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Yamm (from the Semitic word yam for 'sea', also known as Yam and Yam-Nahar) was the god of the sea in the pantheon of the Canaanite-Phoenicians. Depicted consistently as tyrannical, angry, violent and harsh, Yamm was the brother of Mot, the god of death, and is associated with chaos (an association furthered by his identification with Lotan the Leviathan, the monster who churned the seas). As Yam-Nahar (literally 'sea' and 'river') he personified the destructive aspects of both. He was the son of El, the supreme god of the Canaanite and Phoenician pantheon and is also referred to as Prince Yamm and “Beloved of El” in the myths of the region.

He is best known from the Ugaritic poem known as the Baal Cycle which tells the story of his conflict with the fertility god Baal, his defeat, and Baal's supremacy over chaos and death. The tablets containing the Baal Cycle were unearthed in the excavation of Ugarit (in modern-day Syria) following the ancient city's discovery in 1928 CE. These tablets date to c. 1500 BCE but are thought to have been a written record of a much older story passed down by oral transmission.

The story has been often compared to the Mesopotamian epic of the Enuma Elish but there are significant differences in that, first of all, the Enuma Elish is a cosmogony (detailing the beginnings of the world/universe) while the Baal Cycle is not and, secondly, Yamm and Mot in the Baal Cycle are not as neatly defined as villains as Tiamat and Quingu are in the Enuma Elish.

Both stories, however, serve the purpose of explaining the world to an audience. The Enuma Elish details how order rose from chaos and how the visible and invisible worlds came to be established; the Baal Cycle describes those worlds already in operation and explains why events happen as they do. As in all ancient cultures, the gods served to explain the seemingly inexplicable and give reason to events which may seem random or mysterious. Scholars Michael D. Coogan and Mark S. Smith comment:

As a group, the gods and goddesses of the Canaanite pantheon are larger than life. They travel by giant strides – “a thousand fields, ten thousand acres at each step” – and their control over human destiny is absolute. In their personified forms, the deities embody realities beyond human understanding and control: the storms necessary for prosperity and even survival, the powerful drives of sex and violence, the final mystery of death. The gods and goddesses belong to a divine society that mirrors society on earth; for example, both share the patriarchal institution of kingship. The solutions of the problems of that “heavenly city” in their stories gave the Canaanites hope for the future. (8)

In the Baal Cycle, Yamm is not guilty of usurping power nor of triumphing the cause of chaos, but of misusing the power he was given legitimately.

In this, the pantheon of the Canaanites was no different than those of other ancient civilizations and the stories the people told had the same purpose. The symbols and motifs found in the Baal Cycle are also apparent in other religious works of the Near East and the story of the struggle between order and chaos is treated in pieces from Mesopotamia through Egypt and Greece and beyond. An interesting aspect of the Baal Cycle, however, is how Yamm – the supposed villain of the piece along with Mot – is not guilty of usurping power (as in the Egyptian tale of Set and his murder of the god-king Osiris) nor of triumphing the cause of chaos (as in the Greek story of the Titans and their war with Zeus) but of misusing the power he was given legitimately.

Summary of the Baal Cycle

Baal, son of Dagon, is hopeful he will be chosen by El, chief of the gods, to be king but El instead gives the crown to his son Prince Yamm. Since El is all-wise and benevolent, it is thought that his choice of Yamm would be in the best interests of all but, once Yamm has power, he becomes a tyrant and forces the other gods to labor for him. The gods cry out to their mother – El's consort, Asherah – who goes to Yamm to intercede for them. She offers him various gifts and favors but he refuses until she offers him her body. Yamm accepts and Asherah returns to the divine court of El to tell them of the contract.

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The other gods in council all seem to agree with Asherah that this is a sound plan but Baal is disgusted by it and by the other gods who would even think of allowing it. He swears he will kill Yamm and end the tyranny himself. Some of the gods present alert Yamm to Baal's treason and Yamm sends emissaries to the court of El demanding that Baal be surrendered for punishment.

All the other gods bow their heads before the emissaries except for Baal who defies them and rebukes the other gods for their cowardice. A second set of emissaries is sent by Yamm, again demanding the gods surrender Baal. These messengers show El and the other gods no respect and refuse to participate in even the smallest rites of courtesy. Even so, instead of calling them to account or punishing them, El tells them that he will surrender Baal and that Baal will come before Yamm bearing gifts of gold.

Baal is enraged and moves to attack the emissaries but is held back by his sister Anat (the war goddess) and his consort Astarte (the goddess of love). They tell him that he cannot kill the messengers, for they are only relaying the words of their master and have no say in the matter. Baal relents and spares them but again swears he will not bow to Yamm and will not surrender himself. He cannot defeat Yamm in combat, however, because of Yamm's great strength but, at this point, Kothar-wa-Khasis, god of craftsmanship, the forge, and weapon-making, speaks up.

Kothar tells Baal he will create two clubs for him, Yagrush and Aymur, which will destroy Yamm. Kothar delivers the clubs and Baal goes to meet Yamm in combat. He swings Yagrush down upon the king, striking him on the shoulders, but Yamm does not fall and Baal retreats. Kothar tells him to use Aymur now and strike at Yamm's head, between his eyes. Baal does so and Yamm falls, defeated. Baal drags him back to the council hall, proclaims himself the new king and then casts Yamm out of the heavens. Yamm returns to his former role as god of the sea.

Yamm, as god of the sea & rivers, symbolizes the violent & uncompromising side of nature as experienced by the Canaanite-Phoenicians through their voyages on the seas.

In the second part of the poem, Mot, the god of death, is offended by Baal and seeks to destroy him. He sends the sea creature Lotan (closely associated with Yamm as either an alter ego or a comrade) to kill Baal but Baal kills Lotan instead. Mot swears he will not rest until Baal is dead and he, Mot, has eaten him. To escape Mot, Baal pretends he has been killed and goes into hiding. His ruse fools even the other gods and provokes his sister Anat to seek revenge. She kills Mot but, since he is immortal - like all the gods - he returns to life. At this point, Baal returns from hiding and subdues Mot; though, of course, he cannot kill him. Mot returns to his dark realm and Baal reigns as the king of the gods.

