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Kingfisher III AM-25 - History

Kingfisher III AM-25 - History


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Kingfisher

III

(AM-25: dp. 950; 1- 187'10" ; b. 35'6" ; dr. 9'10" ; s. 14 k. cpl. 78; a. 2 3", 3.50 cal. mg.)

Kingfisher (AM-25) was launched 30 March 1918 by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Puget Sound, Wash.; sponsored by Miss Nancy Griswold; and commissioned 27 May 1918, Lt. (j.g.) C. L. Greene in command.

Departing Bremerton, Wash., 17 June, Kingfisher steamed to Philadelphia, where she arrived 8 August for duty as a minesweeper off Cape May, N.J. On 5 April 1919 she departed Boston for the North Sea, arriving Inverness, Scotland, 20 April. Assigned to the North Sea Detachment at Kirkwall, Orkney Islands, she swept up mines of the Northern Barrage until I October when she sailed for the United States. Steaming via France, Portugal, and the Azores, she reached New York 19 November.

Assigned to the Train Force, Pacific Fleet, Kingfisher departed Hampton Roads, Va., 9 August 1920 for the West Coast. Arriving San Diego 3 October, she began duty as a fleet tug and minesweeper. Over the next 19 years fleet maneuvers and supply, towing, and minesweeping operations sent her to the East Coast, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Canal Zone, and Hawaii. During the summers of 1933, 19.34, and 1935 she supplied naval ships and bases in Alaskan waters for the Aleutian Islands Survey Expedition.

Departing San Diego 4 October 1939, she sailed to Pearl Harbor for duty with the Base Force, Hawaiian Detachment. Arriving 19 October, she towed target rafts and conducted gunnery and minesweeping exercises until sailing for Samoa 26 October 1941. Kingfisher reached Tutuila 5 November and was on station duty 7 December when hearing of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

With Lt. Comdr. C. B. Schiano in command, Kingfisher began defense patrol and mine laying operations off Samoa.

On 19 February 1942 she departed Tutuila for similar duty in the Fijis and arrived Viti Levu 23 February. Returning to Samoa 12 April, she was reclassified AT-135 on 1 June; she then sailed to Wallis Island 28 July for a month of plane guard and rescue duty. With a lighter in tow she departed Suva, Fiji, 12 September for Noumea, New Caledonia. Arriving 18 September, she served under the command of the Port Director until she departed for Hawaii 8 October.

Arriving Pearl Harbor 30 October, Kingfisher served as a tug and torpedo recovery ship until 23 September 1943 when she sailed for the Ellice Islands. She reached Funafuti 5 October and undertook towing duty between the Ellice and Phoenix Islands. On 8 December she sailed for the Gilberts, arriving Tarawa Atoll 13 December. Though subjected to intermittent enemy bombing attacks, Kingfisher towed antisubmarine nets and laid telephone cables in Betio Harbor before departing 27 December for Funafuti. From 30 December to 15 April 1944 she continued towing, station ship, and harbor operations in the Ellice, Gilbert, and Marshall Islands; then she departed Kwajalein 16 April for Pearl Harbor, arriving 29 April.

Reclassified ATO-135 on 15 May, Kingfisher departed 19 September for further towing operations in the South Pacific. Towing runs sent her to Palmyra, Ellice, Solomon, Admiralty, and Marshall Islands before she returned to Pearl 14 November. On 18 November she sailed for the West Coast, arriving San Diego 29 November. She returned to Pearl 29 January 1945 and resumed tug and target towing services. On 21 April she assisted in Salvage operations of grounded merchantman Sarensen. And while towing a gunnery target 4 May, she rescued the pilot of an Army P-47 that had splashed while on a training flight.

Kingfisher sailed for San Francisco 30 October, arriving 9 November. Remaining in the San Francisco Bay area, she decommissioned 6 February 1946 and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Transferred to the Maritime Commission 3 June 1947, she was sold the same day to M. E. Baker at Suisun Bay, Calif.

Kingfisher received one battle star for World War 11 service.


World’s Biggest Collection Of Boat Brochures

Since the 1950’s, the Dawsons have maintained a growing library of over14,000 boat brochures from North American boat builders, extending over 300 shelf feet. Now the library is available to boaters around the world.

To keep the collection in tact (we only have one of each), we scan boat models and email PDF files for only $45.

Goal Setting for a New Boat

Most of us seem to get ‘two-foot-itis’ at one time or another and want a bigger boat. Picking out the boat of your dreams and getting a copy of the brochure to use as your goal setting image is most helpful in bringing your dreams to reality.

Sales Aid for Selling

A brochure copy is a great sales aid when it comes time to sell your boat. All the information is there-specs, standard equipment, optional equipment, pictures, copy, floorplans and more. A prospective buyer will be impressed with the detail.

Accurate Specs for buying or insuring

When it’s time to buy or trade up, you’ll have the specs and brochure details ahead of the salesperson. It is also helpful to have this information for your insurance company and surveyor.

When purchasing a trailer, you need the accurate weight of the boat. When applying for an old boat vessel licence, you need accurate horsepower ratings and load capacity for the Department of Transport. All this information is in the original brochures.

Surveyors and Marinas

Surveyors who need the original specifications and manufacturer information for boats they are surveying, call for copies for their file. Marinas need brochure information to create accurate spec sheets.

Refurbishing

If your older boat needs to be refurbished or restored, an old boat brochure will show you how it used to be before a previous owner ‘customized’ it, changing it from its original state.

Add to Family History Album

Get one for each of the boats you’ve owned, to complete your special nautical album-’Boats I’ve enjoyed over my lifetime’

Gifts

When you need a gift for a boater friend or family member who has everything, consider laminating the pages of the original brochure of his boat model.

Boat Manufacturers

Even boat manufacturers have come to us to find long lost brochures of their own boats!


