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Vandals Smash Monumental Fountain in Ancient Greek City of Apollonia

Vandals Smash Monumental Fountain in Ancient Greek City of Apollonia



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Vandals in Albania have destroyed a famous historical monument in ancient Apollonia causing “irreparable” damage. Founded in 588 BC by Greek colonists from Corfu and Corinth on a site where native Illyrian tribes once lived, the ancient nymphaeum (monumental fountain) of ancient Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located near the town of Fier, a city and a municipality in southwest Albania.

The nymphaeum was originally a series of natural grottoes consecrated to the mythological nymphs of springs. According to a report in Greek City Times the director of the archaeological site was quoted as saying “the damage is irreparable”, as ancient marble columns were smashed and broken. The destruction of this ancient monument has sparked outrage in the Greek community of Northern Epirus as it was one of the most important of the several classical towns known collectively as Apollonia.

Monument of Agonothetes at the ancient Greek city of Apollonia, Fier County, Albania. ( milosk50 / Adobe Stock)

Vandalism of UNESCO World Heritage Site

Apollonia flourished in the Roman period thanks to its renowned school of philosophy, but it began to decline in the 3rd century AD after its harbor became plugged with silt in the aftermath of an earthquake. It was finally abandoned at the end of late antiquity. Historians know this was a self-governing and independent city. For many centuries it flourished due to its rich agricultural hinterland and its role in the slave trade, until it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Epirus, and later the Kingdom of Macedonia.

The President of Albania, Ilir Meta, condemned the act of vandalism calling it “barbaric.” Meta believes that while the attack was only recently discovered, the vandalism must have occurred during the Covid-19 lockdown. According to an article in Greece High Definition , the attack might be part of a move towards “historical revisionism.”

The nymphaeum, or monumental fountain, at the ancient Greek city of Apollonia in Albania, was fed by underground water sources. (Carole Raddato/ CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Making Sense of Vandalism

According to Dr. Philip Zimbardo, in his 1970 paper titled A Social Psychological Analysis of Vandalism: Making Sense Of Senseless Violence , the characteristic feature of vandalism is the destruction of property and of life “without any apparent goal beyond the act of destruction itself.” Zimbardo continues: “Vandalism permits powerless individuals to strike out against the institutions which control them and to take charge of the situation themselves, arousing fear in others and raising their own self-esteem.”

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However, this particular act of vandalism did perhaps have a specific goal beyond the act of destruction itself. Some have theorized that it was a direct strike at the established history and political structure of modern Albania. The fall of communism brought monumental changes to the country, which was for a long time the most isolated and repressed of the Eastern bloc.

According to a 2015 Human Rights Watch report, based on investigations dating back to 1993-5, the Greek government claimed Albania was repressing the rights of ethnic Greeks who live primarily in the south, while the Albanian government claimed Greece was fomenting separatism in the region. Could this historic discord be connected to the act of vandalism seen today? According to the Greek City TImes article, a dispute still rages about the treatment of the Greek minority living in Albania.

Albanian authorities are currently investigating who was behind the destruction of the monumental fountain in ancient Apollonia, so we should soon find out if this was a simple act of vandalism carried out by a gang of bored youths, or perhaps someting more contrived.


Ancient Corinth and Acrocorinth

According to myth, the first kings of Corinth were descendants of Sisyphos, the man who was punished by the Gods for his hubris by being forced to roll an immense boulder up a hill only for it to roll down again when they came near the top, repeating this action for eternity.

Thanks to traffic and trade over the Isthmos, the narrow strip of land that connects the Peloponnesos to the mainland of Greece and Attika, this ancient city, whose foundation dates back to the 10th century BCE, could easily compete in terms of wealth and fame with Athens and Thebes. Until the middle of the 6th century BCE Corinth's main export product were the black-figured vases, many of which made their way to several colonies in Magna Graecia.

The great temple on its Acropolis (the Acrocorinth) was dedicated to Aphrodite. Corinth was one of the most important cult centres for the Goddess of Love throughout its history. According to some sources, there were more than a thousand temple maidens serving at the Sanctuary of Aphrodite. Corinth was also famous for hosting Games similar to those in Olympia. They took place in Isthmia, hence the name Isthmian Games.

Around 730 BCE the city started to found colonies like on the island of Kerkyra (Corfu) and like the city of Syracuse in Sicily. In 664 BCE Corinth and Kerkyra clashed in what is now known as the first Greek naval battle in history. In the 7th century BCE, when Corinth was ruled by the tyrants Kypselos and Periander, the city sent out more colonists to found cities, such as Poteidaia on the Chalkidiki peninsula, Ambrakia, Apollonia, and Anaktorion, and together with its colony Kerkyra the cities of Leuka and Epidamnos.

The city was an important participant in the Persian Wars, as it joined Athens in the Battle of Salamis with the second largest fleet contingent. Also in the Battle of Plataiai (479 BCE) the city participated with a large contingent. But it soon came to a rift with Athens when in 462 BCE the Athenian Kimon with his troops crossed the Corinthian territory without permission. It came to an open war in which Corinth defeated in league with Epidauros the Athenians at Halieis, but later lost an important naval battle in the Saronic Gulf. Only some ten years later, in 451 BCE, a ceasefire and later on a peace treaty were agreed upon with Athens.

However, the dispute continued to smolder and eventually became one of the key factors that led to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. When Corinth got involved in the internal political turmoil of the Kerkyrian colony of Epidamnos, its fleet first suffered a serious defeat. But in 433 BCE Corinth managed to win the naval battle near the Sybota islands just off the coast of Epeiros, which made Kerkyra turn to Athens with a request for help. As a consequence, Corinth joined the side of Sparta. After the end of the Peloponnesian War, in the face of the increasing hegemony of Sparta, the city's government decided to switch sides and move closer to the Athenians. This resulted in the outbreak of the Corinthian War in 394 BCE, in which Corinth and Athens once again fought together with Thebes and Argos against Sparta. Two years later Corinth witnessed a revolution and became for the first time in its long history a democracy. The new government managed to establish a political union with the city state of Argos. In 390 BCE internal political turmoil plunged the city almost into a civil war when a large number of its citizens fought with each other outside the walls. But in 386 BCE Sparta managed to restore its hegemony over the other Greek city states. The political union between Corinth and Argos was abolished and an aristocratic oligarchy, favourable to the politics of Sparta, was installed.

In 337 BCE Corinth fell under the rule of the Macedonians. After the murder on king Philip II of Macedonia in 336 BCE the Federal Assembly in Corinth chose his son Alexander the Great as the commanding general of the military campaign against Persia, which had already been planned by Philip. In the subsequent period, the city was under the rule of Macedonian noblemen. During this time, Corinth became the most populous city in Greece and was known far and wide for its thriving economic and cultural life. In 243 BCE the city was attacked and captured by the strategist of the Achaean League called Aratos. Under the reign of this important statesman Corinth joined this league, but when its citizens, dissatisfied with his government, turned to the Spartan king Kleomenes III with a request for help, Aratos handed over the rule of Corinth to the Macedonian king Antigonos III in 224 BCE. The victory of the Romans in the Battle of Kynoskephalai in 197 BCE brought the Corinthians liberation from the Macedonian tutelage, because the Romans forced the Macedonian garrison to withdraw. But after the expulsion of the Macedonians Corinth joined once again the Achaean League and now ran a very anti-Roman policy.

When the Achaean League declared war on Sparta in 146 BCE, a military clash with the Roman armies became unavoidable. The victorious Romans under the command of the general Lucius Mummius besieged Corinth, destroyed it, and murdered or enslaved all surviving inhabitants. The area fell partly to Sikyon, the predominant part was declared "ager publicus" and handed over to Roman colonists.

Although there is archaeological evidence for a small revival after the destruction of Corinth in 146 BCE, it took more than a century before the city was re-founded in 44 BCE by Gaius Iulius Caesar as a Roman colony under the name "Colonia Laus Iulia Corinthiensis". According to the Roman historian Appianus, the settlers were freedmen from Rome. Under the Romans, Corinth became the administrative seat of the province of Achaea in southern Greece, and for several decades the city was a Latin-speaking island in the midst of a Greek environment.

As early as the 2nd century CE, Corinth became the seat of a diocese, at the latest in the 4th century, the seat of a metropolitan bishopric, and it remained in that position until the rise of Athens at the beginning of the 9th century. In 267 CE the city was destroyed by the invasion of the Goths and Herulians, but quickly rebuilt. For more than a hundred years, Corinth was able to experience a late flowering, before it was plundered and sacked by Alaric I in 395 CE during the invasion of the Visigoths in Greece. Many of its citizens were sold into slavery. Nevertheless, Corinth could recover once again. In 521 CE the city was heavily damaged as a result of a severe earthquake, but rebuilt by the Emperor Iustinianus I. A few decades later, the Slavic invasions in Greece, starting around 580 CE, made almost all life in the ancient city impossible. Only after decades did it come back to a modest economic rise.

In 1147 the Gulf of Corinth became the operational base of Norman Roger II against the region of Arta. Roger soon occupied Corinth himself and resettled all native silk weavers to Palermo. However, soon the city was re-incorporated by Byzantium. In 1202, a high Byzantine official, Leon Sguros, managed to become master of the city, but only two years later his rule was ended by the participants of the Fourth Crusade who took the city by force. In 1210, Corinth became part of the newly created Principality of Achaia and thus part of the Latin Empire. In the following years, the city had several rulers, who made it the scene of bloody battles over influence in southern Greece. From 1421 to 1458 it was in Byzantine possession. In 1458 the Ottomans took power in Corinth, which had already become a completely insignificant city by that time. In 1611, the Knights of the Order of Malta made a raid on Corinth, which damaged the city even more. From 1687 to 1715, the Venetians ruled the place, in which only 1500 inhabitants lived. The period of Ottoman rule ended in 1829/1830, and Corinth became Greek again. At the beginning of the Greek War of Independence, it had been considered for a time that Corinth should become the capital of the free Hellenic state. On the 21sf of February 1858, the ancient city of Corinth was destroyed by an earthquake and rebuilt six kilometres to the northeast. Today, immediately adjacent to and for a big part right on top of the ancient settlement area is the village of Archaia Korinthos. Since the start of tourism in Greece in the 19th century, the ruins of Ancient Corinth with its temples, fountains, theatre, agora, shops, and paved streets have attracted many visitors.


Temple of Apollo

The Temple of Apollon, built in the middle of the 6th century BCE, is probably the most famous testimony of the splendour of the ancient city. A particular feature of the temple is the use of monolithic columns rather than the more commonly used column drums. Seven columns remain standing today. Although only a small part of the ruins of the city has been excavated and so much has been destroyed during many invasions and wars, some remains of the buildings as they are today, together with their 2D and 3D archaeological reconstructions, still manage to give the visitor an idea of what Corinth must have looked like during the time when it was one of the most important Roman cities in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Noteworthy is the great agora, which probably dates back to the 4th century BCE and would not have changed much during the following centuries. To the east of the agora the remains of the Basilica Iulia can be seen, a courthouse built by the Emperor Claudius in 44 CE. In the middle of the agora can be found the so-called "bèma" or "rostrum" - a platform where important juridical and political decisions where announced to the citizens of Corinth. It is being claimed by Christians as the place where the proselytiser Paul was questioned by Gallio, proconsul of the Roman province of Achaia. However, archaeological and historical research has proven this claim to be unsubstantial. Even the very presence of Paul in Corinth as well as his activities there have become more than doubtful. In the Middle Ages this place was overbuilt by a church.

