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Combat of Arnhofen, 19 April 1809
The combat of Arnhofen (19 April 1809) was a Bavarian victory over an Austrian brigade guarding the left flank of the main Austrian army during its invasion of Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809.
The main focus of the Austrian effort on 19 April was an attempt to isolate Marshal Davout's corps, which was attempting to march west from Regensburg to rejoin the rest of the French army. The two sides clashed at Teugn-Hausen, where the French were able to slip past the much larger Austrian force. At the same time a series of more minor clashes took place around the flanks of the two armies.
When Archduke Charles turned north on 19 April to try and catch Davout, this left his left flank exposed to a possible attack by the Bavarian troops of Marshal Lefebvre's 7th Corps. Charles ordered his III Corps to detach a brigade towards the line of the Abens River, and especially around Biburg and Abensburg.
GM Thierry's brigade of around 6,000 men was chosen for the task. This brigade moved west from the army HQ at Rohr to Kirchdorf, and was then split into several detachments. One infantry battalion and a half squadron of dragoons went to Hörlbach, about one mile to the north-west of Kirchdorf. Another battalion, three and a half cavalry squadrons and four guns were placed close to Bruckhof, another mile to the north-west. Finally Thierry led the remaining two infantry battalions, two dragoon squadrons and four guns north towards Arnhofen, where he believed he might find some Bavarian troops. This took them through a large wooded area, the Seeholz, much of which still exists.
The main road from Abensberg to Regensburg ran past Arnhofen. Crown Prince Ludwig's 1st Bavarian Division was about to pass along this road, heading towards the sound of the guns at Teugn-Hausen, with GM Friedrich von Zandt's cavalry brigade acting as its advance-guard. All of this was hidden from Thierry, who could only see a few Bavarian horsemen on top of some low hills between the road and the woods.
As the Austrians advanced towards the hills Marshal Lefebvre ordered one of his cavalry regiments to turn right off the line of march. Thierry reacted by ordered his own cavalry to charge the newcomers, who rather bizarrely chose to meet this attack standing still, rather than at the charge. Despite support from a Bavarian artillery battery, their cavalry were forced back. Lefebvre was forced to sent his 1st Dragoons into the battle, The two Bavarian cavalry regiments were able to force the Austrians back to the edge of the woods.
A second fight was going on to the west of the woods, where Thierry had posted two infantry battalions to guard against an attack from Abensberg. These battalions managed to provoke just such an attack, led by Lefebvre in person, and after three unsuccessful attempts the Bavarians forced the Austrians to retreat into the woods. Only the arrival of Thierry's reserves restored the situation.
The fighting now expanded on both flanks, and by around 3-4pm Thierry was forced to order a retreat. His brigade rather disintegrated at this point, with half of the infantry retreating south while Thierry and the rest of his brigade moved south-east towards Offenstetten. The Bavarian pursuit was limited, and was anyway ended by the same storm that had forced an end to the fighting at Teugn-Hausen.
The nearest Thierry came to receiving any aid from the rest of the Austrian army was a short-lived advance by GM Friedrich Bianchi's brigade, which was sent in his general direction in mid-afternoon. This tentative advance ended when a single Bavarian infantry regiment advanced towards Bianchi from the west, without ever coming into combat. Even after the Bavarians pulled back to the west, Bianchi's advance came to an end.
On the following day Thierry's brigade would find itself in the front line once again, as Napoleon's counterattack burst onto the disorganised Austrian army (battle of Abensberg).
Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars
Battle of Teugen-Hausen, April 1809
The Battle of Teugen-Hausen or the Battle of Thann was an engagement that occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle was fought on 19 April 1809 between the French III Corps led by Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout and the Austrian III Armeekorps commanded by Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. The French won a hard-fought victory over their opponents when the Austrians withdrew that evening. The site of the battle is a wooded height approximately halfway between the villages of Teugen and Hausen in Lower Bavaria, part of modern-day Germany.
Also on 19 April, clashes occurred at Arnhofen near Abensberg, Dünzling, Regensburg, and Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm. Together with the Battle of Teugen-Hausen, the fighting marked the first day of a four-day campaign which culminated in the French victory at the Battle of Eckmühl.
Austria’s invasion of the Kingdom of Bavaria caught Emperor Napoleon I of France’s Franco-German army by surprise. Though the advance of Archduke Charles’ Austrian army was slow, mistakes by Napoleon’s subordinate Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier placed Davout’s corps in great peril. As Davout withdrew southwest from Regensburg on the south bank of the Danube, Charles tried to intercept the French with three powerful attacking columns.
