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World History 1922-1923 AD
Irish Free State Established, Mussolini Seizes Power in Italy, Second Treaty Rapallo, Egypt imited Independence, Fordney-McCumber Tariff, World War Foreign Debt Commission Established, 1st US Aircraft Carriers, Doolittle Flies Coast-to-Coast, Air Service, France Occupies The Ruhr, Munich Beer Putsch, Treaty of Lausanne, Earthquake Hits Tokyo, TransJordan Established a Separate Country, Klu Klux Klan Exposed, US Crossed Non-Stop
|1922 Irish Free State Established-After Sinn Fein's victory in the parliamentary elections of Southern Ireland, negotiations began with the British on Irish independence. An agreement was reached that provided for an independent Ireland, having the status of Dominion within the British Empire. The radicals disapproved, and mounted an insurrection against the provisional government. In subsequent elections, the government won an overwhelming victory. The new constitution of Ireland was ratified and the Irish Free State came into being.|
|1922 Mussolini Seizes Power in Italy -(10/31/22) In October, tens of thousands of Fascist supporters of Mussolini marched on Rome, demanding power. The government of Premier Facta requested the implementation of martial law, but King Emmanuel refused to sign the decree, leading to Facta's resignation. Emmanuel appointed Mussolini Prime Minister, and gave him dictatorial powers in an effort to restore order.|
|1922 Second Treaty Rapallo -(4/16/22) Germany recognized the USSR under the terms of the second Treaty of Rapallo. Germany and the USSR canceled their debts to one another, and Germany was absolved from paying reparations to the USSR.|
|1922 British Give Egypt Limited Independence -(2/28/22) The British government unilaterally terminated its protectorate of Egypt. Egypt was declared independent, but defense considerations were left to the British.|
|1922 Fordney-McCumber Tariff-This tariff was passed in 1922. It raised duties to an average of 38 percent. It particularly provided protection to the chemical and drug industries that developed during World War I.|
|1922 World War Foreign Debt Commission Established -The US Congress established the World War Foreign Debt Commission to negotiate with European nations debts owed from World War I. The total amount owed the United States was $22 billion, which was to be paid back over 62 years at 2% interest.|
|1922 1st US Aircraft Carriers Launched -(3/20/22) On March 20th, at Norfolk, Virginia, the USS Langely was commissioned as the first Naval Aircraft Carrier. The carrier was a converted coaler.|
|1922 Doolittle Flies Coast-to-Coast In Under a Day-Jimmy Doolittle made a coast-to-coast trip in under one day. He started out in Pueblo Beach, Florida, and ended his flight 21 hours later in San Diego. His only stop was Kelly Field, Texas.|
|1922 Qantus Introduces Air Service-(11/2/22)On November 2nd, QANTAS began Australia's first schelduled air service. The service began from Charleville and terminated in Cloncurry, 557 miles away. QANTAS was able to institute the service after receiving an air mail contract for northeastern Australia.|
|1923 France Occupies The Ruhr -(1/11/23)The French announced, on January 9th, that the Germans were in default on their coal deliveries. On January 11th, the French occupied the Ruhr district of Germany in order to forcibly obtain coal. The German people and government pursued a policy of passive resistance.|
|1923 Munich Beer Putsch- (11/8/23) Adolf Hitler, together with General Erich Ludendorff, attempted to overthrow the German government. The putsch was suppressed by the government.|
|1923 Treaty of Lausanne - (7/24/23)After an unsuccessful military campaign against the Greeks, Turkey concluded a peace treaty with the Allies. Under the terms of the agreement, Turkey gave up all claim to non-Turkish territories lost in the course of World War I. It recovered however, Eastern Thrace. In the Agean, it received Imbros and Tenedos, but the rest of the islands went to Greece. Turkey paid no reparations. The Dardenelles were demilitarized, and open to all ships in time of peace and all neutral ships in time of war.|
|1923 Earthquake Hits Tokyo - On September 1, 1923, an earthquake hit Japan. Tokyo and Yokohama were nearly destroyed. Over 200,000 people were said to have been killed. Damage was estimated at $1 billion.|
|1923 TransJordan Established a Separate Country -Britain separated Transjordan from the mandate of Palestine. Emir Abdullah Ibn Hussein, the son of the Sheriff of Mecca, was made King.|
|1923 Klu Klux Klan Exposed -A number of exposés were printed on the activities of the Ku Klux Klan against Blacks, Catholics, Jews and other minorities. In the early 1920's, the organization had a membership of 5 million. After receiving extensive publicity, the Grand Dragon was eventually indicted for murder, and membership dropped to 9,000 by 1930.|
|1923 US Crossed Non-Stop -(5/3/23) US Army Air Lieutenants Oakley Kelly and John MacReady flew non-stop across the United States. The flight was made in a Fokker T–2. It took 26 hours and 50 minutes to make the trip that started on Long Island and ended in San Diego|
Irish Civil War
The Irish Civil War (28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State as an entity independent from the United Kingdom within the British Empire.