Yamm in the Poem & in Canaanite Culture

Yamm plays the villain in the piece primarily because of his insecurity. Instead of treating the other gods with respect, he subjugates them in order to elevate himself and maintain control of the situation. Unlike his father El, who believes in listening to others and weighing their council, Yamm is too insecure as a king to allow for dialogue and becomes a tyrant in order to suppress any challenge to his authority. He will not compromise because, in his view, this would be seen as weakness.

Yamm and Baal are depicted as being about the same age. They are young gods, unlike El and Asherah, and they both lack experience. The difference between them is Baal's ability to listen to others and respect their counsel, as when he listens to Anat and Astarte and spares the messengers of Yamm. Baal, symbolically, represents the cooperative and life-giving aspects of nature; most evident in his role as god of rain which fertilizes the earth and causes the crops to grow. Yamm, as god of the sea and rivers, symbolizes the violent and uncompromising side of nature as experienced by the Canaanite-Phoenicians through their voyages on the seas and periodic flooding of their lands.

The Canaanite-Phoenicians were known by the Greeks as the 'purple people' (owing to the dye manufactured at Sidon and used extensively at Tyre) but also as 'the horse people' because of the ornately carved horse heads which adorned the prows of their ships. These horse heads were purposeful tributes to the might of Yamm and were used on the ships to placate the god who, like the Greek god Poseidon, was associated with horses, and who had to be constantly appeased to prevent his wanton destruction of the ships at sea.

Even so, Yamm was never considered a force of evil (and neither was Mot), but simply one to be reckoned with and acknowledged. Scholar Aaron Tugendhaft, among others, notes that administrative lists and deeds from Ugarit contain personal names attesting to the worship of Yamm as a benefactor such as “Servant of Yamm”, “Yamm is God”, and “A King is Yamm” (150). Further, Tugendhaft notes, Yamm was considered worthy of sacrificial ritual just as Baal and El and other gods were and received the same sacrificial ram they did (149).

Yamm, therefore, although considered the villain of the Baal Cycle, was not thought to be an evil or villainous god by the Phoenicians. Even so, it is thought that Yamm would serve as a model for later works featuring an evil supernatural being and mirrored older works on the same subject of order-vs-chaos, especially from Egypt.

Yamm & the Myths of Other Cultures

In some versions of the Phoenician myth, Yamm, the chaotic force, is in constant conflict with Baal, the force of order. Baal and Yamm meet each other in combat on the plains of heaven and, after his defeat, Yamm is cast out of heaven and into the depths of chaos in the sea. Still, Yamm wishes to dethrone Baal and rule in heaven and so, in these versions, he comes back from the depths beneath the seas to battle for heaven's gates, bringing chaos with him again and again in a never-ending cycle.

Even so, each time, Yamm is exiled to the seas where he directs his rage against humans and plots against Baal until he can launch another assault on heaven. Yamm and Baal continually kill each other, resurrect, fight and die, only to return to life once more. This version of the tale has been thought a symbolic explanation for the cycle of the seasons in Canaan/Phoenicia (addressing the same need as the tale of Demeter and Persephone did in Ancient Greece). Yamm, and then Mot, in the Baal Cycle both interrupt the natural operation of the universe and this is understood as symbolizing periods of drought or flood and famine in the land: Yamm or Mot were interfering with the way Baal governed and regulated nature.

Tugendhaft notes how, unlike a cosmography such as the Enuma Elish, the kingship and order of the universe are already established in the Baal Cycle and, therefore, there should be no problems with its continuance (154). The fact that human beings experienced suffering in the form of floods, drought, famine, and death, however, begged for some explanation and the Baal Cycle provided this.

The purpose of the Baal Cycle is similar to that of the Osiris-Set cycle from Ancient Egypt in which the kingship is already established and order prevails, with Osiris as benevolent ruler when the story begins. His brother Set, just as inexperienced with rule as Yamm, murders Osiris and takes the throne, plunging the land into chaos. Set, like Yamm, is also not seen as an evil deity and, in some eras of Egyptian history, was among the gods who saved the sun god from destruction by the primordial serpent.

Like Yamm, Set was also venerated through personal names (such as Seti). The Egyptians believed that their land was perfect, given to them by the gods and imbued with harmony, and yet they still suffered from various natural calamities. As in the Baal Cycle, the story of Set and Osiris explained to the people the origin of suffering as chaos vied with order for supremacy and upset the natural balance of the universe.

This theme of order-vs-chaos was picked up by later religious scribes. The battle between Baal and Yamm, ending with Yamm cast out of heaven and afterwards taking his revenge on El's creations, has been cited as the model for the later Christian myth of the fall of Lucifer and of the Devil's subsequent troubling of human beings ever after. According to still other scholars, Yamm is identical with the god Lotan, represented as a serpent or a many-headed dragon, and is the model for Satan in the Biblical Book of Revelation (12:9). He is seen as the inspiration for the tradition which associated the Christian devil with a serpent, most notably the serpent in the garden of Eden in the third chapter of the Book of Genesis, although this claim has been challenged. The association of Yamm with Lotan, however, does seem to have influenced the biblical scribes in their creation of the Leviathan (a sea creature or sea monster) who is referenced in the Book of Job, the Book of Jonah, and elsewhere.

Yamm has also been associated with the Greek god Poseidon in his more violent and spiteful moments. Although some have tried to also draw a connection between Yamm and the Greek goddess of chaos, Eris, there are significant differences in motivation and action in that Eris is calculating and crafty in her desire to turn order upside down and her actions are subtle, while Yamm seems entirely motivated by ego; his actions are apparent and he makes no secret of his contempt for the other gods and their puny creations, humans.


For all his faults, however, Yamm was considered a god worthy of veneration. Although he could raise the seas to sink ships and send floods across the land, he could also help sailors reach their destinations safely and provided for the people of the land as long as they acknowledged and honored him.