The first Austrian column missed the French altogether, while Davout’s cavalry held off the second column. The third column crashed head-on into one of Davout’s infantry divisions in a meeting engagement. Generals of both armies led their troops with courage and skill as the troops fought over two ridges. French reinforcements finally pushed the Austrians off the southern ridge late in the afternoon and Charles ordered a retreat that night. This opened a clear path for Davout to join the main body of the French army on 20 April.
A number of buddies from my normal Friday gaming group were planning to head up to Historicon the same days as I. We all agreed to stay at the same place (Hollinger House), which ended up becoming a game room for us on our trip! We thought we would bring a small game to play to break up our time at the convention. After some thoughts, we settled on a small game of BBB Napoleonics. Our buddy Tony set up the scenario and opted for the Battle of Teugen Hausen. This battle is a bit smaller than one would normally thing to use BBB rules. However, we thought is would be a nice test for the rules at the regimental level.
Do to the scale, the table was three foot wide by four feet deep. Nice and compact. We had the ridge in the middle and anchored the ends with the towns of Tuegen and Hausen. Each unit represented a Regiment (figure sale of about 300 men per base). The winner would be determined by the French holding the ridge or taking all the towns.
The Austrians started with all their forces on the table and were given rough instructions regarding possible French forces off the table. They did not now if the French would counter march to a flank position or just enter straight ahead. The last part ended up being a fog of war ploy by the GM, to make the Austrians “consider” their deployment forward.
The French started with two units on the table and the rest would enter as the scenario went on. The game would end when the rain became too heavy to fight. This would be determined by rolling a D6 every tune from turn nine onward. When the total equaled or exceeded twelve, the game would end.
Early Game: The game started with the French attacking right up the middle, as the Austrians tried to form up their columns into a blocking position. The Austrians were successful in fending off the initial French attacks. As more Austrians started to deploy, more French arrived to try to push through. This was held off with some effort.
Late Game: More French arrived and started to attack up their left to try to get around the Austrian position, causing the Austrians to shift to meet the threat and stabilize the front. The French then sent in their final columns to swing around the Austrian left. They in turn opened up their center to deploy their now arrived artillery. Things looks a little precarious for the the defenders! The Austrians decided it was time to stop playing defense and seize the initiative. Seeing the split in French forces, the plan was to hold on to the right flank and to attack the French on the left and push them off the heights. The attack managed to push the French back and take place the Austrians back on the heights as the rains came! No French victory this time! The game master declared it a draw and it was time to pick everything up!
We were unsure if BBB would work at this scale of game. However, I can say that we had a blast and everything worked out well. We were happy with the mechanics and the flow of the game (which was not made easy fighting in the woods!).
• Commander: Archduke Charles
• 4 Command Cards
• Optional 3 Tactician Cards
• Commander: Davout
• 5 Command Cards
• Optional 5 Tactician Cards
• Move First
• The nine hill hexes that make up the first ridge line form a Temporary Majority Group Victory Banner worth 2 banners to the side that occupies an absolute majority at the start of its turn (Temporary Majority Victory Banner Turn Start)
• The six hill hexes that make up the second ridge form a Temporary Majority Group Victory Banner worth 1 banner to the side that occupies an absolute majority at the start of its turn (Temporary Majority Victory Banner Turn Start)
• The village of Teugen is a Permanent Victory Banner Objective worth 2 banners for the Austrian player when an Austrian unit occupies the village at the start of its turn (Permanent Victory Banner Turn Start)
Bangla ( Austrians ): 6 victory banners
Stanislav27 ( French ): 8 victory banners
A very tense and closely-fought battle. The French had very good cards throughout. The Austrians started with stunning dice rolls, which were evened out by the end, and they were plagued by a weak selection of cards for large portions of the battle.
The battle commenced with a somewhat poorly executed French assault on the Austrian left. The Grenzers were halved in strength and send fleeing, but the attack on the ridge proved disastrous. An Austrian First Strike obliterated an entire full-strength French Line Infantry unit in one roll! Afterwards, a French Light Infantry unit was obliterated at point blank range by the Austrian battery, which scored three hits at once. Another French Line unit was reduced to a quarter of its strength. All Austrian units maintained cohesion, though one Line Infantry unit was reduced to a fifth of its starting strength. 5-0
Following this debacle, the French fell back and regrouped on their right, while pushing a few units forward on the opposite flank. The Austrians likewise spent the time maneuvering units into place.