In the north of the agora, an elaborately decorated arched gateway of the 1st century CE formed the beginning of the magnificent Lechaion Street, which was preserved in its original state until the 10th century. Even today, the paved street that was bordered by galleries featuring shops with all kinds of products from all over the Roman Empire and beyond, is still very impressive to walk on. The Lechaion Street was a kind of "shopping mile" where almost all public life took place. There is also a well-preserved latrine to admire. During the 11th and 12th centuries the area around the Lechaion Street was where the Byzantine aristocracy of the city built its rich houses. In the 17th century, the palace of the Ottoman Bey, governor of the city, of which hardly anything remains today, was built north of it.

In the south, the agora is bordered by the 154 m long Stoa, which was built by Philip II of Macedonia after 338 BCE as a guest house for the deputies of the Corinthian Confederation. At the back of it there were numerous shops. During the period of Roman rule, the southern part of the Stoa functioned as the administrative seat of the Isthmian Games.


Fountain of Peirene

Next to the arched gateway that leads onto the Lechaion Street lies the well house of the spring of Peirene, which was famous for its clear water. It was lavishly decorated and its arcades were once equipped with several statues. Poets came to drink from its water in search for inspiration, as the spring had been linked to swift-winged Pegasos.

Also worthy of mention are two impressive buildings lying to the north-west of the parking and entrance of the archaeological site and museum. The Odeion (or concert hall), dating from the 1st century CE, was substantially enlarged during the 2nd century by none other than Herodes Attikos, known from the Odeion in Athens. And the large Greek-period theatre (from the 4th century BCE, but with many later alterations), was replaced in the Roman period by an arena-equipped building, where even the performance of naval battles, the so-called Naumachiai, was possible.


10 key Roman dates you need to know

What are the key dates in the timeline of Roman history? From what the Romans believed to be the foundation of Rome in 753 BC, to the Punic Wars in 264–146 BC and the fall of Rome in AD 410 – here are 10 key dates in the history of Rome and its mighty empire…

This competition is now closed

Published: June 29, 2018 at 3:15 pm

Writing for History Extra, Dr Harry Sidebottom highlights 10 key moments in the rise and fall of one of history’s mightiest empires…

753 BC: The “foundation of Rome”

By the last century BC, Romans believed that Rome had been founded in exactly 753 BC. The story was that the twins Romulus and Remus, sons of the god Mars, were left to die by being put in a basket, set adrift on the river Tiber. The makeshift vessel eventually came ashore at the future site of Rome. Here, the babies were suckled by a she-wolf, then raised by a shepherd. When the twins reached adulthood, Romulus founded a city on the Palatine Hill. When Remus jumped over the furrow that marked where the walls would be built, Romulus killed him.

Yet despite the immense popularity of that divinely ordained – if bloodstained – foundation myth, it has no basis in fact. The name Romulus clearly was made up from that of Rome itself, and archaeology has revealed evidence of settlement on the Palatine Hill as early as 1,000 BC.

509 BC: The creation of the Roman Republic

As with the foundation of the city, later Romans believed they knew the precise date of the beginning of the Republic: 509 BC, when the seventh and last king of Rome, the tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus, was thought to have been ousted by an aristocratic coup. Although sources for the early Republic are better than those for the preceding regal period, the veracity of this tale is also in doubt.

The Republican system itself was based around the idea that only an assembly of the people had the right to pass laws and elect magistrates. The power of the magistrates was limited – they could only hold office for a year, and always had a colleague who could veto any actions. The most senior annual magistrates were the two consuls. In theory the senate, a body made up of serving and ex-magistrates, did no more than offer advice.

There is still lively scholarly debate on the nature of Republican politics in Rome. The traditional view holds that a small number of aristocratic families monopolised the magistracies, and dominated both senate and assemblies. Yet more recently the Republic’s more democratic elements have been emphasised above all the need for elite politicians to use oratory to persuade assemblies of the people.

338 BC: The settlement of the Latin War

Between 341 and 338 BC the Romans faced a rebellion by their neighbouring Latin allies. After Rome emerged victorious, the settlement they imposed underpinned subsequent Roman conquests of Italy and overseas territories. The Latins, and other Italian allies, were forbidden to conduct diplomacy or enter into treaties with other states. They were not taxed, except in having to provide men to fight in Roman commanded armies, which bolstered their ranks significantly.

It is appealing to think that Roman acquisition of a massive empire was, in large part, a result of the organisation, equipment, and tactical flexibility of its famous legions. Yet, although less glamorous, numbers also played a vital role. The extraordinary levels of manpower that the Roman army could call upon meant that they could suffer crushing defeats in battle, yet still put new men in the field and eventually emerge triumphant.

264–146 BC: The Punic Wars

Rome fought three wars against the great North African city of Carthage. These are known as the Punic Wars, from the Latin name for Carthaginians, Poeni.

The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was fought over control of the island of Sicily, and many of the crucial clashes were naval battles. Rome demonstrated its adaptability in building its first large war fleet, and its almost limitless manpower in building several replacements after repeated catastrophic disasters. Victory gave Rome her initial overseas possession in Sicily.

The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) saw the famous invasion of Italy by Carthaginian general Hannibal. Although Roman resilience and resources were stretched to near breaking point by a string of defeats, Rome ultimately emerged victorious, and the war marked the end of Carthage as a regional power.

The Third Punic War (149–146 BC) was a foregone conclusion, in which Rome was finally successful in destroying its hated rival.

The Punic Wars left Rome as the dominant power in the western Mediterranean. Later Romans looked back on the wars with mixed feelings. On the one hand, the conflicts were glorified as Rome’s finest hour, especially the refusal to submit after Hannibal`s shattering victory at Cannae in 216 BC. Others, though, saw the elimination of Carthage, the only credible threat to Roman existence, as the ushering in of an age of luxury and moral decline.

The second and first centuries BC: the Hellenisation of Rome

During the last two centuries BC, Rome conquered the Eastern Mediterranean by defeating the Hellenistic [ancient Greek] kingdoms founded by the successors of Alexander the Great. These conquests had profound implications for Roman society.

Rome’s relationship with Greek culture was different from that of any other people incorporated into its empire. From the start Romans recognised that Greek culture was both older and more sophisticated than their own. The Roman upper classes embraced Greek literature and philosophy, art and architecture, and by the last century BC it was necessary to be thoroughly conversant with Greek culture to be accepted as a member of the Roman elite. Young boys from rich Roman families learned Greek alongside Latin.

Yet a deep ambiguity remained around these borrowings from a conquered people. Greek culture could be seen as undermining the very manliness of the Romans. As late as the second century AD, the emperor Hadrian was derided as a Graeculus (a ‘little Greek’) for what some saw as his excessive interest in Greek culture.

  • Your guide to the Roman empire: when it was formed, why it split and how it failed, plus its most colourful emperors

67–62 BC: Pompey in the East

Although far less well known than Caesar’s conquest of Gaul (58–51 BC), the exploits of Pompey in the eastern Mediterranean were more significant in the expansion of Rome. Pompey initially went to the east in 67 BC as part of his campaign against pirates who were infesting the Mediterranean. Having crushed the pirates in just three months, in 66 BC Pompey succeeded to the command against the long-term enemy of Rome, Mithradates VI of Pontus. Again quickly victorious, Pompey then became the first Roman to lead an army to the Euphrates river.

In his so-called ‘settlement of the east’ (a modern term which obscures the expansionist nature of his activities), Pompey established two new Roman provinces (Syria and Bithynia-Pontus), vastly expanded a third (Cilicia), and conducted diplomacy that turned numerous local rulers into clients of Rome. It has been estimated that his ‘settlement’ more than doubled the annual income of the Roman empire.

31 BC–AD 14: Augustus reintroduces monarchy to Rome

The expansion of the empire destroyed the Roman Republic. Institutions designed for a small city-state could not rule a world empire. Above all, vast military campaigns required generals who commanded armies over wide territories for several years. By the last century BC, these generals would lead their armies against Rome and each other.

After a welter of civil wars, Augustus emerged the victor, boasting that he had restored the Republic. However, with overriding military authority and the right to make law, he had in effect reintroduced one-man rule, and become Rome’s first emperor. Augustus spent years experimenting with his constitutional position – his aim was neither to ‘hide’ his sole rule, nor to create a joint rule between himself and the senate, but to find a blend of offices and powers that would allow the touchy pride of Roman senators to serve his new regime. The balance he hit upon has to be considered one of the most successful political settlements in history, as it remained the legal basis of every emperor’s reign for three centuries.

AD 235–284: the third century crisis

In the 50 years between AD 235 and 284, the Roman empire suffered chronic political and military instability. Amid endemic civil wars and defeats at the hands of barbarians, emperors came and went with bewildering rapidity. The average reign was no more than 18 months, and many survived for much shorter periods.

Three factors brought about the crisis. In the east, repeated Roman attacks had undermined the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, who were consequently overthrown by the far more aggressive power of the Sassanid Persians. In the north, beyond the Rhine and the Danube, Roman trade and diplomacy had encouraged the formation of large and dangerous barbarian confederations, including the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths.

The final factor was the monopolisation of military glory by the emperor. A major war called for an emperor. If the emperor could not or would not campaign in person on a frontier and one of his generals was successful, the latter would sometimes be proclaimed emperor by his troops, perhaps even against his will. The resulting civil war stripped troops from the frontier, encouraging further barbarian attacks, and opening up the possibility of another local commander being elevated to claim the throne. This vicious circle was finally halted, and the empire given breathing space, by the emperor Diocletian (r284–305). He created the tetrarchy: a ‘college’ of four rulers, one for each of the major frontiers, and one in reserve.

AD 312: Constantine converts to Christianity

At the battle of the Milvian Bridge in AD 312, the emperor Constantine sent his troops into combat with crosses painted on their shields. By the end of his life, he claimed that before the battle he had experienced a vision in which he was given the divine command: “in this sign conquer”. Constantine’s conversion to Christianity had a profound effect on European, and world, history.

Although Christianity was still a minority religion in the reign of Constantine, two events in the third-century crisis had brought the faith into unexpected prominence. Christians had been persecuted from the earliest days of the religion. Yet, with the exception of Nero seeking scapegoats for the great fire of Rome in AD 64, emperors had not sponsored this persecution.

In AD 249, in the face of mounting troubles and seeking to restore divine favour to Rome, the emperor Decius ordered all his subjects to sacrifice to the pagan gods. Later, in AD 257 and 258 the emperor Valerian issued edicts explicitly commanding Christians to return to the traditional gods. The fate of these two imperial persecutors gave a huge boost to Christianity.

Fighting the Goths in AD 250, Decius became the first Roman emperor to die in battle against the barbarians. In AD 260, Valerian was captured alive by the Sassanid Persians, the only emperor ever to suffer such a misfortune. Christians exulted in the vengeance taken by their God, and pagans were given reason to think about the power of the deity of this previously obscure sect.

AD 410: The fall of Rome

In AD 410 the Goths sacked the city of Rome. Sixty-six years later Romulus Augustulus (the ‘Little Emperor’) was deposed, and the Roman empire in the west was at an end.

It has been estimated that more than 200 modern explanations have been put forward to explain the fall of Rome. These range from the rise of Christian monks and clergy (so many unproductive mouths to feed) to impotence brought on by too many hot baths.

In recent times, some scholars have argued that Rome’s collapse was a process of accommodation and compromise between the Romans and the various barbarian peoples. Others, more convincingly, have reiterated the violence, destruction and horror of its downfall. Such vibrant debates underpin the perennial fascination of this world-changing event.

Harry Sidebottom is a lecturer in ancient history at Lincoln College, Oxford, and author of the Warrior of Rome and Throne of the Caesars series of novels.

This article was first published by History Extra in November 2016.


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Vandals Smash Monumental Fountain in Ancient Greek City of Apollonia - History

Archaeological Site of Perge

Perge, the long-established city of Pamphylia region, is located 18 km east of Antalya and 2 km north of Aksu Village. The Archaeological site of Perge has been excavated systemically by Istanbul University since 1946.