In doing so, the Canaanite-Phoenicians were simply acknowledging the uncertain aspects of human existence and placing their hopes in the god who could cause them the most harm or bring them the greatest good. The stories concerning Yamm, like those of any ancient or modern belief system, finally served to give meaning to unfortunate events in the people's lives which, otherwise, would have been unendurable.

School of Accounting and Administration, UNAM

The School of Accounting and Administration of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM-FCA) is an educational institution in Mexico. Its student enrollment is made up of more than thirteen thousand students, while the school has more than 1300 lectures and faculty members. The School currently hosts 3 majors, Accounting, Administration and Informatics in the UNAM. It has Undergraduate and Graduate programs, being the later some of the most popular in the University, being the only MBA in Ciudad Universitaria.


The Black Stone was originally a single piece of rock but today consists of several pieces that have been cemented together. They are surrounded by a silver frame which is fastened by silver nails to the Kaaba's outer wall. [7] The fragments are themselves made up of smaller pieces which have been combined to form the seven or eight fragments visible today. The Stone's exposed face measures about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) by 16 centimetres (6.3 in). Its original size is unclear and the recorded dimensions have changed considerably over time, as the pieces have been rearranged in their cement matrix on several occasions. [2] In the 10th century, an observer described the Black Stone as being one cubit (46 cm or 18 in) long. By the early 17th century, it was recorded as measuring 140 by 122 cm (4 ft 7 in by 4 ft 0 in). According to Ali Bey in the 18th century, it was described as 110 cm (3 ft 7 in) high, and Muhammad Ali Pasha reported it as being 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) long by 46 cm (1 ft 6 in) wide. [2]

The Black Stone is attached to the east corner of the Kaaba, known as al-Rukn al-Aswad (the 'Corner of the Black Stone'). [8] Another stone, known as the Hajar as-Sa’adah ('Stone of Felicity') is set into the Kaaba's opposite corner, al-Rukn al-Yamani (the 'Yemeni Corner'), at a somewhat lower height than the Black Stone. [9] The choice of the east corner may have had ritual significance it faces the rain-bringing east wind (al-qabul) and the direction from which Canopus rises. [10]

The silver frame around the Black Stone and the black kiswah or cloth enveloping the Kaaba were for centuries maintained by the Ottoman Sultans in their role as Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The frames wore out over time due to the constant handling by pilgrims and were periodically replaced. Worn-out frames were brought back to Istanbul, where they are still kept as part of the sacred relics in the Topkapı Palace. [11]

Appearance of the Black Stone

The Black Stone was described by European travellers to Arabia in the 19th- and early-20th centuries, who visited the Kaaba disguised as pilgrims. Swiss traveller Johann Ludwig Burckhardt visited Mecca in 1814, and provided a detailed description in his 1829 book Travels in Arabia:

It is an irregular oval, about seven inches [18 cm] in diameter, with an undulated surface, composed of about a dozen smaller stones of different sizes and shapes, well joined together with a small quantity of cement, and perfectly well smoothed it looks as if the whole had been broken into as many pieces by a violent blow, and then united again. It is very difficult to determine accurately the quality of this stone which has been worn to its present surface by the millions of touches and kisses it has received. It appeared to me like a lava, containing several small extraneous particles of a whitish and of a yellow substance. Its colour is now a deep reddish brown approaching to black. It is surrounded on all sides by a border composed of a substance which I took to be a close cement of pitch and gravel of a similar, but not quite the same, brownish colour. This border serves to support its detached pieces it is two or three inches in breadth, and rises a little above the surface of the stone. Both the border and the stone itself are encircled by a silver band, broader below than above, and on the two sides, with a considerable swelling below, as if a part of the stone were hidden under it. The lower part of the border is studded with silver nails. [12]

Visiting the Kaaba in 1853, Richard Francis Burton noted that:

The colour appeared to me black and metallic, and the centre of the stone was sunk about two inches below the metallic circle. Round the sides was a reddish-brown cement, almost level with the metal, and sloping down to the middle of the stone. The band is now a massive arch of gold or silver gilt. I found the aperture in which the stone is, one span and three fingers broad. [13]

Ritter von Laurin, the Austrian consul-general in Egypt, was able to inspect a fragment of the Stone removed by Muhammad Ali in 1817 and reported that it had a pitch-black exterior and a silver-grey, fine-grained interior in which tiny cubes of a bottle-green material were embedded. There are reportedly a few white or yellow spots on the face of the Stone, and it is officially described as being white with the exception of the face. [2]

The Black Stone was held in reverence well before the preaching of Islam by Muhammad. It had long been associated with the Kaaba, which was built in the pre-Islamic period and was a site of pilgrimage of Nabataeans who visited the shrine once a year to perform their pilgrimage. The Kaaba held 360 idols of the Meccan gods. [15] [ failed verification ] The Semitic cultures of the Middle East had a tradition of using unusual stones to mark places of worship, a phenomenon which is reflected in the Hebrew Bible as well as the Quran, [16] although bowing to or kissing such sacred objects is repeatedly described in the Tanakh as idolatrous [17] and was the subject of prophetic rebuke. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] The meteorite-origin theory of the Black Stone has seen it likened by some writers to the meteorite which was placed and worshipped in the Greek Temple of Artemis. [24] [25] [26]

The Kaaba has been associated with fertility rites of Arabia. [27] [28] [ failed verification ] Some writers remark on the apparent similarity of the Black Stone and its frame to the external female genitalia. [29] [30] However, the silver frame was placed on the Black Stone to secure the fragments, after the original stone was broken. [31] [32]

A "red stone" was associated with the deity of the south Arabian city of Ghaiman, and there was a "white stone" in the Kaaba of al-Abalat (near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca). Worship at that time period was often associated with stone reverence, mountains, special rock formations, or distinctive trees. [33] The Kaaba marked the location where the sacred world intersected with the profane, and the embedded Black Stone was a further symbol of this as an object as a link between heaven and earth. [34] Aziz Al-Azmeh states that the term "Al-Rahman", also used for a deity, was used for astral gods in Mecca and might have been associated with the Black Stone. [35] The stone is also thought to be associated with Allat. [36] Muhammad is said to have called the stone "the right hand of al-Rahman". [37]