Kingfisher III AM-25 - History

Avalon Announces Recon Technology, Ltd. Investment
July 09, 2013
Avalon Oil and Gas, Inc. (Avalon) (OTCBB: AOGN) today announced that Recon Technology, Ltd, (Nasdaq: RCON) ("Recon") a leading Chinese non-state-owned oilfield services provider, has purchased 2,800,000 shares of Avalon's common stock. After this investment, Recon will own 32.22% of Avalon's outstanding shares.
Read More

AVALON ENTERS INTO JOINT VENTURE TO ACQUIRE OKLAHOMA OIL AND GAS PROPERTIES
April 18, 2012 Avalon Oil and Gas, Inc. (Avalon) (OTCBB: AOGN) announced the formation of a joint venture to acquire oil and gas producing properties in Oklahoma, with Blair Oil Company, a Kingfisher, Oklahoma, based independent oil and gas producer Zacale Resources Company, an Edmond, Oklahoma, based petroleum land management company and Foy Streetman, a Chickasha, Oklahoma, based independent oil and gas producer.
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AVALON PRESENTS TO EUROPEAN PRIVATE-EQUITY GROUP
March 12, 2012 Avalon Oil and Gas, Inc. (Avalon) (OTCBB: AOGN) announced it has delivered a company presentation last week to a business forum of the German private investment group, UFM e.V.(www.ufm-ev.de). This investor group is based in Starnberg, Germany. UFM e.V. has a successful history of raising debt and equity capital from its investor network for financing innovative growth companies.
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AVALON LAUNCHES SOCIAL MEDIA PRESENCE
March 07, 2012 Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc., ("Avalon") (OTCQB: AOGN) announced the launch of a social media marketing campaign to strengthen its communications programs. With Alpha Exclusive&rsquos communications services, the company will engage a combination of social media channels, including YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and WordPress to provide information on company initiatives and reach out to potential investors.
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Avalon Oil & Gas June 30, 2011 10-QSB Shows Improved Financial Results
August 15, 2011 Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc., ("Avalon") (OTCQB: AOGN) an independent oil and gas production company, released its 10QSB on August 15, 2011. Total assets increased to $2.7 million, shareholder equity increased to $1.04 million, and our cash balance as of June 30, 2011 was over $141,000. The net loss for the quarter decreased 66% to $89,000.
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Avalon Announces Application for OTCBB Listing
July 11, 2011 Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc., (&ldquoAvalon&rdquo) (OTCQX: AOGN) today announced that the Company has applied for the listing of its shares on the OTC Bulletin Board (OTCBB). Market maker ACAP Financial, Inc., (ACAP) filed the application for Avalon with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).
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Avalon Provides Shareholder Update on Grace Field Production and the Fossiltek Acquisition
March 08, 2011 Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc., (&ldquoAvalon&rdquo) (OTCBB: AOGN / FWB: A3MA.F)provided an update on operations in the East Chandler Field, Lincoln County, Oklahoma, and the acquisition of the Fossiltek, Inc., assets.
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Avalon Files Amended S-1 Registration
October 20, 2010 Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc., (&ldquoAvalon&rdquo) (OTCBB: AOGN / FWB: A3MA.F)announced today that its majority-owned subsidiary, Oiltek, Inc., has filed a seventh amendment to the Form S-1, in which it responded to comments received from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
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Avalon Acquires a Portfolio of Oil and Gas Producing Properties in Western Oklahoma
September 16, 2010
Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc., (&ldquoAvalon&rdquo) (OTCBB: AOGN / FWB: A3MA.F) is pleased to announce that it has entered into a Letter of Intent with Fossiltec, Inc., to purchase non-operating working interests in five (5) producing oil wells and thirty-three (33) producing gas wells, for a combination of cash and newly issued common stock.
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Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc. Announces that René Haeusler has joined its Board of Directors
August 19, 2010
Avalon Oil & Gas, Inc., (Avalon) (OTCBB: AOGN) is pleased to announce the addition of lic. phil. René Haeusler to its Board of Directors.
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Stage 2 CKD: eGFR Between 60 and 89

Stage 2 CKD means you have mild kidney damage and an eGFR between 60 and 89.

Most of the time, an eGFR between 60 and 89 means your kidneys are healthy and working well. But if you have Stage 2 kidney disease, this means you have other signs of kidney damage even though your eGFR is normal. Signs of kidney damage could be protein in your urine (pee) or physical damage to your kidneys. Here are some ways to help slow down the damage to your kidneys in Stage 2 kidney disease:

  • Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Eat a healthy diet or use tobacco
  • Be active 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week
  • Stay at a healthy weight if there are medicines to protect your kidneys
  • Make an appointment to see a nephrologist (kidney doctor) even if you already have a general doctor

Diagnostic Testing

Because most watery diarrhea is self-limited, testing is usually not indicated.1 , 16 In general, specific diagnostic investigation can be reserved for patients with severe dehydration, more severe illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak.

OCCULT BLOOD

It is unclear how much fecal occult blood testing affects pretest probability. Nevertheless, it is a rapid and inexpensive test, and when tests are positive for fecal occult blood in conjunction with the presence of fecal leukocytes or lactoferrin, the diagnosis of inflammatory diarrhea is more common.17 Of note, fecal occult blood testing is 71% sensitive and 79% specific for inflammatory diarrhea in developed countries, but the sensitivity drops to 44% and specificity to 72% in developing countries.18

LEUKOCYTES AND LACTOFERRIN

Testing stool for leukocytes to screen for inflammatory diarrhea poses several challenges, including the handling of specimens and the standardization of laboratory processing and interpretation. There is a wide variability in sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, this testing has fallen out of favor.18

