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John D. Ford DD- 228 - History

John D. Ford DD- 228 - History



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John D. Ford DD- 228

John D. Ford

(DD-228: dp. 1,190; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'9"; dr. 9'3", s. 35 k.; cpl. 101; a. 4 4", 1 3", 2 .30 CQL mg., 12 21" tt.; cl.Clemson)

John D. Ford ( DD-228) was laid down by William Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 11 November 1919; launched 2 September 1920, sponsored by Miss F. Faith Ford, daughter of Rear Admiral Ford; and commissioned as Ford 30 December 1920, Lt. ( j.g. ) L. T. Forbes in temporary command.

After acceptance trials off New England, Ford received Lt. Comdr. C. A. Pownall as commanding offlcer 16 July 1921. On 17 November, while operating along the eastern seaboard, her name was changed to John D. Ford. After training in the Caribbean, she departed Newport, R.I., 20 June 1922 for permanent duty with the Asiatic Fleet. Sailing via the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal, and the Indian Ocean, she arrived Cavite, Manila Bay, 21 August to begin almost two decades of service in the Far East.

Prior to the outbreak of World War II, John D. Ford operated out of Manila, cruising Asiatic waters from southern China to northern Japan. During April and May 1924, she helped establish temporary air bases on the Japanese Rurile and Hokaido Islands in support of the pioneer, global flight between 9 April and 28 September by the U.S. Air Service. On 6 June she deployed to Shanghai, Chinn, to protect Americah lives and interests which were threatened by Chinese civil strife. After renewal of the Chinese Civil War in May 1926, she patrolled the Chinese coast to protect convoys from roving bands of bandits. On 24 March 1927 she supported the evacuation of American and foreign nationals, who were fleeing from mob violence at Nanking.

The ascendancy of the reformed Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-Shek in 1928 quieted civil.strife. However, Sino-Japanese relations deteriorated, requiring John D. Ford to remain in China. Following Japanese aggression in northern China during July 1937, she evacuated Americans from Peiping us Jalr.lnese ships prepared to blockade the Chinese coast. Steaming to Manila 21 November, she operated between the Philippines and southern China on fleet maneuvers. And after war broke out in Europe in September 1939, she increased training off the Philippines and commenced neutrality patrols in the Philippine and South China Seas.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, John D. Ford readied for action at Cavite as a unit of DesDiv 59. Undamaged by the destructive Japanese air raid on Manila Bay 10 December, she sailed southward the same daY to patrol the Sulu Sea and Makassar Strait with Task force 6. She remained in Makassar Strait until 23 December, then she steamed from Balikpapan, Borneo, to Surabaya, Java, arriving the 24th.

As the Japanese pressed southward through the Philippines and into Indonesia, the Allies could hardly hope to contain the enemy's offensive in the East Indies. iVith too few ships and practically no air support they strove to harass the enemy, to delay his advance, and to prevent the invasion of Australia. Anxious to strike back at the Japanese, John D. Ford departed Surabaya 11 January 1942 for Kupang, Timor, where she arrived the 18th to join a destroyer striking force. Two days later the force sailed for Balikpapan to conduct a surprise torpedo attack on Japanese shipping. Arriving off Balikpapan during mid watch 24 January, the four destroyers launched a sweeping raid through the Japanese transports while Japanese destroyers steamed about Makassar Strait in search of reported American submarines. For over an hour the four-stackers fired torpedoes and shells at the astonished enemy. Before retiring from the first surface action in the Pacific war, they sank four enemy ships, one a victim of John D. Ford's torpedoes. The victorious striking force arrived Surabaya 25 January.

The Japanese pincer offensive through the Dutch East Indies continued despite Allied harassment. On 3 February the enemy began air raids on Surabaya, and John D. Ford retired in convoy to Tjilatjap on the southern coast of Java. During mid-February the Japanese tightened their control of islands east and west of Java, and on 1S February theY landed troops on Bali, adjacent to the eastern end of the Java. In response John D. Ford, Popc (DD-225), and other American and Dutch ships steamed to Badoeng Strait in two waves to engage an enemy destroyer-transport force during the night of 19-20 February. A unit of the first wave, John D. Ford conducted a running engagement with two Japanese destroyers without results; while the Japanese retired northviard after the second wave, their landings on Bali were successful. 3Ioreover, they sank the Dutch destroyer Piet Hcin svhile suffering extensive damage to only one ship.

Returning to TjilatJap 21 February for fuel, John D. Ford and Pope immediately sailed to Christmas Island to pick up the last reserve of 17 to 18 torpedoes from Black Hawk (AD-9). Then they steamed to Surabaya, arriving the 24th to join the dwindling ABDC Striking Force. Hampered by shortages of fuel, ammunition, and torpodoes and reduced in strength by sinkings, battle damage, and repair needs, the Allies indeed faced a "critical situation." Only four U.S. destroyers remained operational in the Striking Force.

Late on the 25th, John D. Ford sortied with the Striking Force from Surabaya in search of a large enemy amphibious force in the Java Sea. Returning to port the following day, the force was joined by five British ships; once more the Striking Force steamed to intercept the enemy. Following an unsuccessful strike by enemy planes the morning of the 27th, the Allied force steamed for Surabaya. NVhile steaming through the mine field, the ships reversed course and deployed to meet the enemy off the northern coast of Java.

The Battle of Java Sea commenced at 1616 and continlled for over 7 hours. The Allied ships, 5 cruisers and (9 destroyers;, engaged the enemy force, 4 cruisers and 13 destroyers, in a furious running battle marked by intermittent gun and torpedo duels. John Ford emerged from the battle undamaged but in the valiant attempt to prevent the invasion of Java, fivee Allied ships were sunk.

Retiring to Surabaya. John D. Ford and three other flestroyers of DesDiv .,S departed after dusk 18 February for Australia. Steaming undetected through the narrows of Bali Strait during midwatch 1 March, the gallant old four-pipers encountered three enemy destroyers guarding the southern end of the strait. Out of torpedoes and low on ammunition, the destroyers outdistanced the Japanese patrol and steamed for Freemantle. Lt. J. E. Cooper, who had skippered John D. Ford since before the outbreak of the war, brought her safely to Australia 4 March.

After 2 months of convoy escort duty along the Australian coast, John D. Ford departed Brisbane on 9 May for Pearl Harbor. Arriving 2 June, she sailed in convoy 3 days later for San Francisco and arrived 12 June. She cleared San Francisco for Penrl Harbor 23 June, and during the next 11 months escorted nine convoys between San Francisco and Pearl. Returning to the West Coast 20 May 1943, she departed San Francisco 24 May for convoy and ASV patrols in the Atlantic.

Assigned to the 10th Fleet, John D. Ford transited the C,anal 4 June and joined a Trinidad-bound convoy the 8 th. For the next 6 months she ranged the North and South Atlantic from N'ew York and Charleston, S.C., to Casablanca, French Morocco, and Recife, Brazil, protecting supply convoys from German U-boats. After ASNV training late in December, she joined Guadalcanal ( CVE-60) out of Norfolk 5 January 1944 for hunter-killer activities operations in the Atlantic. The versatile destroyer supported the destruction of German submarine U-55/j, surprised and depth charged while refueling west of the Azores 16 January.

After returning to the East Coast 16 February, John D. Ford cleared Norfolk 14 March for a convoy run to the Mediterranean. NVhile at Gilbraltar 29 March, she was damaged in a collision with a British tanker. Following repairs, she returned to Norfolk, arriving 1 May. Departing Norfolk 24 May for convoy duty to the Canal Zone, John D. Ford continued convoy patrols for almost a year from eastern seahoard ports to Recife, ReykJavik, and Casablanca.

From 24 May 1945 to 27 June she acted as escort and plane guard for Boxer ( CV-21) during the carrier's shakedown in the Caribbean, then she returned to Norfolk. She sailed 8 July for Boston Navy Yard where she arrived 9 July for conversion to miscellaneous auxilliary AO-ll9. After conversion, she returned to Norfolk 9 September and decommissioned 2 November. Subsequently, she was sold for scrap 5 October 1947 to Northern Metal Co., Philadelphia, Pa.

John D. Ford received four battle stars forWorld War II service.


USS John D. Ford (DD-228)

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 12/12/2016 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The large Clemson-class destroyer group of the United States Navy (USN) was laid down during the fighting of World War 1 (1914-1918) beginning in 1918 and spanned into 1922 by which point some 156 of the planned 162 vessels were completed. These warships served into 1948, covering operations in World War 2 (1939-1945) and deployed under several national flags including that of the British Royal Navy, the Canadian Navy and the Soviet Navy. Twenty of the class were eventually lost while six were cancelled before they could be realized.