According to Islamic belief Muhammad is credited with setting the Black Stone in the current place in the wall of the Kaaba. A story found in Ibn Ishaq's Sirah Rasul Allah tells how the clans of Mecca renovated the Kaaba following a major fire which had partly destroyed the structure. The Black Stone had been temporarily removed to facilitate the rebuilding work. The clans could not agree on which one of them should have the honour of setting the Black Stone back in its place. [38] [39]

They decided to wait for the next man to come through the gate and ask him to make the decision. That person was 35-year-old Muhammad, five years before his prophethood. He asked the elders of the clans to bring him a cloth and put the Black Stone in its centre. Each of the clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and carried the Black Stone to the right spot. Then, Muhammad set the stone in place, satisfying the honour of all of the clans. [38] [39] After his Conquest of Mecca in 630, Muhammad is said to have ridden round the Kaaba seven times on his camel, touching the Black Stone with his stick in a gesture of reverence. [40]


The Stone has suffered repeated desecrations and damage over the course of time. It is said to have been struck and smashed to pieces by a stone fired from a catapult during the Umayyad Caliphate's siege of Mecca in 683. The fragments were rejoined by Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr using a silver ligament. [38] In January 930, it was stolen by the Qarmatians, who carried the Black Stone away to their base in Hajar (modern Eastern Arabia). According to Ottoman historian Qutb al-Din, writing in 1857, the Qarmatian leader Abu Tahir al-Jannabi set the Black Stone up in his own mosque, the Masjid al-Dirar, with the intention of redirecting the hajj away from Mecca. This failed, as pilgrims continued to venerate the spot where the Black Stone had been. [40]

According to the historian al-Juwayni, the Stone was returned twenty-three years later, in 952. The Qarmatians held the Black Stone for ransom, and forced the Abbasids to pay a huge sum for its return. It was wrapped in a sack and thrown into the Friday Mosque of Kufa, accompanied by a note saying "By command we took it, and by command we have brought it back." Its abduction and removal caused further damage, breaking the stone into seven pieces. [16] [41] [42] Its abductor, Abu Tahir, is said to have met a terrible fate according to Qutb al-Din, "the filthy Abu Tahir was afflicted with a gangrenous sore, his flesh was eaten away by worms, and he died a most terrible death." To protect the shattered stone, the custodians of the Kaaba commissioned a pair of Meccan goldsmiths to build a silver frame to surround it, and it has been enclosed in a similar frame ever since. [40]

In the 11th century, a man allegedly sent by the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah attempted to smash the Black Stone but was killed on the spot, having caused only slight damage. [40] In 1674, according to Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, someone allegedly smeared the Black Stone with excrement so that "every one who kissed it retired with a sullied beard". According to the archaic Sunni belief, [43] by the accusation of one boy, the Persian of an unknown faith was suspected of sacrilege, where Sunnis of Mecca "have turned the circumstance to their own advantage" by assaulting, beating random Persians and forbidding them from Hajj until the ban was overturned by the order of Muhammad Ali. The explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton pointed out on the alleged "excrement action" that "it is scarcely necessary to say that a Shi'a, as well as a Sunni, would look upon such an action with lively horror", and that the real culprit was "some Jew or Christian, who risked his life to gratify a furious bigotry". [44]

The Black Stone plays a central role in the ritual of istilam, when pilgrims kiss the Black Stone, touch it with their hands or raise their hands towards it while repeating the takbir, "God is Greatest". They perform this in the course of walking seven times around the Kaaba in a counterclockwise direction (tawaf), emulating the actions of Muhammad. At the end of each circuit, they perform istilam and may approach the Black Stone to kiss it at the end of tawaf. [45] In modern times, large crowds make it practically impossible for everyone to kiss the stone, so it is currently acceptable to point in the direction of the Stone on each of their seven circuits around the Kaaba. Some even say that the Stone is best considered simply as a marker, useful in keeping count of the ritual circumambulations that one has performed. [46]

Writing in Dawn in Madinah: A Pilgrim's Progress, Muzaffar Iqbal described his experience of venerating the Black Stone during a pilgrimage to Mecca:

At the end of the second [circumambulation of the Kaaba], I was granted one of those extraordinary moments which sometimes occur around the Black Stone. As I approached the Corner the large crowd was suddenly pushed back by a strong man who had just kissed the Black Stone. This push generated a backward current, creating a momentary opening around the Black Stone as I came to it I swiftly accepted the opportunity reciting, Bismillahi Allahu akbar wa lillahi-hamd ["In the name of God, God is great, all praise to God"], put my hands on the Black Stone and kissed it. Thousands of silver lines sparkled, the Stone glistened, and something stirred deep inside me. A few seconds passed. Then I was pushed away by the guard. [47]

The Black Stone and the Kaaba's opposite corner, al-Rukn al-Yamani, are both often perfumed by the mosque's custodians. This can cause problems for pilgrims in the state of ihram ("consecration"), who are forbidden from using scented products and will require a kaffara (donation) as a penance if they touch either. [48]

Islamic tradition holds that the Black Stone fell from Jannah to show Adam and Eve where to build an altar, which became the first temple on Earth. [49] Muslims believe that the stone was originally pure and dazzling white, but has since turned black because of the sins of the people who touch it. [50] [51] Its black colour is deemed to symbolize the essential spiritual virtue of detachment and poverty for God (faqr) and the extinction of ego required to progress towards God (qalb). [16]

According to a prophetic tradition, "Touching them both (the Black Stone and al-Rukn al-Yamani) is an expiation for sins." [52] Adam's altar and the stone were said to have been lost during Noah's Flood and forgotten. Ibrahim (Abraham) was said to have later found the Black Stone at the original site of Adam's altar when the angel Jibrail revealed it to him. [16] Ibrahim ordered his son Ismael – who in Muslim belief is an ancestor of Muhammad – to build a new temple, the Kaaba, into which the stone was to be embedded.