Lactoferrin is a marker for leukocytes that is released by damaged or deteriorating cells, and increases in the setting of bacterial infections.19 Commercially available immunoassay testing kits are a more precise and less variable method for specimen analysis compared with fecal leukocytes, with a sensitivity greater than 90% and a specificity greater than 70%.20 Although there is some debate as to whether fecal lactoferrin is clearly superior to fecal leukocytes, the speed and simplicity of lactoferrin testing make it the preferred method to screen for the presence of leukocytes when indicated.21

STOOL CULTURES

The indiscriminate use of stool cultures in the evaluation of acute diarrhea is inefficient (results are positive in only 1.6% to 5.6% of cases)1 and expensive, with an estimated cost of $900 to $1,200 per positive stool culture.22 Obtaining cultures only in patients with screening tests positive for leukocytes decreases the cost to $150 per positive culture.23 Obtaining cultures only in patients with grossly bloody stools increases the yield for positive culture results to greater than 30%.24

Although there is no consensus on which patients need a culture, it is reasonable to perform a culture if the patient has grossly bloody stool, severe dehydration, signs of inflammatory disease, symptoms lasting more than three to seven days, or immunosuppression.25 , 26 Cultures are often obtained for traveler's diarrhea however, empiric treatment is also an option.1 , 11 In the hospital setting, cultures should be reserved for the reasons listed above or if diarrhea begins more than three days after admission and there has been a nosocomial outbreak, the patient has human immunodeficiency virus infection or neutropenia, or the patient is older than 65 years with significant comorbidity (e.g., end-stage liver, renal, or pulmonary disease leukemia hemiparesis caused by cardiovascular accident inflammatory bowel disease).25

CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TESTING

Testing for Clostridium difficile toxins A and B is recommended for patients who develop unexplained diarrhea after three days of hospitalization the test will be positive in 15% to 20% of these patients.25 , 27 Furthermore, the risk of contracting C. difficile infection increases by seven to 10 times throughout any period of antibiotic treatment and for the first month after antibiotic discontinuation, and this risk is still three times higher in the second and third months after antibiotic discontinuation.28 Therefore, testing for C. difficile toxins is also suggested in patients who develop unexplained diarrhea while using antibiotics or within three months of discontinuing antibiotics. C. difficile testing can be considered in certain populations with significant comorbidities, including older persons and those who are immunocompromised.

OVA AND PARASITES

Routine analysis for ova and parasites in patients with acute diarrhea is not cost-effective, especially in developed countries.29 Indications for ova and parasite testing include persistent diarrhea lasting more than seven days, especially if associated with infants in day care or travel to mountainous regions diarrhea in persons with AIDS or men who have sex with men community waterborne outbreaks or bloody diarrhea with few fecal leukocytes.11 The benefit of sending multiple samples to increase the test yield is debatable.

ENDOSCOPY

The role of endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of acute diarrhea is limited. Endoscopic evaluation may be considered if the diagnosis is unclear after routine blood and stool tests, if empiric therapy is ineffective, or if symptoms persist.30 Specifically, lower endoscopy with colonic biopsy and culture can be helpful in patients with diarrhea and suspected tuberculosis or diffuse colitis (as in C. difficile colitis) and in determining noninfectious causes of acute diarrhea, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemic colitis, enteropathy related to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and cancer.31


Current Royal Navy shore establishments [ edit | edit source ]

Naval bases [ edit | edit source ]

Air stations [ edit | edit source ]

Training establishments [ edit | edit source ]

    (Fareham, Hampshire) (Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, Devon)
    • Includes Hindostan as static training ship
    • Includes Bristol as static training ship
    • Includes Brecon as static training ship

    Other [ edit | edit source ]

      , Rosyth Dockyard, Rosyth, Fife, Scotland Administrative aggregation of Royal Navy personnel based in the United StatesNATO headquarters Allied Forces Southern Europe, Naples
    • Institute of Naval Medicine (Alverstoke, Hampshire) INM (Northwood, Middlesex, England), formerly HMS Warrior. Operational HQ for Commander in Chief Fleet

    Defence Munitions Centres [ edit | edit source ]

    Testing establishments [ edit | edit source ]

    De facto shore establishments [ edit | edit source ]

    • Sembawang dockyard in the former HMNB Singapore (HMS Sembawang) still has RN personnel based in a building in what is now a civilian dockyard. This RN presence was retained when British Forces withdrew from Singapore in 1971, and US Navy and Five Powers Defence Arrangements ships that use this dockyard (except for those of the Republic of Singapore Navy itself) are all fuelled by the UK Ministry of Defence Fuels Group. Ώ]

    From now until 11:59pm US Central Time Sunday June 20, 2021, receive an additional 35% Off all SABOT Publications, Verlinden,& Warriors items*.

    No coupon required - just add to cart and discount will be automatically applied. Discount applies only to online orders placed during the discount period, and to in stock items. As always, our Sales/Discount/Specials policy applies as well. Odds & Ends items are NOT included in this sale.

    NOTE - with the new software, the sale price shows in the shopping cart. So to see the sale price, just add the sale item into the shopping cart, then go to the shopping cart and you will see what the sale price is.


    How Many Slaves Landed in the U.S.?

    Perhaps you, like me, were raised essentially to think of the slave experience primarily in terms of our black ancestors here in the United States. In other words, slavery was primarily about us, right, from Crispus Attucks and Phillis Wheatley, Benjamin Banneker and Richard Allen, all the way to Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass. Think of this as an instance of what we might think of as African-American exceptionalism. (In other words, if it’s in “the black Experience,” it’s got to be about black Americans.) Well, think again.

    The most comprehensive analysis of shipping records over the course of the slave trade is the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by professors David Eltis and David Richardson. (While the editors are careful to say that all of their figures are estimates, I believe that they are the best estimates that we have, the proverbial “gold standard” in the field of the study of the slave trade.) Between 1525 and 1866, in the entire history of the slave trade to the New World, according to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World. 10.7 million survived the dreaded Middle Passage, disembarking in North America, the Caribbean and South America.

