 1 in the Charlestown Navy Yard and "razed" (cut down) to a large frigate in 1835-36. A much more successful ship thereafter, it was long a fixture at the Mare Island Navy Yard, serving as a receiving ship there from 1857 to 1912. Independence was eventually struck from the US Navy in 1913, a century after work had originally begun on her. Plans to convert the venerable ship into a floating restaurant at the Panama-Pacific Exposition fell through, and Independence was finally burned for scrap off Hunter's Point in San Francisco.

Other massive ships-of-the-line, including USS Virginia and USS Vermont, were constructed in Charlestown, but also never lived up to the dynamism of the smaller frigates such as Constitution. Virginia was finished in 1825 but never commissioned. Vermont was begun in 1818 but not commissioned until 1862 due to the Civil War. Like Independence, she too was reduced to serving as a receiving ship before being broken up.

USS Lea (DD-118), Boston Navy Yard, 1943 - History

CV-18: dp. 27,100 1. 872'0", b. 93'0" ew. 147'6" dr.28'7" s. 32.7 k., cpl. 3,448, a. dct 80 to 100, 12 5", 40 1Omm.,55 20mm. cl. Essex) The ninth Wasp (CV-18) was laid down as Oriskany on 18 March 1942 at Quincy, Mass., by the Bethlehem Steel Co., renamed Wasp on 13 November 1942launched on 17 August 1943, sponsored by Miss Julia M. Walsh, the sisterof Senator David I. Walsh of Massachusetts and commissioned on 24 November1943, Capt. Clifton A. F. Sprague in command.

Following a shakedown cruise which lasted through the end of 1943, Waspreturned to Boston for a brief yard period to correct minor flaws which had been discovered during her time at sea. On 10 January 1944, the new aircraft carrier departed Boston, steamed to Hampton Roads, Va., and remainedthere until the last day of the month, when she sailed for Trinidad, herbase of operations through 22 February. She returned to Boston five dayslater and prepared for service in the Pacific. Early in March, the shipsailed south, transited the Panama Canal arrived at San Diego, Calif., on21 March and reacted Pearl Harbor on 4 April.

Following training exercises in Hawaiian waters, Wasp steamed to theMarshall Islands and at Majuro Rear Admiral Alfred E. Montgomery's newlyformed Task Group (TG) 58.6 of Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's Fast Carrier Task Force (TF 58). On 14 May, she and her sister carriers of TG 58.6, Essex(CV-9) and San Jacinto (CV-30), sortied for raids on Marcus and Wake Islandsto give the new task group combat experience, to test a recently devisedsystem of assigning-before takeoff-each pilot a specific target, and toneutralize those islands for the forthcoming Marianas campaign. As the forceneared Marcus, it split, sending San Jacinto north to search for Japanesepicket boats while Wasp and Essex launched strikes on the 19th and 20th,aimed at installations on the island. American planes encountered heavyantiaircraft fire but still managed to do enough damage to prevent Japaneseforces on the island from interfering with the impending assault on Saipan.

When weather canceled launches planned for the 21st, the two carriers rejoined San Jacinto and steamed to Wake. Planes from all three carrierspounded that island on the 24th and were sufficiently effective to neutralizethat base. However, the system of preselecting targets for each plane fellshort of the Navy's expectations and, thereafter, tactical air commandersresumed responsibility for directing the attacks of their planes.

After the strike on Wake, TG 58.6 returned to Majuro to prepare for theMarinas campaign. On 6 June, Wasp-reassigned to TG 58.2 which was also commandedby Rear Admiral Montgomery-sortied for the invasion of Saipan. During theafternoon of the 11th, she and her sister carriers launched fighters forstrikes against Japanese air bases on Saipan and Tinian. They were challengedby some 30 land-based fighters which they promptly shot down. Antiaircraftfire was heavy, but the American planes braved it as they went on to destroymany Japanese aircraft which were still on the ground

During the next three days, the American fighters- now joined by bombers-poundedinstallations on Saipan to soften up Japanese defenses for American assaulttroops who would go ashore on the 15th. That day and thereafter until themorning of the 17th, planes from TG 58.2 and TG 58.3 provided close airsupport for marines fighting on the Saipan beachhead.

The fast carriers of those task groups then turned over to escort carriersresponsibility for providing air support for the American ground forces,refueled, and steamed to rendezvous with TG 58.1 and 58.4 which were returningfrom strikes against Chichi Jima and Iwo Jima to prevent Japanese air baseson those islands from being used to launch attacks against American forceson or near Saipan

Meanwhile, Japan-determined to defend Saipan, no matter how high thecost-was sending Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa's powerful First Mobile Fleet fromthe Sulu Islands to the Marianas to sink the warships of Admiral Spruance's5th Fleet and to annihilate the American troops who had fought their wayashore on Saipan. Soon after the Japanese task force sortied from Tawi Tawion the morning of 13 June, American submarine Redfin (SS-272) spotted andreported it. Other submarines-which from time to time made contact withOzawa's warships-kept Spruance posted on their progress as they wended theirway through the Philippine Islands, transited San Bernardino Strait, andentered the Philippine Sea

All day on the 18th, each force sent out scout planes in an effort tolocate its adversary. Because of their greater range the Japanese aircraftmanaged to obtain some knowledge of Spruance's ships, but American scoutplanes were unable to find Ozawa's force. Early the following morning, 19June, aircraft from Mitscher's carriers headed for Guam to neutralize thatisland for the coming battle and in a series of dogfights, destroyed manyJapanese land-based planes.

During the morning, carriers from Ozawa's fleet launched four massiveraids against their American counterparts but all were thwarted almostcompletely. Nearly all of the Japanese warplanes were shot down while failingto sink a single American ship. They did manage to score a single bomb hiton South Dakota (BB-57) but that solitary success did not even put the toughYankee battleship out of action.

That day, Mitscher's planes did not find the Japanese ships, but Americansubmarines succeeded in sending two enemy carriers to the bottom. In theevening, three of Mitscher's four carrier task groups headed west in searchof Ozawa's retiring fleet, leaving only TG 58.4 and a gun line of old battleshipsin the immediate vicinity of the Marianas to cover ground forces on Saipan.Planes from the American carriers failed to find the Japanese force untilmid-afternoon on the 20th when an Avenger pilot reported spotting Ozawaalmost 300 miles from the American carriers. Mitscher daringly ordered anall-out strike even though he knew that night would descend before his planescould return.

Over two hours later, the American aviators caught up with their quarry.They damaged two oilers so severely that they had to be scuttled sank carrierHiVo- and scored damaging but non-lethal hits on carriers Rgubo, Junyo,and Zuikaku and several other Japanese ships. However during the sunsetattack, the fuel gauges in many of the American planes registered half emptyor more, presaging an anxious flight back to their now distant carriers.

When the carriers spotted the first returning plane at 2030 that night,Rear Admiral J. J. Clark bravely defied the menace of Japanese submarinesby ordering all lights to be turned on to guide the weary fliers home.