In the subsequent attack, the French managed to destroy the Austrian artillery battery and the first ridge was now ripe for the taking. A French Light Infantry unit seized the extreme right of the hill formation. Soon thereafter, French infantry and horse artillery occupied the left side of the ridge too. The French would not relinquish this strategic objective for the rest of the battle, though it would be hotly contested. 3-3
A lull ensued on the French right, while the Austrians attacked the French left. The French held their ground as their comrades deployed further forward in the centre. A blunder by the French general (who forgot that Horse Artilley cannot fire after moving when reduced to one block!) meant that the valiant French Horse Artillery was destroyed. The French managed to avenge their fallen comrades by finishing off an Austrian Line Infantry unit that had been subjected to a lot of accurate fire from light Infantry and artillery on the far left of the battlefield.
In the next phase of the clash, the Austrians moved fresh units forward on both flanks, while the French strengthened their hold of the left side of the first ridge with two of Destabenrath's line infantry units. The French line infantry units coordinated their attack to destroy Bieber's advanced Line Infantry unit. The subsequent Austrian counter-attack (assisted by light cavalry) cost many French casualties - both on the left and in the centre, but the units did not break. 4-5
This moment of resilience was crucial. The French unleashed a deadly bayonet charge on their next move. On the left, a depleted unit was moved back behind the ridge. On the right, two line infantry units occupied the ridge. And on the extreme right, a somewhat impetuous charge sought to destroy a severely depleted Austrian infantry unit that had withdrawn to the second ridge. This depleted unit was destroyed, while two full-strength Austrian line infantry units were each reduced to two fifths of their initial strength.
Stuck with many commands for the right, but few for the other sections of the battlefield, the Austrian cavalry charged again. It managed to shatter the fragile square of the depleted French infantry unit on the left, but its cavalry breakthrough was not enough to take it to the relative safety of Teugen. On the subsequent turn, the French executed a merciless combined arms attack on the isolated cavalrymen. Surrounded and unable to retire and reform, they were cut down, the field strewn with mutilated men and beasts. 5-7
The Austrian retribution for this slaughter came swiftly. The impetuous French infantrymen on the far right who stood isolated on the second ridge were subjected to an Austrian combined arms attack that left no Frenchman standing. However, the French were able to complete the victory on the very next turn by finishing off one of the weakened Austrian infantry units immediately behind the right part of the first ridge. 6-8
The Lordz Forum
List of Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Battles
Post by Lord Lepic » Sun Apr 23, 2017 9:04 am
List of Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Battles: April.
Battles which were fought during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic era.
http://nwars.forumer.com/topic/140/List . PxeShMrJhE
This is work in progress Researching over 2000 Battles of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
I have added Links ( Battles highlighted in bold) within the list of the battles covered so far, find the details on the commanders, troop numbers and what happened during the course of the various battles here.
If you know of any Battles currently missed or have a Battle Request let me know thanks.
If you have any information, images or videos for a Battle post on the N:WARS Forum.
Battles are usually posted on the same day as they were fought.
The following are descriptions of battles fought during the Napoleonic and Revolutionary Wars in the month of April.
Abaud_3 April 1799_Skirmish
Abensberg_20 April 1809_Battle
Alhourin_14 April 1812_Clash
Almeida_7 April-10 May 1811_Siege
Amarante_18 April - 3 May 1809_Clashes
Amberg_13 April 1809_Skirmish
Arnhofen_19 April 1809_Clash
Badajoz_22 April - 12 May 1811_Blockade
Bayonne_14 April 1814_Sortie
Biar_12 April 1813_Clash
Bleicherode_19 April 1813_Skirmish
Bocchetta La_9 April 1800_Clash
Boulou_30 April - 1 May 1794_Battle
Braila_18 April - 17 May 1809_Failed Siege
Boulou_30 April - 1 May 1794_Battle
Brescia_21 April 1799_Capitulation
Briga_27 April 1794_Skirmish
Cadibona_6 April 1800_Clash
Capri_10 April 1815_Capture of
Casaglia_12 April 1815_Clash
Castalla_13 April 1813_Battle
Castelcerino_30 April 1809_Clash
Cateau Le_26 April 1794_Battle
Catillon_17 April 1794_Clash
Ceret_20 April 1793_Clash
Cerisiera_6 April 1794_Skirmish