The conflict was waged between two opposing groups of Irish nationalists: the forces of the new Free State, who supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty under which the state was established, and the Republican opposition, for whom the Treaty represented a betrayal of the Irish Republic. The war was won by the Free State forces.
The Civil War may have claimed more lives than the War of Independence against Britain that preceded it, and left Irish society divided and embittered for decades afterwards. To this day, the two main political parties in the Republic of Ireland, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, are the direct descendants of the opposing sides in the War.
Chronological History of IBM
In the years following World War I, C-T-R's engineering and research staff developed new and improved mechanisms to meet the broadening needs of its customers. In 1920, the company introduced the lock autograph recorder, the first complete school time control system, and launched the Electric Accounting Machine. In 1921, the company acquired the business of the Ticketograph Company of Chicago, and certain patents and other property of the Peirce Accounting Machine Company. The Carroll Rotary Press was developed in 1924 to produce cards at high speed, and punched card capacity was doubled.
The growth and extension of C-T-R's activities made the old name of the company too limited, and, on February 14, 1924, C-T-R's name was formally changed to International Business Machines Corporation. By then, the company's business had expanded both geographically and functionally, including the completion of three manufacturing facilities in Europe.
1922-1923 Ad - History
Tipple and Washer, Central Iron and Coal Company.
Alabama Mining Institute, Birmingham, Alabama
Mss: 351 1922-1923 A316
2 albums, 153 photographs
These photographic albums were created at the behest of the United States Coal Commission, a federal agency charged by Congress in 1922 and 1923 to investigate the coal industry and its labor problems. The pictures depict the company-owned houses and schools, churches, boarding houses, commissaries, markets, and other buildings (many of which were segregated for white and African-American workers) of the twelve member companies of the Alabama Mining Institute.
Desk stand, 1892.
AT&T Bell Laboratories
Mss: 583 1931 A512
1 album, 34 photographs
This album contains close-up views of telephone equipment produced by Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. between 1879 and 1928. The photographs focus on desk stands, handsets, and early telephone sets that were exhibited in the Bell Telephone, Inc. Historical Museum in New York City, circa 1931.
Flood Scene, 1927.
Boston and Albany Railroad Company
Mss: 724 1927 B747
1 album, 56 photographs
On November 3 and 4, 1927, a catastrophic flood hit eastern Canada and western New England. This album depicts the aftermath of the disaster including landslides and flood-damaged railroad tracks and bridges of the Boston and Albany Railroad Co. near Becket, Massachusetts.
Central Raw Silk Association of Japan
Mss: 444 1937 C397
1 album, 33 photographs
Photographs and accompanying captions portray detailed views of the production of raw silk in Japan during the 1930s. Images include the raising and feeding of silkworms, the harvesting of cocoons, the reeling of the silk fiber strand, skeining and baling of the raw silk, and inspection and testing of the finished product.
Man bagging meat.
Deepfreeze Distributors, Inc., Chicago, Illinois
Mss: 641 1912 D959
1 album, 23 photographs
Deepfreeze Distributors, Inc. was a Chicago-based distributor of frozen foods, including vegetables, fruits, and meats. Photographs illustrate the firm’s sales office in Hubbard Woods, Illinois, including the retail showroom, freezer storage area, and equipment room.
Exterior of Durgin Shoe Co. in Haverill, Mass., 1912.