Archaeological finds in Perge date back to different periods beginning from the Late Chalcolitic Ages. It's revealed through the even rarely found remains that Perge had been settled permanently in Early Bronze Ages, meaning that it is a significant settlement witnessing permanent land use from the beginning of that time.

One of the remains belonging to early periods of settlement has been excavated in Bogazköy. "Parha" name written on a bronze plate by cuneiform script and documenting an agreement in 13th BC is associated with the name of Perge. Any remains contemporary with the bronze plate has not been found yet.

During the Hellenistic period, the city also enlarged through the campaign in the south. City Walls of that era and a part of it (South Gate-the circular shaped tower) have been unearthed.

The city is also known with the local sculptures. On the other hand, the women were very active on the administrative level of the city. This is also emphasized with the fine sculptures of the important women such as Platia Magna.

Perge reigned by the Romans beginning from BC 133 by the legacy of Pergamon. An inscription excavated in Perge reveals the state organizations in the 1st AD and the location of Perge within this organizational scheme. According to this inscription, a federal state of Lykia and Pamphylia has been founded and Perge partook within this administration. The city benefited from the prosperity and built monumental structures, while welfare period last until the mid of the 3rd AD. The city remained under the Easter Roman domain beginning from the 5th AD, and then reigned by the Seljuks, Hamidogullari and the Ottomans respectively.

Perga is today an archaeological site and a tourist attraction. Ancient Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was situated between the Rivers Catarrhactes (Düden Nehri) and Cestrus (Aksu), 60 stadia (about 11.1 kilometres (6.9 mi)) from the mouth of the latter the site is in the modern Turkish village of Murtana on the Suridjik sou, a tributary of the Cestrus, formerly in the Ottoman vilayet of Konya. Its ruins include a theatre, a palaestra, a temple of Artemis and two churches. The temple of Artemis was located outside the town.

Another big ancient city in the area is Selge, Pisidia, located about 20km to the northeast

The Archaeological site of Perge has been excavated systemically by Istanbul University since 1946.

Perge excavations are one of Turkey's well-established scientific studies started by Istanbul University about 70 years ago. These studies - such as Arif Müfid Mansel, Jale İnan and Haluk Abbasoğlu - were the great masters of Turkish archeology. Scientific studies are carried out by Antalya Museum from 2012

Perge’yi görmeyen Antalya’yı görmüş sayılmaz

Each of the works exhibited in the Antalya Archeology Museum, which is considered one of the leading museums of not only Turkey, but also the world, is among the masterpieces of its kind. Undoubtedly the main source of this wealth is Antalya’s location which is one of the first places where human traces are seen in Anatolia, hosting the magnificent cities of Lycia, Roman and Byzantine civilizations and witnessing continuously the history of mankind. The Neanderthal skeleton fragments unearthed in Karain Cave, the magnificent sculptures found in Perga which is one of the sculpture production centers of the Antique Age, Elmalı coins which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’, and the finds discovered during the excavations in the St. Nicholas Church, i.e. Santa Claus Church, are priceless. The Museum was selected as the ‘Museum of Year’ in 1988 by the European Council and received the ‘Excellence Award’ in 2016 thanks to its artifacts.

This piece, an AC-2nd-century copy of the sculpture made by Lysippos who is the famous sculptor of the 4th century BC, belongs to Perga ancient city, known for sculpturing. The lower part the sculpture was found during the excavations in 1980, whereas the upper part, which was illegally smuggled abroad, was brought back to its homeland in 2011 and the two parts were combined. It depicts Heracles leaning on his club after beating the Nemean lion which was impervious to all weapons. Although there are 60 copies of this sculpture, known as ‘Heracles Farnese’ from the Roman Period, the specimen exhibited in the Antalya Archaeological Museum is considered to be superior to others in terms of workmanship.

The sculptures of Roman emperors, all of which were found during excavations in the ancient city of Perga, are among the masterpieces of Roman art. The Dancer Sculpture, which is a symbol of Antalya Museum, is exhibited here besides the emperor sculptures. This sculpture, which was assembled after being discovered in pieces, is one of the most admired works of the Museum with its monumentality and fine details and vitality.

Sarcophagi in which important and wealthy people in general were placed after death in the Antique Age are also the works that reflect their understanding of art. A few floral motifs and also some very complex figures are used in the decoration on these sarcophagi. Most of the sarcophagi that can be seen in the Sarcophagi Hall belong to the ancient city of Perga. The most popular ones are the Sarcophagus of Domitias belonging to a married couple apparently not separated after death, the Heracles Sarcophagus depicting the 12 tasks of Heracles, and the Garland Sarcophagus decorated with floral motifs.

Hall of Coin, Small Artifacts and Icons

The most significant parts of this part of the Museum are ‘Elmalı Coins’ which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’. The most precious pieces that make this collection valuable, including coins issued by the cities comprising the union against the Persians, are monumental coins, which are very rare all over the world, issued when the Greeks defeated the Persians. In the hall, you can see the coins of all civilizations in Antalya’s rich history, finds unearthed in shipwrecks, jewelry and icons, as well as the Anatolian coin minting tradition and techniques.

Side (Greek: Σίδη) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country. It lies near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye, 78 km from Antalya in the province of Antalya.

It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across

Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western Anatolia. This most likely occurred in the 7th century BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena, whose head adorned its coinage.

Dating from the tenth century B.C., its coinage bore the head of Athena (Minerva), the patroness of the city, with a legend. Its people, a piratical horde, quickly forgot their own language to adopt that of the aborigines.

Possessing a good harbour for small-craft boats, Side's natural geography made it one of the most important places in Pamphylia and one of the most important trade centres in the region. According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language. The inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations at Side, a basalt column base from the 7th century BC and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides further evidence of the site's early history. The name Side may be Anatolian in origin, meaning pomegranate.

Next to no information exists concerning Side under Lydian and Persian sovereignty.

Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenistic culture, which flourished from the 4th to the 1st century BC. After Alexander's death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander's generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and became an important cultural centre.

Walls of the ancient theatre of Side

In 190 BC a fleet from the Greek island city-state of Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great's fleet, which was under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general Hannibal. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlord-ship of the Seleucid Empire. The Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) forced Antiochus to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphylia in a state of uncertain freedom. This led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city of Attalia (the present Antalya), although Side already possessed an important harbour of its own. Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted its own money, tetradrachms showing Nike and a laurel wreath (the sign of victory).

In the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre for their slave-trade.

The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and later the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of Rome and beginning its second period of ascendancy, when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire.

Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign of Amyntas of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial centre in Asia Minor through its trade in olive oil. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the 3rd century AD. Side also established itself as a slave-trading centre in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy, while wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights. Most of the extant ruins at Side date from this period of prosperity.

One of the maps (portolani) of Piri Reis, taken from the Kitab-i Bahriye, which Piri produced in several editions, supplementing in 1520, but integrating it into subsequent editions.

Side was the home of Eustathius of Antioch, of the philosopher Troilus, of the fifth-century ecclesiastical writer Philip of the famous lawyer Tribonian

Perga dorsalis - Steel Blue Sawfly on Eucalyptus cosmophylla, Cup Gum. This is the larvae of a wasp not actually a 'fly' and they are not actually true caterpillars.http://lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/none/dorsalis.html

Perge Ancient City Photo album :

Each of the works exhibited in the Antalya Archeology Museum, which is considered one of the leading museums of not only Turkey, but also the world, is among the masterpieces of its kind. Undoubtedly the main source of this wealth is Antalya’s location which is one of the first places where human traces are seen in Anatolia, hosting the magnificent cities of Lycia, Roman and Byzantine civilizations and witnessing continuously the history of mankind. The Neanderthal skeleton fragments unearthed in Karain Cave, the magnificent sculptures found in Perga which is one of the sculpture production centers of the Antique Age, Elmalı coins which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’, and the finds discovered during the excavations in the St. Nicholas Church, i.e. Santa Claus Church, are priceless. The Museum was selected as the ‘Museum of Year’ in 1988 by the European Council and received the ‘Excellence Award’ in 2016 thanks to its artifacts.

This piece, an AC-2nd-century copy of the sculpture made by Lysippos who is the famous sculptor of the 4th century BC, belongs to Perga ancient city, known for sculpturing. The lower part the sculpture was found during the excavations in 1980, whereas the upper part, which was illegally smuggled abroad, was brought back to its homeland in 2011 and the two parts were combined. It depicts Heracles leaning on his club after beating the Nemean lion which was impervious to all weapons. Although there are 60 copies of this sculpture, known as ‘Heracles Farnese’ from the Roman Period, the specimen exhibited in the Antalya Archaeological Museum is considered to be superior to others in terms of workmanship.

The sculptures of Roman emperors, all of which were found during excavations in the ancient city of Perga, are among the masterpieces of Roman art. The Dancer Sculpture, which is a symbol of Antalya Museum, is exhibited here besides the emperor sculptures. This sculpture, which was assembled after being discovered in pieces, is one of the most admired works of the Museum with its monumentality and fine details and vitality.

Sarcophagi in which important and wealthy people in general were placed after death in the Antique Age are also the works that reflect their understanding of art. A few floral motifs and also some very complex figures are used in the decoration on these sarcophagi. Most of the sarcophagi that can be seen in the Sarcophagi Hall belong to the ancient city of Perga. The most popular ones are the Sarcophagus of Domitias belonging to a married couple apparently not separated after death, the Heracles Sarcophagus depicting the 12 tasks of Heracles, and the Garland Sarcophagus decorated with floral motifs.

Hall of Coin, Small Artifacts and Icons

The most significant parts of this part of the Museum are ‘Elmalı Coins’ which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’. The most precious pieces that make this collection valuable, including coins issued by the cities comprising the union against the Persians, are monumental coins, which are very rare all over the world, issued when the Greeks defeated the Persians. In the hall, you can see the coins of all civilizations in Antalya’s rich history, finds unearthed in shipwrecks, jewelry and icons, as well as the Anatolian coin minting tradition and techniques.

The restored Temple of Apollo, built in the 2nd half of the 2nd century CE in the Corinthian order, Side (Pamphylia, Turkey).

Side (Greek: Σίδη) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country. It lies near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye, 78 km from Antalya in the province of Antalya.[1]

It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across.

Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western Anatolia. This most likely occurred in the 7th century BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena, whose head adorned its coinage.

Dating from the tenth century B.C., its coinage bore the head of Athena (Minerva), the patroness of the city, with a legend. Its people, a piratical horde, quickly forgot their own language to adopt that of the aborigines.

Possessing a good harbour for small-craft boats, Side's natural geography made it one of the most important places in Pamphylia and one of the most important trade centres in the region. According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language. The inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations at Side, a basalt column base from the 7th century BC and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides further evidence of the site's early history. The name Side may be Anatolian in origin, meaning pomegranate.[citation needed]

Next to no information exists concerning Side under Lydian and Persian sovereignty.

Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenistic culture, which flourished from the 4th to the 1st century BC. After Alexander's death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander's generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and became an important cultural centre.

Walls of the ancient theatre of Side

In 190 BC a fleet from the Greek island city-state of Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great's fleet, which was under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general Hannibal. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlord-ship of the Seleucid Empire. The Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) forced Antiochus to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphylia in a state of uncertain freedom. This led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city of Attalia (the present Antalya), although Side already possessed an important harbour of its own. Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted its own money, tetradrachms showing Nike and a laurel wreath (the sign of victory).

In the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre for their slave-trade.

The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and later the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of Rome and beginning its second period of ascendancy, when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire.[2]

Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign of Amyntas of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial centre in Asia Minor through its trade in olive oil. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the 3rd century AD. Side also established itself as a slave-trading centre in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy, while wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights. Most of the extant ruins at Side date from this period of prosperity.