Cesenatico_23 April 1815_Clash
Ciudad Rodrigo_26 April - 9 July 1810_Siege
Col Ardente_24 April 1794_Clash
Conde_8 April - 12 July 1793_Blockade
Copenhagen_2 April 1801_Navel Battle
Courtray_26 April 1794_Skirmish
Dego_14 April 1796_Clash
Dego_15 April 1796_Clash
Eggmuhl_22 April 1809_Battle
Etauliers_6 April 1814_Clash
Figueras_10 April 1811_Capture
Figueras_4 April - 19 August 1811_Blockade
Geisling_17 April 1809_Skirmish
Genoa_19 April - 4 June 1800_Blockade
Guarda_14 April 1812_Clash
Hausn and Teugn (Thann)_19 April 1809_Clash
Hirschau_11 April 1809_Skirmish
Innsbruck_11 - 13 April 1809_Clashes
Kustrin_13 April 1813 - 7 March 1814_Blockade
Landrecies_19 April 1794_Clash
Landrecies_21 - 30 April 1794_Siege
Landshut_16 April 1809_Clash
Landshut_21 April 1809_Clash
Langensalza_16 - 17 April 1813_Clash
Le Chateau _26 April 1794_Battle
Lecco_26 April 1799_Skirmish
Llieda_29 April - 13 May 1810_Siege
Luneburg_2 April 1813_Clash
Magnano_5 April 1799_Battle
Mainz_10 April - 23 July 1793_Siege
Maighera_23 April 1809_Raid
Mantua_8 April - 28 July 1799_Siege
Margalef_23 April 1810_Clash
Milan_30 April - 24 May 1799_Blockade
Millesimo (Cosseria)_13 - 14 April 1796_Clash
Mockern_5 April 1813_Clash
Mondovi_22 April 1796_Clash
Monte Cenis_7 - 8 April 1800_Capture
Monte Fascio_7 April 1800_Clash
Monte Settepani_10 - 11 April 1800_Clash
Montenotte_11 - 12 April 1796_Clash
Mount Tabor_16 April 1799_Skirmish
Mouscron_26 - 28 - 29 April 1794_Clash
Neumarkt - St Vieth_24 April 1809_Clash
Neuwied_18 April 1797_Clash
Nordhausen_19 April 1813_Skirmish
Occhiobello_7 April 1815_Clash
Pesaro_28 April 1815_Raid
Pordenone_15 April 1809_Clash
Puerto de Arlaban_9 April 1812_Ambush
Quena_3 April 1799_Massacre
Raclawice_4 April 1794_Clash
Radzymin (Grochow)_26 April 1809_Clash
Raszyn_19 April 1809_Clash
Regensburg and Stadtamhof_19 April 1809_1st Clash
Regensburg_20 April 1809_Capitulation
Regensburg_23 April 1809_2nd Clash
Remus_22 April 1799_1st Skirmish
Remus_30 April 1799_2nd Skirmish
Romans - sur - I'Isere_2 April 1814_Capture
Ronco_21 April _1815
Sabugal_3 April 1811_Combat
Sacile_16 April 1809_Battle
Salzburg_29 April 1809_Combat
Taro River_13 April 1814_Clash
Tauffers_4 April 1799_2nd Clash
Ten Briel_6 April 1794_Skirmish
Toulouse_10 April 1814_Battle
Tournay_29 April 1792_Clash
Tuilla La_25 April 1794_Skirmish
Ursensollen_14 April 1809_Skirmish
Venzone_11 April 1809_1st Clash
Verreira_11 April 1800_Clash
Villagarcia_11 April 1812_Clash
Villers - en - Cauchie_24 April 1794_Clash
Voltri_10 April 1796_Skirmish
Voltri_18 April 1800_Clash
Voreppe_2 April 1814_Capture
Wanfried_18 April 1813_Ambush
Warsaw_17 - 19 April 1794_Clash
Zalamea_15 April 1810_Combat
Zermanja River_26 - 30 April 1809_Clashes
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You must not fight too often with one enemy, or you will teach him all your art of war.
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of four qualifying rounds at Glasgow, Zarnovica, Lamothe - Landerron and Abensberg and the Grand Prix Challenge at Gorican. The three riders that qualified
- Abensberg und Traun now usually written Abensperg - Traun is the name of an Austrian noble family, originally from the Upper Austrian Traungau. It is
- Niclas, Graf von Abensberg 1441 28 February 1485 was a knight and nobleman under the reign of Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria. Originating from an old family
- The Battle of Abensberg took place on 20 April 1809, between a Franco - German force under the command of Emperor Napoleon I of France and a reinforced
- the fifth FIM Speedway World Team Cup season. The final took place in Abensberg West Germany. The World Champion title was won by Sweden 34 pts who
- The Battle of Abensberg was fought on 20 April 1809, between an Allied force under the command of Emperor Napoleon I of France on one side and three Austrian
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Holocaust-Era Art Provenance and Claims Records and Research at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)Опубликовано: Sylvia Naylor 04.12.2020
The National Archives and Records Administration holds a substantial quantity of records relating to Holocaust-Era art provenance and claims research. Within these holdings there are records relating to the looting, identification, recovery, and disposition of cultural property during and after World War II. Many of these records are identified in Holocaust-Era Assets: A Finding Aid to Records at the National Archives at College Park, Maryland (1999) compiled by Dr. Greg Bradsher ( A digital copy is also available at the HathiTrust Digital Library and may be viewed here) . This finding aid is the most comprehensive guide to date and it is a critical starting point for researchers conducting art provenance and claims research using NARA’s records.