After a plane from Hornet landed on Lexington, Mitscher gave pilots permissionto land on any available deck. Despite these unusual efforts to help theNavy's airmen, a good many planes ran out of gasoline before they reachedthe carriers and dropped into the water.

When fuel calculations indicated that no aircraft which had not returnedcould still be aloft, Mitscher ordered the carriers to reverse course andresume the stern chase of Ozawa's surviving ships-more in the hope of findingany downed fliers who might still be alive and pulling them from the seathan in the expectation of overtaking Japan's First Mobile Fleet beforeit reached the protection of the Emperor's land-based planes. During thechase, Mitcher's ships picked up 36 pilots and 26 crewmen.

At mid-morning of the 21st, Admiral Spruance detached Wasp and BunkerHill from their task group and sent them with Admiral Lee's battleshipsin Ozawa's wake to locate and destroy any crippled enemy ships. The ensuingtwo-day hunt failed to flush out any game, so this ad hoc force headed towardEniwetok for replenishment and well-earned rest.

The respite was brief, for, on 30 June, Wasp sortied in TG 58.2-withTG 58.1-for strikes at Iwo Jima and Chiehi Jima. Planes from the carrierspounded those islands on 3 and 4 July and, during the raids, destroyed 75enemy aircraft for the most part in the air. Then, as a grand finale cruisersfrom the force's screen shelled Iwo Jima for two and one-half hours. Thenext day, 5 July, the two task groups returned to the Marianas and attackedGuam and Rota to begin more than a fortnight's effort to soften the Japanesedefenses there in preparation for landings on Guam. Planes from Wasp andher sister carriers provided close air support for the marines and soldierswho stormed ashore on the 21st.

The next day, Wasp's task group, TG 58.2 sortied with two other groupsof Mitscher's carriers headed southwest toward the Western Carolines, andlaunched raids against the Palaus on the 25th. The force then parted, withTG 58.1 and TG 58.3 steaming back north for further raids to keep the Boninand Volcano Islands neutralized while Wasp in TG 58.2 was retiring towardthe Marshalls for replenishment at Eniwetok which she reached on 2 August.

Toward the end of Wasp's stay at that base, Admiral Halsey relieved AdmiralSpruance on 26 August and the 5th Fleet became the 3d Fleet. Two days later,the Fast Carrier Task Force-redesignated TF 38-sortied for the Palaus. On6 September, Wasp now assigned to Vice Admiral John S. McCain's TG 38.1-beganthree days of raids on the Palaus. On the 9th, she headed-with her taskgroup, TG 38.2, and TG 38.3-for the southern Philippines to neutralize airpower there during the American conquest of Morotai, Peleliu and Ulithi-threeislands needed as advanced bases during the impending campaign to liberatethe Philippines. Planes from these carriers encountered little resistanceas they lashed Mindanao airfields that day and on the 10th. Raids againstthe Visayan Islands on the 12th and 13th were carried out with impunityand were equally successful. Learning of the lack of Japanese air defensesin the southern Philippines enabled Allied strategists to cancel an invasionof Mindanao which had been scheduled to begin on 15 November. Instead, Alliedforces could go straight to Leyte and advance the recapture of Philippinesoil by almost a month.

D day in the Palaus, 15 September found Wasp's TG 38.1 some 50 milesoff Morotai, launching air strikes It then returned to the Philippines forrevisits to Mindanao and the Visayas before retiring to the Admiraltieson 29 September for replenishment at Manus in preparation for the liberationof the Philippines.

Ready to resume battle, she got underway again on 4 October and steamedto the Philippine Sea where TF 38 reassembled at twilight on the eveningof 7 October some 375 miles west of the Marianas. Its mission was to neutralizeairbases within operational air distance of the Philippines to keep Japanesewarplanes out of the air during the American landings on Leyte scheduledto begin on 20 October. The carriers steamed north to rendezvous with agroup of nine oilers and spent the next day, 8 October, refueling. Theythen followed a generally northwesterly course toward the Ryukyus untilthe 10th when their planes raided Okinawa Amami, and Miyaki. That day, TF38 planes destroyer a Japanese submarine tender, 12 sampans, and over 100planes. But for Lt. Col. Doolittle's Tokyo raid from Hornet (CV-8) on 18April 1942 and the daring war patrols of Pacific Fleet submarines, thiscarrier foray was the United States Navy's closest approach to the Japanesehome islands up to that point in the war.

Beginning on the 12th, Formosa-next on the agenda -received three daysof unwelcome attention from TF 38 planes. In response, the Japanese Navy made an all out effort to protect that strategic island, even though doingso meant denuding its remaining carriers of aircraft. Yet, the attempt tothwart the ever advancing American Pacific Fleet was futile. At the endof a three-day air battle, Japan had lost more than 500 planes and 20-oddfreighters. Many other merchant ships were damaged as were hangars, barracks,warehouses, industrial plants, and ammunition dumps. However, the victorywas costly to the United States Navy for TF 38 lost 79 planes and 64 pilotsand air crewmen while cruisers Canberra and Houston and carrier Franklinreceived damaging, but non-lethal, bomb From Formosa, TF 38 shifted its attention to the Philippines. After steamingto waters east of Luzon, Wasp's TG 58.1 began to launch strikes againstthat island on the 18th and continued the attack the following day, hittingManila for the first time since it was occupied by the Japanese early inthe war.

On the 20th, the day the first American troops waded ashore on Leyte,Wasp had moored south to the station off that island whence she and hersister carriers launched some planes for close air support missions to assistMacArthur's soldiers, while sending other aircraft to destroy airfields on Mindanao, Cebu, Negros, Panay, and Leyte. Task Group 38.1 refueled the following day and, on the 22d, set a course for Ulithi to rearm and provision.

While McCain's carriers were steaming away from the Philippines, greatevents were taking place in the waters of that archipelago. Admiral SoemuToyoda, the Commander in Chief of Japan's Combined Fleet, activated planSho-Go-l, a scheme for bringing about a decisive naval action off Leyte.The Japanese strategy called for Ozawa's carriers to act as a decoy to lureTF 38 north of Luzon and away from the Leyte beachhead. Then-with the Americanfast carriers out of the way-heavy Japanese surface ships were to debauchinto Leyte Gulf from two directions: from the south through Surigao Straitand from the north through San Bernardino Strait. During much of the 24th,planes from Halsey's carrier task groups still in Philippine waters poundedAdmiral Kurita's powerful Force "A," or Center Force, as it steamedacross the Sibuyan Sea toward San Bernardino Strait. When darkness stoppedtheir attack, the American aircraft had sunk superbattleship Musashi andhad damaged several other Japanese warships. Moreover, Halsey's pilots reportedthat Kurita's force had reversed course and was moving away from San BernardinoStrait.

That night, Admiral Nishimura's Force "C", or Sourthern Force,attempted to transit Surigao Strait but met a line of old battleships commandedby Rear Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf. The venerable American men-of-war crossedNishimura's "T" and all but annihilated his force. Admiral Shima-whowas following in Nishimura's wake to lend support-realized that disasterhad struck and wisely withdrew.

