The Kit

The Kit

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Have a Break, Have a Kit Kat!

The Kit Kat was introduced in August of 1935, by Rowntree’s, a candy company based in York, England. Today, it is owned by Nestlé, a world famous chocolate brand.

Kit Kats are a type of chocolate that is made up of three layers of wafers. The wafers are covered with a layer of chocolate inside and out. Each whole piece is considered a “finger.” Each package of Kit Kats usually has either one, two, or four fingers connected together.

The name of this delicious candy comes from the Kit Kat club, which is named after Christopher Catling. Catling would hold a famous political and literary club in his London pie shop in the 17th century.

The red and silver design has maintained consistency since the Kit Kat’s debut except for one small period in time. In 1942, the wrapper was changed to blue to portray the change in recipe that resulted from a shortage of fresh milk. However, as availability of milk slowly increased, the red logo made its perpetual return in 1949.

Kit Kat became an international treat in the 1950’s. The brand started expanding to countries such as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. Television greatly expanded the brand as well. In 1958, advertising agent Donald Gillies from JWT of London introduced the classic phrase, “Have a break, have a Kit Kat,” in a few commercials and press campaigns. Today, it is the brand’s registered trademark.

Different countries around the world have different variations of the Kit Kat. Here in America, we have milk, white, or dark chocolate, along with a few seasonal flavors. But Japan has over 200 different kinds! Japan has exciting flavors such as soy sauce, corn, green beans, miso, cherry, green tea, and yubari melon. Japan even created a bakeable Kit Kat, which is covered in dough and filled with flavors such as pudding and cheesecake.

Kit Kats will always be at the top of my list. I absolutely love their chocolate taste that just melts in my mouth along with the crunchy, crispy wafers. As my teeth chew down onto the wafer, the chocolate fills my mouth. This makes the Kit Kat quite unique compared to other chocolates, which are usually either plain, with a nougat, with caramel, with peanuts, or some combination of those variations.

So after a long day of classes, “Have a break! Have a Kit Kat!”

Fun Fact: In the Untied States, the Hershey Company has special permission to produce Kit Kats.

Kit Carson

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Kit Carson, byname of Christopher Houston Carson, (born December 24, 1809, Madison County, Kentucky, U.S.—died May 23, 1868, Fort Lyon, Colorado), American frontiersman, trapper, soldier, and Indian agent who made an important contribution to the westward expansion of the United States. His career as an Indian fighter earned him both folk hero status through its aggrandizement in the dime novels of his day and condemnation from some later revisionist historians as an agent of the displacement and decimation of the native peoples of the West.

At 15 Carson ran away from his home in Missouri to join a caravan of traders bound for Santa Fe. From experienced frontiersmen he learned fur trapping and trading, a career he pursued for 15 years.

A chance encounter in 1842 with the explorer John C. Frémont made Carson an active participant in the clash of empires that eventually extended the boundaries of the continental United States to its present size (Alaska excluded). He served as a guide to Frémont’s government-financed explorations of the West in 1842 and 1843–44, and he was with him in California at the conclusion of the third expedition in 1846, when Frémont provoked the uprising generally known as the Bear Flag Revolt. En route to Washington, D.C., carrying dispatches from Frémont, Carson met Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, who pressed him into service as a guide for his command headed for California with presidential orders to take over the region for the United States. From then until the end of the war with Mexico (1846–48), Carson alternated fighting and guiding with dispatch-bearing to Washington, where his reputation for bravery, loyalty, and devotion to duty won for him many friends in high office.

In 1854 Carson, who had been married to an Arapaho woman and a Cheyenne woman, became a reputedly sympathetic Indian agent at Taos for the Ute. But by 1861 he was back in the field to serve the cause of the Union in the American Civil War in the Southwest, becoming Colonel Carson of the 1st New Mexico Volunteers. In 1863 he received orders to subdue the Navajo, who were fighting for control of their traditional lands. Aided by the Navajo’s enemies, including the Ute, Hopi, and Zuni, Carson oversaw the widespread destruction of the tribe’s homes, crops, and livestock. The Navajo surrendered in 1864, and Carson subsequently ordered some 8,000 Navajo on a 300-mile (480-km) forced march, known as the Long Walk, to Bosque Redondo, a piece of land south of Sante Fe in New Mexico Territory ill suited to the agriculture the Navajo had practiced in their native Canyon de Chelly. Carson’s last major battle occurred at Adobe Walls, a trading post in the Texas Panhandle, in November 1864. He led a force of some 300 volunteers to a draw against several thousand Kiowa and Comanche before ordering a withdrawal. In January 1868 he was appointed superintendent of Indian affairs for Colorado Territory, a position he held at the time of his death.