Some of the records listed and described in Dr. Bradsher’s finding aid were microfilmed by NARA in the early 2000s . Digital images of the microfilmed records can be viewed free of charge through the Holocaust-Era Assets Collection at fold3.com . NARA has been uploading the images produced by fold3.com into the National Archives Catalog . The following microfilm publications are fully available in the Catalog as of November 2020:
- M1782: OSS Art Looting Investigation Unit Reports, 1945-46
- M1942: Records Concerning the Central Collecting Points ("Ardelia Hall Collection"): Offenbach Archival Depot, 1946-1951
- M1934: OSS Washington Secret Intelligence/Special Funds Records, 1942-1946
- M1946: Records Concerning the Central Collecting Points ("Ardelia Hall Collection"): Munich Central Collecting Point, 1945-1951
- DN1924: Records of the Foreign Exchange Depository Group of the Office of the Finance Adviser, OMGUS, 1944-1950
- DN1929: Records of the Property Control Branch of the U.S. Allied Commission for Austria (USACA) Section, 1945-1951
- M1921: Records of the Cultural Affairs Branch Relating to Monuments, Museums, Libraries, Archives, and Fine Arts, OMGUS, 1946-1949
- M1923: OMGUS Finance Division Records Regarding Investigations and Interrogations, 1945-1949
- M1925: Records Regarding Intelligence and Financial Investigations of the Financial Intelligence Group, OMGUS, 1945-1949
- A3380: Reports from the Mediterranean and European Theaters of Operations Received from the Allied Military Government, 1943-1946
- A3389: Records Concerning the Central Collecting Points ("Ardelia Hall Collection"): Selected Microfilm Reproductions and Related Records, 1945-1949
The microfilm publications listed below are in the process of being uploaded to the Catalog and are currently partially available to view and download:
We will post updated information on History Hub once these publications are completely available in the Catalog.
Over the past several years, Dr. Bradsher and I have been compiling a list of NARA records of importance to provenance research that are not available digitally on fold3.com with the objective to digitize them in-house and upload the digital images into the National Archives Catalog, as time and resources permit. So far, we have digitized relevant files from two series. The first series, titled Records of the German Military Commander in France Relating to the Seizure and Transportation of Cultural and Other Property , is part of the National Archives Collection of Foreign Records Seized ( Record Group 242 ) and contains photostats of correspondence, lists, inventories, instructions, packing and shipping lists, and other records relating to the seizure, administration, and disposition of cultural and other property in France during the 1940-1944 period.
We also digitized five folders that contain documents crucial for provenance research, titled Art Treasures vol 1-5 , from the series Reference Documents Received from American and Foreign Sources in the National Archives Collection of World War II War Crimes Records ( Record Group 238 ).
The records described above are only a small portion of relevant provenance and claims research records. There are millions of pages of records that are described in the National Archives Catalog, but are not digitized and need to be viewed on-site in the Research Rooms at the National Archives at College Park, MD .
Further, we have created a website on Holocaust-Era Assets which features several webpages on specific subjects such as the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) Photographic Albums and provides useful resources for provenance researchers. We are in the process of updating the website by adding new information and making it as user friendly as possible. NARA staff have written blog posts about records and topics related to Holocaust-Era assets and looted cultural property on both the Text Message Blog that focuses on textual records and the Unwritten Record Blog , dedicated to special media holdings.
NARA is also a part of the International Research Portal for Records Related to Nazi-Era Cultural Property maintainted by the European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) , which is a collaboration of national and other archival institutions with records that pertain to Nazi-Era cultural property. The Portal links researchers to archival materials across participating institutions consisting of descriptions of records and, in many cases, digital images of the records that relate to cultural property that was stolen, looted, seized, forcibly sold, or otherwise lost during the Nazi era. The records made available on the Portal from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration include over 2.3 million pages of documents created or received by the U.S. Government during and after World War II as part of its investigations into cultural assets that were looted or otherwise lost during the war.
While Holocaust-Era art and claims research can be challenging, the National Archives has been working to provide researchers with the tools listed above to help navigate through the millions of pages of relevant documents.