Meanwhile, late in the afternoon of the 24th-after Kurita's Center Forcehad turned away from San Bernardino Strait in apparent retreat-Halsey'sscout planes finally located Ozawa's carriers a bit under 200 miles northof TF 38. This intelligence prompted Halsey to head north toward Ozawa withhis Fast Carrier Task Force. However, at this point, he did not recall McCain'sTG 58.1 but allowed it to continue steaming toward Ulithi.

After dark, Kurita's Center Force again reversed course and once moreheaded for San Bernardino Strait. About half an hour past midnight, it transitedthat narrow passage turned to starboard and steamed south, down the eastcoast of Samar. Since Halsey had dashed north in pursuit of Ozawa's carriers,only three 7th Fleet escort carrier groups and their destroyer and destroyerescort screens were available to challenge Kurita's mighty battleships andheavy cruisers and to protect the American amphibious ships which were supportingthe troops fighting on Leyte.

Remembered by their call names, "Taffy 1," "Taffy 2,"and "Taffy 3," these three American escort-carrier groups weredeployed along Samar's east coast with "Taffy 3"-commanded byWasp's first captain, Rear Admiral Clifton A. F. Sprague-in the northernmostposition, about 40 miles off Paninihian Point. "Taffy 2" was coveringLeyte Gulf, and "Taffy 1" was still farther south watching SurigaoStrait.

At 0645, lookouts on "Taffy 3" ships spotted bursts of antiaircraftfire blossoming in the northern sky, as Center Force gunners opened fireon an American anti-submarine patrol plane. Moments later, "Taffy 3" made bothradar and visual contact with the approaching Japanese warships. Shortlybefore 0700, Kurita's guns opened fire on the hapless "baby flattops"and their comparatively tiny but incredibly courageous escorts. For morethan two hours, "Taffy 3's" ships and planes-aided by aircraftfrom sister escort-carrier groups to the south-fought back with torpedoes,guns, bombs, and consummate seamanship. Then, at 0311, Kurita-shaken bythe loss of three heavy cruisers and thinking that he had been fightingTF 38-ordered his remaining warships to break off the action.

Meanwhile, at 0848, Admiral Halsey had radioed McCain's TG 58.1-thenrefueling en route to Ulithi- calling that carrier group back to Philippinewaters to help "Taffy 3" in its fight for survival. Wasp and herconsorts raced toward Samar at flank speed until 1030 when they began launchingplanes for strikes at Kurita's ships which were still some 330 miles away.While these raids did little damage to the Japanese Center Force, they didstrengthen Kurita's decision to retire from Leyte.

While his planes were in the air McCain's carriers continued to speedwestward to lessen the distance of his pilots' return flight and to be inoptimum position at dawn to launch more warplanes at the fleeing enemy force.With the first light of the 26th, TG 38.1 and Rear Admiral Bogan's TG 38.2-whichfinally had been sent south by Halsey-launched the first of their strikesthat day against Kurita. The second left the carriers a little over twohours later. These fliers sank light cruiser Noshiro and damaged, but didnot sink, heavy cruiser Kumano. The two task groups launched a third strikein the early afternoon, but it did not add to their score.

Following the Battle for Leyte Gulf, which ended the Japanese Fleet asa serious challenge to American supremacy at sea in the Far East, TG 38.1operated in the Philippines for two more days providing close air supportbefore again heading for Ulithi on the 28th. However, the respite-duringwhich Rear Admiral Montgomery took command of TG 38.1 when McCain fleetedup to relieve Mitscher as CTF 38- was brief since Japanese land-based planesattacked troops on the Leyte beachhead on 1 November. Wasp participatedin raids against Luzon air bases on the 5th and 6th, destroying over 400Japanese aircraft, for the most part on the ground. After a kamikaze hitLexington during the operation, McCain shifted his flag from that carrierto Wasp and, a short time later, returned in her to Guam to exchange airgroups.

Wasp returned to the Philippines a little before midmonth and continuedto send strikes against targets in the Philippines-mostly on Luzon-untilthe 25th when the Army Air Force assumed responsibility for providing airsupport for troops on Leyte. TF 38 then retired to Ulithi. There, the carriersreceived greater complements of fighter planes and, in late November andearly December, conducted training exercises to prepare them better to dealwith Japan's new threat to the American warships, kamikazes or suicide planes.

Task Force 38 sortied from Ulithi on 10 and 11 December and proceededto a position east of Luzon for round-the-clock strikes against air baseson that island from the 14th through the 16th to prevent Japanese fighterplanes from endangering landings on the southwest coast of Mindoro scheduledfor the 16th. Then, while withdrawing to a fueling rendezvous point eastof the Philippines, TF 38 was caught in a terribly destructive typhoon whichbattered its ships and sank three American destroyers. The carriers spentmost of the ensuing week repairing storm damage and returned to Ulithi onChristmas Eve.

But the accelerating tempo of the war ruled out long repose in the shelterof the lagoon. Before the year ended, the carriers were back in action againstairfields in the Philippines, on Sakishima Gunto, and on Okinawa. Theseraids were intended to smooth the way for General MacArthur's invasion ofLuzon through

the Lingayen Gulf. While the carrier planes were unable to knock outall Japanese air resistance to the Luzon landings, they did succeed in destroyingmany enemy planes and thus reduced the air threat to manageable proportions.

On the night after the initial landings on Luzon, Halsey took TF 38 intothe South China Sea for a week's rampage in which his ships and planes tooka heavy toll of Japanese shipping and aircraft before they retransited LuzonStrait on the 16th and returned to the Philippine Sea. Bad weather preventedHalsey's planes from going aloft for the next few days but, on the 21st,they bombed Formosa, the Pescadores, and the Sakishimas. The following day,the aircraft returned to the Sakishimas and the Ryukyus for more bombingand reconnaissance. The overworked Fast Carrier Task Force then headed forUlithi and entered that lagoon on the 26th.

While the flattops were catching their breath at Ulithi, Admiral Spruancerelieved Halsey in command of the Fleet, which was thereby transformed fromthe 3d to the 6th. The metamorphosis also entailed Mitscher's replacingMcCain and Clark's resuming command of TG 68.1-still Wasp's task group.

The next major operation dictated by Allied strategy was the captureof Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands. Iwo was needed as a base for Army AirForce fighter planes which were to protect Mariana-based B-29 bombers duringraids against the Japanese home islands and as an emergency landing pointfor crippled warplanes. Task Force 68 sortied on 10 February, held rehearsalsat Tinian, and then headed for Japan.

Fighter planes took off from the carriers before dawn on the 16th toclear the skies of Japanese aircraft. They succeeded in this mission, butWasp lost several of her fighters during the sweep. Bombing sorties, directedprimarily at aircraft factories in Tokyo, followed but clouds hid manyof these plants, forcing some planes to drop their bombs on secondary targets.Bad weather, which also hampered Mitscher's fliers during raids the nextmorning, prompted him to cancel strikes scheduled for the afternoon andhead the task force west.

During the night, Mitscher turned the carriers toward the Volcano Islandsto be on hand to provide air support for the marines who would land on beachesof Iwo Jima on the morning of the 19th.