Another tradition says that the Black Stone was originally an angel that had been placed by God in the Garden of Eden to guard Adam. The angel was absent when Adam ate the forbidden fruit and was punished by being turned into a jewel – the Black Stone. God granted it the power of speech and placed it at the top of Abu Qubays, a mountain in the historic region of Khurasan, before moving the mountain to Mecca. When Ibrahim took the Black Stone from Abu Qubays to build the Kaaba, the mountain asked Ibrahim to intercede with God so that it would not be returned to Khurasan and would stay in Mecca. [53]

According to some scholars, the Black Stone was the same stone that Islamic tradition describes as greeting Muhammad before his prophethood. This led to a debate about whether the Black Stone's greeting comprised actual speech or merely a sound, and following that, whether the stone was a living creature or an inanimate object. Whichever was the case, the stone was held to be a symbol of prophethood. [53]

A hadith records that, when the second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (580–644) came to kiss the stone, he said in front of all assembled: "No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can neither harm anyone nor benefit anyone. Had I not seen Allah's Messenger [Muhammad] kissing you, I would not have kissed you." [54] In the hadith collection Kanz al-Ummal, it is recorded that Ali responded to Umar, saying, "This stone (Hajar Aswad) can indeed benefit and harm. . Allah says in Quran that he created human beings from the progeny of Adam and made them witness over themselves and asked them, 'Am I not your creator?' Upon this, all of them confirmed it. Thus Allah wrote this confirmation. And this stone has a pair of eyes, ears and a tongue and it opened its mouth upon the order of Allah, who put that confirmation in it and ordered to witness it to all those worshippers who come for Hajj." [55]

Muhammad Labib al-Batanuni, writing in 1911, commented on the practice that the pre-Islamic practice of venerating stones (including the Black Stone) arose not because such stones are "sacred for their own sake, but because of their relation to something holy and respected". [56] The Indian Islamic scholar Muhammad Hamidullah summed up the meaning of the Black Stone:

[T]he Prophet has named the (Black Stone) the "right hand of God" (yamin-Allah), and for purpose. In fact one poses there one's hand to conclude the pact, and God obtains there our pact of allegiance and submission. In the quranic terminology, God is the king, and . in (his) realm there is a metropolis (Umm al-Qurra) and in the metropolis naturally a palace (Bait-Allah, home of God). If a subject wants to testify to his loyalty, he has to go to the royal palace and conclude personally the pact of allegiance. The right hand of the invisible God must be visible symbolically. And that is the al-Hajar al-Aswad, the Black Stone in the Ka'bah. [57]

In recent years several literalist views of the Black Stone have emerged. A small minority accepts as literally true a hadith, usually taken as allegorical, which asserts that "the Stone will appear on the Day of Judgement (Qiyamah) with eyes to see and a tongue to speak, and give evidence in favour of all who kissed it in true devotion, but speak out against whoever indulged in gossip or profane conversations during his circumambulation of the Kaaba". [56]

The nature of the Black Stone has been much debated. It has been described variously as basalt stone, an agate, a piece of natural glass or – most popularly – a stony meteorite. Paul Partsch [de] , the curator of the Austro-Hungarian imperial collection of minerals, published the first comprehensive analysis of the Black Stone in 1857 in which he favoured a meteoritic origin for the Stone. [58] Robert Dietz and John McHone proposed in 1974 that the Black Stone was actually an agate, judging from its physical attributes and a report by an Arab geologist that the Stone contained clearly discernible diffusion banding characteristic of agates. [2]

A significant clue to its nature is provided by an account of the Stone's recovery in 951 CE after it had been stolen 21 years earlier according to a chronicler, the Stone was identified by its ability to float in water. If this account is accurate, it would rule out the Black Stone being an agate, a basalt lava, or a stony meteorite, though it would be compatible with it being glass or pumice. [7]

Elsebeth Thomsen of the University of Copenhagen proposed a different hypothesis in 1980. She suggested that the Black Stone may be a glass fragment or impactite from the impact of a fragmented meteorite that fell 6,000 years ago at Wabar, [59] a site in the Rub' al Khali desert 1,100 km east of Mecca. A 2004 scientific analysis of the Wabar site suggests that the impact event happened much more recently than first thought and might have occurred within the last 200–300 years. [60]

The meteoritic hypothesis is viewed by geologists as doubtful. The British Natural History Museum suggests that it may be a pseudometeorite, in other words a terrestrial rock mistakenly attributed to a meteoritic origin. [61]

The Black Stone has never been analysed with modern scientific techniques and its origins remain the subject of speculation. [62]


The meaning of the name &ldquoYamm&rdquo is: &ldquoOcean&rdquo.

Considering Yamm as a Baby Name?

The first thing you should know if you are considering Yamm for your baby's name is that in most countries all over the world the name Yamm is a girl name.

The name Yamm is of Arabic origin, and is used mostly in Arabic speaking countries but also in a few other countries and languages of the world.

If you consider naming your baby Yamm we recommend you take note of the special meaning and history of the name as your baby&rsquos name will play a big role in its life and your baby will hear it spoken every day. Searching for a name is a very important and fun process as it&rsquos the very first gift you will give to your baby. Many people believe that the name can affect success in life, through their children's working career and other circumstances, so they choose more &ldquorespectable&rdquo names or name meanings as they believe that the name meaning reflects the personality of the child.

Yamm Name Meaning

The meaning of Yamm is &ldquoOcean&rdquo. Keep in mind that many names may have different meanings in other countries and languages, so be careful that the name that you choose doesn&rsquot mean something bad or unpleasant. Search comprehensively and find the name meaning of Yamm and its name origin or of any other name in our database. Also note the spelling and the pronunciation of the name Yamm and check the initials of the name with your last name to discover how it looks and sounds. The history and meaning of the name Yamm is fascinating, learn more about it. (If you know more meanings of the name and you would like to contribute click here to submit another name meaning).