Carson’s name is preserved variously throughout the Southwest, including Nevada’s capital at Carson City Fort Carson, Colorado and Carson Pass in California.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

Kilmer House

First Aid Kits are so central a part of modern life that it’s hard to imagine a time in which they didn’t exist. But before Johnson & Johnson began making the first commercial first aid kits in 1888, people were on their own when it came to gathering and maintaining the right supplies to use in treating injuries and in knowing how to help someone in case of an injury. A century and a quarter ago, that changed in a very social media-inspired way: through a conversation.

As this story from 1882 -- concerning our very own Fred Kilmer -- shows, when someone was injured before the era of first aid kits and first aid training, standard operating procedure was to have someone run as quickly as possible to fetch the nearest doctor – provided there was a doctor within fetching distance. Critical minutes and sometimes hours passed without treatment for the injured person, and many times bystanders did more harm than good while trying to move or help the man, woman or child who had been injured.

Railroad First Aid demonstration with a Johnson & Johnson First Aid Kit, from our archives.

Railroad work in the 1800s was especially dangerous – so dangerous, in fact, that the railroads had surgeons to treat the often severe injuries to workers building the railroads and working on the steam locomotives. This site about the history of railroad surgeons has a good description of what conditions were like in the 1880s. Workers laying cross-country track were frequently injured and, working in the middle of nowhere, they were very far away from medical help. And here’s where the first of those conversations came in.

Sometime probably in the spring of 1888 (because the Company acted very quickly to make new ideas happen, and a letter in our archives to a railway surgeon is dated June of 1888), Johnson & Johnson founder Robert Wood Johnson was on a Colorado and Rio Grande Railroad train, travelling out west and looking forward to some much-needed vacation time at a Colorado cattle ranch.

Robert Wood Johnson. His conversation with a railway surgeon led to the first First Aid Kits.

Being an outgoing person, Robert Wood Johnson started a conversation with a fellow passenger on the train: the chief surgeon of the Denver and Rio Grande Railway. The surgeon explained that the railroad workers laying track were frequently injured, but medical help was too far away to do any good. So Johnson had the idea to package some of the products Johnson & Johnson made – sterile gauze, bandages and dressings – in boxes. Those boxes could be kept with the workers so that, if they were injured, they could be treated and stabilized until they could reach more comprehensive medical help. Our 1888 price list explained the great need for first aid supplies: “It is a fact, which is everywhere being recognized, that many lives are lost and much suffering entailed in such accidents on account of the lack of the simple but necessary articles required to afford prompt assistance to the wounded.” [Johnson & Johnson Price List, September 1, 1888, p. 20. From our archives]

The first Johnson & Johnson First Aid Kits, from our 1888 Price List. From our archives.

So in 1888 Johnson & Johnson wrote to railway surgeons, telling them that the Company was planning to make first aid kits, asking them what they needed in the kits. With their informed feedback, Johnson & Johnson put out the first commercial first aid kits in 1888: one for the railroads, and one general first aid kit.

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad First Aid Kit, circa 1890, from our Museum

By 1890, we were making kits directly for the railroads (with the name of the railroad on the kit), and we began making them for the home, for travelers, for workplaces and public buildings and later, for automobiles and airplanes, and more. If there was a need, there was a Johnson & Johnson first aid kit to meet that need. After he joined the company in 1889, our Scientific Director Fred Kilmer researched first aid best practices, and we packaged his resulting first aid bulletins and then in 1901, the first First Aid manuals, with our kits.