USS John D. Ford (DD-228) became one of the Clemson-class warships and saw its keel laid down by William Cramp & Sons on November 11th, 1919. By this time, World War 1 had ended by way of the Armistice of November 1918 but the Clemson-class ships were built nonetheless. Ford was launched on September 2nd, 1920 and was officially commissioned for service in the USN on December 30th of that year.

The Ford's profile was consistent with American destroyer ship designs of the late 1910s. She carried multiple (four) smoke funnels, in line, at midships with the bridge superstructure held well-forward. Her hull was sleek and slim and designed for blue water service. Two main masts made up the tallest components of her side profile. Primary armament was 12 x 21" (533mm) torpedo tubes backed by 4 x 4" (102mm) deck guns. A single 3" (76mm) gun was carried for air defense as were 2 x 0.30 caliber medium machine guns. With her heavy torpedo armament, Ford could lay down a "spread" against a surface target, reducing the chances that the target would be able to avoid all of the torpedoes sent its way.

Internally, Ford was powered by 4 x boiler units feeding 2 x geared steam turbines developing 27,600 horsepower to 2 x shafts. Performance specs included a maximum speed of 35.5 knots and a range out to 4,900 nautical miles. The crew complement was generally made up of eight officers, eight chief petty-level officers and up to 106 enlisted personnel.

Her trials were in New England waters and crew training followed in the Caribbean. From there she took her post with the Asiatic Fleet and journeyed to the Far East by way of the Mediterranean Sea and Suez Canal where she would operate mainly from Manila, Philippines. Some of the warship's first actions centered around support of Americans in China where internal unrest threatened civilization.

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7th, 1941 triggered the American commitment to World War 2. Ford survived the initial Japanese aerial actions against Manila and made some of her wartime career in the Far East Theater. She took part in a destroyer-led torpedo raid on Japanese shipping at Balikpapan to which four enemies were sunk.

On February 27th, 1942, the Battle of Java Sea was had between a combined force of American, British, Australian and Dutch ships against the Empire of Japan. Ford survived this action but the battle marked a victory for the Japanese. Three Allied destroyers, along with a pair of light cruisers and a heavy cruiser were lost with 2,300 hands. The Japanese force was reduced by one destroyer and 36 men.

After arriving in Australian waters, Ford was part of a destroyer force charged with patrolling and convoy escort duties. After several months at this post, she undertook escort duties from the California coast to Pearl Harbor and she returned to California in May of 1943 to take part in Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) exercises.

From there, Ford was transferred to the Atlantic where she would forge the second half of her career. Her patrols took her across the Atlantic Ocean where the warship helped to sink the German U-Boat U-544 in January 1944 near the Azores. Her next tour placed her in Mediterranean waters where she served as a deterrent for marauding German U-boats. However, a collision with a British ship in March (near Gibraltar) forced her return to Norfolk, Virginia. Once repaired, she continued operations in the Atlantic.

In July of 1945 Ford was redesignated to "AG-119" and categorized as a miscellaneous auxiliary warship. In September, with the war over, the warship returned to Norfolk and was decommissioned on November 2nd, 1945. Once stripped of her war-making usefulness, her hulk was sold off in October of 1947. For her service in World War 2, the John D. Ford was awarded four Battle Stars. Her namesake was Rear Admiral John Donaldson Ford (1840-1918), an American Civil War and Spanish-American War veteran.


Service history [ edit | edit source ]

After acceptance trials off New England, John D. Ford received Lieutenant Commander C. A. Pownall as commanding officer 16 July 1921. On 17 November, while operating along the eastern seaboard, her name was changed to John D. Ford. After training in the Caribbean, she departed Newport, Rhode Island, 20 June 1922 for permanent duty with the Asiatic Fleet. Sailing via the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal, and the Indian Ocean, she arrived Cavite, Manila Bay, 21 August to begin almost two decades of service in the Far East.

Prior to the outbreak of World War II, Ford operated out of Manila, cruising Asiatic waters from southern China to northern Japan. During April and May 1924, she helped establish temporary air bases on the Japanese Kurile and Hokkaidō Islands in support of the pioneer, global flight between 9 April and 28 September by the U.S. Air Service.

Chinese Civil War [ edit | edit source ]

On 6 June she deployed to Shanghai, China, to protect American lives and interests, which were threatened by Chinese civil strife. After renewal of the Chinese Civil War in May 1926, she patrolled the Chinese coast to protect convoys from roving bands of bandits. On 24 March 1927 she supported the evacuation of American and foreign nationals, who were fleeing from mob violence at Nanking. That event included a naval bombardment of the city.

The ascendancy of the reformed Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-Shek in 1928 reduced the intensity of the civil strife. However, Sino-Japanese relations deteriorated, requiring Ford to remain in China. Following Japanese aggression in northern China during July 1937, she evacuated Americans from Peiping as Japanese ships prepared to blockade the Chinese coast. Steaming to Manila 21 November, she operated between the Philippines and southern China on fleet maneuvers. After war broke out in Europe in September 1939, she increased training off the Philippines and commenced Neutrality patrols in the Philippine and South China Seas.

World War II [ edit | edit source ]

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, John D. Ford readied for action at Cavite as a unit of DesDiv 59. Undamaged by the destructive Japanese air raid on Manila Bay 10 December, she sailed southward the same day to patrol the Sulu Sea and Makassar Strait with Task Force 6. She remained in Makassar Strait until 23 December, then she steamed from Balikpapan, Borneo, to Surabaya, Java, arriving the 24th.

As the Japanese pressed southward through the Philippines and into Indonesia, the Allies could hardly hope to contain the Japanese offensive in the East Indies. With too few ships and practically no air support they strove to harass the Japanese forces in an attempt to delay their advance, and to prevent the invasion of Australia. Anxious to strike back at the Japanese, Ford departed Surabaya 11 January 1942 for Kupang, Timor, where she arrived on the 18th to join a destroyer striking force. Two days later the force sailed for Balikpapan to conduct a surprise torpedo attack on Japanese shipping. Arriving off Balikpapan during mid watch 24 January, the four destroyers launched a raid through the Japanese transports while Japanese destroyers steamed about Makassar Strait in search of reported American submarines. For over an hour the destroyers fired torpedoes and shells at the astonished enemy. Before retiring from the first surface action in the Pacific war, they sank four Japanese ships, one a victim of John D. Ford's torpedoes. The striking force arrived Surabaya 25 January.

The Japanese pincer offensive through the Dutch East Indies continued despite Allied harassment. On 3 February the Japanese began air raids on Surabaya, and John D. Ford retired in convoy to Tjilatjap on the southern coast of Java. During mid-February the Japanese tightened their control of islands east and west of Java, and on 18 February they landed troops on Bali, adjacent to the eastern end of the Java. In response John D. Ford, Pope, and other American and Dutch ships steamed to Badoeng Strait in two waves to engage an enemy destroyer-transport force during the night of 19/20 February in what became known as the Battle of Badung Strait. A unit of the first wave, Ford conducted a running engagement with two Japanese destroyers without results. The outcome from the battle as a whole was a Japanese victory: the landings on Bali were successful and the Dutch destroyer HNLMS Piet Hein was sunk, while suffering substantial damage to only one ship.

Returning to Tjilatjap 21 February for fuel, Ford and Pope immediately sailed to Kiritimati to pick up the last reserve of 17 to 18 torpedoes from Black Hawk. Then they steamed to Surabaya, arriving on the 24th to join the dwindling ABDA Striking Force. Hampered by shortages of fuel, ammunition, and torpedoes and reduced in strength by sinkings, battle damage, and repair needs, the Allies indeed faced a "critical situation." Only four U.S. destroyers remained operational in the Striking Force.

Late on the 25th, Ford sortied with the Striking Force from Surabaya in search of a large enemy amphibious force in the Java Sea. Returning to port the following day, the force was joined by five British ships once more the Striking Force steamed to intercept the enemy. Following an unsuccessful strike by enemy planes the morning of the 27th, the Allied force steamed for Surabaya. While steaming through the mine field, the ships reversed course and deployed to meet the enemy off the northern coast of Java.

The Battle of Java Sea commenced at 1616 and continued for over 7 hours. The Allied ships, 5 cruisers and 9 destroyers, engaged the enemy force, 4 cruisers and 13 destroyers, in a furious running battle marked by intermittent gun and torpedo duels. Ford emerged from the battle undamaged, but once again the battle as whole was a defeat for the Allies, as in the unsuccessful attempt to prevent the invasion of Java five Allied ships were sunk.