For the next few days, planes from the American carriers continued toassist the marines who were engaged in a bloody struggle to wrest the islandfrom its fanatical defenders. On the 23d, Mitscher led his carriers backto Japan for more raids on Tokyo. Planes took off on the morning of the25th but, when they reached Tokyo, they again found their targets obscuredby clouds. Moreover, visibility was so bad the next day that raids on Nagoyawere called off, and the carriers steamed south toward the Ryukyus to bomband reconnoiter Okinawa, the next prize to be taken from the Japanese Empire.Planes left the carriers at dawn on 1 March and, throughout the day, theyhammered and photographed the islands of the Ryukyu group. Then, after anight bombardment by surface ships TF 58 set a course for the Carolinesand anchored in Ulithi lagoon on the 4th.

Damaged as she was, Wasp recorded-from 17 to 23 March-what was oftenreferred to as the busiest week in flattop history. In these seven days,Wasp accounted for 14 enemy planes in the air, destroyed six more on theground, scored two 600 pound bomb hits on each of two Japanese carriers,dropped two 1,000-pound bombs on a Japanese battleship, put one 1,000-pounderon another battleship, hit a heavy cruiser with three 600-pound missiles,dropped another 1,000 pound bomb on a big cargo ship, and heavily strafed"and probably sank" a large Japanese submarine. During this week,Wasp was under almost continuous attack by shore-based aircraft and experiencedseveral close kamikaze attacks. The carrier's gunners fired more than 10,000rounds at the determined Japanese attackers.

On 13 April 1945, Wasp returned to the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton,Wash., and had the damage caused by the bomb hit repaired. Once whole again,she steamed to Hawaii and, after a brief sojourn at Pearl Harbor, headedtoward the western Pacific on 12 July 1945. Wasp conducted a strike at WakeIsland and paused briefly at Eniwetok before rejoining the rampaging FastCarrier Task Force. In a series of strikes, unique in the almost completeabsence of enemy airborne planes, Wasp's pilots struck Yokosuka Naval Basenear Tokyo, numerous airfields, and hidden manufacturing centers. On 9 August,a suicide plane swooped down at the carrier, but a Wasp pilot flying abovethe ship forced the enemy to splash into the sea.

Then, on 16 August, when the fighting should have been over, two Japanese planes tried to attack Wasp's task group. Fortunately, Wasp pilots were still flying on combat air patrol and sent both enemies smoking into thesea. This was the last time Wasp pilots and gunners were to tangle with the Japanese.

Wasp IX (cont. )
On 25 August 1945, a severe typhoon, with winds reaching 78 knots, engulfed Wasp and stove in about 30 feet of her bow. The carrier, despite the hazardous job of flying from such a shortened deck, continued to launch her planes on missions of mercy or patrol as they carried food, medicine, and long-deserved luxuries to American prisoners of war at Narumi, near Nagoya.

The ship returned to Boston for Navy Day, 27 October 1946. On 30 October, Wasp got underway for the naval shipyard in New York for a period of availability to have additional facilities installed for maximum transportation of troops. This work was completed on 15 November 1945 and enabled her to accommodate some 6,600 enlisted passengers and 400 officers.

After receiving the new alterations, Wasp was assigned temporary duty as an Operation "Magic Carpet" troop transport. On 17 February 1947, Wasp was placed out of commission in reserve, attached to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

In the summer of 1948, Wasp was taken out of the reserve fleet and placed in the New York Naval Shipyard for refitting and alterations to enable her to accommodate the larger, heavier, and faster planes of the jet age. Upon the completion of this conversion the ship was recommissioned on 10 September 1961.

Wasp reported to the Atlantic Fleet in November 1961 and began a period of shakedown training which lasted until February 1952. After returning from the shakedown cruise, she spent a month in the New York Naval Shipyard preparing for duty in distant waters.

On 26 April 1952, Wasp collided with destroyer minesweeper Hobson (DD-464) while conducting night flying operations en route to Gibraltar. Hobson lost 176 of the crew, including her skipper. Rapid rescue operations saved 52 men. Wasp sustained no personnel casualties, but her bow was torn by a 75-foot saw-tooth rip.

The carrier proceeded to Bayonne, N.J., for repairs and, after she entered drydock there, the bow of aircraft carrier Hornet (CV-12)?then undergoing conversion?was removed and floated by barge from Brooklyn, N.Y., and fitted into position on Wasp replacing the badly shattered forward end of the ship. This remarkable task was completed in only 10 days, enabling the carrier to get underway to cross the Atlantic.

On 2 June 1962, Wasp relieved Tarawa (CV-40) at Gibraltar and joined Carrier Division (CarDiv) 6 in the Mediterranean Sea. After conducting strenuoui flight operations between goodwill visits to many Mediterranean ports, Wasp was relieved at Gibraltar on 5 September by Leyte (CV-32).

After taking part in NATO Exercise "Mainbrace" at Greenock, Scotland, and enjoying a liberty period at Plymouth, England, Wasp headed home and arrived at Norfolk early on the morning of 13 October 1952.

On 7 November 1952, Wasp entered the New York Naval Shipyard to commence a seven-month yard period to prepare her for a world cruise which was to bring her into the Pacific Fleet once more. After refresher training in the Caribbean, Wasp departed Norfolk on 16 September 1953.

After transiting the Panama Canal and crossing the Pacific, the carrier made a brief visit to Japan and then conducted strenuous operations with the famed TF 77. While operating in the western Pacific, she made port calls at Hong Kong, Manila, Yokosuka, and Sasebo.

On 10 January 1954, China's Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek spent more than four hours on board Wasp watching simulated air war maneuvers in Formosan waters. On 12 March, President Ramon Magsaysay of the Republic of the Philippines came on board to observe air operations as a guest of American Ambassador Raymond A. Spruance. Wasp operated out of Subic Bay, Philippines, for a time, then sailed for Japan where, in April 1954, she was relieved by Boxer (CV-21) and sailed for her new home port of San Diego, Calif.

Wasp spent the next few months preparing for another tour of the Orient. She departed the United States in September 1954 and steamed to the Far East visiting Pearl Harbor and Iwo Jima en route. She relieved Boxer in October 1964 and engaged in air operations in the South China Sea with Carrier Task Group 70.2. Wasp visited the Philippine Islands in November and December and proceeded to Japan early in 1955 to join TF 77. While operating with that naval organization, Wasp provided air cover for the evacuation of the Tachen Islands by the Chinese Nationalists.

After the Tachen evacuation, Wasp stopped at Japan before returning to San Diego, Calif., in April. She entered the San Francisco Naval Shipyard in May for a seven month conversion and overhaul. On 1 December, the carrier returned to duty displaying a new canted flight deck and a hurricane bow. As 1955 ended, Wasp had returned to San Diego and was busily preparing for another Far Eastern tour.