Maggie Gyllenhaal at our First Aid Kit 125th Anniversary Event

To commemorate this milestone anniversary, we held a June event in New York to celebrate the 125 th birthday of the First Aid Kit. Actress and mom Maggie Gyllenhaal was on hand to help us celebrate, and she talked about growing up with many Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies’ first aid products (including BAND-AID® Brand Adhesive Bandages!) and using them with her family.

Guests at the First Aid Kit 125th Anniversary event discuss the presentations by Johnson & Johnson and Safe Kids Worldwide.

Safe Kids Worldwide was our partner in the event. Safe Kids was formed 25 years ago in 1988, with Johnson & Johnson as a founding sponsor. (In one of the many coincidences that run through Johnson & Johnson history, Safe Kids was formed in the 100 th anniversary year of the First Aid Kit.) The mission of Safe Kids Worldwide is to prevent childhood injury across the world, and their work has led to an extraordinary 55 percent reduction in the unintentional injury rate among children 19 and younger. In a remarkable parallel to the First Aid Kit story, Safe Kids Worldwide was also founded based on a huge unmet need, and as the result of conversations that its founder, Dr. Marty Eichelberger of Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C., had with a number of people (including people at Johnson & Johnson) about the need not just to treat, but to prevent the heartbreakingly high rates of preventable childhood injuries. (How huge is the need? According to data from Safe Kids Worldwide, around the world, a child dies from an unintentional injury every 30 seconds, and millions of children per year are injured in ways that can affect them for a lifetime.)

Attendee at the First Aid Kit 125th Anniversary event reading about the history of the First Aid Kit at our mini museum.

We set up a mini-museum at the event that included some rare and never-taken-out-in-public before historic First Aid Kits from our museum, along with vintage ads and stories from our archives about the history of the First Aid Kit.

First Aid Kits from the 1930s and 1940s in our mini museum.

The exhibits showed just some of the variety of kits that were made for the railroads, the home, the workplace, for Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, for airplanes, boating and even snake bites.

Guests creating custom First Aid Kits at the Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc. celebration of the 125th anniversary of the First Aid Kit on Tuesday June 11, 2013 in New York City. (Photo by Amy Sussman/AP for Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc.)

Today, that specialization has gone a level further, giving people the ability to customize their First Aid Kit for their family’s specific needs. And to celebrate the 125 th anniversary of the First Aid Kit, when someone puts together a custom kit, our consumer company will make a donation to Safe Kids Worldwide to help prevent childhood injuries. So not only can you customize your First Aid Kit to the exact needs of your family, the donation it triggers will go to toward helping prevent injuries in the first place.

Painted in 1888, the same year that Johnson & Johnson made the first commercial First Aid Kits. Café Terrace at Night, by Vincent Van Gogh. Public domain image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, at this link:

So how long ago was 1888? To put that century and a quarter into perspective, when Johnson & Johnson listed the first First Aid Kits in our 1888 price list, Vincent van Gogh was creating some of his most famous paintings, Queen Victoria reigned in the U.K., and the United States was made up of just 38 states instead of 50. Fast forward 125 years and the world is a very different place, but the First Aid Kits endures. Invented in a time in which there were few resources to treat the injured, when people still traveled by horse, stagecoach and steam locomotive, to today’s world of smartphones, search engines and social media, First Aid Kits remain as important and as necessary as ever. Finally, here’s a photo of that rare Johnson & Johnson Snake Bite First Aid Kit from 1964, one of the surprise hits of the mini-museum. Check out the very elegant and energetic Mad Men-era snake on the lid, and the way it wraps itself around the words “Snake Bite Kit.”

Johnson & Johnson Snake Bite Kit, 1964, from our museum.

Why Did This Crazy Kitplane Kill So Many Pilots?

Flying out of Wels, Austria, Rupert Überacker and his piston-engine Bede BD-5G are regulars on the European airshow circuit.

Jim Bede aimed high with his little homebuilt BD-5 bullet, but engine woes and questionable financial moves caused him to overshoot the target.

On August 2, 1972, standing near a taxiway at Wittman Field in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, I pressed a check for $200 into the hand of a short, fat guy in a red shirt. His name was Jim Bede and he was promising to deliver, at some unspecified future date, the parts and materials for me to build a tiny single-seat airplane that looked like a rocketship and was powered by a snowmobile engine. The kit, he promised, would take only about 600 man-hours to assemble—just four months of full-time work—and cost no more than a new Volks­wagen Beetle.