Retiring to Surabaya, Ford and three other destroyers of DesDiv 58 departed after dark 28 February for Australia. Steaming undetected through the narrows of Bali Strait during midwatch 1 March, the destroyers encountered three Japanese destroyers guarding the southern end of the strait. Out of torpedoes and low on ammunition, the destroyers retreated from the Japanese patrol and steamed for Fremantle. Lieutenant Commander J. E. Cooper, who had skippered Ford since before the outbreak of the war, brought her safely to Australia 4 March.

After 2 months of convoy escort duty along the Australian coast, Ford departed Brisbane 9 May for Pearl Harbor. Arriving 2 June, she sailed in convoy 3 days later for San Francisco and arrived 12 June. She cleared San Francisco for Pearl Harbor 23 June, and during the next 11 months escorted nine convoys between San Francisco and Pearl. Returning to the West Coast 20 May 1943, she departed San Francisco 24 May for convoy and antisubmarine warfare (ASW) patrols in the Atlantic.

Assigned to the 10th Fleet, Ford transited the Panama Canal 4 June and joined a Trinidad-bound convoy the 6th. For the next 6 months she ranged the North and South Atlantic from New York and Charleston, South Carolina, to Casablanca, French Morocco, and Recife, Brazil, protecting supply convoys from U-boats. After ASW training late in December, she joined Guadalcanal out of Norfolk, Virginia 5 January 1944 for offensive ASW operations in the Atlantic. The destroyer supported the destruction of German submarine U-544 by planes from Guadalcanal, who surprised and depth charged the submarine while refueling west of the Azores 16 January.

After returning to the East Coast 16 February, Ford cleared Norfolk 14 March for a convoy run to the Mediterranean. While at Gibraltar 29 March, she was damaged in a collision with a British tanker. Following repairs, she returned to Norfolk, arriving 1 May. Departing Norfolk 24 May for convoy duty to the Canal Zone, Ford continued convoy patrols for almost a year from eastern seaboard ports to Recife, Reykjavík, and Casablanca.

From 24 May 1945 to 27 June, she acted as escort and plane guard for Boxer during the carrier's shakedown in the Caribbean, then she returned to Norfolk. She sailed 8 July for Boston Navy Yard where she arrived 9 July for conversion to miscellaneous auxiliary AG-119. After conversion, she returned to Norfolk 9 September and decommissioned 2 November 1945. Subsequently, she was sold for scrap 5 October 1947 to Northern Metal Company, Philadelphia.


USS John D. Ford (DD 228)

She saw a lot of fleet action early in the war in the Pacific, and in May 1943 she was relocated to the Atlantic Fleet.

In early 1944 she was part of the hunter-killer group formed around USS Guadalcanal. After she served es regular convoy escort in the Atlantic. She was decommissioned on 2 Nov, 1945, stricken on 16 November 1945 and sold for scrap on 30 September 1947.

USS John D. Ford received 4 Battle Stars for her services in WW2.

Commands listed for USS John D. Ford (DD 228)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

CommanderFromTo
1Lt.Cdr. John Drake Shaw, USN14 Apr 19394 Feb 1940
2Robert Lee Dennison, USN4 Feb 194014 Apr 1941
3Lt.Cdr. Jacob Elliott Cooper, USN14 Apr 19415 Jul 1942
4T/Lt.Cdr. Norman Ernest Smith, USN5 Jul 194226 Oct 1943
5T/Lt.Cdr. John Sim Slaughter, USN26 Oct 194321 May 1944
6Thomas Alexander Watkins, USNR21 May 194427 Jun 1945
7Gilbert Ira Patterson, USNR27 Jun 19452 Nov 1945

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Notable events involving John D. Ford include:

19 Feb 1942

Battle of Badoeng Strait

It was expected that the Japanese would soon land (night of 19/20 February 1942) on the south-east coast of Bali (Badoeng Strait). Rear-Admiral Doorman therefore wanted to attack them in three waves. The first wave came from Tjilatjap on the south coast of Java and consisted of the Dutch light cruisers HrMs De Ruyter (Cdr. E.E.B. Lacomblé, RNN and flagship of Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Doorman, RNN) and HrMs Java (Capt. P.B.M van Straelen, RNN), escorted by the Dutch destroyers HrMs Piet Hein (Lt.Cdr. J.M.L.I. Chompff, RNN) and HrMs Kortenaer (Lt.Cdr. A. Kroese, RNN) as well as the US destroyers USS John D. Ford (Lt.Cdr. J.E. Cooper, USN) and USS Pope (Lt.Cdr. W.C. Blinn, USN). However while leaving Tjilatjap in the evening of the 18th the Dutch destroyer Kortenaer grounded and was only able to get of at high tide therefore was no longer part of this force.

The second wave was made up of the Dutch light cruiser HrMs Tromp (Cdr. J.B. de Meester, RNN) and four US destroyers USS Stewart (Lt.Cdr. H.P. Smith, USN), USS Parrott (Lt.Cdr. J.N. Hughes, USN), USS Pillsbury (Lt.Cdr. H.C. Pound, USN) and USS John D. Edwards (Lt.Cdr. H.E. Eccles, USN). They sailed from Surabaya in the afternoon of the 19th

Finally the third wave was made up of the Dutch Motor Torpedo Boats HrMs TM-4 (Lt. J.E. Gobée, RNN), HrMs TM-5 (S.Lt. E.J. Hoeksel, RNN), HrMs TM-6 (S.Lt. P. van Rees, RNN), HrMs TM-8 (Lt. J.G. Treffers, RNN), HrMs TM-9 (Lt. J.A. van Beusekom, RNN), HrMs TM-10 (S.Lt. J.W. Boon, RNN(R)), HrMs TM-11 (S.Lt. A.A.F. Schmitz, RNN), HrMs TM-15 (Lt. H.C. Jorissen, RNN). HrMs TM-13 (?) was also part of this force but acted as 'rescue boat'. Shortly after their sailing from Surabaya in the evening of the 18th HrMs TM-6 was forced to return due to engine trouble. These Motor Torpedo Boats proceeded through Strait Bali and anchored in three bay's on the Java side to refuel which took the whole day. In the evening of the 19th they departed for Badoeng Strait.

The Japanese attack on Bali was carried out by two transport ships Sasako Maru (7180 GRT, built 1941) and Sagami Maru (7189 GRT, built 1940). They had on board part of the Imperial Japanese Army’s 48th Infantry Division and had departed Makassar for Bali during the night of 17/18 February. They were escorted by four destroyers Asashio (Lt.Cdr. G. Yoshii), Oshio (Cdr. K. Kikkawa) Arashio (Cdr. H. Kuboki) and Michishio (Lt.Cdr. M. Ogura). Distant cover was provided by the light cruiser Nagara (Capt T. Naoi, flagship of Rear-Admiral K. Kubo) escorted by three destroyers Hatsushimo (Lt.Cdr. S. Kohama), Nenohi (Lt.Cdr. T. Chihagi) and Wakaba (Lt.Cdr. M. Kuroki).

The Japanese landed around 0200/19 on the south coast of Bali. The transports were attacked unsuccessfully by the American submarine USS Seawolf. Seawolf herself was then counter attacked with depth charges by the destroyers but managed to escape.

During the day the Japanese transports were attacked from the air and the Sagami Maru was damaged. She left the landing zone escorted by the destroyers Arashio and Michishio. The undamaged Sasako Maru remained in the landing zone to pick up the landing barges. The destroyers Asashio and Oshio remained with her.

The allied first attack wave arrived south of Bali around 2130/19. A line was then formed in the order, HrMs De Ruyter, HrMs Java, HrMs Piet Hein, USS John D. Ford and finally USS Pope. Speed was increaded to 27 knots and they proceeded up Badoeng Strait. Around 2230 hours HrMs De Ruyter and HrMs Java opened fire on the Japanese which were taken by surprise. The Asashio turned a searchlight on which was quickly taken out by a salvo from the Java. The Dutch cruisers claimed heavy damage on the enemy but according to Japanese reports on the battle damage was only minor and after being initially taken by surprise the Japanese soon counter attacked. By that time however the Dutch cruisers had moved on.