Durgin Shoe Company, Haverhill, Massachusetts
Mss: 641 1912 D959
1 album, 14 photographs
Durgin Shoe Company manufactured women’s shoes in Haverhill, Massachusetts, during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These images, taken in April 1912, show the factory building, company office, and workers at their stations in cutting, stitching, lasting, finishing, and packing rooms.
#34 Wilbur Wright, 1910.
Harvard&ndashBoston Aviation Meet, 1910
WK 764B B74
1 volume, 150 prints
This volume contains photographs of the Harvard-Boston Aviation Meet held September 3 to September 13, 1910. Included are photographs taken for the Boston Globe on the aviation field during the meet and some dramatic images taken during the flying exhibition by Claude Grahame-White.
Tube Splicing Department.
Hood Rubber Company, Watertown, Massachusetts
Mss: 63 1924 H777
1 album, 30 photographs
These images, taken in 1924, show the operations of the Hood Rubber Company, which was incorporated in 1898. Photographs record the delivery and processing of raw rubber, assembly and packaging of rubber footwear, production and inspection of tires and tubes, and the plant’s warehouses, boiler house, and other facilities.
Unloading on No. 4 Platform--Warehouse No. 2.
Houston Compress Company, Houston, Texas
Mss: 449 1920 H843
1 album, 21 photographs
Cotton purchased from Texas and Oklahoma was delivered by rail to the Houston Compress Company in Texas, where it was stored and protected in fire-resistant concrete warehouses. The company’s high-density compress machines were used to decrease the size of the cotton bales. Photographs and captions, circa 1920, illustrate warehouses, railroad platforms, operation of compress equipment, and quality inspection.
Illinois Steel Company
Mss: 301 1896 I6
1 album, 75 photographs
The Illinois Steel Company was formed in 1889 by the merger of several Chicago-area steel concerns. During the 1890s, it was the largest steel producer in the western United States. This album, circa 1896, includes dramatic scenes of steel workers engaged in their assigned specialties as well as exterior factory views. In 1901 Illinois Steel Company became part of United States Steel Corporation.
The Mine.--Flat sheet of 800 foot level, bottom of
rock shaft (underground).
Illustrations of Diamond Industry from &ldquoMining the Ground&rdquo
Mss: 375 1892 M627
1 album, 24 photographs
This souvenir album illustrates the diamond mining operations of the De Beers Consolidated Mines in Kimberley, South Africa, in 1892. The photographs, taken by J. E. Middlebrook, include images of European and native African miners at work, engine rooms and other equipment, native workers sorting gravel for diamonds, and European workers classifying the diamonds for shipment.
Here one gets a close up view of the way the
polishing machines toil.
Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company “Some Pictures of Flat Glass Production” Toledo, Ohio
Mss: 606 1939 L694
1 album, 21 photographs
Formed in 1930, the Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company of Toledo, Ohio, produced window glass, plate glass, and automobile safety glass at plants in Ohio and West Virginia. Photographs in this album, circa 1939, record the stages of pouring, grinding, polishing, and cutting glass.
Product Dept.--Fourth Floor.
National Acme Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio
Mss: 521 1915 N277
1 album, 53 photographs
The National Acme Company manufactured multiple spindle automatic machines used in the machine tool industry and a variety of screw products. This album documents the manufacturing operations of the company, circa 1915, including the screw product department, machinery department, oil supply operation, and shipping room.
Fuel from the Depths.
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company
Mss: 351 1930 P544
2 albums, 84 photographs
The Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, a subsidiary of the Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road, was founded in 1871 to allow its parent corporation to control the transportation of anthracite coal mined in eastern Pennsylvania. One volume illustrates the company’s coal mining operations and miners at work, and the second depicts the firm’s coal breaker plants, where the anthracite was cleaned of impurities, screened and separated by size, inspected and tested, and loaded onto railroad cars.
General View of Progress on Lock. Looking towards upper gate, June 1912.
Power and Light Photograph Albums, 1910-ca.1925
Mss: 752 1910-1925 P881
9 albums, 384 photographs
The activities of a number of leading power and light companies - Federal Light and Traction Company Grays Harbor Railway & Light Company of Hoquiam, Washington the Mississippi River Power Company the Utah Power and Light Company and the Pennsylvania Power & Light Company - are featured in this collection. Photographs include dramatic views of lock construction, engine rooms and power houses, substations, offices, railways and transmission lines, panoramic vistas of Mississippi River dams, and early twentieth-century scenes of local towns and areas served by the companies.