Why the United States Controls Guantanamo Bay
I t was six years ago, on Jan. 22, 2009, two days after he became President, that Barack Obama issued an executive order designed to “promptly close detention facilities at Guantanamo.” The closing of that prison at the U.S. naval base at Cuba’s Guantanamo Bay would, he said, take place no less than a year from that date.
Five years after the 2010 deadline passed &mdash and even as relations between the U.S. and Cuba begin to thaw &mdash the detention facilities remain in use. More than 100 prisoners remain there, even though that number is declining and officials have said that Obama would still like to achieve the closure before he leaves office.
But how did the U.S. end up with such a facility in Cuba in the first place?
The story of Guantanamo goes back more than a century, to the time of the Spanish-American War. And, during that time, it’s been, as it is now, a source of controversy.
Until 1898, Cuba had belonged to Spain as the Spanish empire diminished, Cubans fought for their independence. The U.S. joined in to help its neighbor and, though the Spanish-American War ended up focused mainly on the Spanish presence in the Philippines, Cuba was the site of the sinking of the USS Maine, the event that precipitated American military involvement. (Remember “Remember the Maine“? That’s this.) When the war ended, Spain gave the U.S. control of Cuba &mdash among other territories, like Puerto Rico &mdash and, about three years later, Cuba became an independent nation.
However, that independence was not without a catch: as part of the Platt Amendment, the document that governed the end of the occupation, the new Cuban government was required to lease or sell certain territory to the United States. Here’s how TIME later summarized (with numbers accurate for 1960) what happened next:
The U.S. rights in Guantanamo are clear and indisputable. By a treaty signed in 1903 and reaffirmed in 1934, the U.S. recognized Cuba’s “ultimate sovereignty” over the 45-sq.-mi. enclave in Oriente province near the island’s southeast end. In return, Cuba yielded the U.S. “complete jurisdiction and control” through a perpetual lease that can be voided only by mutual agreement.
For a low rental ($3,386.25 annually), the U.S. Navy gets its best natural harbor south of Charleston, S.C., plus 19,621 acres of land, enough for a complex of 1,400 buildings and two airfields, one of them capable of handling entire squadrons of the Navy’s hottest jets, e.g., 1,000-m.p.h. F8U Crusaders, 700-m.p.h. A4D Skyhawks. In terms of global strategy, Guantanamo has only marginal value. It served as an antisubmarine center in World War II, and could be one again. But its greatest worth is as an isolated, warm-water training base for the fleet. With an anchorage capable of handling 50 warships at once, it is the Navy’s top base for shakedown cruises and refresher training for both sailors and airmen. What Cuba gets out of the deal is 3,700 jobs for the technicians and laborers who help maintain the base, a payroll of $7,000,000 annually for hard-pressed Oriente.
When Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba the 1950s, there was briefly a period during which the fate of Guantanamo seemed in question. As TIME reported in the Sept. 12, 1960, issue, Castro threatened to kick the Navy out if the U.S. continued to interfere with the Cuban economy however, he also said that he knew that, if he did so, the U.S. could take it as a pretext to attack and get rid of him. Castro would continue to bring up his displeasure at the U.S. presence in Cuba &mdash in 1964, he cut off the water supply, to which the Navy responded by building its own water and power plants &mdash but the lease stayed, as did the military families based there.
Guantanamo returned to the news in the 1990s when it got a new set of residents. In 1991, in the wake of a coup d’état in Haiti, thousands of Haitians fled by sea for the United States. In December of that year, Guantanamo Bay became the site of a refugee camp built to house those who sought asylum while the Bush administration figured out what to do with them. Throughout the years that followed, the camp became home to thousands of native Cubans, too, who had also attempted to flee to the U.S. for political asylum. In the summer of 1994 alone, TIME wrote the following May, “more than 20,000 Haitians and 30,000 Cubans were intercepted at sea and delivered to hastily erected camps in Guantanamo.” In 1999, during conflict in the Balkans (and after the Haitian and Cuban refugees had been sent home or on to the States), the U.S. agreed to put up 20,000 new refugees at Guantanamo, but that plan ended up scrapped for being too far from their European homelands.
The decision to house al-Qaeda detainees at Guantanamo was reached shortly after 9/11 &mdash and, nearly as immediately, the world began to wonder just what their status would be.
Today in history: April 19
AP Photo/David Longstreath
April 19On this day. 1809: The father of the Constitution — President James Madison — purchased a slave to work in the White House. The seller: the father of the Declaration of Independence, former President Thomas Jefferson. Even more ironic, the name of the slave Jefferson sold to Madison was. John Freeman.