The Allied destroyers were further behind the cruisers then intended and now arrived on the scene. Piet Hein was a little ahead of the US destroyers and opened fire with her 4.7” guns and also fired two torpedoes. Shortly afterwards two more torpedoes were fired but none found their intended target. Piet Hein then turned around towards the US destroyers with the intention to attack the Japanese again. While doing so her smoke generator was started. It is not completely clear but it is possible that one of these US destroyers then engaged Piet Hein with gunfire thinking she was Japanese. It is also possible that it were the Japanese that engaged Piet Hein. At this time Piet Hein was hit several times, resulting in her to come to a stop. After about 15 minutes Piet Hein was illuminated by a Japanese searchlight and taken under fire. The crew was ordered to abandon the doomed destroyer and she soon sank.

USS John D. Ford and Pope sighted a Japanese transport vessel (this must have been the Sasaga Maru) and what they thought to be a Japanese cruiser but this must have been the destroyer Oshio. They launched torpedoes (Ford – three, Pope - five) and turned away. Asashio and Oshio when went after them. The Americans thought they faced a very powerful enemy, even heavy cruisers were thought to be present. Both destroyers then retired to the south-east to return to Tjilatjap. Shortly afterwards they heard gunfire. This gunfire was coming from both Japanese destroyer that were now engaging each other by mistake. After a few minutes the mistake was noticed and both Japanese destroyer retired up the Strait to the north.

Meanwhile the Allied second attack wave was nearing the scene of the action. They had arrived south of Bali around 0100/20. The four US destroyers were ahead of the Tromp. It was intended that the four US destroyer would enter Badoeng Strait and attack with torpedoes first and that the Tromp would come behind them to finish off the Japanese after the confusion of the torpedo attack. During the torpedo attack a total of fifteen torpedoes were fired, six each by USS Stewart and USS Pope and three by USS Pillsbury. Their targets, Asashio and Oshio were not hit and both Japanese destroyers now went after their attackers. Stewart was then hit with gunfire. The US destroyers then set course to the east to leave Badoeng Strait. Now Tromp went in. Soon she was illuminated by a searchlight and the Japanese opened fire. Thy obtained eleven hits on the Tromp causing heavy damage to the Dutch cruiser. The Oshio on her turn was seriously damaged by the Tromp. The action was over around 0215/20 and Tromp retired from the Strait to the north-east. When north of Bali she went to full speed and returned to Surabaya for repairs.

Japanese Rear-Admiral Kubo, on board the Nagara, had meanwhile ordered the Arashio and Michishio to return to Badoeng Strait (Nagara and her three escorting destroyers were too far off). When the two Japanese destroyers entered the Strait they encountered the four US destroyers. Both sides launched torpedoes but all missed their intended targets and then a gunfight was started. During this gunfight the Michishio was heavily damaged and in the end she had to be towed back to Makassar. The US destroyer meanwhile continued to retire from the area.

The third wave then entered the Strait. The Dutch MTB’s had seen the second wave attacking but when they entered Badoeng Strait the Japanese were not sighted and they left without being able to fire torpedoes.

The Allies were at that time under the impression that they had obtained a victory. They thought to have sunk a Japanese cruiser and have damaged two more cruisers and two destroyers. This was not the case, one Japanese destroyer was heavily damaged and one seriously. In return the Japanese sank a Dutch destroyer and damaged the Dutch cruiser Tromp heavily. As the Dutch naval base at Surabaya was now under daily air attack it was deemed wise to sent the Tromp to Australia for repairs.

27 Feb 1942

Battle of the Java Sea.

Prelude to the battle.

Japan had opened the war in the Far East on 7 December 1941 with their surprise attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbour. At the same time they launched attacks on the Philippines and Malaya. These attacks were followed by attacks on the Dutch East Indies.

By the end of December 1941 the Americans decided to abandon the Philippines as a naval base and on 30 January 1942, Singapore Dockyard was closed down by the British. This was followed by the British Army retiring from the Malayan penisula towards that base.

On 3 February 1942, Surabaya and Malang on the main Dutch Island of Java were bombed for the first time. By mid-February the Japanese had conquered British and Dutch Borneo and the Dutch islands of Celebes, Ceram and Ambon. These conquests gave them sea and air control over the Makassar Strait and the Molucca Passage.

The Allies soon realised that the forces at their disposal were not able to stop the Japanese advance. The only thing they could do was to delay the Japanese advance as long as possible.

Singapore and it’s naval base fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942. That very day the Japanese landed on Sumatra and they soon also controlled the Karimata Channel and Gaspar Strait. Later they also had more or less the control over the important Sunda Strait, the main entry channel to the Java Sea.

On 25 February 1942 the Japanese captured Bali Island, to the east of Java and this gave them also control over the eastern exits of the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean. On this day also reports were received of massive Japanese shipping movements in the Celebes Sea with the apparent objective to invade Java. Also on the 25th the Japanese landed on Bawean Island, just 85 miles north of Surabaya.

Formation of the Combined Striking Force.

Given the reports of the Japanese shipping movements and their expected arrival off Java on 27 February, the Dutch Vice-Admiral Helfrich ordered that the Eastern Striking Force at Surabaya was to be reinforced by all available cruisers and destroyers that were then at Tandjong Priok (Batavia).

At that moment the Eastern Striking Force was made up of the Dutch light cruisers HrMs De Ruyter (Cdr. E.E.B. Lacomblé, RNN and flagship of Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Doorman, RNN) and HrMs Java (Capt. P.B.M van Straelen, RNN), the Dutch destroyers HrMs Witte de With (Lt.Cdr. P. Schotel, RNN), HrMs Kortenaer (Lt.Cdr. A. Kroese, RNN) and the US destroyers USS John D. Edwards (Lt.Cdr. H.E. Eccles, USN), USS Parrott (Lt.Cdr. J.N. Hughes, USN) and USS Pillsbury (Lt.Cdr. H.C. Pound, USN). The force had been reinforced on the 24th by the US heavy cruiser USS Houston (Capt. A.H. Rooks, USN) and the US destroyers USS Paul Jones (Lt.Cdr. J.J. Hourihan, USN), USS Alden (Lt.Cdr. L.E. Coley, USN), USS John D. Ford (Lt.Cdr. J.E. Cooper, USN) and USS Pope (Lt.Cdr. W.C. Blinn, USN) which came from Tjilatjap on Java’s south coast.

The following ships arrived at Surabaya from Tandjong Priok (Batavia) on the 26th. The British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), the Australian light cruiser HMAS Perth (Capt. H.M.L. Waller, DSO and Bar, RAN) and the British destroyers HMS Electra (Cdr. C.W. May, RN), HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) and HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.P. Thew, RN). From this date the Eastern Striking Force was now called the Combined Striking Force.

Formation of the Western Striking Force.

Some ships remained in Batavia and these were formed into the Western Striking Force which comprised the Australian light cruiser HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN), the British light cruisers HMS Dragon (Capt. R.J. Shaw, MBE, RN) and HMS Danae (Capt. F.J. Butler, MBE, RN) as well as the British destroyers HMS Scout (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) H. Lambton, RN) and HMS Tenedos (Lt. R. Dyer, RN).

HMAS Hobart had been originally intended to join the Combined Striking Force but her fuelling was delayed owning to the tanker being damaged in an air attack and she was unable to sail with HMS Exeter and the destroyers in time and was left behind.

Orders for the Combined Stiking Force

Late in the afternoon of the 26th, Rear-Admiral Doorman, was in the operations room of the naval base at Surabaya when a signal was received from Vice-Admiral Helfrich which reported 30 enemy transports in position 04°50’S, 114°20’E, this was about 18 miles north-east of Surabaya. Enemy course was 245°, speed 10 knots. Two cruisers and four destroyers were reported to be escorting these transports. The Combined Striking Force was ordered to proceed to sea to attack the enemy after dark.

Rear-Admiral Doorman then considered to possible routes to make contact with the enemy convoy 1) By a sweep east, along the north coast of Madura, followed by a sweep west, as far as Toeban. 2) By a sweep north, to the west of Bawean, continuing north-east wards towards the Arends Islands.

Later in the afternoon of February 26th, Rear-Admiral Doorman, called a conference of all his commanding officers, where the following decisions were taken 1) The Combined Striking Force was to prevent, at all costs, a Japanese landing on Java or Madura. 2) The Japanese transports were to be attacked, preferably by night. 3) After the attack the Combined Trask Force was to proceed to Tandjong Priok (Batavia). 4) A formation for the night was ordered as follows A screen of British and Dutch destroyers ahead, the five cruisers in line and four US destroyers in rear.