Triple Flashing, 1876.
Dioptric Lights for Lighthouses, ca. 1876
Mss: 7345 1876 C454
1 album, 27 photographs
This album features a variety of dioptric lights created to illuminate lighthouses throughout the world. Chance Brothers & Co., a glassmaking firm located near Birmingham, England, produced the lights between 1869 and 1876.
Punch and die section of tool making department,
Western Electric Company “Hawthorne Works" Bell System Educational Conference, 1925
Mss: 583 1925 W527
1 album, 81 photographs
Full album available as a networked resource
The Western Electric Company manufactured a wide variety of telephone equipment at its Hawthorne Works in Chicago, Illinois. A notable series of worker efficiency experiments known as the Hawthorne Studies were staged at the plant between 1924 and 1933. These views taken in 1925 include the plant’s buildings and grounds, offices and laboratories, various shop departments (including the telephone apparatus, cable, rubber, and insulating operations), rod and wire mill, and recreational activities.
Home Rule Bill introduced to the House of Commons
Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith introduces the Third Home Rule Bill to the House of Commons. The Bill proposes to establish a greater degree of Irish autonomy, with a bicameral parliament to replace the British administration at Dublin Castle. Britain would still retain a strong degree of influence over Irish affairs, however, and Irish MPs would continue to hold seats in Westminster. The Bill is supported by Asquith’s Liberal Party and the Irish Parliamentary Party, led by John Redmond, on whom the Liberals rely for support. Those opposing the Bill include the Conservative Party and the Irish Unionist Party.
Sinking of the Titanic (14th-15th)
The RMS Titanic collides with an iceberg during its maiden voyage. Over 1,500 lives are lost.
Home Rule Bill passes second reading in Commons
The Government of Ireland Bill, 1912, also known as the Third Home Rule Bill, passes through its second reading in the House of Commons with a majority of 101 MPs.
The Early Years
The early 1900’s brought new recognition to this area when Phelps Dodge selected the Douglas area as a suitable site for its copper smelting activity. Bisbee’s copper mining operations were developing quickly and the company needed an area for a reduction works facility. Developers quickly took steps to establish a city, installing electricity and phone lines and other basic needs to meet the needs of a rapidly growing city. The influence of copper mining was significant for several decades until the smelter ceased operations in 1987 and the one of the city’s most recognizable landmarks, the smelter’s smokestacks, were dismantled.
The city has a rich military history dating back to the 1800’s and the US Cavalry, Buffalo Soldiers and Camp Harry J Jones. Camp Harry J Jones was established in 1911 to deal with border troubles during the Mexican Revolution and remained an important part of the area for more than 20 years.
The city’s bustling economy provided opportunities for many. The city was thriving and Douglas became a gathering place for the people who worked the copper smelters and who farmed and ranched in the valley. At one time, Douglas was home to more than 13 movie theaters. The most famous and the only building remaining today is the Grand Theater. The Beaux Arts style building was considered one of the most deluxe entertainment venues in the Southwest and played host to vaudeville performers and other entertainment legends in its heyday.
County Wexford (1914–1923) - Irish Civil War (1922-1923)
On 28 June 1922 the Irish Civil War (1922-1923) began. Collins was now back in Dublin. In April 1922, a group of anti-Treaty IRA, led by Rory O'Connor, had occupied the Four Courts at Dublin. O'Connor had been a frequent visitor to Co. Wexford during the previous number of years. On 28 June 1922 Collins gave the order to bombard the Four Courts with artillery shells in an attempt to remove them. He succeeded. These were the opening shots of the Civil War. In the process the Four Courts was largely destroyed, but it was later repaired and re-built. The Four Courts had been used to house many important historical documents of interest to Co. Wexford and Ireland as a whole. The documents dated back hundreds of years, but they were almost all entirely destroyed in this action.
During the Irish Civil War, the county was very much involved. Again it was a guerilla war. Many people lost their lives on both sides. Many large houses were burned and destroyed - most notably Castleboro (February 1923), owned by the Carews, Wilton (March 1923), owned by the Alcocks, and Ballynastragh (March 1923), owned by the Esmondes.