Name Yamm Categories

The name Yamm is in the following categories: Arabic Names, Muslim Names. (If you would like to suggest one or more categories for the name, click here). We have plenty of different baby name categories to search for special meanings plus popular and unique names, search our database before choosing but also note that baby name categories designed to help you and not to be an influential factor when choosing a name. Instead, we recommend that you pay a greater attention to the origin and meaning of the name Yamm. Read our baby name articles for useful tips regarding baby names and naming your baby. If you are thinking of giving your baby the beautiful name Yamm, spread the love and share this with your friends.

Popularity of the Name Yamm

This name is not popular in the US, according to Social Security Administration, as there are no popularity data for the name. This doesn't mean that the name Yamm is not popular in other countries all over the world. The name might be popular in other countries, in different languages, or even in a different alphabet, as we use the characters from the Latin alphabet to display the data. A derivative of the name might also be popular in US. Try searching for a variation of the name Yamm to find popularity data and rankings.

Note: If a name has less than 5 occurrences in a year, the SSA excludes it from the provided popularity data to protect privacy.

If you&rsquore not sure yet, see our wide selection of both boy names and girl names all over the world to find the ideal name for your new born baby. We offer a comprehensive and meaningful list of popular names and cool names along with the name's origin, meaning, pronunciation, popularity and additional information.


Invented in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson, emails have made it much more convenient to send and receive messages as opposed to traditional postal mail. [4] In 2020, there were 4 billion email users worldwide and approximately 306 billion emails sent and received daily. [5] The email sender, however, still has to wait for a reply email from the recipient in order to confirm that their message was delivered. There are some situations where the recipient doesn't respond to the sender even when they have read the email, which is why the email tracking method emerged. Most email services do not provide indicators as to whether an email was read, so third-party applications and plug-ins have provided the convenience of email tracking. The most common method is the email tracking beacon or spy pixel. [4]

Spy pixels were described as "endemic" in February 2021. The "Hey" email service, contacted by BBC News, estimated that it blocked spy pixels in about 600,000 out of 1,000,000 messages per day. [1] [2]

HTML email messages typically contain hyperlinks to online resources. Common software used by a recipient of email may, by default, automatically download remote image files from hyperlinks, without asking the user for confirmation. After downloading an image file, the software displays the image to the recipient. A spy pixel is an image file that is deliberately made small, often of a single pixel and of a colour that makes it "impossible to spot with the naked eye even if you know where to look." [1] Any email user can be reached via email tracking due to the open nature of email. [6]

The tracking process begins when a sender inserts an image tag, represented as <img>, into an HTML-based email. The image tag is linked to a tracking object stored on the server of the sender through a reference Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Once the mail client is opened, the recipient receives the email through a process whereby the mail user agent (MUA) synchronizes updates from the recipient's message transfer agent (MTA) with the local mail repository. When the recipient opens the email, the mail client requests the file that is referenced by the image tag. As a result, the web server where the file is stored logs the request and returns the image to the recipient. In order to track individual behavior, the tracking object or reference URL has to contain a tag that is unique to each email recipient. Oftentimes, the hash of the recipient's email is used. In contrast, IP address and device information collected from non-tracking images does not reveal specific users' email addresses. [7]

When a single email is sent to multiple recipients, the tracking report will normally show the number of emails that have been opened but not the specific recipients who have done so. [4]

Email Tracking vs. Web Tracking Edit

Although both web tracking and email tracking employ similar mechanisms, such as the usage of tracking images or cookies, information that is collected via web tracking cannot be traced back to any individual without consent. In contrast, email addresses can often reveal an individual's affiliation to a particular organization, browsing history, online social media profile, and other PII. [7] This can lead to cross-tracking across devices, where third-party services link devices that share common attributes such as IP addresses, local networks, or login information. [8] [9]

Personal Use Edit

Individuals and business owners may want to use email tracking for a variety of reasons, such as lead generation, event invitations, promotions, newsletters, one-click polls, and teacher-parent communications. They can use services like Yet Another Mail Merge (YAMM), a Google Sheets add-on, to create and send personalized mail merge campaigns from Gmail. The sender has the option to enable the tracker and see email open rates, clicks, replies, and bounces. [10] According to YAMM's website: "YAMM embeds a tiny, invisible tracking image (a single-pixel gif, sometimes called a web beacon) within the content of each message. When the recipient opens the message, the tracking image is scanned, referenced and recorded in our system." [11]

Marketing Edit

Tracking the behavior of users through mediums like email newsletters and other forms of marketing communication is a competitive advantage in online marketing. In fact, it is so valuable that there are companies that sell online user data or offer email tracking as a service, such as Bananatag,, and Yet Another Mail Merge. [12] [4] This is because by learning more about the user based on their clicking histories and demographics, websites and companies can tailor messages to each user. The more information on the individual-level preferences of a user, the better. Customized communications in marketing can then result in heightened customer loyalty, lock-in, and satisfaction, which translates to increased cash flows and profitability. [13] Using data to map out the competitive landscape can also help companies derive a competitive strategy and gain a competitive advantage. [14] However, adverse effects from behavioral marketing can include discrimination, including price discrimination. [15] [16]

Malicious emails Edit

Some emails contain malicious content or attachments, and email tracking is used to detect how fast these viruses or malicious programs can spread. [12] At the same time, generally, the deliverability of tracked emails is reduced up to 85%, as the firewalls of company servers embed algorithms to filter out emails with suspicious contents. [4]

Research Edit

Web tracking and tracking software are used by researchers who need to gather data for their research, especially in information seeking studies. In fact, tracking technologies can be used for good, offering valuable information for the development of websites, portals, and digital libraries. It can also be used to improve user interfaces, search engines, menu items, navigational features, online help, and intelligent software agents, information architecture, content description, metadata, and more. These finds can be useful in marketing and e-commerce and may be important to people like library and information professionals, educators, and database designers. [17]