After training during the early months of 1956, Wasp departed San Diego, Calif., on 23 April for another cruise to the Far East with Carrier Air Group 15 embarked. She stopped at Pearl Harbor to undergo inspection and training and then proceeded to Guam where she arrived in time for the Armed forces Day ceremonies on 14 May. En route to Japan in May, she joined TF 77 for Operation "Sea Horse," a five-day period of day and night training for the ship and air group. The ship arrived at Yokosuka on 4 June visited Iwakuni, Japan, then steamed to Manila for a brief visit. Following a drydock period at Yokosuka, Wasp again steamed south to Cubi Point, Philippine Islands, for the commissioning of the new naval air station there. Carrier Air Group 15 provided an air show for President Ramon Magsaysay of the Philippines and Admiral Arthur Radford. During the third week of August, Wasp was at Yokosuka enjoying what was scheduled to be a fortnight's stay, but she sailed a week early to aid other ships in searching for survivors of a Navy patrol plane which had been shot down on 23 August off the coast of communist China. After a futile search, the ship proceeded to Kobe, Japan, and made a final stop at Yokosuka before leaving the Far East.

Wasp returned to San Diego on 15 October and while there was reclassified an antisubmarine warfare aircraft carrier, CVS-18, effective on 1 November 1956. She spent the last days of 1956 in San Diego preparing for her transfer to the east coast.

Wasp left San Diego on the last day of January 1957, rounded Cape Horn for operations in the South Atlantic and Caribbean Sea, then proceeded to Boston where she arrived on 21 March. The carrier came into Norfolk, VA., on 6 April to embark members of her crew from the Antisubmarine Warfare School. The carrier spent the next few months in tactics along the eastern seaboard and in the waters off Bermuda before returning to Boston on 16 August.

On 3 September, Wasp got underway to participate in NATO Operations "Seaspray" and "Strikeback," which took her to the coast of Scotland and simulated nuclear attacks and counterattacks on 130 different land bases. The carrier returned to Boston on 23 October 1957 and entered the Boston Naval Shipyard for a major overhaul which was not completed until 10 March 1958 when she sailed for antisubmarine warfare practice at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Upon returning to Boston on 29 April and picking up air squadrons at Quonset Point, R.I., on 12 May, she became the hub of TF 66, a special antisubmarine group of the 6th Fleet.

The carrier began her Atlantic crossing on the 12th of May and sailed only a few hundred miles when trouble flared in Lebanon. Wasp arrived at Gibraltar on the 21st of May and headed east, making stops at Souda Bay, Crete, Rhodes, and Athens. Wasp next spent 10 days at sea conducting a joint Italian-American antisubmarine warfare exercise in the Tyrrhenian Sea off Sardinia. On 15 July, the carrier put to sea to patrol waters off Lebanon. Her Marine helicopter transport squadron left the ship five days later to set up camp at the Beirut International Airport. They flew reconnaissance missions and transported the sick and injured from Marine battalions in the hills to the evacuation hospital at the airport. She continued to support forces ashore in Lebanon until 17 September 1958 when she departed Beirut Harbor, bound for home. She reached Norfolk on 7 October, unloaded supplies, and then made a brief stop at Quonset Point before arriving in her home port of Boston on 11 October.

Four days later, Wasp became flagship of Task Group Bravo, one of two new antisubmarine defense groups formed by the Commander in Chief of the Atlantic Fleet. Wasp's air squadrons and seven destroyers were supported by shore-based seaplane patrol aircraft. She sailed from Quonset Point on 26 November for a 17day cruise in the North Atlantic. This at-sea period marked the first time her force operated together as a team. The operations continued day and night to coordinate and develop the task group's team capabilities until she returned to Boston on 13 December 1958 and remained over the Christmas holiday season.

Wasp operated with Task Group Bravo throughout 1959, cruising along the eastern seaboard conducting operations at Norfolk, Va., Bermuda, and Quonset Point, R.I. On 27 February 1960, she entered the Boston Naval Shipyard for overhaul. In mid-July, the carrier was ordered to the South Atlantic where she stood by when civil strife broke out in the newly independent Congo and operated in support of the United Nations airlift. She returned to her home port on 11 August 1960 and spent the remainder of the year operating out of Boston with visits to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for refresher training and exercises conducted in the Virginia capes operating areas and the Caribbean operating areas. The carrier returned to Boston on 10 December 1960 and remained in port there into the New Year.

On 9 January 1961, Wasp sailed for the Virginia capes operating area and devoted the first half of 1961 to exercises there, at Narragansett Bay, R.I., and at Nova Scotia. On 9 June, Wasp got underway from Norfolk, VA., for a three-month Mediterranean cruise. The ship conducted exercises at Augusta Bay, Sicily Barcelona, Spain, San Remo and La Spezia, Italy Aranci Bay, Sardinia, Genoa, Italy, and Cannes, France, and returned to Boston on 1 September. The carrier entered the Boston Naval Shipyard for an interim overhaul and resumed operations on 6 November 1961.

After loading food, clothing, and equipment, Wasp spent the period from 11 to 18 January 1962 conducting antisubmarine warfare exercises and submarine surveillance off the east coast. After a brief stop at Norfolk, the ship steamed on to further training exercises and anchored off Bermuda from 24 to 31 January. Wasp then returned to her home port.

On 17 February, a delegation from the Plymouth Plantation presented a photograph of the Mayflower II to Captain Brewer who accepted this gift for Wasp's "People to People" effort in the forthcoming European cruise.

On 18 February, Wasp departed Boston, bound for England, and arrived at Portsmouth on 1 March. On 16 March, the carrier arrived at Rotterdam, Netherlands, for a week's goodwill visit.

From 22 to 30 March, Wasp travelled to Greenock, Scotland, thence to Plymouth, England. On 17 April, Capt. Brewer presented Alderman A. Goldberg, Lord Mayor of Plymouth, England, a large picture of Mayfower 11 as a gift from the people of Plymouth, Mass. On 5 May, Wasp arrived at Kiel, West Germany, and became the first aircraft carrier to ever visit that port. The ship made calls at Oslo, Norway ReykJavik, Iceland and Argentia, Newfoundland before returning to Boston, Mass., on 16 June.

From August through October, Wasp visited Newport, R.I., New York, and Earle, N.J., then conducted a dependents' cruise, as well as a reserve cruise, and visitors cruises. The 1st of November gave Wasp a chance to use her capabilities when she responded to a eall from President Kennedy and actively participated in the Cuban blockade. After tension relaxed, the carrier returned to Boston on 22 November for upkeep work and, on 21 December, she sailed to Bermuda with 18 midshipmen from Boston area universities Wasp returned to Boston on 29 December and finished out the year there.

The early part of 1963 saw Wasp conducting antisubmarine warfare exercises off the Virginia capes and steaming along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica in support of the presidential visit. On 21 March, President Kennedy arrived at San Jose for a conference with presidents of six Central American nations. After taking part in Fleet exercises off Puerto Rico, the carrier returned to Boston on 4 April. From 11 to 18 May, Wasp took station off Bermuda as a backup recovery ship for Major Gordon Cooper's historic Mercury space capsule recovery. The landing occurred as planned in the mid-Pactfic near Midway Atoll, and carrier Kearsage (CVA-33) picked up Cooper and his Faith 7 space craft. Wasp then resumed antisubmarine warfare exercises along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Caribbean until she underwent overhaul in the fall of 1963 for FRAM (Fleet rehabilitation and modernization) overhaul in the Boston Naval Shipyard.