After the signing of the Treaty, the I.R.A. as a whole in Co. Wexford was divided. The North Wexford and South Wicklow Brigade of the I.R.A., led by Joseph Cummins, supported the Treaty, but the South Wexford Brigade of the I.R.A., led by Thomas O’Sullivan, opposed it. Both Brigades, who had fought side by side during the Irish War of Independence, now fought each other. According to Kissane, Wexford was a "county where there was more fighting during the civil war than during the War of Independence." Furlong and Hayes concur, stating that "The split between anti-treaty and pro-treaty adherents was country-wide but Co. Wexford became one of the most violent counties in the Civil War. The conflict which scarred and divided families followed the pattern of guerrilla warfare. It was so viciously fought that veterans of the 1916 and 1921 struggle wondered why County Wexford, by comparison, had been so quiet in the previous three years." Furlong and Hayes continue by stating that "At first the anti-treaty forces controlled all Wexford including Wexford town, Gorey and Enniscorthy. They were dislodged by the Free State army, but groups waged continuous warfare against the newly-recruited soldiers, ambushing transports, hitting barracks, blowing up bridges, as at Taylorstown Bridge, or burning them as at the Redmond Bridge in Carcur. Retaliation killings, executions, murders, accompanied the military actions and military casualties . " The anti-Treaty I.R.A. in the county constantly attacked the county's railway network - often referred to as the 'War on the Railways' - in an effort to make the business of government impossible for those running the new Free State. A vicious circle of reprisal killings soon ensued.
On 24 July 1922, an anti-Treaty I.R.A. unit ambushed a train near Killurin Railway Station in an effort to free a large group of prisoners that it was transporting to Dublin under armed guard. This anti-Treaty I.R.A. unit opened fire on the carriages containing the Free State soldiers. The train also carried regular passengers, but these were in separate carriages, and were unharmed. The attempt failed, but three Free State soldiers were killed. On 10 October 1922, a senior Free State army officer, Commandant Peter Doyle, of Ballinakill, Marshalstown, was shot in the grounds of St. Aidan’s Cathedral, Enniscorthy, by anti-Treaty I.R.A. after mass. Five girls were injured in the process, two of them seriously. In November 1922, members of the South Wexford Brigade I.R.A. (anti-Treaty) ambushed a Lorry near Begerin, Old Ross, carrying Free State soldiers, killing one and wounding seven others. On 13 March 1923, three anti-Treaty I.R.A. prisoners held in Wexford Jail were executed by the Free State side. They were James Parle (of Clovervalley, Taghmon), John Creane (of Clonerane, Taghmon), and Patrick Hogan (of William Street, Wexford). They had been arrested 15 February 1923 for possession of firearms. Significantly, James Parle was second in command of Robert (or 'Bob') Lambert's Flying column - an anti-Treaty I.R.A. unit that operated in the Wexford town area, led by Bob Lambert. Bob Lambert was from Kyle, Crossabeg - hence this unit was referred to as the Kyle Flying Column. On 23 March 1923 three Free State soldiers were taken by anti-Treaty I.R.A. from a Public House at Ballagh, parish of Adamstown. They were taken to the village of Adamstown where they were shot dead later that night or early next morning, on 24 March 1923. The 3 men were Parick Horan (of Co. Kilkenny), Edward O'Gorman (of Co. Kilkenny), and Thomas Jones (of Dublin). A fourth Free State soldier, John Croke, was badly wounded when he was shot in the leg when he resisted the anti-Treaty I.R.A. as they initially entered the Pub. It is unclear what happened to a fifth soldier mentioned in the Army Reports, referred to as 'Vol. Keane'. This was a reprisal killing for the recent execution of Parle, Creane and Hogan. The next day, 25 March 1923, Free State soldiers shot dead Michael Furlong (of Ballagh) at Oldcourt, in the same parish, as they suspected that he was an anti-Treaty I.R.A. member (as he had fought in the recent Irish War of Independence in the I.R.A. - referred to, after the start of the Civil War, as the 'Old I.R.A.'). On 22 June 1923, Michael Radford of the South Wexford Brigade I.R.A. (anti-Treaty) was shot dead by Free State soldiers at Ballybuick, Tomhaggard. There were a number of other killings also. Some of these were stated to be 'accidental' - of which some genuinely were accidents and of which some were not. During all of this time the Railways were being attacked - many locations on numerous occasions, such as Palace East Station and Killurin Railway Station. A number of large houses were burnt down by anti-Treaty I.R.A. units, as alluded to previously - allegedly because they were used to billet Free State troops. This was certainly true in some cases, but some were victims of the bitterness of war. Free State soldiers also imprisoned many suspects.