    And how many of these 10.7 million Africans were shipped directly to North America? Only about 388,000. That’s right: a tiny percentage.

    Diagram of a slave ship from the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1790-1 (Public Domain)

    Fifty of the 100 Amazing Facts will be published on The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross website. Read all 100 Facts on The Root.


    Identifying Your Fisher Wood Stoves

    These days Fisher Wood Stoves no longer manufacture stoves, although many of the old stove are still around and working well. They can sometimes be found in house clearances or rusting in old sheds. Being built with robust steel and cast iron doors there should be little wrong with any stove you find and, with some tlc and a repaint you could probably get one running again fairly easily. Be aware however that these old stoves do not necessarily meet modern building code or clean air regulations.

    The easiest way to tell what model of Fisher Stove you have is by the door design - while stove bodies were manufactured by licencees Bob had the cast iron doors manufactured and shipped. This helped keep track of royalties owed and kept casting costs down.

    • The Papa Bear Fisher Stove : single cast iron door, two air inlets, takes logs up to 30 inches
    • The Mama Bear Fisher Stove : single cast iron door, two air inlets, takes logs up to 24 inches
    • The Baby Bear Fisher Stove : single cast iron door, single air intake, takes logs up to 18 inches

    The "Fireplace" Series

    These were double door stoves designed after Bob Fisher stepped down from the company. The wider configuration had the benefits of the original fisher wood stoves but could be run with the door open to view the fire, albeit with a fire screen in place

    There is also a pdf copy of the history of the Fisher Stove Company here.


    Pidgeon "Ani-Gatage Wi" Moytoy Moytoy

    Ближайшие родственники

    About Moytoy, of Tellico

    CURATOR's NOTE: Please read the following update by Kathryn Forbes, a Cherokee genealogical expert:

    The 𠆊m-a-do-ya Moytoy’ tree [often] starts with a man named Amadoya Moytoy, born about 1647. He is listed with a wife and five children. Looks good, except here’s the catch: Plain and simple, there is no mention in any record of a Cherokee person named or called, “Moytoy” or anything similar, until 1729. As noted above, there aren’t many early records which mention any Cherokee by name, and ‘Moytoy’ doesn’t exist in the ones that do. Not in the account of Needham and Arthur (1674), the first English men to travel to the Cherokee Nation and return to tell about it. Not in the 1684 Treaty with Virginia. Not in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1710-1718. Not in the journals of trade commissioner George Chicken’s travels among the Cherokee (1715-16 and 1725). Not in the records associated with the Cherokee treaty and trade agreement with South Carolina of 1721 (which resulted in the naming of a chief named Wrosetasataw as 𠆎mperor’ of the Cherokee). Not in the journal of John Herbert (1727-28), South Carolina Commissioner for Indian Affairs. Not in the correspondence of Ludovic Grant, who settled among the Cherokee about 1727.

    The first contemporaneous mention of Moytoy is in the “Journal of Sir Alexander Cuming” who travelled in the Cherokee Nation in 1729-30. Cuming wrote on March 29, 1729, “… arrived at Great Telliquo, in the upper Settlements, 200 miles up from Keeakwee. Moytoy the head Warrior here, told him, that the Year before, the Nation design𠆝 to have made him Head over all” Cuming wrote later, “Moytoy of Telliquo presides at present as Emperor over the whole he was chose at Nequassie, April 3, 1730, and had an absolute unlimited Power given him…” Cuming hoped to take Moytoy and some other Cherokee back to England with him to demonstrate their loyalty to the English King: “He ask𠆝 Moytoy, if the Indians could travel there [to Charleston] in so short a Time on Foot, who told him that it might be done, and that he [Moytoy] would have waited on him himself, but that his Wife was dangerously ill, and therefore desired Sir Alexander to chuse whom he pleased to attend him.” Attakullakulla, one of the seven Cherokee who went to England with Cuming later recounted the events to the South Carolina Governor (through a translator). 𠇊t night Mr Wiggan the Interpreter came to the house where I was, and told me the Warrior

    Cuming’s account of the selection of the travelers says, “Sir Alexander chose as Evidence of the Truth of what had happened, the head Warrior of Tassetchee, a Man of great Power and Interest, who has a Right to be King, and is called Oukah Ulah (that is the King that is to be) Skallelockee, the second Warrior, otherwise Kettagustah, (or Prince) Tathtowie, the third Warrior, and Collannah, a fourth Warrior and from Tannassie, the remotest Town of the Country, he took Clogoittah and Oukanaekah [later known as Attakullakulla] Warriors.” The seventh man met them en route to Charleston and joined the group. There is nothing to suggest in any of these accounts that the men selected were related in any way.

    James Adair wrote that he came to the Cherokee in 1736. He did not mention Moytoy by name, but as “their old Archi-magus,” made emperor by Christian Priber. Grant wrote in regard to the English attempt to arrest Christian Priber, “I therefore endeavored to prevail with Moytoy who was then the head of the Nation to Give Orders to some of his people to seize him [Priber] and I promised him a very great present for it. He thanked me and said he would accept of the present…”

    Several modern histories suggest [without sources] that Moytoy’s name was actually 𠇊ma-edohi” [Conley, A Cherokee Encyclopedia[ or 𠇊mo-adaw-ehi” [Brown, Old Frontiers], meaning variously “Water-goer,” “Water-walker,” “Water-conjouror,” or “Rainmaker”.

    As to Moytoy’s family, we know from his own words that he had a wife, and from other records, at least one son. We are told that Moytoy died in battle in 1741, and 𠇊t Moytoy’s death, his son Amo-Scossite (Bad Water) claimed his father’s title.” [Brown, Old Frontiers, p.46] Although the Cherokee refused to accept Amoscossite as 𠆎mperor’, he became chief at Tellico and headed delegations including a meeting with Virginia trade representatives in 1756. He [Amoscossite] is believed to have died shortly thereafter, leaving no known descendants.