One of the maps (portolani) of Piri Reis, taken from the Kitab-i Bahriye, which Piri produced in several editions, supplementing in 1520, but integrating it into subsequent editions.

Side was the home of Eustathius of Antioch, of the philosopher Troilus, of the fifth-century ecclesiastical writer Philip of the famous lawyer Tribonian.[3]

Side began a steady decline from the 4th century on. Even defensive walls could not stop successive invasions of highlanders from the Taurus Mountains. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Side experienced a revival, and became the seat of the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia. Arab fleets, nevertheless, raided and burned Side during the 7th century, contributing to its decline. The combination of earthquakes, Christian zealots and Arab raids, left the site abandoned by the 10th century, its citizens having emigrated to nearby Antalya.[2]

In the 12th century, Side temporarily established itself once more as a large city. An inscription found on the site of the former ancient city shows a considerable Jewish population in early Byzantine times. However, Side was abandoned again after being sacked. Its population moved to Antalya, and Side became known as Eski Adalia 'Old Antalya' and was buried.

A hospital dating back to the 6th century.

This portion of the main street in Side is lined with the ruins of homes or shops, many of which feature their original mosaic tile flooring.

As capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima, Side was ecclesiastically the metropolitan see. The earliest known bishop was Epidaurus, presiding at the Synod of Ancyra, 314. Others are John, fourth century Eustathius, 381 Amphilochius, 426-458, who played an important part in the history of the time Conon, 536 Peter, 553 John, 680-692 Mark, 879 Theodore, 1027-1028 Anthimus, present at the synod held at Constantinople in 1054 John, then counsellor to the Emperor Michael VII Ducas, presided at a council on the worship of images, 1082 Theodosius and his successor Nicetas, twelfth century. John, present at a synod at Constantinople in 1156. The Notitiae Episcopatuum continued to mention Side as a metropolis of Pamphylia until the thirteenth century. It does not appear in the "Notitia" of Andronicus III. From other documents we learn that in 1315 and for some time previous to that, Sidon had bishops of its own — the Bishop of Sinope was called to the position, but was unable to leave his own diocese this call was repeated in 1338 and 1345. In 1397 the diocese was united with that of Attalia in 1400 the Metropolitan of Perge and Attalia was at the same time the administrator of Side.[4][citation needed]

No longer a residential see, Side is today included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[5]

The great ruins are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory where a wall and a moat separate it from the mainland. During medieval times, the wall and moat were repaired and the promontory houses a wealth of structures.

There are colossal ruins of a theatre complex, the largest of Pamphylia, built much like a Roman amphitheatre that relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. The theatre is less preserved than the theatre at Aspendos, but it is almost as large, seating 15,000–20,000 people. With time and the shifting of the earth, the scena wall has collapsed over the stage and the proscenium is in a cataract of loose blocks. It was converted into an open-air sanctuary with two chapels during Byzantine times (5th or 6th century).

The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate (Megale Pyle) of the ancient city, although this gate from the 2nd century BC is badly damaged. Next comes the colonnaded street, whose marble columns are no longer extant all that remains are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman period. Next is the square agora with the remains of the round Tyche and Fortuna temple (2nd century BC), a periptery with twelve columns, in the middle. In later times it was used as a trading centre where pirates sold slaves. The remains of the theatre, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theatre. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored.[2]

The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum. Side's nymphaeum – a grotto with a natural water supply dedicated to the nymphs – was an artificial grotto or fountain building of elaborate design.

There is also a virtually unknown, but expansive site, up in the Taurus foothills, several miles inland, known locally as Seleucia. Virtually unknown to the outside world and not represented on the internet at all, it is the Roman garrison, built by Marc Anthony, to support the city of Side. It covers at least a couple of square miles and is almost completely unexcavated, apart from two weeks in 1975, when the Turkish government funded two weeks of excavations. The site was, apparently, finally abandoned in the 7th century, when an earthquake caused the spring which fed the site with water to dry up completely. Many of the buildings are in remarkably good shape, particularly since, due to the lack of available stone, a significant quantity of the sites stonework contains egg and gravel based concrete blocks.[citation needed]

Turkish archaeologists have been excavating Side since 1947 and intermittently continue to do so

Perga or Perge was an ancient and important city of Pamphylia, between the rivers Catarrhactes and Cestrus. It was renowned for the worship of Artemis, whose temple stood on a hill outside the town, and in whose honour annual festivals were celebrated. The coins of Perge represent both the goddess and her temple. Alexander the Great occupied Perge with a part of his army after quitting Phaselis, between which two towns the road is described as long and difficult. Alexander's rule was followed by the Diadochi empire of the Seleucids. In 46 A.D., according to the Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul journeyed to Perga, from there continued on to Antiocheia in Pisidia, then returned to Perga where he preached the word of God. Then he left the city and went to Attaleia. In the first half of the 4th century, during the reign of Constantine the Great (324-337), Perga became an important centre of Christianity, which soon became the official religion of the Roman Empire. The city retained its status as a Christian centre in the 5th and 6th centuries.

Perga is today an archaeological site and a tourist attraction.

Each of the works exhibited in the Antalya Archeology Museum, which is considered one of the leading museums of not only Turkey, but also the world, is among the masterpieces of its kind. Undoubtedly the main source of this wealth is Antalya’s location which is one of the first places where human traces are seen in Anatolia, hosting the magnificent cities of Lycia, Roman and Byzantine civilizations and witnessing continuously the history of mankind. The Neanderthal skeleton fragments unearthed in Karain Cave, the magnificent sculptures found in Perga which is one of the sculpture production centers of the Antique Age, Elmalı coins which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’, and the finds discovered during the excavations in the St. Nicholas Church, i.e. Santa Claus Church, are priceless. The Museum was selected as the ‘Museum of Year’ in 1988 by the European Council and received the ‘Excellence Award’ in 2016 thanks to its artifacts.

This piece, an AC-2nd-century copy of the sculpture made by Lysippos who is the famous sculptor of the 4th century BC, belongs to Perga ancient city, known for sculpturing. The lower part the sculpture was found during the excavations in 1980, whereas the upper part, which was illegally smuggled abroad, was brought back to its homeland in 2011 and the two parts were combined. It depicts Heracles leaning on his club after beating the Nemean lion which was impervious to all weapons. Although there are 60 copies of this sculpture, known as ‘Heracles Farnese’ from the Roman Period, the specimen exhibited in the Antalya Archaeological Museum is considered to be superior to others in terms of workmanship.

The sculptures of Roman emperors, all of which were found during excavations in the ancient city of Perga, are among the masterpieces of Roman art. The Dancer Sculpture, which is a symbol of Antalya Museum, is exhibited here besides the emperor sculptures. This sculpture, which was assembled after being discovered in pieces, is one of the most admired works of the Museum with its monumentality and fine details and vitality.

Sarcophagi in which important and wealthy people in general were placed after death in the Antique Age are also the works that reflect their understanding of art. A few floral motifs and also some very complex figures are used in the decoration on these sarcophagi. Most of the sarcophagi that can be seen in the Sarcophagi Hall belong to the ancient city of Perga. The most popular ones are the Sarcophagus of Domitias belonging to a married couple apparently not separated after death, the Heracles Sarcophagus depicting the 12 tasks of Heracles, and the Garland Sarcophagus decorated with floral motifs.

Hall of Coin, Small Artifacts and Icons

The most significant parts of this part of the Museum are ‘Elmalı Coins’ which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’. The most precious pieces that make this collection valuable, including coins issued by the cities comprising the union against the Persians, are monumental coins, which are very rare all over the world, issued when the Greeks defeated the Persians. In the hall, you can see the coins of all civilizations in Antalya’s rich history, finds unearthed in shipwrecks, jewelry and icons, as well as the Anatolian coin minting tradition and techniques.

Great women in Science History

Biography of a scientist and a symbol.

Hypatia (370-415 A.D.) lived in Alexandria (Egypt) in the 4th century. For fifteen centuries she was the only woman scientist in history and even today her fame comes second only to that of Marie Curie. She is the only woman to appear in books concerning the history of mathematics and astronomy, although she is mentioned more for the romanticism of her life and death than for other reasons.

Hypatia became the symbol of the end of ancient science because mathematics, physics and astronomy progressed very little after her death. She lived in a period during which the Roman Empire was converting to Christianity and the sciences were considered heretical. She was educated by her father, Teone, mathematician and astronomer, who wanted her to become 'a perfect human being' in an age when women were often considered to be less than human!

Hypatia travelled to Athens and Rome where she made an impression for her intelligence and beauty. On returning to Alexandria she taught mathematics, philosophy, astronomy and mechanics and her house became a centre of intellectual activity. Unfortunately, none of her documents (mostly in the form of textbooks for students) have been preserved intact although it appears that part of her work was incorporated into the works of Teone.

The most important part of her work is to be found in the 13 VOLUMI DI COMMENTO ALL’”ARITMETICA” by Diofanto, considered to be the father of algebra. She also wrote a dissertation in 8 volumes on the 'Coniche di Apollonio' (by Apollonius of Perga, 3rd century, text which introduced epicycles and differentials to explain the orbits of planets). She was also interested in the study of conicals and wrote a dissertation on Euclides and Tolomeus. The 'Corpus Astronomico', a collection of tables concerning the heavenly bodies, is also attributed to Hypatia.

Hypatia was also interested in mechanics and technology: she designed scientific instruments, among which a flat astrolabe, an instrument to measure the level of water and an apparatus for its distillation and a brass hydrometer to calculate the density of liquids.

She was a pagan, a follower of a form of Neoplatonism that was more tolerant towards mathematics, and as such she was considered an heretic by the Christians. Persecution against Neoplatonists and Jews began in 412 a.D. when Cyrillus became patriarch of Alexandria. Hypatia refused to convert and to renounce to her ideas and in March 415 her life ended tragically in violence at the hands of a rampaging mob of Christian fanatics, who killed her for her “pagan” beliefs, some say at the instigation of St. Cyril of Alexandria.

Her death marked the end of neoplatonic teaching in Alexandria and throughout the Empire.

Although this outrageous crime has made Hypatia a powerful symbol of intellectual freedom and feminist aspiration to this day, it makes clear that the important intellectual contributions of her life’s work should not be overshadowed by her tragic death.

This is the astonishing life of Hypatia, famed throughout the Mediterranean world, a beauty and a genius, yet for 17 centuries ignored by history. As the Roman Empire fights for its life and emerging Christianity fights for our souls, Hypatia is the last great voice of reason. A woman of sublime intelligence, Hypatia ranks above not only all women, but all men. Hypatia dazzled the world with her brilliance, was courted by men of every persuasion and was considered the leading philosopher and mathematician of her age. yet her mathematics, her inventions, the very story of her life in all its epic and dramatic intensity, has gone untold.

Grandi donne nella Storia della Scienza

Ipazia fu martire della libertà di pensiero e fulgido esempio dell’emancipazione femminile.

Ipazia (Alessandria d'Egitto, 370 – 415 d.C.), astronoma, matematica e filosofa, erede della scuola alessandrina, fu fatta massacrare dal vescovo Cirillo per mettere a tacere la sua sete di sapere e la sua libertà di pensiero. Antesignana della scienza sperimentale, studiò e realizzò l'astrolabio, l'idroscopio, il planisfero e l'aerometro. Nell'anno dedicato all'astronomia è legittimo chiedersi come potrebbe essere il mondo oggi e con quanti secoli di anticipo avremmo conseguito le conquiste moderne, se persone come Ipazia fossero state lasciate libere di esprimersi e di agire.