Also a plan for a night attack was made 1) The British and Dutch destroyers were to carry out a torpedo attack as soon as the enemy was sighted and were to follow up their torpedo attack by an attempt to run straight into the enemy convoy and to cause as much damage as possible. The cruisers were to remain out of the convoy and were to fire on it. Finally the US destroyers were then to also make a torpedo attack. 2) If contact was made near the coast, special precautions were to be taken because Dutch mines had been laid off the north coast of Madura and also in the Toeban bight. After an attack in coastal waters the Allied ships therefore had to turn north. 3) After a possible night action the formation would be broken up and it was not considered possible to make definite plans for any subsequent action.

Departure from Surabaya.

The Combined Striking Force put to sea from Surabaya at 1830 hours. It had been decided to make a sweep to the east along the coast of Madura as far as the Sapoedi Strait and if the enemy were not sighted to sweep west and search the bight of Toeban. The Force sailed throught the western channel towards the Java Sea. The ships of the force were disposed in line ahead as follows 1) Two Dutch destroyers, HrMs Witte de With and HrMs Kortenaer. This last ship had a speed limitation of 25 knots, due to one boiler being out of service. 2) Three British destroyers HMS Electra, HMS Encounter and HMS Jupiter. 3) The five Allied cruisers, HrMS de Ruyter, HMS Exeter, USS Houston, HMAS Perth and HrMs Java. 4) Four US destroyers, USS John D. Edwards, USS Alden, USS John D. Ford and USS Paul Jones.

Around the time the Combined Task Force sailed from Surabaya, US Army bombers found and attacked the enemy convoy in position 05°30’S, 113°00’E, which is about 25 miles north-east of Bawean Island. No report was however made to Rear-Admiral Doorman until nearly four hours later. And four hours after that another report was sent regarding this convoy. It is not known if Rear-Admiral Doorman actually received these reports.

At about 2200/26 the whole Combined Strike Force was clear of the Dutch minefields in the approaches to Surabaya and after proceeding 8 nautical miles to the north course was changed to the east, They were now in night formation and proceeding at 20 knots. They continued eastward as planned towards Sapoedi Strait as planned which they reached shortly after 0100/27. Rear-Admiral Doorman then altered course to 284° and maintained a westerly course throughout the remainder of the night.

Japanese air attack on the Combined Task Force.

At dawn on 27 February 1942, the Combined Task Force, was approximately 10 nautical miles north-west of Surabaya. They had not sighted the enemy during the night so day formation was assumed.

At 0700 hours, HMS Exeter, reported RDF contact on a group of aircraft in a south-westerly direction. Rear-Admiral Doorman hoped they were Allied aircraft but around 0800 hours he had to report to the ships in his force that the promised fighter cover would not be forthcoming. At 0855/27 aircraft were heard overhead and shortly afterwards three 100-lb bombs fell close to HMS Jupiter. Five minutes later a stick of four bombs fell about three cables on her starboard quarter. All these bombs were tumbling and at least three failed to explode. USS Houston opened fire on these aircraft which retreated behind clouds. From this time on, enemy aircraft continued to shadow the Allied force but they remained out of range.

Rear-Admiral Doorman reported this incident to Vice-Admiral Helfrich, and at 0930 hours he altered course from 270° to 115°. At 1000 hours, Vice-Admiral Helfrich signaled that Rear-Admiral Doorman had to proceed eastwards to search for and attack the enemy to which Rear-Admiral Doorman replied at 1200 hours with ‘proceeding eastwards after search from Sapoedi to Rembang. Success of action depends absolutely on receiving good reconnaissance information in time which last night failed me. Destroyers will have to refuel tomorrow.’

A Japanese force located.

At 1400/27 the Allied force was proceeding towards the Westervaarwater (northern entrance to Surabaya). The force passed through the swept channel in the minefields in the following order the Dutch destroyers, the British destroyers, the US destroyers and then the cruisers. At 1427 hours the force was entering the harbour when Rear-Admiral Doorman received the following important information from Vice-Admiral Helfrich. 1) At 1340/27 (GH), Twenty ships with an unkown number of destroyers were in position 04.45’S, 112.15’E (approx. 65 miles north-west of Bawean), course 180°. 2) At 1345/27 (GH), one cruiser was reported in position 04°40’S, 111°07’E (approx.. 135 miles north-west of Bawean), course 220°. 3) At 1350/27 (GH), two cruisers, six destroyers and twenty-five transports were reported 20 miles west of Bawean, course south. Of this force one cruiser and four destroyers proceeded south at full speed The transports, one cruiser and two destroyers stayed behind.

The combined striking force proceeded to intercept.

Rear-Admiral Doorman immediately proceeded back to sea again with the intention to intercept the enemy force that was reported 20 miles west of Bawean. After leaving the minefield the British destroyers were ordered to proceed at full speed. The Dutch destroyers were on the port quarter of the cruiser line. The US destroyers were astern. Course was set to 315°, speed 20 knots but this was later increased to 25 knots, the maximum speed of HrMs Kortenaer.

At 1529 hours enemy aircraft appeared, they dropped a few bombs at random. USS Houston fired on the planes. Meanwhile the Allied force scrattered. By 1550 hours the force had reformed and was again on course 315°, speed was now 24 knots.

At 1600 hours, Rear-Admiral Doorman asked for fighter protection but the commander Air Defence Surabaya did not comply because he needed his eight remaining Brewster Buffalo fighters to protect the four dive-bombers in a projected dive-bombing attack on the Japanese transports.

Contact with the enemy.

Shortly after 1600/27, three float planes were sighted to the northward. Some minutes later smoke was sighted, bearing 358°. At 1612 hours, in approximate position 06°28’S, 112°26’E. The Combined Striking Force was still on course 315°. The first report, which came from HMS Electra was ‘one cruiser, unknown number of large destroyers, bearing 330°, speed 18 knots, enemy course 220°. At 1614 hours the Allied fleet, then about 30 miles north-west of Surabaya, increased speed to 26 knots and HMAS Perth reported seeing a cruiser on the starboard bow. At 1616 hours, HMS Exeter reported a cruiser and four destroyers bearing 330°, range 14 nautical miles.

At 1616 hours, the Japanese heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro opened fire from 30000 yards. Their main targets were HMS Exeter and USS Houston. Around the same time the Japanese light cruiser Naka opened fire on the British destroyer HMS Electra which was immediately straddled. Later salvoes fell astern, short and over. She was not hit. HMS Electra and HMS Jupiter fired ranging salvoes at the western (leading) enemy force at a maximum range of 15700 yards but all fell short.

The Allied force was still on course 315° and closing the enemy when HrMs De Ruyter altered course 20° to port (to 295°) to bring the starboard broadsides to bear. This brought the Allied fleet on an almost parallel course with the enemy heavy cruisers. The Allied cruisers were still in line ahead with HMS Electra and HMS Jupiter bearing 280°, four nautical miles from HrMs De Ruyter. The US destroyers were astern of the cruiser line and the two Dutch destroyers were about two nautical miles to port of the cruiser line. The position of HMS Encounter at that moment is not mentioned in any of the reports but she appeared to have been ahead of the Dutch destoyers and abeam of HMAS Perth.

HMS Exeter opened fire at 1617 hours followed by USS Houston one minute later. Range was 26000 to 28000 yards. This range was maintained for some time so the enemy was only under fire from the two heavy cruisers in the Allied cruiser line. Shortly after the action commenced the US destroyers took station about 3000 yards on the disengaged side of HrMs Java and maintained this relative position throughout most of the action. Enemy salvoes almost continuously straddled HrMs De Ruyter and HMS Exeter. All the time three float planes were spotting for the enemy.

First Japanese torpedo attack, 1633 to 1652 hours.

At about 1625 hours, the rear enemy destroyer flotilla appeared from the Allied line to prepare to attack. HMAS Perth opened fire on the right-hand destroyer (this was the Asagumo. She was hit by the second salvo just before she launched torpedoes. Her steering was affected and she was able to fire only three torpedoes.

The first enemy torpedo attack was a coordinated attack made by the two heavy cruisers, two flotilla leaders (light cruiser) and the six destroyers from the 4th destroyer flotilla. As the attack was developing, the Allied fleet, at 1629 hours, altered course from 295° to 248°, speed 25 knots and at 1631 hours, HrMs De Ruyter was hit in the auxiliary motor room on the starboard side by an 8” shell. A petrol fire was started but it was quickly extinguished. One of the crew was killed and six were wounded.