On this day. 1933: In his ongoing efforts to combat the Great Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt took the U.S. off the gold standard. FDR did so because Americans had lost faith in the dollar, and, in "bank runs," were unloading them for gold. This run on banks during the Depression took cash out of circulation, hurting the economy. Roosevelt's nationalizing of gold had another reason: He was planning a number of expensive social and economic programs and he needed money to finance them. Controlling the gold supply would give him more control over the money supply. America's remaining ties to the gold standard were severed by President Nixon in 1971 he said the U.S. would not exchange dollars for gold for anyone.
On this day. 1995: Hours after the bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City — that killed 168 men, women and children — a shocked and saddened President Bill Clinton called it "an act of cowardice," and said "The United States will not tolerate it. And I will not allow the people of this country to be intimidated by evil cowards." Clinton declared an emergency in Oklahoma City and sent an FBI team to investigate.
Quote of the day
"If men were angels, no government would be necessary." -James Madison
Tag: CharlestownGovernors’ Portrait of Jennings, Artist: James Forbes, American, c. 1800-?, oil on canvas, 36 x 29 (91.5 x 73.6) Signed l.l.: Jas. Forbes/Pinxt, courtesy of the Indiana Historical Bureau.
Jonathan Jennings was born in 1784 in New Jersey, the sixth child of Jacob and Mary Jennings. His father was a physician and minister. The future first governor of the State of Indiana grew up in western Pennsylvania. He moved to the Indiana Territory at age 22, settling first in Jeffersonville, where he began a law practice. In 1807, Jennings moved to Vincennes, capital of the territory. There, he clerked for the land office, the General Assembly of the Indiana Territory, and for Vincennes University. An incident at the the university between Jennings and Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison and his supporters, prompted Jennings to leave Vincennes. In search of a more hospitable residence and career, he returned to Clark County and settled in Charlestown by 1809.
Jennings’ move would prove to be very timely for his political ambitions. Congress separated the Illinois Territory from the Indiana Territory, which lessened Governor Harrison’s political influence. Furthermore, Congress mandated that the Indiana Territory’s delegate to Congress be popularly elected, as opposed to elected by the territorial legislature.
William Henry Harrison, circa 1813, courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution gift of Mrs. Herbert Lee Pratt, Jr.
While Jennings was an outsider to Harrison’s clique, he was extremely personable and a great campaigner. His outsider status was also relatable to the population in the eastern counties, who resented the patriarchal political power structures in Vincennes. Indiana historian William Wesley Woollen described Jennings’ appeal, noting he was “a man of polished manners . . . he was always gentle and kind to those about him. He was not an orator, but he could tell what he knew in a pleasing way.”
An oft-repeated story about Jennings illustrates his political populism in contrast to his patrician political opponents. Author John Bartlow Martin described the scene this way:
Historical marker located in Jennings County, courtesy of the Indiana Historical Bureau.
Jennings’s opponent, a Harrison man, arrived during a logrolling [at a Dearborn County farm], chatted at the farmhouse a short time, then rode away. But Jennings, arriving next day, pitched into the logrolling and when it was done, tossed quoits and threw the maul with the men, taking care to let them beat him. He was a natural politician, the kind the Hoosiers lived, almost the original model of the defender of the people against the interests.
In 1809, only white, property-holding men could vote in the Indiana Territory. At age 25, Jennings ran for Congress and defeated an older and better politically connected candidate. Jennings won re-election in 1811, 1812, and 1814. As a territorial delegate, and not a fully vested member of Congress, Jennings could not vote on legislation. However, his role was very important to Indiana’s road to statehood as he advocated for legislation from Indiana Territory constituents, including petitions for statehood. The first statehood petition was sent to Jennings in 1811, which Congress denied on account of the territory’s population not yet reaching 35,000. The United States had more pressing problems in subsequent years, most notably the War of 1812, which raged until 1814. The war disrupted the business of Congress when the British Army burned the U.S. Capitol and the White House.
A year after the Treaty of Ghent ended the war, Congress was back to lawmaking. On December 28, 1815, Jennings introduced another territorial petition for statehood. This time the U.S. House leadership referred the petition to a committee and named Jennings as chairman. A week later the committee reported a bill, which eventually passed. On April 19, 1816, President James Madison signed it into law. Known as the Enabling Act, the legislation authorized residents of the Indiana Territory to hold a Constitutional Convention. On June 10, 1816, convention delegates convened in Corydon to draft a constitution. Jennings was one of the delegates. He was so esteemed by his peers that he became president of the convention. The resulting document borrowed from previous state constitutions, but reinforced a lot of democratic ideals. Although there was a system of checks and balances, most of the power lay with the elected representatives, which many people viewed as being closer to the people than the governor. The constitution also allowed for universal white, adult male suffrage, gave voters the right to call for a new constitution, recommended a state-supported education system, prohibited establishment of private banks, and prohibited slavery.