In March 1964, the carrier conducted sea trials out of Boston. During April, she operated out of Norfolk and Narragansett Bay, R.I. She returned to Boston on 4 May and remained there until 14 May when she got underway for refresher training in waters between Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and Kingston, Jamaica, before returning to her home port on 3 June 1964.

On 21 July 1964, Wasp began a round-trip voyage to Norfolk and returned to Boston on 7 August. She remained there through 8 September when she headed via the Virginia capes operating area, to Valeneia Spain. She then cruised the Mediterranean, visiting ports in Spain, France, and Italy, and returned home on 18 December 1964.

The carrier remained in port until 8 February 1965 and sailed for fleet exercises in the Caribbean. Operating along the eastern seaboard, she recovered the Gemini IV astronauts White and McDivitt with their spacecraft on 7 June. During the summer, the ship conducted search and rescue operations for an Air force C-121 plane which had gone down off Nantucket. Following an orientation cruise for 12 congressmen on 20 to 21 August, Wasp participated in joint training exercises with German and French forces. From 16 to 18 December, the carrier recovered the astronauts of Gemini VI and VII and then returned to Boston on 22 December to finist out the year.

On 24 January 1966, Wasp departed Boston for fleet exercises off Puerto Rico. En route, heavy seas and high winds caused structural damage to the carrier. She put into Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, on 1 February to determine the extent of her damages and effcet as mueh repair as possible. Engineers were flown from Boston who decided that the ship could cease "Springboard" operations early and return to Boston. The ship conducted limited antisubmarine operations from 5 to 8 February prior to leaving the area. She arrived at Boston on 18 February and was placed in restricted availability until 7 March, when her repair work was completed.

Wasp joined in exercises in the Narragansett Bay operating areas. While the carrier was carrying out this duty, a television film erew from the National Broadcasting Company was flown to Wasp on 21 March and stayed on the ship during the remainder of her period at sea, filming material for a special color television show to be presented on Armed forces Day.

The carrier returned to Boston on 24 March 1966 and was moored there until 11 April. On 27 March, Doctor Ernst Lemberger, the Austrian Ambassador to the United States, visited the ship. On 18 April, the ship embarked several guests of the Secretary of the Navy and set courses for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. She returned to Boston on 6 May.

A week later, the veteran flattop sailed to take part in the recovery of the Gemini IX spaeeeraft. Embarked in Wasp were some 65 persons from NASA, the television industry, media personnel, an underwater demolition recovery team, and a Defense Department medical team. On 6 June, she recovered astronauts Lt. Col. Thomas P. Stafford and Lt. Comdr. Eugene Cernan and flew them to Cape Kennedy, Fla. Wasp returned their capsule to Boston.

Wasp participated in "ASWEX III," an antisubmarine exercise which lasted from 20 June through 1 July 1966. She spent the next 25 days in port at Boston for upkeep. On the 25th, the carrier got underway for "ASWEX IV." During this exercise, the Soviet intelligence collection vessel, Agi Traverz, entered the operation area necessitating a suspension of the operation and eventual repositioning of forces. The exercise was terminated on 5 August. She then conducted a dependents' day cruise on 8 and 9 August, and orientation cruises on 10, 11, and 22 August. After a two-day visit to New York, Wasp arrived in Boston on 1 September and underwent upkeep until the 19th. From that day to 4 October, she conducted hunter/killer operations with the Royal Canadian Navy aircraft embarked.

Following upkeep at Boston, the ship participated in the Gemini XII recovery operation from 5 to 18 November 1966. The recovery took place on 15 November when the space capsule splashdown occurred within three miles of Wasp. Capt. James A. Lovell and Maj. Edwin E. Aldrin were lifted by helicopter hoist to the deek of Wasp and there enjoyed two days of eelebration. Wasp arrived at Boston on 18 November with the Gemini XII spacecraft on board. After offloading the special Gemini support equipment, Wasp spent 10 days making ready for her next period at sea.

On 28 November Wasp departed Boston to take part in the Atlantic Fieet's largest exercise of the year "Lantflex-66," in which more than 100 United States ships took part. The carrier returned to Boston on 16 December where she remained through the end of 1966.

Wasp served as carrier qualification duty ship for the Naval Air Training Command from 24 January to 26 February 1967 and conducted operations in the Gulf of Mexico and off the east coast of Florida. She ealled at New Orleans for Mardi Gras from 4 to 8 February, at Pensacola on the 11th and 12th, and at Mayport, Fla., on the 19th and 20th. Returning to Boston a week later, she remained in port until 19 March when she sailed for "Springboard" operations in the Caribbean. On 24 March, Wasp joined Salamonie (AO-26) for an underway replenishment but suffered damage during a collision with the oiler. After making repairs at Roosevelt Roads, she returned to operations on 29 March and visited Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, and participated in the celebration from 30 March to 2 April which marked the 50th anniversary of the purchase of the Virgin Islands by the United States from Denmark. Wasp returned to Boston on 7 April, remained in port four days, then sailed to Earle, N.J., to offload ammunition prior to overhaul. She visited New York for three days then returned to the Boston Naval Shipyard and began an overhaul on 21 April 1967 which was not completed until early 1968.

Wasp completed her cyclical overhaul and conducted post-repair trials throughout January 1968. Returning to the Boston Naval Shipyard on the 28th, the ship made ready for two months of technical evaluation and training which began early in February.

The 28th of February marked the beginning of almost five weeks of refresher training for Wasp under the operational control of Commander, Fleet Training Group, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. On 30 March, Wasp steamed north and was in Boston from 6 to 29 April for routine upkeep and minor repairs. She then departed for operations in the Bahamas and took part in "Fixwex C," an exercise off the Bermuda coast. The carrier set course for home on 20 May but left five days later to conduct carrier qualifications for students of the Naval Air Training Command in the Jacksonville, Fla., operations area.

On 12 June, Wasp and Truckee (AO-147) had a minor collision during an underway replenishment. The carrier returned to Norfolk where an investigation into the circumstances of the collision was conducted. On 20 June, Wasp got underway for Boston, where she remained until 3 August when she moved to Norfolk to take on ammunition.

On 15 June, Wasp's home port was changed to Quonset Point, R.I., and she arrived there on 10 August to prepare for overseas movement. Ten days later, the carrier got underway for a deployment in European waters. The northern European portion of the cruise consisted of several operational periods and port visits to Portsmouth, England, Firth of Clyde, Scotland Hamburg, Germany, and Lisbon, Portugal. Wasp, as part of TG 87.1, joined in the NATO Exercise "Silvertower," the largest combined naval exercise in four years. "Silvertower" brought together surface, air, and subsurface units of several NATO navies.