    What about those children in the second generation of the 𠆊-ma-do-ya’ tree? One of them is the ‘real’ Moytoy, who died in 1741. Two of them, Tistoe and Oukah-Oula were among the seven men who went to England with Cuming. As noted above, there is nothing to suggest that they were related in any way. They came from different towns and in none of the contemporary records are they listed as brothers, cousins, or relatives of any kind. The fourth person listed is supposedly the mother of Nan-ye-hi, Nancy Ward. Nancy’s parents are completely unknown. All that we know about her parents is that her mother was from the Wolf Clan, and, according to a great-grandson, her father may have been an adopted Delaware Indian. The last person, ‘Old Hop’ (who lived at Chota) was a prominent Cherokee chief, a contemporary of the ‘real’ Moytoy. Records show that he became de facto head of the Cherokee Nation after the death of Moytoy and a political struggle with the chiefs of Tellico. Nothing is known of his parents or his wife, but he apparently had sisters since he stated that he had two nephews, Attakullakulla and Willenawa. He also remarked that he had sons, whose names are unknown.

    Transcripts of primary sources:

    • Adair, James. The History of the American Indians. London, 1775 reprint with introduction by Robert F. Berkhofer, Jr. Johnson, New York: Reprint Corp, 1968.
    • Alvord, Clarence Waltworth, and Lee Bidgood. The First Explorations of the Trans-Allegheny Region by the Virginians, 1650-1674. Cleveland, Arthur H. Clark, 1912. Includes transcripts of early accounts.
    • Bartram, William. Travels in North America. New Haven, Yale University Press
    • Bonnefoy, Antoine. Journal. Transcript in Williams Bonnefoy was a captive of the Cherokee in 1741-42.
    • Chicken, George. Journals 1715-1716 and 1725
    • Cuming, Alexander. Journal of Sir Alexander Cuming. Transcript in Williams.
    • Grant, Ludovic. Historical Relation of the Facts. 1755. Transcript included in the “Journal of Cherokee Studies” Vol. XXVI, pp. 2-23.
    • Herbert, John. Journal of Colonel John Herbert, commissioner Indian affairs for the province of South Carolina, October 17, 1727, to March 1927/8
    • Timberlake, Henry The Memoirs of Lt. Henry Timberlake. Duane King, ed. Museum of the Cherokee Indian Press, Cherokee, N.C., 2007
    • Williams, Samuel Cole. Early Travels in the Tennessee Country, 1580-1800 Johnson City, Tennessee, Watauga Press, 1928
    • Calendar of Virginia State Papers
    • Colonial Records of North Carolina – multiple volumes published by the North Carolina Archives.
    • Native Americans in Early North Carolina – ed. Dennis Isenbarger, published by the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Department of Archives and History, 2013. Includes transcripts of primary documents from the 17th and 18th centuries.
    • Villainy Often Goes Unpunished – Indian Records from the North Carolina General Assembly Sessions 1685-1789. William L. Byrd, III, Heritage Books 2012. Transcripts of General Assembly records.
    • Colonial Records of South Carolina – multiple volumes published by the South Carolina Archives. Series 2 are the Indian Papers.
    • Brown, John P. Old Frontiers. Southern Publishers, Inc. Kingsport, TN 1938
    • Conley, Robert. A Cherokee Encyclopedia and The Cherokee Nation: a History. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 2007
    • [Note: Conley’s books are easier to read than the more scholarly texts listed, but also are not as well-researched and contain more factual errors.]
    • Hoig, Stanley. The Cherokees and their Chiefs. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville 1998
    • Mooney, James. History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee. American Bureau of Ethnology 1891 & 1900, reprint Historical Images, Inc. Asheville, N.C. 1992

    Kathryn Forbes November, 2017

    NOTE: MOST OF THE MATERIAL ON THE INTERNET ABOUT MOYTOY IS INACCURATE AND INCORRECT AS FAR AS RELATIONSHIPS AND DATES

    Amatoya Moytoy of Chota (pronounced mah-tie) was a Cherokee town chief of the early eighteenth century in the area of present-day Tennessee. He held a prominent position among the Cherokee, and held the hereditary title Ama Matai (From the French matai and Cherokee ama--water), which meant "Water Conjurer."

    Amatoya was taught by his father to witch for water with a willow stick. He had become so adept at water witching that the Cherokee called him "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was later shortened to Moytoy€, so he is known as Moytoy I. He ruled the town of Chota sometime between the beginning of the eighteenth century and 1730.

    In 1680, Amatoya married Quatsie of Tellico. Many of their descendants went on to become prominent leaders, founding a family that effectively ruled the Cherokee for a century.

    As the Headman of Tellico, Amatoya Moytoy held the title of Amedohi-The Water Traveler, often recorded as Moytoy. In his council were seven Beloved Men, elder statesmen, each representing one of the seven clans.

    Moytoy presided over the council, who concerned themselves with the management of lands, the public granary, and laws. Chosen by the people, he was also a religious leader. He had veto power over the selection of the War Chief.

    In 1730, Sir Alexander Cuming, unoffically an envoy of the English King, George II, made an alliance with Moytoy and gained acknowledgment of complete sovereignty of the King over the Cherokee people. On April 3, 1730, Cuming named Moytoy "Emperor of the Cherokees".

    In the Cherokee town of Nequassee the Cherokee national council agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accompanied by a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

    Moytoy sent seven prominent members of the tribe to London to meet the King.

    Thomas Pasmere Carpenter at 20 years old came to Jamestown, Virginia from England in 1627. Thomas was the son of Robert Carpenter (1578 – 1651) and Susan Pasmere Jeffery (1579 – 1651). He had a ten acre lease in Virginia, but it was later given to someone else because of his age, so he went to live with the Shawnee and made his home in a cave. Thomas was called "Cornplanter" by the Shawnee, derived from their sign language that matched as near as possible to the work of a carpenter. He married a Shawnee woman named "Pride" and bore a son around 1635 named Trader Carpenter, and a daughter Pasmere Carpenter, about 1637. Together with partners John Greenwood and Thomas Watts they began a thriving fur business.