The spying effect is that, without the email recipient choosing to do so, the result of the automatic download is to report to the sender of the email: if and when an email is read, when (and how many times) it is read, the IP address and other identity details of the computer or smartphone used to read the email, and from the latter, the geographical location of the recipient. [1] This information provides insights into users' email reading behaviors, office and travel times, as well as details about their environment. [7] By doing a reverse lookup of an IP address, the log entry can provide information on which organizations a user is affiliated with. [18] For example, a board member of a major technology company was caught forwarding confidential information when an email log entry, IP address, and location information were examined simultaneously. Additionally, if spammers send emails to random email addresses, they can identify active accounts in this manner. [7]

There exist many companies that offer email tracking services to senders. According to a study done by three researchers at Princeton University, about 30% of the emails they analyzed leaked recipients' email addresses to third parties via methods like embedded pixels, the majority of them intentionally. 85% of emails in their corpus of 12,618 gathered using a web crawler contained embedded third-party content, with 70% categorized as trackers. Top third-party domains include "," "," "," and "," and the top organizations that collect leaked email addresses include The Acxiom, Conversant Media, LiveIntent, Neustar, and Litmus Software. [4] [8] Reloading an email increases the chance of the recipient's information being leaked to third parties. The study also found that tracking protection was helpful: it reduces the number of email addresses leaked by 87%. [8]

A separate study found that 24.7% of 44,449 emails analyzed were embedded with at least one tracking beacon. Emails categorized as travel, news/media, and health had the highest prevalence of tracking, with 57.8%, 51.9%, and 43.4% containing at least one tracking beacon respectively. On the other hand, emails categorized as email client, social networking, and education have the least tracking, with 0.6%, 1.6%, and 3.8% containing at least one tracking beacon respectively. Through a survey, the authors also found that 52.1% of participants who checked email quite often were unaware that they could be tracked from simply opening an email. 86% of participants consider email tracking as a serious privacy threat. [6]

According to poll results from Zogby International, 80% of consumers are either "somewhat" or "very" concerned about online tracking. [3] Consumers who perceive a lack of business or governmental regulation will try to regain power through a variety of responses, such as fabricating personal information, using privacy-enhancing technologies, and refusing to purchase. [12] At the same time, some argue that people's perceptions about privacy have changed with the times. For example, Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook, said, "People have really gotten comfortable not only sharing more information and different kinds, but more openly and with more people. That social norm is just something that has evolved over time." [3] Ironically, Facebook was also at the center of the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data scandal in 2018. [19]

Cambridge Analytica used a third-party app called “thisisyourdigitallife” to collect information from over 50 million Facebook users. Access to users' emails can expose them to data leaks. Four researchers from the University of Iowa and the Lahore University of Management Sciences designed and deployed CanaryTrap, which identifies data misuse by third-party apps on online social networks. It does this by linking a honeytoken to a user’s social media page and then watches for unrecognized usage. Specifically, the authors shared email addresses as honeytokens and watched for any unrecognized use of those email addresses. After performing an experiment on 1,024 Facebook pages, the authors discover multiple counts of data misuse. 422 unrecognized emails were received on honeytokens shared with 20 Facebook apps. Within those 422 emails, 76 were categorized as malicious or spam. [20] Furthermore, third-party trackers can be considered as “adversaries” to Internet users because the use of HTTP cookies, Flash cookies, and DOM storage breaks data confidentiality between the users and the websites they interact with. [21]

Overall, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Qualcomm found that many users don't see tracking as black and white. Many want control over tracking and think that it has its benefits, but don't know how to control tracking or distrust current tools. Out of 35 participants in the study, fourteen saw tracking as conditionally positive, eight saw it as generally neutral, nine saw it as generally negative, and the remaining four had mixed feelings. Twelve participants felt resigned to tracking. [22]

Countermeasures include using a plain text email client, disabling automatic download of images, or, if reading email using a browser, installing an add-on or browser extension. [1] [2]

The process of email-tracking does not require cookies, which makes it difficult to block without affecting user experience. [23] For example, disabling automatic download of images is easy to implement however, the trade-off is that it often results in a loss of information, incorrect formatting, a decline in user experience, and incomprehension or confusion. [7]

Three Princeton University researchers who analyzed 16 email clients found that none of the existing setups completely protects users from the threats of email tracking. Blocking extensions such as uBlock Origin, Privacy Badger, and Ghostery can filter tracking requests. [8]

Four other researchers aimed to detect trackers by focusing on analyzing the behavior of invisible pixels. After crawling 84,658 web pages from 8,744 domains, they found that invisible pixels are present on more than 94.51% of domains and make up 35.66% of all third-party images. Filter lists such as EasyList, EasyPrivacy, and Disconnect are popular ways to detect tracking they detect known tracking and advertising requests by keeping a "blacklist." However, they miss around 30% of the trackers that the researchers detected. Moreover, when all three filter lists were combined, 379,245 requests from 8,744 domains still tracked users on 68.70% of websites. [24]

Recent research has focused on using machine learning to develop anti-tracking software for end-users. [7] [12]

Analyzing mail flows and aggregate statistical data can help protect user accounts by detecting abnormal email behavior such as viral propagation of malicious email attachments, spam emails, and email policy violations. [25]

Privacy tools can have usability flaws which makes it difficult for users to make informed and meaningful decisions. For example, participants in a study thought that they had installed configured a tool successfully when they had not. [26] Additionally, the rise of ad-blockers and similar privacy tools have led to the emergence of anti ad-blockers, which seek out ad-blockers and try to disable them with various methods, in an escalating ad-blocker arms race. [12]

There are few regulation initiatives that exist to protect users from email tracking. [12] The help pages of many email clients, such as Gmail, Yahoo! Mail, and Thunderbird may mislead users into thinking that privacy risks associated with email tracking are limited by stating that the threat is restricted to the email sender receiving recipients' information rather than third-parties also being able to access that information. [8]