The anti-Treaty side declared a nationwide ceasefire, 30 April 1923. On 24 May 1923 the War ended, as anti-Treaty I.R.A. units were ordered to dump their arms, which most of them did. The Free State side had won. Normal political activity began to take hold in Ireland from this period forward.
Famous quotes containing the words irish, civil and/or war :
&ldquo I was the rectors son, born to the anglican order,
Banned for ever from the candles of the Irish poor
The Chichesters knelt in marble at the end of a transept
With ruffs about their necks, their portion sure. &rdquo
&mdashLouis MacNeice (1907)
&ldquo They have been waiting for us in a foetor
Of vegetable sweat since civil war days,
Since the gravel-crunching, interminable departure
Of the expropriated mycologist. &rdquo
&mdashDerek Mahon (b. 1941)
1922-1923 Ad - History
1921 Climber Model 6-50 Four Door Touring
Climber Motor Corp. Little Rock, Ar.
Courtesy of Joseph Lea
1921 Ferris Sedan
The Ohio Motor Vehicle Co. Cleveland, Ohio
1921 Hatfield Coupe
Cortland Car & Carriage Co. Sidney, NY
1921 Lexington Touring
Lexington Motor Co. Lexington, KY -
Lexington-Howard Co. Connersville, IN
1921 Daniels Speedster
Daniels Motor Car Co. Reading, PA
1921 Lorraine Touring
Lorraine Motors Corp. Grand Rapids, MI Detroit
1921 Sheridan Touring
Sheridan Motor Car Co. Muncie, IN
1921 Roamer Town Car
Barley Motor Car Co. Streator, IL
1921 Owem Magnetic
Owen Magnetic Motor Car Corp. Wilkes-Barre, PA
1921 Paige Glenbrook Touring
Paige-Detroit Mfg. Co. Detroit, MI
1921 R. & V. Knight Coupe
Root and Vandervoort, East Moline, IL
1921 Sayers & Scoville Touring
The Sayers & Scoville Co., Cincinnati, OH
1921 H.C.S Touring
H.C.S. Motor Car Co., Indianapolis, IN
1921 Automatic Electric
Automatic Electric Transmission Co. Buffalo, NY
1922 Murphy Race Car
James Anthony Murphy, 1894, was the American Racing Champion in 1922 and 1924
1922 Willys Overland Sportster
Willys-Overland Co. Toledo, OH
1922 Birmingham Demonstration
Birmingham No-Axle Motor Corp. Jamestown, NY
1922 Durant Model A-22
Durant Motors, Inc New York
1922 Lincoln Sedan
Lincoln Motor Co. Detroit, MI
1920 to date
1922 Nash Coupe
Nash Motor Co. Kenosha, WI
1922 Hanover Cycle Car Roadster
Hanover Motor Car Co. Hanover, PA
1922 Cleveland Speedster
Cleveland Automobile Co. Cleveland, OH
1922 Star Depot Wagon
Durant Motors, Several Cities
1922 - 1928
1922 LaFayette 134 Rear Windshield
Lafayette Motors, Milwaukee, WI
1922 Washington Delux
The Washington Car Company, Eaton OH.
1922 Marmon Convertible Coupe
Nordyke and Marmon Co. Indianapolis, IN
1922 Handley-Knight Sedan
Handley Motors Inc. Kalamazoo, MI
R.H. Long Motors
The R. H. Long Company, Framingham, MA
McFarlan Motor Car Co. Connersville, IN
1923 Essex Coach
Hudson Motor Car Co. Detroit, MI
1923 Biddle Sedan
Biddle Motor Car Co. Philadelphia, PA
1923 Columbia Touring
Columbia Motors Co. Detroit, MI
1923 Jewett Roadster
Paige-Detroit Motor Car Co. Detroit, MI
Redbook began in 1903 as The Red Book Illustrated. The title changed to "The Red Book" in its second issue, and to "Redbook" in 1929. The first actively copyright-renewed issue is February 1926 (v. 46 no. 4), © January 12, 1926. The first actively copyright-renewed contribution is from February 1926 (v. 46 no. 4). (More details) It is still published today.