    Trader was taught to “witch” for water with a willow stick by the Shawnee. He was later known by the Cherokee as the "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was also shortened to “Moytoy”, so he is known as Moytoy I.

    The clan grew quickly. Trader (Amatoya / Moytoy I) married a Shawnee named Locha in 1658. Pasmere married the grandfather of Cornstalk Hokolesqua (Shawnee) in 1660. The same year the clan was driven south by the Iroquois. They moved along the Tennessee river, starting the villages of Running Water (where Thomas died in 1675), Nickajack, Lookout Mountain, Crowtown and Chota. Chota was created as a merging place of refuge for people of all tribes, history or color. It became similar to a capital for the Cherokee nation. These villages grew to about 2000 people by 1670 when the Carpenter clan moved to Great Tellico. Here Trader (Amatoya / Motoy I) married Quatsy of the Wolf Clan in 1680. They bore a daughter Nancy in 1683.

    Though Amatoya (Trader) was chief of the above mentioned villages, it was his son Moytoy II (sometimes called "Trader-Tom") who was the one who actually became a Cherokee principle chief. In 1730, Trader-Tom (Moytoy II) took over as Chief, receiving what was described as the â€Âৌrown of Tannassy”. Tanasi was where the previous Chief resided and the traditional headdress was passed on to him.

    Several tribes, including the Cherokee, assisted colonists in driving out their mutual enemy, the Tuscarora, in a war that lasted from 1711-1713. However, with the Tuscarora out of the way, the tribes begin to address their grievances with the colonists -- primarily the sale of Native Americans into slavery despite agreements to discontinue this practice.

    The result was a war, in 1715, in which the combined tribes in the region threatened to wipe-out the South Carolina Colony.

    Ultimately, the colonists were able to mass their forces and after achieving several victories the tribes began to sue for peace. Peace was made with the Cherokee who were given a large quantity of guns and ammunition in exchange for their alliance with the colony.

    In 1721, a treaty was signed with South Carolina. It also established a fixed boundary between the Cherokee and the colony. Although allied with the English, the Cherokee began to favor the French who had established Fort Toulouse near present Montgomery AL. The French showed greater respect for the Indians than the British who considered them an inferior race.

    To prevent a Cherokee alliance with the French, Sir Alexander Cuming visited the prominent Cherokee towns and convinced the Cherokee to select an "emperor", Chief Moytoy of Tellico, to represent the tribe in all dealings with the British. In addition, he escorted seven Cherokees to England who met with the King and swore allegiance to the crown.

    A treaty was signed obligating the Cherokee to trade only with the British, return all runaway slaves, and to expel all non-English whites from their territory. In return, the Cherokee received a substantial amount of guns, ammunition, and red paint.

    Although the seven Cherokee who made the trip were presented the to the king as "chiefs", only one could be considered a prominent Cherokee -- the others being young men who went for the adventure. The chiefs of the tribe declined due to their responsibilities for hunting and defense. However, one of the young men was Attacullakulla, known as "Little Carpenter", who later became a powerful and influential

    According to Chief Attakullakulla's ceremonial speech to the Cherokee Nation in 1750, we traveled here from "the rising sun" before the time of the stone age man.

    MOYTOY Born: before 1700. The Cherokee term for Moytoy was Amoadawehi (Amahetai) or Rain or Water Conjuror. He was from Great Hiwassee or Little Hiwassee of the Valley. He later became the head warrior of Tellico of the Overhills. In 1730, he was appointed the Emperor (British medal chief) of the Cherokee Nation by British imperialists. He died in battle in 1741. This was the same year of Caulunna's death (see Family of Oconostota). Caulunna was a significant Cherokee leader in the era of Moytoy, and was Oconostota's uncle, and Quatsis' brother It has been speculated by some that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person- In fact, many secondary sources state that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were brothers. Attakullakulla's mother was the sister of Moytoy, and Old Hop was their brother, If Moytoy was Caulunna, he would have been both Oconostota and Attakullakulla's older uncle. He would have been responsible for the upbringing of both through manhood, This may ex-plain why some historians conclude that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were relatives. Yet, neither family ever mentioned being kin to one another. Also, Old Hop stated that Attakullakulla was his nephew. In the same statement, Old Hop mentions Oconostota without calling him his relative. There are no documented records to prove that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person Moytoy was a Cherokee man. See: Caulunna and Old Hop.

    Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741 or 1760?) was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the "Emperor of the Cherokee" the Cherokee themselves used the title "First Beloved Man". His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, "rainmaker," although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held.

    In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming, a Scottish adventurer with no particular authority, arranged for Moytoy to be crowned emperor over all of the Cherokee towns. He was crowned in Nikwasi with a headdress Cuming called the "Crown of Tannassy."

    Cuming arranged to take Moytoy and a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George. Moytoy declined to go, saying that his wife was ill. Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) volunteered to go in his place. The "Crown" was laid at King George's feet along with four scalps.

    Some European sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee." On his death the British recognized his 13 year old son Amouskositte as Emperor. He had little real authority among the elder-dominated Cherokee, and by 1753 Kanagatucko (Old Hop) of Chota had emerged as the dominant leader.