The tiny plane was called the BD-5 Micro. More than 3,000 people—many of them, like me, with imaginations fired but zero experience building airplanes—eventually purchased BD-5 kits. A handful of factory prototype BD-5s made test flights, triggering paroxysms of excitement among us kit-buyers. But plagued by the lack of a reliable engine and reckless financial mismanagement, Bede never delivered a single complete BD-5 kit. The company eventually went bankrupt, and thousands of Bede customers ended up losing some $10 million.

Yet the plane’s allure remained undimmed. A number of diehard builders managed to complete and fly jury-rigged BD-5s powered by improvised engines. In the process, they crashed and killed themselves in horrifying numbers.

But when I recall watching an airshow trio of jet-powered BD-5Js swoosh by at 300 mph, or think back on my brief 1974 flight in a factory prototype, there’s no doubt in my mind: Almost 50 years later, the BD-5 is still the coolest lightplane ever, still the ultimate private pilot’s fantasy.

Jim Bede’s place in aviation history is that of both visionary and charlatan. An aeronautical engineer with an upbeat, fast-talking personality (“100 words a minute, with occasional gusts to 150,” as he put it), Bede was part of a grassroots clan of sport pilots frustrated and bored by expensive, stodgy Cessnas and Pipers.

In the early 1960s, Bede designed and promoted the BD-1, a conventional-looking two-seater intended to be fabricated by amateur homebuilders. In a harbinger of things to come, he ran out of money before he could finish the project. Outside investors took over, kicked Bede out and redesigned the BD-1 as an FAA-certified production aircraft, the American AA-1 Yankee.

His next project was the BD-4, a boxy, easy-to-build four-place homebuilt. He started selling BD-4 construction drawings in 1968, and in 1970 introduced prefabricated kits—a new idea at the time. And a splendid idea it turned out to be several hundred BD-4s were completed, and many are still flying.

Encouraged by the BD-4’s success, in Novem­ber 1970 Bede offered for sale a $5 information packet about his latest concept: a plane so small and sleek that the pilot had to lie semi-supine beneath its fighterlike canopy. The promised specs were astounding: a top speed up to 270 mph, full aerobatic capability and a basic kit price of just $1,800. He cashed the first $200 deposits for the still-imaginary plane in February 1971.

The tangible BD-5 made its public debut in July 1971 at the Experimental Aircraft Association’s annual Oshkosh fly-in. Not yet flyable, but looking very badass indeed, the tiny red plane was an instant sensation. By the end of the show, the bullhorn-wielding Bede, ever the carnival barker showman, had collected more than 800 deposits.

That first BD-5, N500BD, had a fiberglass fuselage, a V-tail and a 36-hp Polaris snowmobile engine. It flew, briefly and barely, on September 13, 1971—a short hop down the runway, with Bede at the controls. The little plane proved wildly unstable. A second brief hop was equally precari­ous, and it never flew again. But in another ominous harbinger of things to come, a subsequent Bede newsletter cheerily reported that the company was “quite pleased with the results….of these flight tests,” conveniently neglecting to mention that the plane never got more than a couple feet off the ground.

The third BD-5 proto­type first flew in March 1973. (Experimental Aircraft Association)

Soon thereafter Bede made what was perhaps the best decision of his aviation life: He hired a 28-year-old stability-and-control engineer from Edwards Air Force Base in California to be his director of development. The young fellow’s name was Burt Rutan.

Rutan arrived at Bede headquarters in Newton, Kan., in March 1972. The second BD-5 prototype, N501BD, was then under construction. The new version was made of aluminum and had a conventional vertical tail, a swept horizontal stabilator and a 40-hp Kiekhaefer snowmobile engine. Rutan’s job: get the airplane ready to fly and conduct the flight-test program. One of his first moves was to hire a friend and fellow engineer from Edwards, Les Berven, as chief test pilot.

Rutan quickly discovered that 501 was hideously tail-heavy. (Solution: Fill up the nosecone with lead.) The flaps had to be redesigned. High-speed taxi-testing led to a complete redesign of the stabilator. After a deal to buy production engines from Kiekhaefer fell through, a German-made 40-hp Hirth snowmobile engine was substituted.