The enemy account of the torpedo attack is as follows About 18 minutes after starting the gun engagement, the Naka followed by the Jintsu fired torpedoes. The 9th and 2nd destroyer flotilla’s then fired in succession. About 40 minutes after the start of the engagement the Haguro fired torpedoes. The Nachi also intended to fire torpedoes but due to a failure in drill did not do so. In 19 minutes, 43 torpedoes were fired at the Allied ships but none hit.

The Japanese 4th destroyer flotilla made smoke immediately following after the torpedo attack, and after the Perth’s second salvo hit, retired behind the smoke, which also concealed the enemy heavy cruisers from view. The Perth fired several follow up salvoes into the smoke screen which became so dense that the Japanese temporarily lost sight of the Allied fleet. The Electra and Jupiter had by this time closed the US destroyers and took op a position abeam the cruiser line on the disengaged side.

At 1635 hours, HrMs De Ruyter led in again towards the enemy on course 267°. Also about this time the rear enemy heavy cruiser, the Haguro was hit, apparently in the boiler room, as she emitted billowing clouds of black smoke, though continuing to fire her guns.

As the enemy smoke screen cleared, a Japanese destroyer was seen to be on fire. This may have been the Minegumo. By then the Nachi was firing at HMS Exeter and the Haguro at the Minazuki, Fumizuki, Nagatsuki (22th Destroyer Division) and the 3th Japanese Destroyer Flotilla which was made up of the Japanese light cruiser Sendai (Flotilla leader) and the destroyers Fubuki, Hatsuyuki and Shirayuki (11th Destroyer Division), Murakumo and Shirakumo (12th Destroyer Division). Furter ships that were part of the escort force were the light cruiser Yura, the minelayer Shirataka, mineweepers W-1, W-2, W-3 and W-4 and several submarine chasers.

Cover for the western invasion force was provided by the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Rear Admiral Kurita) which was made up of the heavy cruisers Kumano, Mikuma, Mogami, Suzuya and the destroyers Isonami, Shikinami and Uranami (19th Destroyer Division). Air cover was provided by the aircraft carrier Ryujo, seaplane tender Chiyoda, auxiliary seaplane tender Kamikawa Maru and the destroyers Amagiri, Asagiri and Yugiri (20th Destroyer Division).

The eastern invasion force was made up of 41 transports. These ships were escorted by the 4th Japanese Desroyer Flotilla. This was made up of the light cruiser Naka (Flotilla leader) and the destroyers Asagumo, Minegumo, Natsugumo (9th Destroyer Division), Murasame, Harusame, Samidare, Yudachi (2nd Destroyer Division) and the Umikaze. The light cruiser Jintsu (Flotilla leader), destroyers Yukikaze, Tokitsukaze, Amatsukaze and Hatsukaze (16th Destroyer Division). Further ships that were part of the escort force were the light cruiser Kinu, minelayer Wakataka, minesweepers W 15 and W 16, submarine chasers Ch-4, Ch-5, Ch-6, Ch-16, Ch-17 and Ch-18.

Cover for the eastern invasion force was provided by the 5th Cruiser Squadron (Rear Admiral Takagi) with the heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro and the destroyers Sazanami, Ushio, Kawakaze and Yamakaze. The 16th Cruiser Squadron with the heavy cruisers Ashigara and Myoko and the destroyers Akebono and Inazuma. Air cover was provided by land based aircraft and the seaplane tender Mizuho and the auxiliary seaplane tender Sanyo Maru.

South of Java operated the Japanese 1st Carrier fleet that had left Kendari (Celebes) and proceeded south through Stait Sape. This force consisted of the aircraft carriers Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu, Soryu, battlecruisers Kongo, Haruna, Hiei, Kirishima, heavy cruisers Chikuma, Tone, Atago, Maya, Takao, light cruiser Abukuma, destroyers Tanikaze, Isokaze, Hamakaze, Urakaze (17th Destroyer Division), Shiranuhi, Kasumi, Airake, Yugure (18th Destroyer Division), Arashi, Hayashio and Nowaki (4th Destroyer Division). ( 1 )

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USS John D Ford DD-228

John D Ford was one of the destroyers authorized as part of the naval build up during World War I. She was completed too late for wartime service, not being commissioned until 1920.

She was assigned to duty in the Asiatic Fleet in 1922 and would see service in that fleet until the fleet was reorganized early in 1942. She participated in actions near Java in January and February 1942. When the fleet retreated to Australia, she participated in convoy duty, including convoys between San Francisco and Pearl Harbor. Her service took her next the Canal Zone performing more convoy duty and then into the South Atlantic. In July 1945 she was converted to a miscellaneous auxiliary and given the designation AG-119. She was decommissioned in November 1945.

This ship board printed cover is cancelled during her Asiatic Fleet service. The cancels mark her crossing of the equator on November 21, 1936 and then her location in Batavia, Java on November 23.


Awards USS John D. Ford_section_3

USS John D. Ford_unordered_list_0

    USS John D. Ford_item_0_0 with "FLEET" clasp USS John D. Ford_item_0_1 with two battle stars USS John D. Ford_item_0_2 USS John D. Ford_item_0_3 with one battle star USS John D. Ford_item_0_4 USS John D. Ford_item_0_5

Presidential Unit Citation USS John D. Ford_section_4

For extraordinary heroism in action against enemy Japanese forces during the Java Campaign in the Southwest Pacific War Area, from January 23 to March 4, 1942. USS John D. Ford_sentence_68

Gallantly operating in defense of the Netherlands East Indies with the limited surface forces of the combined United States, British and Dutch Royal Navies, the JOHN D. FORD led a column of four destroyers in a fierce night counter-invasion action off Balikpapan, confusing and disorganizing the enemy to aid in the sinking or damaging by torpedo and gunfire of a number of Japanese warships. USS John D. Ford_sentence_69

A highly vulnerable target for hostile cruiser and destroyer gunfire while fighting as a unit of a joint United States-Dutch Striking Force in the Badoeng Strait action, she responded nobly to the heroic efforts of her officers and men and scored several damaging torpedo and gun hits before affecting a masterly withdrawal from the field of combat. USS John D. Ford_sentence_70

Boldly attacking a numerically superior force by day in the Java Sea action, she was one of six vessels in the combined United States-Dutch-British Combined Striking Force to wage a brilliant torpedo attack against the main body of the Japanese Armada and, hurling the full fighting power of her gun batteries at the hostile disposition, exerted every means at her command to inflict damage on the Japanese and aid her companion ships in forcing the enemy to break off the engagement. USS John D. Ford_sentence_71

Relentlessly trailed by cruiser-borne planes and repeatedly bombed by enemy aircraft, she battled with unconquerable spirit and undiminished fury against strong dispositions vastly superior in numbers and armament during this early critical period of the war. USS John D. Ford_sentence_72

The JOHN D. FORD’S illustrious achievements add new luster to the annals of American Naval Warfare and uphold the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. USS John D. Ford_sentence_73


USS John D. Ford DD-228 (1919-1945)

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John D. Ford được đặt lườn vào ngày 11 tháng 11 năm 1919 tại xưởng tàu của hãng William Cramp & Sons ở Philadelphia. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 2 tháng 9 năm 1920, được đỡ đầu bởi cô F. Faith Ford, con gái đô đốc Ford và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 30 tháng 12 năm 1920 dưới quyền chỉ huy tạm thời của Trung úy Hải quân L. T. Forbes.

Giữa hai cuộc thế chiến Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất việc chạy thử máy ngoài khơi New England, John D. Ford đặt dưới quyền chỉ huy chính thức của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân C. A. Pownall, vào ngày 16 tháng 7 năm 1921. Sau khi tiến hành huấn luyện tại vùng biển Caribe, nó khởi hành từ Newport,Rhode Island vào ngày 20 tháng 6 năm 1922 để nhận nhiệm vụ cùng Hạm đội Á Châu. Đi ngang qua Địa Trung Hải, kênh đào Suez và Ấn Độ Dương, nó đi đến Cavite, vịnh Manila thuộc Philippines vào ngày 21 tháng 8, bất đầu một giai đoạn phục vụ kéo dài gần hai thập niên tại Viễn Đông.

Trước khi Thế Chiến II nổ ra tại Thái Bình Dương, John D. Ford hoạt động từ căn cứ ở Manila, tuần tra các vùng biển châu Á từ Nam Trung Quốc đến phía Bắc Nhật Bản. Trong tháng 4 và tháng 5 năm 1924, nó thiết lập các căn cứ không lực tạm thời tại quần đảo Kurile và đảo Hokkaidō, Nhật Bản để hỗ trợ cho chuyến bay tiên phong vòng quanh thế giới từ ngày 9 tháng 4 đến ngày 28 tháng 9 do Quân đoàn Không quân Hoa Kỳ (tiền thân của Không quân Hoa Kỳ ngày nay) thực hiện.