    Old Frontiers, by John P. Brown, also details a Moytoy of Settico who was rampaging through VA after the death of "Emperor" Moytoy of Tellico, and in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1754-1765, a letter dated 1/31/1757 references a "Moyatoya, son to the Mankiller of Highwassey deceased". (Moytoy's son Raven of Hiwassee had a son called Moytoy who could be this Moytoy of Settico)

    As tribes acquired firearms from Europeans and used them against neighboring tribes, a "weaponry race" began. Tribes accelerated trade to acquire firearms for military purposes. Initially the guns were purchased with furs and skins. The South Carolina Colony, established in 1670, was encouraging the tribes to trade their Native American prisoners of war which were then sold into slavery. In 1705, there were complaints from North Carolina that the South Carolina governor's trade in Native American slaves had so angered the tribes that an Indian war was inevitable.

    Several tribes, including the Cherokee, assisted colonists in driving out their mutual enemy, the Tuscarora, in a war that lasted from 1711-1713. However, with the Tuscarora out of the way, the tribes begin to address their grievances with the colonists -- primarily the sale of Native Americans into slavery despite agreements to discontinue this practice.

    The result was a war, in 1715, in which the combined tribes in the region threatened to wipe-out the South Carolina Colony. Ultimately, the colonists were able to mass their forces and after achieving several victories the tribes began to sue for peace. Peace was made with the Cherokee who were given a large quantity of guns and ammunition in exchange for their alliance with the colony.

    In 1721, a treaty was signed with South Carolina to systematize trade but the most significant condition was the establishment of a fixed boundary between the Cherokee and the colony which was the first land cession made by the Cherokee to the Europeans. The population of the Cherokee Nation was probably 16,000-17,000 including 6,000 warriors. Although allied with the English, the Cherokee began to favor the French who had established Fort Toulouse near present Montgomery AL. The French showed greater respect for the Indians than the British who considered them an inferior race. (It should be noted that the English also considered non-English whites as inferior).

    To prevent a Cherokee alliance with the French, Sir Alexander Cuming visited the prominent Cherokee towns and convinced the Cherokee to select an "emperor", Chief Moytoy of Tellico, to represent the tribe in all dealings with the British. In addition, he escorted seven Cherokees to England who met with the King and swore allegiance to the crown.

    A treaty was signed obligating the Cherokee to trade only with the British, return all runaway slaves, and to expel all non-English whites from their territory. In return, the Cherokee received a substantial amount of guns, ammunition, and red paint.

    Although the seven Cherokee who made the trip were presented to the king as "chiefs", only one could be considered a prominent Cherokee -- the others being young men who went for the adventure. The chiefs of the tribe declined due to their responsibilities for hunting and defense. However, one of the young men was Attacullakulla, known as "Little Carpenter", who later became a powerful and influential chief.

    In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

    But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

    France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

    Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

    William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

    From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

    Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

    One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

    When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British.

    from Don Chesnut's web page www.users.mis.net/

    Moytoy: a Cherokee chief recognized by the English as "emperor" in 1730. Both the correct form and the meaning of the name are uncertain the name occurs again as Moyatoy in a document of 1793 a boy upon the East Cherokee reservation a few years ago bore the name of Ma’tayi, for which no meaning can be found or given.

    Old Frontiers, by John P Brown, also details a Moytoy of Settico who was rampaiging through VA after the death of "Emperor" Moytoy of Tellico, and in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1754-1765, a letter dated 1/31/1757 references a "Moyatoya, son to the Mankiller of Highwassey deceased". [Moytoy's son Raven of Hiwassee had a son called Moytoy who could be this Moytoy of Settico]

    Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741[1]%29 was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the "Emperor of the Cherokee" the Cherokee themselves used the title "First Beloved Man". His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, "rainmaker,"[2] although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held.

    In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming, a Scottish adventurer with no particular authority, arranged for Moytoy to be crowned emperor over all of the Cherokee towns. He was crowned in Nikwasi with a headdress Cuming called the "Crown of Tannassy."

    Cuming arranged to take Moytoy and a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George. Moytoy declined to go, saying that his wife was ill. Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) volunteered to go in his place. The "Crown" was laid at King George's feet along with four scalps.

    Some European sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee." On his death the British recognized his 13 year old son Amouskositte as Emperor. He had little real authority among the elder-dominated Cherokee, and by 1753 Kanagatucko (Old Hop) of Chota had emerged as the dominant leader.[3]

    Moytoy : a Cherokee chief recognized by the English as "emperor" in 1730. Both the correct form and the meaning of the name are uncertain the name occurs again as Moyatoy in a document of 1793 a boy upon the East Cherokee reservation a few years ago bore the name of Matayi, for which no meaning can be found or given.

    MOYTOY Born: before 1700. The Cherokee term for Moytoy was Amoadawehi (Amahetai) or Rain or Water Conjuror. He was from Great Hiwassee or Little Hiwassee of the Valley. He later became the head warrior of Tellico of the Overhills. In 1730, he was appointed the Emperor (British medal chief) of the Cherokee Nation by British imperialists. He died in battle in 1741. This was the same year of Caulunna's death (see Family of Oconostota). Caulunna was a significant Cherokee leader in the era of Moytoy, and was Oconostota's uncle, and Quatsis' brother It has been speculated by some that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person- In fact, many secondary sources state that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were brothers. Attakullakulla's mother was the sister of Moytoy, and Old Hop was their brother, If Moytoy was Caulunna, he would have been both Oconostota and Attakullakulla's older uncle. He would have been responsible for the upbringing of both through manhood, This may explain why some historians conclude that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were relatives. Yet, neither family ever mentioned being kin to one another. Also, Old Hop stated that Attakullakulla was his nephew. In the same statement, Old Hop mentions Oconostota without calling him his relative. There are no documented records to prove that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person Moytoy was a Cherokee man. See: Caulunna and Old Hop.

    Current scholarship on the impact of epidemics on American Indians is inadequate to explain how Indians survived. Too often Indians are given no credit for being able to combat emergent diseases, and too often epidemics are depicted as completely undermining native religious beliefs. This article, however, examines the response of Southeastern Indians to disease and shows that Native Americans were capable of successfully retarding mortality rates and curtailing the spread of contagions. Through their innovative responses to epidemiological crises, spiritual leaders reinforced tribal customs as well as their leadership position.