United States Edit

The U.S. currently does not have comprehensive privacy rights in place. The Fourth Amendment, which guarantees "the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects. against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated" does not explicitly apply to private companies and individuals. California's state constitution, however, grants individuals explicit privacy rights from both government and private action. There are regulations that target specific sectors, such as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Modernization Act of 1999 directed towards the financial services sector, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 for the healthcare sector, and the U.S. Department of Commerce's Safe Harbor framework which assists US companies' compliance with the EU's Directive on Data Protection. [3]

European Union Edit

The European Union passed the Directive on Data Protection (Directive 95/46/EC) in 1995 which requires member states to comply with certain privacy protection laws, focused on protecting the consumer. The directive forbids the exchange of data between EU member countries and countries that are not in accordance with the directive. Personal data can only be collected in certain circumstances and must be disclosed to individuals whose information is being collected. Additionally, PII can only be kept for as long as it is used for its original purpose. [3]

The EU first introduction a set of regulations on tracking technologies in 2002. In 2009, the EU Directive mandated that websites ask for consent before using any type of profiling technology, such as cookies. As a result, most European websites implemented a "cookie bar." However, four researchers at the Polytechnic University of Turin performed an experiment on 35,000 websites using a tool called CookieCheck and found that 49% of those websites do not follow the EU cookie directive and installed profiling cookies before the user gave consent. In conclusion, the authors argue that the EU regulatory framework has been ineffective in enforcing rules and has not done much in helping reduce users’ exposure to tracking technologies. [27]

Yamm - History

Lightweight and pure CSS megamenu that uses the standard navbar markup and the fluid grid system classes from Bootstrap 4. Work for fixed and responsive layout and has the facility to include (almost) any Bootstrap elements.

  • CDN[email protected]/dist/yamm.min.css
  • ES6 import: import "@geedmo/yamm"
  • SCSS import: @import "@geedmo/yamm/src/yamm.scss"
  • LESS import: @import "@geedmo/yamm/src/yamm.less"
  • STYL import: @import "@geedmo/yamm/src/yamm"

Being a pretty small repository there's no separate documentation. You can find more usage instructions and examples by checking the Demo and the source code.

Bugs and feature requests

Please first read the issue guidelines and search for existing and closed issues. If your problem or idea is not addressed yet, please open a new issue.

By default the SCSS stylesheet is used to generate the CSS build. See package.json for other scripts.

Test that everything compiles fine (including demo) and all sources generate the same output. Make sure all tests passes before sending a PR.

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Yamm - History

We all like to be masters of our own meals. After all, why restrict yourself to choosing just one dish, when you could enjoy an explosion of flavours at one of Hong Kong’s top quality buffet restaurants?
CLICK HERE to see the latest dining promotions at Yamm!

WhatsApp Us for Instant Bookings at +852 9049 7122
Booking Enquiries: +852 2315 5111 or [email protected]

Yamm showcases an international buffet and à la carte menu, served throughout the day. The abundant breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner buffets offer Japanese, Indian, Southeast Asian and Western dishes, as well as delectable, handcrafted desserts.

A mouthwatering selection of jet-fresh seafood with signature fresh Boston Lobster and fresh plump oysters is a testament to quality. From sushi and sashimi, to teppanyaki foie gras, Parma ham and rich assortment of cheese, it’s your right to choose.

Based on the concept of social buffet dining, Yamm’s live cooking stations turn dining experience into an innovative, exciting and fresh spectacle, serving a la minute specialities and global bistro favourites.

The combination of stimulating, sophisticated interiors, dramatic lighting and simple, delicious food, drinks, juices and speciality teas is enhanced by ambient music and an intimate yet spacious setting. Having earned a series of awards as one of the city’s buffet hotspots, Yamm stands for four memorable letters where family gatherings and dining with friends are an all-day affair!

Private Rooms: 5 (total capacity 56 Guests)

Location: G/F Lobby, The Mira Hong Kong, Mira Place, 118 – 130 Nathan Road, Tsim Sha Tsui

Temporary Opening Hours:
From now: 7am – 10pm (Daily)

Opening Hours: 6am – 12am

  • Breakfast Buffet: 7am – 10:30am
  • Breakfast A-la-carte: 6am – 10:30am
  • Lunch Buffet (Mon – Fri): 12noon – 2:30pm
  • Brunch Buffet (Sat, Sun & Public Holidays): 11:45am – 2:45pm
  • Afternoon Tea Buffet (Sat, Sun & Public Holidays, except 16 Jul – 29 Aug, 2021 ): 3:30pm – 5:45pm
  • Dinner Buffet: 6:30pm – 10pm
  • Take away available: 8am – 9pm (Daily)

From 16 Jul to 29 Aug, 2021, every Friday to Sunday*:
(*except 23 Jul & 6, 20 Aug, 2021 Theme Night)

Price: (Adult / Child*)

  • Lunch Buffet: HK$368 / HK$248 (see the details)
  • Weekend Brunch Buffet: HK$468 / HK$288
  • Afternoon Tea Buffet: HK$308 / HK$188
  • Dinner Buffet:
    • Mon – Thu (except Public Holidays): HK$688 / HK$398
    • Fri – Sun, Public Holidays & Eve: HK$728 / HK$428 (Inclusive of free-flowing standard drinks from 16 Jul to 29 Aug, 2021*)

    All prices are subject to 10% service charge on the original price. Child Price is 3-11 years old inclusive.

    View Our Menu:

    Our Awards:
    Award-winning buffet restaurant in Tsim Sha Tsui, Yamm, has earned the trust of travelers from around the world garnering Certificate of Excellence by TripAdvisor and a number of accolades from the local food critics including the most recent U Favorite 2019 Food Award by U Magazine.


    While Yet Another Mail Merge is still a decent email tool, it has many flaws.

    It has complicated email tracking, lacks mobile device support, and can’t even bypass Google account sending limits.

    Why stick with email outreach tools like YAMM when you have tons of other Yet Another Mail Merge alternatives?

    Although all of the alternatives we’ve covered in this article are great, GMass is the best Yet Another Mail Merge alternative.

    It features powerful email tracking capabilities, powerful personalization, and even mobile add-ons for additional support.

    Ajay is the founder of GMass and has been developing email sending software for 20 years.