Vào ngày 6 tháng 6 năm 1925, John D. Ford được bố trí đến Thượng Hải, Trung Quốc để bảo vệ tính mạng và tài sản của công dân Hoa Kỳ tại đây, vốn bị đe dọa do những biến động và bất ổn sinh ra do cuộc Nội chiến Trung Quốc. Khi bất ổn ngày càng tăng cao vào tháng 5 năm 1926, nó tham gia tuần tra dọc bờ biển Trung Quốc bảo vệ các đoàn tàu chống các băng nhóm cướp biển. Vào ngày 24 tháng 3 năm 1927, nó hỗ trợ cho cuộc di tản công dân Hoa Kỳ và người nước ngoài đang lẫn trốn cuộc bạo loạn tại Nam Kinh, bao gồm một cuộc bắn phá bằng hải pháo vào thành phố.

Việc thành lập chính phủ Quốc Dân Đảng dưới quyền Tưởng Giới Thạch năm 1928 đã giúp giảm thiểu việc bạo loạn, nhưng mối quan hệ Trung-Nhật trở nên căng thẳng, buộc chiếc tàu khu trục phải tiếp tục ở lại khu vực Trung Quốc. sau khi Nhật Bản chiếm đóng phía Bắc Trung Quốc vào tháng 7 năm 1937, nó giúp di tản công dân Hoa Kỳ khỏi Bắc Bình trong lúc tàu chiến Nhật Bản phong tỏa bờ biển Trung Quốc. Đi đến Manila vào ngày 21 tháng 11, nó hoạt động giữa Philippines và miền Nam Trung Quốc trong các cuộc cơ động hạm đội. Sau khi xung đột nổ ra tại Châu Âu vào tháng 9 năm 1939, nó tăng cường các hoạt động huấn luyện ngoài khơi Philippines và tiến hành Tuần tra Trung lập tại vùng biển Philippines và biển Hoa Nam.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Sau khi Hải quân Nhật Bản bất ngờ tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1941 (8 tháng 12 theo giờ địa phương), John D. Ford sẵn sàng để hoạt động tại Cavite như một đơn vị thuộc Đội khu trục 59. Không bị hư hại bởi cuộc không kích mang tính hủy diệt của Nhật Bản xuống vịnh Manila vào ngày 10 tháng 12, nó lên đường đi về phía Nam cùng ngày hôm đó để tuần tra tại biển Sulu và eo biển Makassar cùng Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 6, và tiếp tục ở lại khu vực eo biển Makassar cho đến ngày 23 tháng 12, khi nó lên đường từ Balikpapan, Borneo để đi Surabaya, Java, đến nơi vào ngày 24 tháng 12.

Khi quân Nhật tăng sức ép về phía Nam qua Philippines và hướng đến Đông Ấn thuộc Hà Lan, lực lượng Đồng Minh khó có hy vọng chống đỡ được cuộc tấn công của quân Nhật. Với một số ít tàu chiến và hầu như không có sự hỗ trợ của không quân, họ chỉ quấy phá lực lượng Nhật Bản trong một cố gắng trì hoãn sự tiến quân, và ngăn cản việc chiếm đóng Australia. Lo lắng trong việc đánh trả quân Nhật, John D. Ford rời Surabaya vào ngày 11 tháng 1 năm 1942 để đi Kupang, Timor, đến nơi vào ngày 18 tháng 1 để gia nhập một lực lượng khu trục. Hai ngày sau, lực lượng khởi hành đi Balikpapan thực hiện một cuộc tấn công chớp nhoáng. Đi đến ngoài khơi Balikpapan trong đêm 24 tháng 1, bốn tàu khu trục bất ngờ tấn công bằng ngư lôi vào các tàu vận tải Nhật trong khi các tàu khu trục hộ tống Nhật tuần tra ngoài eo biển Makassar truy tìm tàu ngầm Hoa Kỳ. Trong hơn một giờ, chúng bắn ngư lôi và hải pháo vào đối phương đang hoảng loạn, và trước khi rút lui đã đánh chìm bốn tàu đối phương, một trong số đó là bởi ngư lôi của John D. Ford. Lực lượng tấn công về đến Surabaya ngày 25 tháng 1.

Gọng kìm tấn công của Nhật Bản vẫn tiếp tục hướng về Đông Ấn thuộc Hà Lan bất chấp sự quấy phá của Đồng Minh. Vào ngày 3 tháng 2, Nhật Bản bắt đầu ném bom Surabaya, và John D. Ford rút lui cùng đoàn tàu vận tải đến Tjilatjap trên bờ biển phía Nam Java. Đến giữa tháng 2, Nhật Bản siết chặt sự kiểm soát các đảo phía Đông và phía Tây Java, và đến ngày 18 tháng 2, chúng đổ bộ lên Bali kế cận phần cực Đông của Java, để chống trả John D. Ford, Pope cùng các tàu chiến Hoa Kỳ và Hà Lan khác di chuyển qua eo biển Badoeng theo hai đợt để đối đầu một lực lượng khu trục-vận tải đối phương trong đêm 19-20 tháng 2, vốn trở thành Trận chiến eo biển Badung. Nằm trong thành phần đợt thứ nhất, John D. Ford đối đầu với hai tàu khu trục Nhật mà không có kết quả. Diễn biến sau cùng của trận chiến đối phương là một chiến thắng cho phía Nhật Bản: họ đổ bộ lên Bali thành công, đánh chìm tàu khu trục Hà Lan HNLMS Piet Hein trong khi chỉ chịu hư hại nhẹ.

Quay trở về Tjilatjap vào ngày 21 tháng 2 để tiếp nhiên liệu, John D. FordPope lập tức lên đường đi Kiritimati để nhận lấy những dự trữ cuối cùng gồm 17 đến 18 quả ngư lôi từ tàu tiếp liệu Black Hawk rồi lại lên đường đi Surabaya, đến nơi vào ngày 24 tháng 2 để gia nhập lực lượng đã bị tiêu hao thuộc Bộ chỉ huy Mỹ-Anh-Hà Lan-Australia (ABDA). Bị ảnh hưởng bởi thiếu hụt nhiên liệu, đạn dược, ngư lôi cũng như giảm sút lực lượng do bị đánh chìm, hư hại trong chiến đấu và yêu cầu sửa chữa, lực lượng Đồng Minh đang ở tình tình huống ngặt nghèo. Chỉ có bốn tàu khu trục Hoa Kỳ tiếp tục hoạt động cùng lực lượng tấn công. Đến ngày 25 tháng 2, John D. Ford lên đường từ Surabaya cùng với hải đội để truy tìm một lực lượng đổ bộ lớn đối phương trong biển Java. Quay trở về cảng vào ngày hôm sau, có thêm năm tàu chiến Anh cùng gia nhập, và lực lượng lại khởi hành để truy tìm đối phương. Sau một đợt tấn công bất thành của máy bay đối phương vào sáng ngày 27 tháng 2, lực lượng Đồng Minh đi đến Surabaya. Trong khi đi qua bãi mìn, các con tàu đổi hướng và được bố trí để đối đầu lực lượng đối phương ngoài khơi bờ biển phía Bắc Java.

Trận chiến biển Java diễn ra lúc 16 giờ 16 phút và kéo dài trong bảy giờ. Lực lượng Đồng Minh bao gồm 5 tàu tuần dương và 9 tàu khu trục đã đối đầu với 4 tàu tuần dương và 13 tàu khu trục đối phương trong một trận chiến săn đuổi náo loạn xen kẻ với các cuộc đấu pháo và ngư lôi. John D. Ford thoát ra khỏi trận chiến mà không bị hư hại, nhưng một lần nữa kết quả lại là một thất bại toàn diện đối với Đồng Minh: họ không thể ngăn cản cuộc đổ bộ lên Java, và năm tàu chiến Đồng Minh đã bị đánh chìm. Rút lui về Surabaya, John D. Ford và ba tàu khu trục khác thuộc Đội khu trục 58 lên đường vào đêm 28 tháng 2 để đi Australia. Băng qua các luồng hẹp của eo biển Bali trong đêm 1 tháng 3, mà không bị phát hiện, chúng lại đụng độ với ba tàu khu trục Nhật đang canh gác phần cực Nam của eo biển. Hết ngư lôi và gần cạn đạn dược, các tàu chiến Mỹ rút lui tránh lực lượng tuần tra Nhật để hướng đến Fremantle, thuộc Perth, Western Australia, đến nơi an toàn vào ngày 4 tháng 3.