"Ad Alessandria d'Egitto, c'era una donna chiamata Ipazia, figlia del matematico Teone madre natura la dotò, oltre della sua straordinaria intelligenza, di una incomparabile e incantevole bellezza, ottenne tantissimi successi nella letteratura e nella scienza da superare di gran lunga tutti i filosofi del suo tempo. Provenendo dalla scuola di Platone e di Plotino, lei spiegò i principi della filosofia ai suoi uditori, molti dei quali venivano da lontano per ascoltare le sue lezioni.

Facendo conto sulla padronanza di sé e sulla facilità di modi che aveva acquisito in conseguenza dello sviluppo della sua mente, non raramente apparve in pubblico o davanti ai magistrati.

Né lei si sentì confusa nell'andare ad una riunione di uomini. Tutti gli uomini, tenendo conto della sua dignità straordinaria e della sua virtù, l'ammiravano di più.

Fu vittima della gelosia politica che a quel tempo prevaleva, ma anche dell’ottusità religiosa dei cristiani dell’epoca che vedevano in lei, in quanto donna e per di più pagana, un essere inferiore e non degna di dedicarsi allo studio e alle Scienze.

Dopo la morte del vescovo Teofilo, la cattedra vescovile fu occupata, nel 412, da suo nipote Cirillo, di idee fondamentaliste, specie contro i novaziani e i giudei, che venne subito in urto col prefetto di quel tempo, il romano Oreste, amico di Ipazia e un tempo suo discepolo.

Cirillo, che mal sopportava la predicazione pagana di Ipazia, divenuta ad Alessandria la rappresentante più qualificata della filosofia ellenica, si convinse che l'ostacolo maggiore alla risoluzione della controversia fosse proprio lei.

Così egli istigò il gruppo fanatico di monaci cristiani detti parabolani ed eremiti della Tebaide, guidati da Pietro il Lettore, a togliere di mezzo Ipazia.

Dei sicari del vescovo Cirillo la aggredirono per strada e la scarnificarono con conchiglie affilate. I suoi resti furono dati alle fiamme nel Cinerone, dove veniva bruciata la spazzatura. E quel giorno i monaci esultarono con le parole di S. Agostino, per il quale la donna è solo 'immondizia'. 'Una macchia indelebile' nella storia del cristianesimo, così definì il suo assassinio lo storico Edward Gibbon. Era l'anno 415, il IV dell'episcopato di Cirillo.

Gli assassini rimasero impuniti. Oreste il prefetto chiese un'inchiesta Costantinopoli non poté non concederla, e mandò ad Alessandria un tale Edesio, il quale non fece nulla, poiché si lasciò corrompere da Cirillo.

Oreste ottenne soltanto dei provvedimenti per arginare l'ingerenza politica dei vescovi nei poteri civili. Cirillo in seguito verrà addirittura santificato come esempio di sicura ortodossia.

Fu Damascio, filosofo neoplatonico (480/prima metà del sec.VI a.C.), quinto successore di Proclo nello scolarcato dell'Accademia, che per primo, nella Vita di Isidoro, incolpò Cirillo del delitto, arrivando addirittura a dire che prima di ucciderla le strapparono gli occhi dalle orbite, perchè aveva osato guardare e studiare il cielo e gli astri.

Nella Storia ecclesiastica dell'ariano Filostorgio, nato circa il 368 d.C. e dunque contemporaneo dei fatti narrati, si arriva a sostenere che l'assassinio non era opera di una amorfa folla fanatica, ma di quel clero cristiano che, ad Alessandria in modo particolare, voleva spadroneggiare su tutti.

Ipazia viene ricordata, ancora oggi, come la prima matematica della storia, anzi, fu la sola matematica per più di un millennio: per trovarne altre, da Maria Agnesi a Sophie Germain, bisognerà attendere il Settecento.

Ipazia era anche musicologa, medico e bravissima docente. Ad Alessandria d'Egitto insegnò nella celebre biblioteca fino a quando questo “tempio” del sapere antico fu distrutto dalle fiamme.

Secondo Mario Luzi, che a lei ha dedicato il poemetto “Il libro di Ipazia”, il suo è tra i 'nomi luminosi' della storia del mondo. Ma prima di Luzi, avevano scritto di lei Voltaire, Diderot, Leopardi, Proust, Pascal, Calvino. Eppure in Italia è tuttora sconosciuta.

Buon 8 marzo, a tutte le donne

A quelle che non hanno il dono di un sorriso

A quelle che non hanno una carezza sulla pelle

A quelle che non conoscono la dolcezza

A quelle che in silenzio subiscono la violenza.

A quelle che non possono sciogliersi i capelli al vento

Buon 8 marzo, a tutte le donne

A quelle che abbracciano con amore

A quelle che illuminano l’anima

A quelle che parlano dentro oltre lo sguardo

A quelle che sorridono con i colori dell’arcobaleno

A tutte quelle che danno energia alla libertà della vita

Each of the works exhibited in the Antalya Archeology Museum, which is considered one of the leading museums of not only Turkey, but also the world, is among the masterpieces of its kind. Undoubtedly the main source of this wealth is Antalya’s location which is one of the first places where human traces are seen in Anatolia, hosting the magnificent cities of Lycia, Roman and Byzantine civilizations and witnessing continuously the history of mankind. The Neanderthal skeleton fragments unearthed in Karain Cave, the magnificent sculptures found in Perga which is one of the sculpture production centers of the Antique Age, Elmalı coins which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’, and the finds discovered during the excavations in the St. Nicholas Church, i.e. Santa Claus Church, are priceless. The Museum was selected as the ‘Museum of Year’ in 1988 by the European Council and received the ‘Excellence Award’ in 2016 thanks to its artifacts.

This piece, an AC-2nd-century copy of the sculpture made by Lysippos who is the famous sculptor of the 4th century BC, belongs to Perga ancient city, known for sculpturing. The lower part the sculpture was found during the excavations in 1980, whereas the upper part, which was illegally smuggled abroad, was brought back to its homeland in 2011 and the two parts were combined. It depicts Heracles leaning on his club after beating the Nemean lion which was impervious to all weapons. Although there are 60 copies of this sculpture, known as ‘Heracles Farnese’ from the Roman Period, the specimen exhibited in the Antalya Archaeological Museum is considered to be superior to others in terms of workmanship.

The sculptures of Roman emperors, all of which were found during excavations in the ancient city of Perga, are among the masterpieces of Roman art. The Dancer Sculpture, which is a symbol of Antalya Museum, is exhibited here besides the emperor sculptures. This sculpture, which was assembled after being discovered in pieces, is one of the most admired works of the Museum with its monumentality and fine details and vitality.

Sarcophagi in which important and wealthy people in general were placed after death in the Antique Age are also the works that reflect their understanding of art. A few floral motifs and also some very complex figures are used in the decoration on these sarcophagi. Most of the sarcophagi that can be seen in the Sarcophagi Hall belong to the ancient city of Perga. The most popular ones are the Sarcophagus of Domitias belonging to a married couple apparently not separated after death, the Heracles Sarcophagus depicting the 12 tasks of Heracles, and the Garland Sarcophagus decorated with floral motifs.

Hall of Coin, Small Artifacts and Icons

The most significant parts of this part of the Museum are ‘Elmalı Coins’ which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’. The most precious pieces that make this collection valuable, including coins issued by the cities comprising the union against the Persians, are monumental coins, which are very rare all over the world, issued when the Greeks defeated the Persians. In the hall, you can see the coins of all civilizations in Antalya’s rich history, finds unearthed in shipwrecks, jewelry and icons, as well as the Anatolian coin minting tradition and techniques.

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September[1] c. 130 CE,[2] — 175/176 CE[3]) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death.

Each of the works exhibited in the Antalya Archeology Museum, which is considered one of the leading museums of not only Turkey, but also the world, is among the masterpieces of its kind. Undoubtedly the main source of this wealth is Antalya’s location which is one of the first places where human traces are seen in Anatolia, hosting the magnificent cities of Lycia, Roman and Byzantine civilizations and witnessing continuously the history of mankind. The Neanderthal skeleton fragments unearthed in Karain Cave, the magnificent sculptures found in Perga which is one of the sculpture production centers of the Antique Age, Elmalı coins which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’, and the finds discovered during the excavations in the St. Nicholas Church, i.e. Santa Claus Church, are priceless. The Museum was selected as the ‘Museum of Year’ in 1988 by the European Council and received the ‘Excellence Award’ in 2016 thanks to its artifacts.

This piece, an AC-2nd-century copy of the sculpture made by Lysippos who is the famous sculptor of the 4th century BC, belongs to Perga ancient city, known for sculpturing. The lower part the sculpture was found during the excavations in 1980, whereas the upper part, which was illegally smuggled abroad, was brought back to its homeland in 2011 and the two parts were combined. It depicts Heracles leaning on his club after beating the Nemean lion which was impervious to all weapons. Although there are 60 copies of this sculpture, known as ‘Heracles Farnese’ from the Roman Period, the specimen exhibited in the Antalya Archaeological Museum is considered to be superior to others in terms of workmanship.

The sculptures of Roman emperors, all of which were found during excavations in the ancient city of Perga, are among the masterpieces of Roman art. The Dancer Sculpture, which is a symbol of Antalya Museum, is exhibited here besides the emperor sculptures. This sculpture, which was assembled after being discovered in pieces, is one of the most admired works of the Museum with its monumentality and fine details and vitality.

Sarcophagi in which important and wealthy people in general were placed after death in the Antique Age are also the works that reflect their understanding of art. A few floral motifs and also some very complex figures are used in the decoration on these sarcophagi. Most of the sarcophagi that can be seen in the Sarcophagi Hall belong to the ancient city of Perga. The most popular ones are the Sarcophagus of Domitias belonging to a married couple apparently not separated after death, the Heracles Sarcophagus depicting the 12 tasks of Heracles, and the Garland Sarcophagus decorated with floral motifs.

Hall of Coin, Small Artifacts and Icons

The most significant parts of this part of the Museum are ‘Elmalı Coins’ which are called the ‘Treasure of the Century’. The most precious pieces that make this collection valuable, including coins issued by the cities comprising the union against the Persians, are monumental coins, which are very rare all over the world, issued when the Greeks defeated the Persians. In the hall, you can see the coins of all civilizations in Antalya’s rich history, finds unearthed in shipwrecks, jewelry and icons, as well as the Anatolian coin minting tradition and techniques.

A couple of my shots layered together with additional snow and a bird from picMonkey and pixlr express borders (details in tags). We haven't had sticking snow in March during the ten years we've lived here, but we're supposed to get another small batch tonight with chances of several more inches on Wednesday. So - we'll see what happens next week when March arrives, but I'm not making any bets. :-)

Side (Greek: Σίδη) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country. It lies near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye, 78 km from Antalya in the province of Antalya.

It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across

Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western Anatolia. This most likely occurred in the 7th century BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena, whose head adorned its coinage.

Dating from the tenth century B.C., its coinage bore the head of Athena (Minerva), the patroness of the city, with a legend. Its people, a piratical horde, quickly forgot their own language to adopt that of the aborigines.

Possessing a good harbour for small-craft boats, Side's natural geography made it one of the most important places in Pamphylia and one of the most important trade centres in the region. According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language. The inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations at Side, a basalt column base from the 7th century BC and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides further evidence of the site's early history. The name Side may be Anatolian in origin, meaning pomegranate.

Next to no information exists concerning Side under Lydian and Persian sovereignty.

Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenistic culture, which flourished from the 4th to the 1st century BC. After Alexander's death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander's generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and became an important cultural centre.

Walls of the ancient theatre of Side

In 190 BC a fleet from the Greek island city-state of Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great's fleet, which was under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general Hannibal. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlord-ship of the Seleucid Empire. The Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) forced Antiochus to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphylia in a state of uncertain freedom. This led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city of Attalia (the present Antalya), although Side already possessed an important harbour of its own. Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted its own money, tetradrachms showing Nike and a laurel wreath (the sign of victory).