Persistent Archives of Complete Issues
- 1912: The Internet Archive has volume 18, number 6, dated April 1912.
- 1921: The Internet Archive has volume 36, number 3, dated January 1921.
- 1922: The Internet Archive has volume 40, number 1, dated November 1922.
- 1922: The Internet Archive has volume 40, number 2, dated December 1922.
- 1923: The Internet Archive has volume 40, number 3, dated January 1923.
- 1923: The Internet Archive has volume 40, number 4, dated February 1923.
- 1923: The Internet Archive has volume 40, number 5, dated March 1923.
- 1923: The Internet Archive has volume 40, number 6, dated April 1923.
Official Site / Current Material
This is a record of a major serial archive. This page is maintained for The Online Books Page. (See our criteria for listing serial archives.) This page has no affiliation with the serial or its publisher.
A Sign is Born: 1923
Hollywood, which by now represented not just a city, but also an industry, a lifestyle and, increasingly, an aspiration, was officially crowned when the “Hollywoodland” sign was erected in 1923.
Built by Los Angeles Times publisher Harry Chandler as an epic $21,000 billboard for his upscale Hollywoodland real estate development, the Sign soon took on the role of giant marquee for a city that was constantly announcing its own gala premiere.
Dates and debates swirl about when the Hollywoodland Real Estate development – and the massive electric sign that advertised it – actually came into being. But a review of local newspapers from the era (i.e., The Los Angeles Times, Holly Leaves, Los Angeles Record, Los Angeles Examiner and the Hollywood Daily Citizen) clears up any confusion. For instance, a Hollywoodland ad in the Los Angeles Times (June 10, 1923) states that the real estate development launched in late March of that year and that by June, 200 men were employed, 7 miles of road had been cut and 300,000 cubic yards of dirt had been moved.
And while some sources still cite that the Sign was born in 1924, the correct date is indisputably 1923. The earliest found mention of the Sign appeared on December 14, 1923 in a Holly Leaves article about the Mulholland Highway soon to be built, which would extend from “…from the western end of the (Griffith Park) road, under the electric sign of Hollywoodland, around Lake Hollywood and across the dam.”
Just two weeks later another Los Angeles Times article (December 30, 1923) with the headline “Hollywood Electric Sign Reached by Car,” reported on actor Harry Neville’s epic, experimental trip to test whether a motorcar could reach the Sign on the unpaved grade, and whether the car’s brakes would work on the precipitous path down. According to the article, “A motley crowd of hillclimbers, workmen, salesmen and curiousity thrill-seekers …stood by with fear and trembling as the loose dirt began to give way but Neville stuck by the ship…” to make it safely back to the “wide smooth roads of Hollywoodland.”
There has also been debate about whether the Sign was originally erected without lights (with the thousands of bulbs added later). However, historic photos from the Bruce Torrence Hollywood Photograph collection, taken just as the Sign was being erected, show workers carrying parts of the Sign that include the original lights in frames or “troughs.” Bruce Torrence, curator of the photo collection, notes that the shape of the light boxes indicate that these sections were probably part of the letter “A” and possibly the “L.”
Confusion solved: by the end of 1923, the Hollywood Sign was fully erected, a high-profile beacon – lights ablaze – for the fast-growing Los Angeles metropolis.
The “billboard” was massive. Each of the original 13 letters was 30 feet wide and approximately 43 feet tall, constructed of 3×9′ metal squares rigged together by an intricate frame of scaffolding, pipes, wires and telephone poles.
All of this material had to be dragged up precipitous Mt. Lee by laborers on simple dirt paths.
Few know that a giant white dot (35 feet in diameter, with 20-watt lights on the perimeter) was constructed below the Sign to catch the eye. The Sign itself featured 4,000 20-watt bulbs, spaced 8 inches apart.
At night the Sign blinked into the Hollywood night: first “Holly” then “wood” and finally “land,” punctuated by a giant period. The effect was truly spectacular, particularly for pre-Vegas sensibilities.
Originally intended to last just a year and a half, the Sign has endured more than eight decades – and is still going strong.