Sau hai tháng làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải dọc theo bờ biển Australia, John D. Ford rời Brisbane vào ngày 9 tháng 5 để đi Trân Châu Cảng. Đến nơi vào ngày 2 tháng 6, nó lại lên đường ba ngày sau đó để đi San Francisco, đến nơi vào ngày 12 tháng 6. Nó rời San Francisco ngày 23 tháng 6 để quay lại Trân Châu Cảng, và trong 11 tháng tiếp theo đã hộ tống chín đoàn tàu vận tải đi lại giữa San Francisco và Hawaii. Quay về vùng bờ Tây vào ngày 20 tháng 5 năm 1943, nó rời San Francisco vào ngày 24 tháng 5 để chuyển sang khu vực Đại Tây Dương, làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải và tuần tra chống tàu ngầm.

Được phân về Hạm đội 10, nó đi qua kênh đào Panama vào ngày 4 tháng 6, và gia nhập một đoàn tàu vận tải hướng đi Trinidad vào ngày 6 tháng 6. Trong sáu tháng tiếp theo, John D. Ford hoạt động tại khu vực Bắc và Nam Đại Tây Dương, kéo dài từ New York và Charleston, South Carolina đến Casablanca, Maroc và Recife, Brazil, bảo vệ các đoàn tàu vận tải khỏi các cuộc tấn công của tàu ngầm U-boat Đức. Sau một đợt huấn luyện chống tàu ngầm vào cuối tháng 12, nó gia nhập cùng tàu sân bay hộ tống Guadalcanal ngoài khơi Norfolk, Virginia vào ngày 5 tháng 1 năm 1944 cho nhiệm vụ tuần tra chống tàu ngầm tại Đại Tây Dương. Nó đã hỗ trợ cho việc tiêu diệt tàu ngầm U-544 của các máy bay xuất phát từ Guadalcanal, vốn đã bất ngờ tấn công bằng mìn sâu chiếc tàu ngầm khi nó đang được tiếp nhiên liệu về phía Tây Azores vào ngày 16 tháng 1.

Sau khi quay về vùng bờ Đông vào ngày 16 tháng 2, John D. Ford rời Norfolk vào ngày 14 tháng 3 cho một chuyến hộ tống vận tải sang Địa Trung Hải. Đang khi ở lại Gibraltar vào ngày 29 tháng 3, nó bị hư hại do va chạm với một tàu chở dầu Anh. Sau khi được sửa chữa, nó quay trở về Norfolk, đến nơi vào ngày 1 tháng 5. Nó lại rời Norfolk vào ngày 24 tháng 5 hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải đi đến vùng kênh đào Panama, và tiếp tục nhiệm vụ tuần tra và hộ tống trong gần một năm từ các cảng bờ Đông đến Recife, Reykjavík và Casablanca. Từ ngày 24 tháng 5 đến ngày 27 tháng 6 năm 1945, nó hoạt động như tàu hộ tống và canh phòng máy bay cho Boxer trong chuyến đi chạy thử máy của chiếc tàu sân bay tại vùng biển Caribe, rồi quay trở về Norfolk.

John D. Ford khởi hành vào ngày 8 tháng 7, để đi đến Xưởng hải quân Boston, đến nơi vào ngày 9 tháng 7, và được cải biến thành một tàu phục trợ với ký hiệu lườn AG-119. Nó quay trở lại Norfolk vào ngày 9 tháng 9, rồi được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 2 tháng 11 năm 1945. Lườn tàu được bán cho hãng Northern Metal Company tại Philadelphia để tháo dỡ vào ngày 5 tháng 10 năm 1947.

John D. Ford được tặng thưởng bốn Ngôi sao Chiến trận cùng danh hiệu Đơn vị Tuyên dương Tổng thống do thành tích phục vụ trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai.


Biography

Ford, who was born in Baltimore, Maryland, entered the Navy as third assistant engineer on 30 July 1862. He was assigned to the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from 1862 to 1865 and participated in engagements on the Mississippi River and the Battle of Mobile Bay.

He served on the sloop-of-war Sacramento until she was wrecked off the coast of India in June 1867. During the next three decades he held various sea and shore assignments, and, while attached to the Maryland Agricultural and Mechanical College (now the University of Maryland, College Park) from 1894–96, he started a course in mechanical engineering. As fleet engineer of the Pacific Squadron in 1898, he served in the cruiser Baltimore during the Battle of Manila Bay on 1 May. For his "eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle" in operations at Cavite, Sangley Point, and Corregidor, he was advanced three numbers.

Ford was promoted to Rear Admiral upon retirement on 19 May 1902. He remained on active duty as Inspector of Machinery and Ordnance at Sparrows Point, Maryland until December 1908.

He was a companion of the Maryland Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.


John D. Ford DD- 228 - History

    The United States Navys' Luckest Sailor ? You decide.

My Dad, James Hiram Boulton Jr., was aboard the USS Cassin DD-372 , the USS John D. Ford DD-228, and the USS Heermann DD-228. These ships earned 11 battle stars and numerous awards including three Presidential Unit Citations (Ford and Heermann.)

Service timeline:
Dad Joined the Navy on 10 Mar 1939. After Naval Training school he reported aboard the USS Cassin on 29 June 1939 and sailed to Pearl Harbor for duty there. On 30 Apr 1940 now a Seaman 2nd class, he transferred to The Asiatic Fleet and reported aboard the USS John D. Ford DD-272, in Shanghai China.
On 18 Dec 1940 he changed rate and was promoted to GM3c. (Gunners Mate)
On 1 Nov 1941 he was promoted to GM2c.

On 7 Dec 1941 the USS Cassin DD-372 Dads' first destroyer was destroyed at Pearl Harbor. Dad was on board the Ford then on Patrol near Manila Bay and ordered to Cavite harbor, the Naval base in Manila bay.

At Midnight Jan 23-4 1942, the USS John D Ford led the attack at the 1st Battle Of Balikpapan (1) . This was the First United States Naval Surface Battle since The Spanish American War ended in 1898 and although a tactical victory by sinking 5 Japanese ships it did nothing to slow the Japanese invasion. Very frustrating for my dad and his shipmates.

The full history of the Asiatic Fleet is legend and almost totally unheard of by the public. The news of the "Victory at Balikpapan" was very well known in Australia, New Zealand, and Europe as the BBC broadcast the story as the first sign of resistance by US Naval Forces in the South China Sea. Only those with short wave radios in the mainland United States learned about the battle. There were other battles, the most noteworthy was the 1st battle of the Java sea.

HIGHLY RECOMMEND READING : The Asiatic Fleet, the fleet that didn't exist (2) . The USS John D Ford was one of the few survivors in the weeks that followed. This ends the first David and Goliath story for dad and his shipmates during the first weeks of WWII.
There is one more coming!

On 28 May 1942 he was promoted to GM1stc and CGM signed off by then Gunnery officer Lieut. W.P Mack and Commanding officer Lieut Commander J.E Cooper. (Both become Fleet Admirals and Superintendents Of The US Naval Academy

On 6 July 1943 after the Asiatic Fleet was dissolved (3) , and after Gunnery School at Washington, DC. Chief Gunners Mate James Hiram Boulton Jr reported aboard the brand new Fletcher Class (4) Destroyer USS Heermann DD-532.

On 25 Oct 1944 Dad got his revenge with the Japanese. In the greatest naval battle of world history Taffy 3's Tin Cans (5) were instrumental in the defeat of the Japanese Center Force. James H Boulton Jr was awarded a commendation for Valor for although wounded, and under intense fire, repaired a five inch gun and put it back in action for the duration of battle!
Redemption and one of the luckiest sailors of WWII, James H Boulton.

This is meant as a tribute to all the men who served in The Asiatic Fleet "the fleet that didn't exist" and on tin cans before and during WWII, dad was Lucky but there were many. Too many, who were not.

As a side note The Heermann is "credited" with firing the last shot of WWII , Shooting down what appeared to be a Kamikaze pilot. Unfortunatly it was a few hours after the Japanese surrender, so credit is dubious. ( Asked my dad about that years ago , but he just smiled)


Watch the video: USS John D. Ford DD-228 (August 2022).