Portrait of Posey, Artist: John Bayless Hill, American, 1849-1874 oil on canvas, 30 1/8 x 26 3/16 (76.5 x 65.6) Unsigned, courtesy of the Indiana Historical Bureau.
Indiana held its first state elections in August 1816, and Jennings won the gubernatorial election over Territorial Governor Thomas Posey. Jennings was then only thirty-two years old. For the next six years he would serve as Indiana’s first executive. Keep in mind, under the 1816 Constitution, a governor’s powers were limited, and he could not set legislative agendas. He could make appointments, including judges, and could also sign or veto legislation.
According to Carl E. Kramer’s profile of Jennings in The Governors of Indiana, the state’s first governor faced the daunting challenge of “placing Indiana on a sound financial footing, implementing a court system, and developing rudimentary educational and internal improvements systems, while also attempting to prevent government from becoming so burdensome that it obstructed personal advancement and enterprise.” Kramer noted that as governor, Jennings concentrated on “organizing an educational system that reached from the common schools to a state university creating a state banking system preventing illegal efforts to capture and enslave blacks entitled to their freedom organizing a state library and developing a plan of internal improvements.” His limited success in accomplishing these, was “as much a reflection of the governor’s limited powers and the state’s impoverished financial condition as it is upon his political skills and knowledge of the issues.”
Courtesy of the Indiana Historical Bureau.
His most far-reaching action during the time he served as governor actually occurred when he was not acting in that capacity. In 1818, Jennings served as a treaty negotiator on the Treaty of St. Mary’s which obtained title to a large part of land from the Miami Indians. As an aside, while Jennings was absent from Corydon during these negotiations, Lieutenant Governor Christopher Harrison tried unsuccessfully to take power and remove Jennings from office.
The low-light of Jennings time as governor came in 1820 as the State Bank teetered and eventually collapsed. As historian Dorothy Riker noted, “Jennings was severely criticized for his failure to supervise the Bank and his refusal to instigate and investigation earlier.”
In 1822, with only months left to serve in his second term, Jennings resigned as governor so that he could return to Congress, where he served from 1822-1831. Internal improvements like roads and canals were hallmark pieces of legislation at this time in American history, especially under President John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) and his proto-Whig Party (Adams/Anti-Jackson) adherents like Jennings. For Jennings, internal improvements were a way for Indiana to advance, economically by allowing for Indiana’s agricultural goods to make it more easily to markets, and for finished goods to make their way into the state. Good roads and canals would also encourage immigration into the state, especially along the National Road, and would facilitate communication with other parts of the nation. Because of Jennings advocacy of better transportation networks, it is fitting that the Indiana Department of Transportation designated this section of I-65 as the “Governor Jonathan Jennings Memorial Highway.”
Historical marker located in Charlestown, Indiana, courtesy of the Indiana Historical Bureau.
According to Woollen, Jennings lost his congressional seat in 1830 due, in part, to his drinking problem. He retired to his Charlestown farm, where he died on July 26, 1834. Historians have conflicting views on Jennings legacy. He was not an activist executive, which present-day observers have come to expect when rating their leaders. However, he was an incredibly popular politician. He played important leadership roles in Indiana reaching statehood, including at the Constitutional Convention. As for his role as governor, it is important to think about his service in the context of the time. Hoosiers at the time did not want an aristocratic leader like William Henry Harrison. Rather, Jennings set a precedence as the first governor which sought to honor the autonomy and democratic values of pioneer Hoosiers.
A modern perspective
The National Army Museum has worked closely with British Caribbean communities to re-examine the contributions of West Indian soldiers to British military history.
At one of our community workshops, we showed a 200-year-old regimental colour of the 4th West India Regiment. Now on display in Army gallery, the colour is also one of the first ever official representations of black soldiers in the British Army.
Exploring archives relating to the history of West Indian soldiers
Examining objects relating to the history of West Indian soldiers
A 'colour' is a flag in which the spirit and honour of a regiment is symbolised. Workshop participants found this object very powerful. The symbolism shown in it was felt to connect closely to the sense of 'Britishness' felt by many West Indians today.
They had even created a modern replica, allowing us to compare the original colour with how it might have looked like when carried into battle 200 years ago.View this object