On 25 October 1968, the carrier entered the Mediterranean and, the following day, became part of TG 67.6. After a port visit to Naples, Italy, Wasp departed on 7 November to conduct antisubmarine warfare exercises in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Levantine Basin, and Ionian Basin. After loading aircraft in both Taranto and Naples, Italy, Wasp visited Barcelona, Spain, and Gibraltar. On 19 December, the ship returned to Quonset Point, R.I., and spent the remainder of 1968 in port.

Wasp began 1969 in her home port of Quonset Point. Following a yard period which lasted from 10 January through 17 February, the carrier conducted exercises as part of the White Task Group in the Bermuda operating area. The ship returned to Quonset Point on 6 March and began a month of preparations for overseas movement.

On 1 April 1969, Wasp sailed for the eastern Atlantic and arrived at Lisbon, Portugal, on 16 April. From 21 to 26 April, she took part in joint Exercise "Trilant" which was held with the navies of the United States, Spain, and Portugal. One of the highlights of the cruise occurred on 15 May as Wasp arrived at Portsmouth, England, and served as flagship for TF 87, representing the United States in a NATO review by Queen Elizabeth and Prince Phillip in which 64 ships from the 11 NATO countries participated.

After conducting exercises and visiting Rotterdam, Oslo, and Copenhagen, Wasp headed home on 30 June and, but for a one-day United Fund cruise on 12 August, remained at Quonset Point until 24 August. The period from 29 August to 6 October was devoted to alternating operations between Corpus Christi, Tex., for advanced carrier qualifications, and Pensacola for basic qualifications, with inport periods at Pensacola.

A period of restricted availability began on 10 October and was followed by operations in the Virginia capes area until 22 November. In December, Wasp conducted a carrier qualification mission in the Jacksonville operations area which lasted through 10 December. The ship arrived back at Quonset Point on 13 December and remained there for the holidays.

The carrier welcomed the year 1970 moored in her home port of Quonset Point but travelled over 40,000 miles and was away from home port 265 days. On 4 January, she proceeded to Earle, N.J., and offloaded ammunition prior to entering the Boston Naval Shipyard for a six-week overhaul on 9 January.

The carrier began a three-week shakedown cruise on 16 March but returned to her home port on 3 April and began preparing for an eastern Atlantic deployment. Wasp reached Lisbon on 25 May 1970 and dropped anchor in the Tagus River. A week later, the carrier got underway to participate in NATO Exercise "Night Patrol" with units from Canada, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. On 8 June, Wasp proceeded to the Naval Station, Rota, Spain, to embark a group of midshipmen for a cruise to Copenhagen. During exercises in Scandinavian waters, the carrier was shadowed by Soviet naval craft and aircraft. The ship departed Copenhagen on 26 June and, three days later, crossed the Arctic Circle.

On 13 July 1970, Wasp arrived at Hamburg, Germany, and enjoyed the warmest welcome received in any port of the cruise. A Visitors' Day was held, and over 15,000 Germans were recorded as visitors to the carrier. After calls at Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, Wasp got underway on 10 August for operating areas in the Norwegian Sea. The carrier anchored near Plymouth, England, on 28 August and, two days later, sailed for her home port.

Wasp returned to Quonset Point on 8 September and remained there through 11 October when she got underway to offload ammunition at Earle, N.J., prior to a period of restricted availability at the Boston Naval Shipyard beginning on 15 October. The work ended on 14 December, and, after reloading ammunition at Earle, Wasp returned to Quonset Point on 19 December to finish out the year 1970.

On 14 January 1971, Wasp departed Quonset Point, R.I., with Commander, ASWGRU 2, CVSG-54 and Detachment 18 from Fleet Training Group, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, embarked. After refresher training at Bermuda, she stopped briefly at Rota, Spain then proceeded to the Mediterranean for participation in the "National Week VIII" exercises with several destroyers for the investigation of known Soviet submarine operating areas. On 12 February, Secretary of the Navy John Chafee, accompanied by Commander, 6th Fleet, Vice Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, visited the carrier.

Wasp detached early from the "National Week" exercise on 15 February to support John F. Kennedg (CVA-67) as she steamed toward Gibraltar. Soviet ships trailed Wasp and John F. Kennedy until they entered the Strait of Sicily when the Soviets departed to the east. After a brief stop at Barcelona, Spain, Wasp began her homeward journey on 24 February and arrived at Quonset Point on 3 March.

After spending March and April in port, Wasp got underway on 27 April and conducted a nuclear technical proficiency inspection and prepared for the forthcoming "Exotic Dancer" exercise which commenced on 3 May. Having successfully completed the week-long exercise, Wasp was heading home on 8 May when an American Broadcasting Co. television team embarked and filmed a short news report on carrier antisubmarine warfare operations.

On 15 May, the veteran conducted a dependents' day cruise and, one month later, participated in Exercise Rough Ride" at Great Sound, Bermuda, which took her to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Wasp returned to Quonset Point on 2 July 1971 and spent the next two months in preparation and execution of Exercise "Squeeze Play IX" in the Bermuda operating area. During August, the ship conducted exercises with an east coast naval reserve air group while proceeding to Mayport, Fla. She returned to her home port on 26 August and spent the next month there. On 23 September, Wasp got underway for Exercise "Lantcortex 1-72" which terminated on 6 October. For the remainder of the month, the carrier joined in a crossdeck operation which took her to Bermuda, Mayport, and Norfolk. She arrived back at Quonset Point on 4 November.

Four days later, the carrier set her course for the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. where she was in drydock until 22 November. She then returned to Quonset Point and remained in her home port for the remainder of the year preparing for dceommissioning.

On 1 March 1972, it was announced that Wasp would be decommissioned and stricken from the Navy list. Decommissioning ceremonies were held on 1 July 1972. The ship was sold on 21 May 1973 to the Union Minerals and Alloys Corp., of New York City, and subsequently scrapped.

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The Fighting Flagship of Admiral Farragut

One of the most famous vessels constructed by the Navy Yard, the screw sloop USS Hartford served as the flagship of Adm. David Farragut during the Battle of Mobile Bay. Her reputation was such that she was routinely exempted from Congressional limitations on repairs on wooden-hulled ships after 1883, and she served as a training ship into the early 20th century. She is seen here under full sail in Long Island Sound on August 10, 1905. Neglect finally set in, however, and the ship sank at her berth at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in November 1956. She was refloated and dismantled shortly thereafter.

USS Hartford, Ca. 1861-1865

John F. Delaney, Jr.

Served in the U.S. Navy as an officer and Chief Engineer of the USS Yorktown at the Battle of Midway, serving under Captain Buckmaster.

Source: Wikipedia, USS Yorktown, Accessed May 25, 2021.On June 4 during the Battle of Midway, Japanese aircraft crippled Yorktown. She lost all power and developed a 23-degree list to port. Salvage efforts on Yorktown were encouraging, and she was taken in tow by USS Vireo. In the late afternoon of 6 June, the Japanese submarine I-168 fired a salvo of torpedoes, two of which struck Yorktown, and a third sinking the destroyer USS Hammann, which had been providing auxiliary power to Yorktown. With further salvage efforts deemed hopeless, the remaining repair crews were evacuated from Yorktown, which sank just on the morning of 7 June.[3] The wreck of Yorktown was located in May 1998 by Robert Ballard.