    Kelton, Paul. "Avoiding the Smallpox Spirits: Colonial Epidemics and Southeastern Indian Survival." Ethnohistory 51.1 (2004): 45-71. Project MUSE. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 10 Jul. 2010 <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.

    Moytoy was crowned with the "Crown of Tannassy," as described by Cuming (the name probably has origins with the traditional capital of Tanasi, near Chota). It is said to have been a traditional Cherokee hide cap covered in feathers and several hanging animal tails. The crown was later taken to England.

    Some sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee" (in fact there are no traditional consort titles, so this was a European distinction).

    A son, Amo-Scossite, took the title "Emperor of the Cherokees" after his uncle Old Hop's death. However, his adoption of the European title alone held no political authority, and Attacullaculla was the de facto ruler. The imperial title fell out of use after 1761.

    Litton, Gaston L. "The Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation", Chronicles of Oklahoma 15:3 (September 1937) 253-270 (retrieved August 18, 2006

    Headsman of Chota, Chief of all Cherokee in 1675, Full blood Cherokee, Chief of Cherokee Chief Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741) of the Wolf Clan, was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the 𠇎mperor of the Cherokee” the Cherokee themselves used the title 𠇏irst Beloved Man”. His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, “rainmaker,” although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held. Moytoy's ancestry is unknown as is the name of his wife(s). His only known child was his son Amouskositte who suceeded his father in 1741 as Principal Chief of the Cherokee at the age of 13. He was eventually replaced by Old Hop.

    " In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II "appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

    But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

    France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

    Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

    William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

    From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

    Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

    One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

    When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British."[2] Legend has it that Amatoya was taught by his father to “witch” for water with a willow stick. He had become so adept at water witching that the Cherokee called him "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was later shortened to “Moytoy”. He ruled the town of Chota sometime between the beginning of the eighteenth century and 1730. At that time, the Cherokee had no central chief but rather small town chiefs. Amatoya is considered to be the founder of a family of chiefs which ruled for over a century.[2] Son Pride Shawnee and Thomas Corn planter Carpenter. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moytoy_of_Tellico Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741) of the Wolf Clan, was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the 𠇎mperor of the Cherokee” the Cherokee themselves used the title 𠇏irst Beloved Man”. His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, “rainmaker,” although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held. Moytoy's ancestry is unknown as is the name of his wife(s). His only known child was his son Amouskositte who suceeded his father in 1741 as Principal Chief of the Cherokee at the age of 13. He was eventually replaced by Old Hop.

    " In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II "appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

    But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

    France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

    Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

    William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

    From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

    Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

    One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

    When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British."[2] Moytoy of Tellico, (d. 1741) (Amo-adawehi in Cherokee, meaning "rainmaker.") was a prominent leader of the Cherokee in the American Southeast. He was given the title of "Emperor of the Cherokee" by Sir Alexander Cumming.

    There has been a lot of confusion about the descendants of Moytoy.I think this is because some people are not aware that there were two Chief Moytoys.The first was Chief Amatoya Moytoy of Chota, b abt 1640, who married Quatsy of Tellico (of the Wolf Clan).The second is Chief Moytoy, aka the Pigeon of Tellico, b abt 1687.The second Moytoy is believed to be either the son or grandson of Amatoya Moytoy. It is believed that Amatoya Moytoy had 3 sons and 8 daughters.These include Chief Kanagatoga "Old Hop", Nancy Moytoy, and two daughters with unknown names.Nancy Moytoy is believed to have been the mother of Chief Attakullakulla "Little Carpenter", Killaneca the Buck, Betsy and Tame Doe.Tame Doe was the mother of Tsistuna-Gis-Ke (Nancy Ward), and Longfellow of Chistatoa.

    Amatoya Moytoy of Chota (pronounced mah-tie) was a Cherokee town chief of the early eighteenth century in the area of present-day Tennessee . Moytoy I is also called Amatoya Moytoy, Moytoy of Chota, and Moytoy the Elder. He held a prominent position among the Cherokee, and held the hereditary title Ama Matai (From the French matai and Cherokee ama--water), which meant "Water Conjurer". He ruled the town of Chota sometime between the beginning of the eighteenth century and 1730. He was born around 1640, and probably died in 1730. His father was a European, Thomas Pasmere Carpenter, who was descended from the noble Anglo-Norman family of Vicomte Guillaume de Melun le Carpentier. Thus, Moytoy's European lineage can be traced to the Frankish Duke Ansegisel of Metz Meroving, Peppin II, and Charles Martel . This ancestry also makes the Cherokee Moytoys cousins to the Carpenter Earl of Tyrconnell , and thus related to the current British royal family. In 1680, he married Quatsie of Tellico. Many of their descendants went on to become prominent leaders, founding a family that effectively ruled the Cherokee for a century. One of their sons became Moytoy II (Pigeon of Tellico), the Principal Chief and Emperor of the Cherokee. Another son was Kanagatucko (also Old Hop & Standing Turkey), who briefly succeeded his brother as Principal Chief and Emperor from 1760-1761. Through his eldest daughter, Nancy Moytoy, Amatoya Moytoy was the grandfather of Attacullaculla (who was called Prince of Chota by the British because of this). He was also a great-grandfather of Nancy Ward . Descendants of Moytoy I include the families of Major Ridge , Elias Boudinot , Stand Watie , and Chief Nimrod Jarrett Smith Nancy Ward first married Kingfisher, who was killed in Battle with the Creeks. They had two children Katie and Fivekiller. Nancy married second Bryant Ward and their child was Elizabeth Ward. Nancy Ward is buried in Benton, Polk County TN beside her son Fivekiller. See Emmett Star's book, History and Legends of the Cherokee People for a complete listing of Nancy's descendants.