In the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre for their slave-trade.

The consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and later the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of Rome and beginning its second period of ascendancy, when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire.

Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign of Amyntas of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial centre in Asia Minor through its trade in olive oil. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the 3rd century AD. Side also established itself as a slave-trading centre in the Mediterranean. Its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy, while wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works, monuments, and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights. Most of the extant ruins at Side date from this period of prosperity.

One of the maps (portolani) of Piri Reis, taken from the Kitab-i Bahriye, which Piri produced in several editions, supplementing in 1520, but integrating it into subsequent editions.

Side was the home of Eustathius of Antioch, of the philosopher Troilus, of the fifth-century ecclesiastical writer Philip of the famous lawyer Tribonian

"Perga or Perge (Greek: Πέργη Perge, Turkish: Perge) was an ancient Anatolian city in modern Turkey, once the capital of Pamphylia Secunda, now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Today, it is a large site of ancient ruins 15 kilometres east of Antalya on the coastal plain. An acropolis located there dates back to the Bronze Age." [from Wikipedia]

Digital version of a photograph taken during an extended holiday in Turkey, summer of 1993. (Scanned from a transparency.)

الأَسْطُرلاب (ويقال له: الأصْطُرلاب)[1] هو آلة فلكية قديمة وأطلق عليه العرب ذات الصفائح. وهو نموذج ثنائي البعد للقبة السماوية، وهو يظهر كيف تبدو السماء في مكان محدد عند وقت محدد. وقد رسمت السماء على وجه الأسطرلاب بحيث يسهل إيجاد المواضع السماوية عليه. بعض الأسطرلابات صغيرة الحجم وسهلة الحمل، وبعضها ضخم يصل قطر بعضها إلى عدة أمتار[2].

وقد كانت الأسطرلابات حواسيبا فلكية في وقتها، فقد كانت تحل المسائل المتعلقة بأماكن الأجرام السماوية، مثل الشمس والنجوم، والوقت أيضا. وقد كانت ساعات جيب لعلماء الفلك في القرون الوسطى. وقد تمكنوا أيضا من قياس ارتفاع الشمس في السماء، وهذا مكنهم من تقدير الوقت في النهار أو الليل، كما يمكنهم من تحديد وقت بزوغ الشمس أو تكبد النجوم. وقد طبع على ظهر الأسطرلاب جداولا مبتكرة مكنتهم من هذه الحسابات. ويمكن لهذه الجداول أن تحتوي على معلومات عن منحنيات لتحويل الوقت، ومقومة لتحويل اليوم في الشهر إلى مكان للشمس في دائرة البروج، ومقاييس مثلثية وتدريجات لـ 360 درجة.[2]

وأصل هذه الآلة غير معروف، وقد كتب "Theon of Alexandria" عن الأسطرلاب في القرن الرابع قبل الميلادي، وأول رسالة إغريقية محفوظة تعود للقرن السادس الميلادي.[2] وقد طور علماء الفلك المسلمون الأسطرلاب تطويرا كاملا في العهد الإسلامي بسبب حاجتهم لتحديد أوقات الصلاة واتجاه مكة. وقد بقي الأسطرلاب مستخدما على نحو شائع حتى سنة 1800م [2]. وهناك كتاب فقد أصله اليوناني ولكن نسخته العربية موجودة لحسن الحظ ورجع البعض أن مخترع الاسطرلاب بشكله المعروف هو ابن الشاطر العالم الدمشقي[بحاجة لمصدر]. وممن كتبوا عنه من اليونانيين أيضا يوحنا النحوي في القرن السادس الميلادي، وقد كتب كتابا عن الأسطرلاب المسطح بطلميوس صاحب المجسطى وعرفنا من اليعقوبي المؤرخ. وهناك كتابات باللغة السريانية حول الأسطرلاب ترجع إلى القرن السابع الميلادي وتنسب إلى سفيروس سيبوخت. على الرغم من كل هذا فإن هناك من ينسب هذا الاختراع إلى أبو إسحق إبراهيم الفزارى في القرن الثامن الميلادي. [بحاجة لمصدر] لكن المؤكد أن العرب عرفوا الأسطرلاب وأضافوا إلى المعرفة الإنسانية الكثير حوله، ومن الكتابات المشهورة عند العرب في هذا الشأن كتابات عبد الرحمن بن عمر الصوفي وهو كتاب العمل بالأسطرلاب ومنها الكتاب الكبير في عمل الأسطرلاب، وهو موجود وتم تحقيقه، وهناك باحثة يونانية كتبت رسالة دكتوراه في جامعة باريس (بالفرنسية والإنجليزية) عن الأسطرلاب وجهد عبد الرحمن الصوفي في ذلك، بل وحققت بعض أعماله، واسمها فلورا كفافيا.

وقد اخترعت مريم الاسطرلابي الأسطرلاب المعقد[3]

كان الأسطرلاب يستخدم في الملاحة العربية لتعيين زوايا ارتفاع الأجرام السماوية بالنسبة للأفق في أي مكان لحساب الوقت والبعد عن خط الاستواء. يتكون الاسطرلاب من العديد من القطع منها العنكبوت وهى قطعة كانت تمثل مدار الشمس في دائرة البروج وتجد أيضا بها النجوم وكذلك الصفيحة وهى القطعة التي كانت توضع عليها دوائر الارتفاع والسموت ومواقيت الصلاة والمنازل الاثنى عشر وغيرها الكثير وهناك قطعة كانت تسمى الام حيث كانت تحتوى جميع القطع والعضادة والفرس. تقسم الدائرة لدرجات لتعيين زوايا ارتفاع النجم أو الشمس لتحديد موقعه.

An astrolabe (Greek: ἀστρολάβος astrolabos, "star-taker")[1] is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers. Its many uses include locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars, determining local time given local latitude and vice versa, surveying, and triangulation. It was used in classical antiquity, the Islamic Golden Age, the European Middle Ages and Renaissance for all these purposes. In the Islamic world, it was also used to calculate the Qibla and to find the times for Salat prayers.

There is often confusion between the astrolabe and the mariner's astrolabe. While the astrolabe could be useful for determining latitude on land, it was an awkward instrument for use on the heaving deck of a ship or in wind. The mariner's astrolabe was developed to solve these problems.

OED gives the translation "star-taker" for the English word "astrolabe" and traces it, through medieval Latin, to the Greek word astrolabos] from astron "star" and lambanein "to take".In the medieval Islamic world the word "asturlab" (i.e. astrolabe) was given various etymologies. In Arabic texts, the word is translated as "akhdh al-kawakib" (lit. "taking the stars") which corresponds to an interpretation of the Greek word.Al-Biruni quotes and criticizes the medieval scientist Hamzah al-Isfahani who had stated: "asturlab is an arabization of this Persian phrase" (sitara yab, meaning "taker of the stars").In medieval Islamic sources, there is also a "fictional" and popular etymology of the words as "lines of lab". In this popular etymology, "Lab" is a certain son of Idris (=Enoch). This etymology is mentioned by a 10th-century scientist named al-Qummi but rejected by al-Khwarizmi.[6] "Lab" in Arabic also means "sun" and "black stony places"

An early astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world by Apollonius of Perga, around 220 BCE or in 150 BC and is often attributed to Hipparchus. A marriage of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was effectively an analog calculator capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. Theon of Alexandria wrote a detailed treatise on the astrolabe, and Lewis[7] argues that Ptolemy used an astrolabe to make the astronomical observations recorded in the Tetrabiblos.[a] It is generally accepted that Greek astrologers, in either the first or second centuries BC, invented the astrolabe, an instrument that measures the altitude of stars and planets above the horizon. Some historians attribute its invention to Hypatia, the daughter of the mathematician Theon Alexandricus (c. 335 – c. 405), and others note that Synesius, a student of Hypatia, credits her for the invention in his letters.

Astrolabes continued in use in the Greek-speaking world throughout the Byzantine period. About 550 AD the Christian philosopher John Philoponus wrote a treatise on the astrolabe in Greek, which is the earliest extant Greek treatise on the instrument.[b] In addition, Severus Sebokht, a bishop who lived in Mesopotamia, also wrote a treatise on the astrolabe in Syriac in the mid-7th century.[c] Severus Sebokht refers in the introduction of his treatise to the astrolabe as being made of brass, indicating that metal astrolabes were known in the Christian East well before they were developed in the Islamic world or the Latin West.

Medieval era.A treatise explaining the importance of the astrolabe by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian scientist.

Exploded view of an astrolabe diagram of an astrolabe's tympan. Animation showing how celestial and geographic coordinates are mapped on an astrolabe's tympan through a stereographic projection. Hypothetical tympan (40 degrees North Latitude) of a 16th-century Europenan planispheric astrolabe. Astrolabes were further developed in the medieval Islamic world, where Muslim astronomers introduced angular scales to the astrolabe, adding circles indicating azimuths on the horizon.It was widely used throughout the Muslim world, chiefly as an aid to navigation and as a way of finding the Qibla, the direction of Mecca. The first person credited with building the astrolabe in the Islamic world is reportedly the 8th-century mathematician Muhammad al-Fazari.The mathematical background was established by the Muslim astronomer Albatenius in his treatise Kitab az-Zij (ca. 920 AD), which was translated into Latin by Plato Tiburtinus (De Motu Stellarum). The earliest surviving dated astrolabe is dated AH 315 (927/8 AD). In the Islamic world, astrolabes were used to find the times of sunrise and the rising of fixed stars, to help schedule morning prayers (salat). In the 10th century, al-Sufi first described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, in areas as diverse as astronomy, astrology, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, prayer, Salat, Qibla, etc. Astrolabium Masha'Allah Public Library Bruges (nl) Ms. 522

The spherical astrolabe, a variation of both the astrolabe and the armillary sphere, was invented during the Middle Ages by astronomers and inventors in the Islamic world.[d] The earliest description of the spherical astrolabe dates back to Al-Nayrizi (fl. 892–902). In the 12th century, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī invented the linear astrolabe, sometimes called the "staff of al-Tusi," which was "a simple wooden rod with graduated markings but without sights. It was furnished with a plumb line and a double chord for making angular measurements and bore a perforated pointer."The first geared mechanical astrolabe was later invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan in 1235.

Peter of Maricourt, in the last half of the 13th century, also wrote a treatise on the construction and use of a universal astrolabe (Nova compositio astrolabii particularis). Universal astrolabes can be found at the History of Science Museum in Oxford.The English author Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343–1400) compiled a treatise on the astrolabe for his son, mainly based on Messahalla. The same source was translated by the French astronomer and astrologer Pélerin de Prusse and others. The first printed book on the astrolabe was Composition and Use of Astrolabe by Christian of Prachatice, also using Messahalla, but relatively original.

In 1370, the first Indian treatise on the astrolabe was written by the Jain astronomer Mahendra Suri.The first known metal astrolabe in Western Europe is the Destombes astrolabe made from brass in tenth-century Spain.[20][21] Metal astrolabes avoided the warping that large wooden astrolabes were prone to, allowing the construction of larger and therefore more accurate instruments however, metal astrolabes were also heavier than wooden instruments of the same size, making it difficult to use them as navigational instruments.[22] The astrolabe was almost certainly first brought north of the Pyrenees by Gerbert of Aurillac (future Pope Sylvester II), where it was integrated into the quadrivium at the school in Reims, France, sometime before the turn of the 11th century.[23] In the 15th century, the French instrument-maker Jean Fusoris (fr) (ca. 1365–1436) also started remaking and selling astrolabes in his shop in Paris, along with portable sundials and other popular scientific gadgets of the day. Thirteen of his astrolabes survive to this day. Finally, one more special example of craftsmanship in the early 15th-century Europe is the astrolabe dated 1420, designed by Antonius de Pacento and made by Dominicus de Lanzano. In the 16th century, Johannes Stöffler published Elucidatio fabricae ususque astrolabii, a manual of the construction and use of the astrolabe. Four identical 16th-century astrolabes made by Georg Hartmann provide some of the earliest evidence for batch production by division of labor. Astrolabes and clocks

At first mechanical astronomical clocks were influenced by the astrolabe in many ways they could be seen as clockwork astrolabes designed to produce a continual display of the current position of the sun, stars, and planets. For example, Richard of Wallingford's clock (c. 1330) consisted essentially of a star map rotating behind a fixed rete, similar to that of an astrolabe.Many astronomical clocks, such as the famous clock at Prague, use an astrolabe-style display, adopting a stereographic projection (see below) of the ecliptic plane.