Source: Sourced May 25, 2021 Captain Delaney was born in Boston, Massachusetts, September 7, 1904, the son of Mrs. Anna M. Delaney of Brookline, and the late Mr. John F. Delaney. He entered the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland in June 1921 after graduation from Boston Public Latin School. He was commissioned Ensign upon graduation on June 4, 1925, and progressed at regular intervals in rank until his selection for Captain, permanent rank, was confirmed by Congress on February 7, 1949.

After leaving the Academy he served continuously at sea aboard battleships and destroyers of the Scouting Force, Atlantic Fleet, until in June 1932, he reported to the Postgraduate School, Annapolis, to take the course in General Line duties, and the following year remained there in connection with the preparation of training courses for the Bureau of Naval Personnel, then Bureau of Navigation. When detached in June 1934, he was ordered to sea duty as Engineer Officer in USS Lea, attached to the Yangtze Patrol, and then as Executive Officer of USS Guam from February 1935 until April 1936, and as Boiler Division Officer in USS Augusta for the succeeding twelve months.

In July 1937, Captain Delaney reported to Navy Yard, Boston, Massachusetts, for a two year tour of duty in the Industrial Department, before returning to sea in June 1939 as Assistant Engineering Officer, then Engineering Officer of USS Yorktown. While attached to the Yorktown he participated in all the early battles of the War until ship was sunk on June 5, 1942. He was awarded the Silver Star Medal for his services, with the following citation:

𠇏or conspicuous gallantry and outstanding devotion to duty as Engineer Officer, USS Yorktown, in action against enemy Japanese forces in the Battle of Midway, June 4-6, 1942. On June 4, when an enemy bomb exploded and extinguished the fires in all but one of the ship’s boilers, Lieutenant Commander Delaney, through the efficient organization of his department and his competent direction of repair and engineering damage control, accelerated the speed of his engineering plant from 6 knots, the maximum speed of the damaged plant, to 23 knots in approximately an hour’s time. On June 6, as a member of the volunteer salvage crew, he inspected the partially flooded engineering spaces where he directed damage control activities until the ship was torpedoed by an enemy submarine. Lieutenant Commander Delaney’s utter disregard for his own life throughout these operations and his courage in volunteering an attempt to bring the Yorktown to port after the salvage crew had left her, were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.”

Captain Delaney also received the Bronze Star Medal for his services in the Battle of the Coral Sea, and was cited as follows:

Bronze Star Medal (with Combat “V”):

𠇏or meritorious service as Engineer Office of USS Yorktown in action against enemy Japanese forces during the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 8, 1942. Efficiently training the personnel in his department and skillfully performing his duties, Captain (then Lieutenant Commander) Delaney rendered valuable assistance in maintaining the engineering force at the peak of combat efficiency and in restoring the plant to full operation within a minimum of time following a damaging aerial attack. When a hostile bomb struck the Yorktown and rendered three boilers and two condensers inoperative, he was instrumental in keeping the ship’s speed at an average fro a period of nearly two hours despite the loss of the majority of his repair party, thereby enabling the captain to maneuver successfully and avoid further hostile aerial bombing and torpedo attacks. His calmness under fire, leadership and devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.”

He returned to the United States, Twelfth Naval District, and upon detachment in August 1942, he reported to the Bethlehem Steel Company, Baltimore, Maryland, for duty in connection with conversion and fitting out USS Corsicana and was Executive Officer first of that vessel, then of USS Pecos, until ordered in April 1943 to duty in connection with fitting out USS Hall. As Commanding Officer of the Hall, he was in the escort group of USS Iowa which carried the President of the United States to the Teheran Conference. In that command he participated also in the invasion of the Marshall Islands, Kwajalein and Roi, until his hip was hit off the island of Wotje.

Captain Delaney reported in June 1944 to the War College, Newport, Rhode Island to take the command course. Six months later he was ordered to duty as a member of the Staff of Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, at Guam and at Pearl Harbor, until in December 1946, when he reported for staff duty to Commandant First Naval District, as District Planning Officer, headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts, where he is presently serving.

In addition to the Silver Star Medal and the Bronze Star Medal, Captain Delaney Letter of Commendation with Ribbon for his services in USS Hall, and a bronze star in lieu of a second Commendation Ribbon for his services covering the final period of the war. He also is entitled to the American Defense Service Medal with Fleet Clasp, American Area Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Area Campaign Medal with one silver star, European-African-Middle Eastern Area Campaign Medal, and the World War II Victory Medal.


What our customers are saying.

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I attended the Niles Antique Fair this past weekend, where I did a Boy Scout fundraiser operating a parking lot. I cannot tell you how often we were complimented on the quality of your portables placed in our parking lot. Our Boy Scouts also appreciated the comfort you provided. And that is coming from some well seasoned scouts and adults. Your company does a great job with a service most people would like to forget.

I would like to take this opportunity to express to you all what an excellent service you all performed with this years 2008 Sun-n-Fun Fly-In. You truly contributed to making it a success. The new venture we undertook at the Fantasy of Flight for our Splash-in was a grand success. The number of service calls was extremely low considering we were using over 500 portable toilets. And I attribute this to you people taking pride and ownership in your company and services. Again, thank you from the staff at Sun-n-Fun and from me personally. It has been four years of learning on both sides of this venture. I will be organizing the bid process for the upcoming season and certainly solicit your response.

We just used two restroom trailers at the Landis Beer and Wine Festival and WOW the guests loved them.

Please accept my sincere appreciation for your hard work and support of Naval Air Station Patuxent River’s Air Expo 󈧍. This featured the U.S. Navy’s Flight Demonstration Squadron the Blue Angels, the U.S. Army’s Golden Knights, the U.S. Air Force F-16 East Coast Demonstration Team and many exciting daredevil civilian performers.

You provided highly valuable support that contributed to the safe and secure environment, so more than 111,000 guests could enjoy this fantastic, thrilling air show. Your steadfast commitment and genuine willingness to go the extra mile made the Air Expo 󈧍 a resounding success and were deeply appreciated. Congratulations with pleasure for a job WELL DONE!

Andrew M., Patuxent River, MD

We would like to thank you for your services at this year’s Preakness Stakes.

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For the last four years, I have been the Vice President of Operations and Development at New Hampshire Motor Speedway. During that time we have contracted with United Site Services, Inc. as our provider for hundreds of portable toilets at each event, multiple VIP toilet trailers, pumping of thousands of onsite customer campers and the removal of roughly 100,000 gallons of septic prior to the beginning of each event.

Our relationship with the local United Site Services personnel is a large part of the success of these events, as everyone from the Regional VP to the guys on the pump trucks roll up their sleeves and work for a week straight to make sure sewage is NOT one of the problems at NHMS, regardless of the weather.

John Z., NHMS V.P. Operations

Got a hold of me right away, listened to what I needed and got me what I needed. Understood my budget and got me the toilets at a very reasonable price. The staff in the San Jose office were very nice and easy to deal with.

Watch the video: USS Astoria CA-34 - Guide 223 (August 2022).