In recent times, astrolabe watches have become a feature of haute horologie. For example, in 1985 Swiss watchmaker Dr. Ludwig Oechslin designed and built an astrolabe wristwatch in conjunction with Ulysse Nardin. Dutch watchmaker Christaan van der Klauuw also manufactures astrolabe watches today.

Computer-generated planispheric astrolabe

An astrolabe consists of a disk, called the mater (mother), which is deep enough to hold one or more flat plates called tympans, or climates. A tympan is made for a specific latitude and is engraved with a stereographic projection of circles denoting azimuth and altitude and representing the portion of the celestial sphere above the local horizon. The rim of the mater is typically graduated into hours of time, degrees of arc, or both. Above the mater and tympan, the rete, a framework bearing a projection of the ecliptic plane and several pointers indicating the positions of the brightest stars, is free to rotate. These pointers are often just simple points, but depending on the skill of the craftsman can be very elaborate and artistic. There are examples of astrolabes with artistic pointers in the shape of balls, stars, snakes, hands, dogs' heads, and leaves, among others.Some astrolabes have a narrow rule or label which rotates over the rete, and may be marked with a scale of declinations.

The rete, representing the sky, functions as a star chart. When it is rotated, the stars and the ecliptic move over the projection of the coordinates on the tympan. One complete rotation corresponds to the passage of a day. The astrolabe is therefore a predecessor of the modern planisphere.

On the back of the mater there is often engraved a number of scales that are useful in the astrolabe's various applications these vary from designer to designer, but might include curves for time conversions, a calendar for converting the day of the month to the sun's position on the ecliptic, trigonometric scales, and a graduation of 360 degrees around the back edge. The alidade is attached to the back face. An alidade can be seen in the lower right illustration of the Persian astrolabe above. When the astrolabe is held vertically, the alidade can be rotated and the sun or a star sighted along its length, so that its altitude in degrees can be read ("taken") from the graduated edge of the astrolabe hence the word's Greek roots: "astron" (ἄστρον) = star + "lab-" (λαβ-) = to take.


Trevi Fountain

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Trevi Fountain, Italian Fontana di Trevi, fountain in Rome that is considered a late Baroque masterpiece and is arguably the best known of the city’s numerous fountains. It was designed by Nicola Salvi and completed by Giuseppe Pannini in 1762. According to legend, those who toss coins into its waters will return to Rome.

The fountain is located in Rome’s Trevi district, abutting the Palazzo Poli. An earlier fountain on the site was demolished in the 17th century, and a design competition for a new fountain was won by Nicola Salvi in 1732. His creation was a scenic wonder. The idea of combining the palace front and fountain was derived from a project by Pietro da Cortona, but the grand pageantry of the fountain’s central triumphal arch with its mythological and allegorical figures, natural rock formations, and gushing water was Salvi’s. The Trevi Fountain took some 30 years to complete, and after Salvi’s death in 1751, Giuseppe Pannini, who slightly altered the original scheme, oversaw its completion in 1762.

The immense fountain stands some 85 feet (26 metres) high and is approximately 160 feet (49 metres) wide. At its centre is Pietro Bracci’s statue of Oceanus, who stands atop a chariot pulled by sea horses and is accompanied by tritons. The fountain also features statues of Abundance and Health. Its water, from the ancient aqueduct called Acqua Vergine, long was considered Rome’s softest and best tasting for centuries, barrels of it were taken every week to the Vatican. However, the water is now nonpotable.

The Trevi Fountain was featured in numerous books and films, notably Federico Fellini’s La Dolce Vita (1960). In 2014–15 the fountain was closed for a major renovation. The coins that are thrown into its water are collected daily and donated to charity.


Travel to Albania

Travel to Albania! Albania relatively recently started to develop tourism infrastructure and to open a civilized strangers. About local attractions little known, so it is even more intriguing travelers. In Albania, and indeed there are many interesting and unusual places, everything we do not describe – but some of you will read in this article.

427 kilometers of Albanian territory adjacent to the sea. Gradually, the local authorities are beginning to use this potential – built hotels, expanding road network, sprinkled beaches. Is constantly updated and lists places of interest.
Tourists had time to visit Albania is recommended to travel by rental car or as part of tour groups.

Three Albanian unusual sights

Museum of guerrilla warfare. To see the exhibits of the museum, you have to go from Tirana to the south-east – to the ancient town of Elbasan. Enjoy the contemplation of the Royal Mosque, fragments of Roman fortifications and bazaar gate, point to guerrilla foot museum. The exposition contains items which once owned the guerrillas (the ones that fought with the Italian occupiers in 1944): letters, uniforms, drawings, photographs and documents.

Ancient road Egnantia. This “backbone”, folded his hands of Roman slaves of huge stone blocks, before crossing the province of Rome, and now amazes tourists. Go to Durres – is there a way originates. However, to move on the road, we do not recommend walking – it stretches over 1120 kilometers. The joints between the slabs are covered with grass, but it is not easy to eradicate the imperial grandeur.
Venetian Tower. While we have not yet left the Durres survey is its architectural treasures, among which occupies a leading position in the Venetian Tower. However, the greatness of the ancient Byzantine slightly spoiled later graffiti painted on the wall of the Tower, but what to do – the cost of modern civilization. Generally, several towers in Durres – they can be inspected free of charge. In the interest of our youth Tower has a popular bar with very democratic prices.

Here is a list there the “miracles” that can be seen in Albania:

Mosaic House. Localized halfway between Durres and Fieri (from the last – only 12 kilometers). The ancient monument, typical of Mediterranean cities. Mosaic House is found among the ruins of ancient Apollonia. Mosaic is perfectly preserved, it is also worth taking a look at the fountain. Ancient amphitheater. Durres – a city of contrasts. Imagine a Greek amphitheater, adjacent to the modern high-rise buildings – looks pretty comical. Location of this structure – RrugaSotirNoka. Amphitheatre surround-preserved fortress walls, towering on the hill.

Bunkers. Yes, it’s very real bunkers, cut deeply into the ground and covered with grass. Once they had built dictator Hoxha. In the vicinity of Durres bunkers everywhere. No way – the legacy of a troubled era. From a distance bins may seem a huge boulders, hidden in the shade of the trees, but do not let fool you. By the way, for all his wildness to European tourists in Albania bunkers look naturally – they are literally everywhere (in the fields, on the slopes, and even the middle of the street).

High-altitude restaurant. The panoramic restaurant perched on the roof of a multistory building in the southern districts of Durres (RrugaAtErazmi). It offers a magnificent view of the promenade, the port and the historic center. There is a charm to the leisurely sipping coffee and admiration of passing ships. Sea air at a height surprisingly fresh and pleasant.

Five of the best places in Albania

The building of “Pyramid”. This structure is localized on BulevardiBajramCurri in Tirana and is somewhat reminiscent of the glass pyramid of the Louvre (the similarity, though distant). To design objects daughter of EnverHoxha – Albanian communist dictator. For a long time there was placed “dictatorial” museum, and now the building belongs to the club with the ominous title “The Mummy.” Note the Peace Bell, cast in shells and cartridges – it stands directly in front of the building.

National Park of Drilon. If you are straining urban bustle – go to Pogradec, and from there – to the west, to the stunning landscapes of Drilon. This site is adapted for outdoor recreation. Be sure to visit on Lake Ohrid – a European body of water deep. Here is found the Ohrid trout, and scattered on the banks of the many restaurants, tourists are treated to fish dishes. Look also to the underground freshwater sources and ancient Christian basilica.

Bridge Golik. Once you have called in Pogradec not apply to stroll across the bridge Golik, pulled out of Albania inherited from the Ottomans. Stand up here is completely free – listening to the murmur of water and thinking of past eras. Golik became part of the Roman road, paved most of Durres and stretching to the ancient Constantinople (the present Istanbul). Ottoman bridge is part of the mandatory program of excursions Pogradtsa.

Rozafa Fortress. Localized strengthening it in the town of Shkodra. At the fortress of Berat it is one of the most popular defensive structures in Albania. The rocky hill on which stands the fortress, bordering the Drina and Bojana. To reach the castle, you have to leave town and start climbing the steep cobbles, scrolling down the hill. Locals say the legend of the beautiful girl Rozafa allegedly immured in the wall.

Spring “Blue Eye”. It is difficult to find in the south of Albania, a place more beautiful than said spring. Buy a ticket on the bus, plying between Zhirokasterom and Saranda, and then get off halfway. In the middle of the route the driver stops to refuel – this is your chance. If you talk to a driver ahead of time, it will slow down and drop you off at the turn to the national park. Then – three kilometers on foot. Nearest signs – hydroelectric power plant and the river Bistrica.


Contents

Prehistory and founding myths

Neolithic pottery suggests that the site of Corinth was occupied from at least as early as 6500 BC, and continually occupied into the Early Bronze Age, [2] when, it has been suggested, the settlement acted as a centre of trade. [3] However, there is a dramatic drop in ceramic remains during the Early Helladic II phase, and only sparse ceramic remains in the EHIII and MH phases thus it appears that the area was very sparsely inhabited in the period immediately before the Mycenaean period. While pottery dating to the Mycenaean period is negligible at the site of Corinth, there was a settlement on the coast near Lechaion which traded across the Corinthian Gulf the site of Corinth itself was likely not heavily occupied again until around 900 BC, when it is believed the Dorians settled there. [4]

According to Hellenic myth, the city was founded by Corinthos, a descendant of the god Helios (the Sun), while other myths suggest that it was founded by the goddess Ephyra, a daughter of the Titan Oceanus, thus the ancient name of the city (also Ephyra). There is evidence that the city was destroyed around 2000 BC. [ citation needed ]

Some ancient names for the place, such as Korinthos, derive from a pre-Greek, "Pelasgian" language it seems likely that Corinth was also the site of a Bronze Age Mycenaean palace-city, like Mycenae, Tiryns or Pylos. According to myth, Sisyphus was the founder of a race of ancient kings at Corinth. It was also in Corinth that Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, abandoned Medea. During the Trojan War as portrayed in the Iliad, the Corinthians participated under the leadership of Agamemnon.

In a Corinthian myth recounted in the 2nd century AD to Pausanias, [5] Briareus, one of the Hecatonchires, was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios, between the sea and the sun: his verdict was that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth, Acrocorinth, to Helios. Thus Greeks of the Classical age accounted for the archaic cult of the sun-titan in the highest part of the site. [ citation needed ]

The Upper Peirene spring is located within the walls of the acropolis. "The spring, which is behind the temple, they say was the gift of Asopus to Sisyphus. The latter knew, so runs the legend, that Zeus had ravished Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, but refused to give information to the seeker before he had a spring given him on the Acrocorinthus." (Pausanias, 2.5.1). [ citation needed ]

Corinth under the Bacchiadae

Corinth had been a backwater in 8th-century Greece. [6] The Bacchiadae (Ancient Greek: Βακχιάδαι Bakkhiadai), a tightly-knit Doric clan, were the ruling kinship group of archaic Corinth in the 8th and 7th centuries BC, a period of expanding Corinthian cultural power. In 747 BC (a traditional date) an aristocratic revolution ousted the Bacchiad kings, when the royal clan of Bacchiadae, numbering perhaps a couple of hundred adult males, took power from the last king, Telestes. [7] They dispensed with kingship and ruled as a group, governing the city by electing annually a prytanis, who held the kingly position [8] for his brief term, [9] no doubt a council (though none is specifically documented in the scant literary materials) and a polemarchos to head the army.

During Bacchiad rule, from 747 to 650 BC, Corinth became a unified state. Large scale public buildings/monuments were constructed at this time. In 733 BC, Corinth established colonies at Corcyra and Syracuse. By 730 BC, Corinth emerged as a highly advanced Greek city with at least 5,000 people. [10]

Aristotle tells the story of Philolaus of Corinth, a Bacchiad who was a lawgiver at Thebes. He became the lover of Diocles, the winner of the Olympic games. They both lived for the rest of their lives in Thebes. Their tombs were built near one another and Philolaus' tomb points toward the Corinthian country while Diocles' faces away. [11]

In 657 BC the polemarch Cypselus obtained an oracle from Delphi which he interpreted to mean that he should rule the city. [12] He seized power and exiled the Bacchiadae. [13]

Corinth under the tyrants

Cypselus or Kypselos (Greek: Κύψελος ) was the first tyrant of Corinth, in the 7th century BC. From 658–628 BC, he removed the Bacchiad aristocracy from power and ruled for three decades. He built temples to Apollo and Poseidon in 650 BC.

Aristotle reports that "Cypselus of Corinth had made a vow that if he became master of the city, he would offer to Zeus the entire property of the Corinthians. Accordingly, he commanded them to make a return of their possessions." [14]

In the 7th century BC, under the rule of Cypselus (r. 657–627 BC) and his son Periander (r. 627–585 BC), the city sent forth colonists to found new settlements: Epidamnus (modern day Durrës, Albania), Syracuse, Ambracia (modern day town of Lefkas), Corcyra (modern day town of Corfu) and Anactorium. Periander also founded Apollonia in Illyria (modern day Fier, Albania) and Potidaea (in Chalcidice). Corinth was also one of the nine Greek sponsor-cities to found the colony of Naukratis in Ancient Egypt. Naucratis was founded to accommodate the increasing trade volume between the Greek world and pharaonic Egypt, during the reign of Pharaoh Psammetichus I of the 26th dynasty.

With increased wealth and more complicated trade relations and social structures, Greek city-states tended to overthrow their traditional hereditary priest-kings Corinth, the richest archaic polis, led the way. [15] Like the signori of late medieval and Renaissance Italy, the tyrants usually seized power at the head of some popular support. Often the tyrants calmed the populace by upholding existing laws and customs, and strict conservatism in cult practices. As in Renaissance Italy, a cult of personality naturally substituted for the divine right of the former legitimate royal house.

Cypselus, the son of Eëtion and a disfigured woman named Labda, was a member of the Bacchiad kin, and usurped the power in archaic matriarchal right of his mother.

According to Herodotus the Bacchiadae heard two prophecies from the Delphic oracle that the son of Eëtion would overthrow their dynasty, and they planned to kill the baby once it was born. However, the newborn smiled at each of the men sent to kill it, and none of them could bear to strike the blow. An etiological myth-element, to account for the name Cypselus (cypsele, "chest") accounted how Labda then hid the baby in a chest, and when the men had composed themselves and returned to kill it, they could not find it. (Compare the infancy of Perseus.) The ivory chest of Cypselus, richly worked with mythological narratives and adorned with gold, was a votive offering at Olympia, where Pausanias gave it a minute description in his 2nd century AD travel guide. [16]

When Cypselus had grown up, he fulfilled the prophecy. Corinth had been involved in wars with Argos and Corcyra, and the Corinthians were unhappy with their rulers. At the time, around 657 BC, Cypselus was polemarch, the archon in charge of the military, and he used his influence with the soldiery to expel the king. He also expelled his other enemies, but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece. He also increased trade with the colonies in Italy and Sicily. He was a popular ruler, and unlike many later tyrants, he did not need a bodyguard and died a natural death.

He ruled for thirty years and was succeeded as tyrant by his son Periander in 627 BC. [17] The treasury Cypselus built at Delphi was apparently still standing in the time of Herodotus, and the chest of Cypselus was seen by the traveler Pausanias at Olympia in the 2nd century AD. Periander brought Corcyra to order in 600 BC.

Periander was considered one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. During his reign the first Corinthian coins were struck. He was the first to attempt to cut across the Isthmus to create a seaway between the Corinthian and the Saronic Gulfs. He abandoned the venture due to the extreme technical difficulties he met, but he created the Diolkos (a stone-built overland ramp) instead. The era of the Cypselids, ending with Periander's nephew Psammetichus, named after the hellenophile Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus I (see above), was Corinth's golden age.

Periander killed his wife Melissa. His son Lycopron found out and shunned him, and Periander exiled the son to Corcyra. [18] Periander later wanted Lycopron to replace him as ruler of Corinth, and convinced to come home to Corinth on the condition that Periander go to Corcyra. The Corcyreans heard about this and killed Lycophron to keep away Periander. [19]

Herodotus relates that the harpist Arion was sailing home on a Corinthian vessel when the crew decided to rob and kill him. He begged them to let him sing a last song before killing himself. He threw himself overboard and escaped to Taernarus on the back of a dolphin. He presented himself to Periander, who then condemned the sailors. [20]

Archaic Corinth after the Tyrants

In 581 BC, Periander's nephew and successor was assassinated, ending the dictatorship.

In 581 BC, the Isthmian Games were established by leading families.

In 570 BC, the inhabitants started to use silver coins called 'colts' or 'foals.'

In 550 BC, Corinth allied with Sparta.

In 525 BC, Corinth formed a conciliatory alliance with Sparta against Argos.

In 519 BC, Corinth mediated between Athens and Thebes.

Around 500 BC, Athenians and Corinthians entreated Spartans not to harm Athens by restoring the tyrant. [21]

Just before the classical period, according to Thucydides, the Corinthians developed the trireme, which became the standard warship of the Mediterranean until the late Roman period. Corinth fought the first naval battle on record, against the Hellenic city of Corcyra. [22] The Corinthians were also known for the wealth due to their strategic location on the isthmus through which all land traffic to the Peloponnese must pass, including messengers and traders. [23]

Classical Corinth

Corinthian stater.Obverse:Pegasus with Koppa () (or Qoppa) beneath. Reverse:Athena wearing Corinthian helmet. Koppa symbolised the archaic spelling of the city name (Ϙόρινθος).

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister, Stillwell, Richard, MacDonald, William L., McAlister, Marian Holland, Ed.

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PHERAI Thessaly, Greece.

A flat-topped prehistoric mound (150 m) was the acropolis. This is protected at the back by the Makalo revma, which flows NE. The Maluka revma is roughly parallel to the Makalo, ca. one km to the S. Between the streams the land slopes from the acropolis to the plain, about 50 m away. At the edge of the plain, under the S face of a rocky hill (Kastraki) is a copious fountain. Traces of the city wall can be seen at the back (W) of the acropolis hill above the Makalo ravine and following its bank towards the plain for about 500 m where it disappears. The S wall ran from behind the acropolis towards the Makalo revma and along its N edge to the plain. A wall, of which few traces remain, ran along the edge of the hill just above the plain, presumably connecting the N and S sections of wall, but its junction with the NW side of the city wall is not clear. Béquignon saw blocks in the plain which led him to believe this wall along the edge of the hill was a cross wall, and that the lower city wall made a curve into the plain E of the modern railroad. The wall is double faced, ca. 3 to 5 m thick, of rough-faced rectangular and trapezoidal blocks laid in fairly regular courses. There are no towers visible. It must date from the first half of the 4th c. A short stretch of wall (or terrace wall?) on the N side of the Kastraki hill is built of careful, flat-faced polygonal masonry. No walls have been reported on or around the acropolis hill.

Very few ancient remains are to be seen within the city. Dedications to Herakles and a Doric column capital and parts of a wall (peribolos?) were found in 1907 by the Church of Haghios Charalambos S of the acropolis. Part of an early 5th c. marble statue of Athena, nearly life-sized, was found on the acropolis in 1967, which indicates the presence of a temple there. The fountain (ancient Hypereia) in the city center is bordered by a semicircular retaining wall of thin rectangular slabs laid in courses. This may or may not be ancient. The ground of the Kastraki hill above is littered with sherds, but no ancient foundations or blocks are visible. The sites of the ancient agora, theater, etc. are not determined. The most notable remains are those of a large Doric temple outside (?) the city walls, ca. 0.8 km NE of the acropolis, on the right bank of the Makalo revma. This was excavated in 1920-27. Here a temple of the later 4th c. had been built on the site of one of the 6th. The 4th c. temple was Doric, peripteral, 16 x 32 m, perhaps 6 x 12 columns. The foundations were of conglomerate and the exposed parts of the euthynteria and krepis of marble. At the E end the euthynteria and one step of the krepis were preserved. Of architectural fragments, some column drums, fragments of capitals, epistyle, a sima carved with a lotus and acanthus motif remain. Incorporated in the foundations are some Doric column drums of the earlier temple and around about were other architectural fragments including painted terracotta revetment and a capital fragment dating from the second half of the 6th c. B.C. In front of the later temple's E end were several small foundations for naiskoi, altar, and/or statues.

The temple had been built on top of an early Geometric necropolis. It must have been on or near the site of an early shrine, since a temple deposit pit S of it yielded a large number of terracotta and bronze offerings of the 8th through the 6th-5th c. Other bronzes had come from the area previously. Some are in the National Museum of Athens, some in Volo, and some probably in Cambridge. The temple, once thought to be to Zeus Thaulios, is more likely to be that of Artemis Ennodia, the chief goddess of Pherni.

The main necropolis of the city was on the road to Larissa, just outside the wall. Some grave mounds have been noted and/or excavated in the plain, near the railroad line. A chamber tomb was excavated at Souvleri Magoula in 1910. In 1899 a mound (Pilaf-Tepe, or Mal-Tepe) on the road about half way between Pherai and Pagasai was excavated. This contained a shaft grave and in it a silver situla of the 3d c. B.C. The grave seems to have dated from the 2d c. B.C. and may have held a notable citizen of Pherai. At Rizomylo, 5 km N of the city, foundations and various architectural remains have been discovered.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Rome Fountains Water Jigsaw Puzzles

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Rome’s foundation myth

Although Greek historiographers did not write seriously about Rome until the Pyrrhic War, they were aware of Rome’s existence long before then. Greek historians from the 5th century BC onward created at least 25 different myths to account for Rome’s foundation. One of the earliest statements, which became affirmed, the Trojan hero Aeneas and some members escaped Troy’s Greek destruction. After wandering about the Mediterranean for some years, they settled in central Italy, intermarried with the native population, and became the Latins.

Although Rome and Troy’s connection is unhistorical, the Romans of a later period were so flattered by this illustrious unreal pedigree that they quickly accepted it and included it into their folklore about the beginning of their town. Roman historians knew that the government had begun about 500 BC because their annual list of magistrates went back that far. Before that period, they thought, Rome had been commanded by seven kings in succession. Using Greek genealogical judgment techniques, they estimated that seven kings would have controlled about 250 years, thus making Rome’s majestic period start in the middle of the 8th century BC.

According to myth, the twins, believed to have been the god Mars children, were set adrift in a basket on the Tiber by Alba’s king they survived, being nursed by a she-wolf, and lived to overthrow the wicked king. In the course of founding Rome, the brothers quarreled, and Romulus slew Remus.


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