In May 1972, eight months after the first runway hop and 15 months after the first deposit checks had been cashed, the BD-5 finally made its first up-and-away flight. It was brief the Hirth engine overheated within seconds and the cockpit filled with smoke. Berven shut down the engine and glided back to a safe landing. But at least the flight-test program was finally underway.

The smoke and overheating problems were quickly fixed. Berven reported that the plane flew beautifully, with good stability and “the best-harmonized controls I’ve ever flown.”

But, recalls Rutan, “We had many engine failures.” One came during a demo flight in front of FAA officials, from whom Bede was seeking a permit to fly at the 1972 Oshkosh confab. With the FAA men watching, the engine seized 90 seconds after takeoff. Berven managed to glide back to the runway, but ran off the end and crunched the nose gear. No permit.

The plane’s failure to fly at Oshkosh that year didn’t dissuade me, nor many others, from handing Bede deposit checks. (Hell, the thing looked like it was going 200 mph just sitting there on the ground!) A month later, 6,000 people showed up at Bede’s home field to watch the first public flight demonstration.

The following month, however, 501 crash-landed on a road after another engine failure. Rather than repair the substantial damage, Bede scrapped it and focused on the next prototype, N502BD, scheduled to fly in a couple of months. But vibration problems with a new belt-drive system persisted, and by the time Bede began to ship the first partial kits to long-yearning builders in early 1973, 502 had still not flown.

At this point, Rutan was having second thoughts about Bede’s business practices: “I was thinking, if we can’t even fly the airplane for two minutes, how can we be sending out kits?”

Perhaps money had something to do with it. The BD-5 program had been puttering along for more than two years on Bede’s personal funds and about $600,000 in kit deposits. But once the first partial kit packages were ready for shipment, builders had to come up with the full balance—in my case, $2,385. Multiplied by 3,000 customers, that worked out to about $7 million.

UPS dropped the first two big cardboard cartons in my driveway in March 1973. They contained the canopy, airspeed indicator (it read up to 300 mph!), wheels and brakes, and prop spinner, plus the parts to build the vertical stabilizer’s framework. But no plans or instructions. I spent a lot of time staring at the airspeed indicator and fondling the spinner.

In April the wing kit arrived, with a set of excellent plans and instructions, and I at last began what I hoped would be my 600-hour journey to flying nirvana.

Meanwhile, back at Bede, with partial kits now shipping, the money flowed in. And out. The 502 prototype finally flew in March 1973, but the belt-drive system and the Hirth engine continued to cause problems, triggering more forced landings. The Hirth also lacked the power to meet the plane’s promised performance. “It was becoming clear that this was a junk engine,” notes Rutan.

Despite Bede’s desperately upbeat reports to its customers (“The basic twin-cylinder engine manu­factured by Hirth is as good, or better, than any engine we have had the opportunity to study and test….”), it was around this time that the rumblings of discontent among us builders began.

Perhaps as a distraction from all the engine problems, in mid-1973 Bede fired a double-barrel shot of adrenaline into the Micro community: the promise of an FAA-certified production model, the BD-5D, and a real-life jet-powered version. Slick two-page color ads in aviation magazines (“You’ve just run out of excuses for not owning your own airplane”) sent ripples beyond the world of homebuilding. The ready-to-fly production BD-5D, it was promised, would cost less than half the price of the cheapest new plane then available, yet fly twice as fast. Send in your deposit now! Just $400! “He needed a new product, and he needed it fast,” recalls Rutan.

Curious onlookers examine two BD-5Js used by Corkey Fornof’s jet demonstration team in the 1970s. (San Diego Air & Space Museum)

Powered by a minuscule 200-pound-thrust French Microturbo TRS-18 turbojet engine, the BD-5J set the 1973 Oshkosh airshow crowd agog. (A landing accident caused by a stuck thrust attenuator dampened spirits not a whit.) It flew so well and so reliably that six months later Bede let the first aviation journalist, former U.S. Air Force F-86D Sabre pilot Dick Weeghman, take a test hop. Weeghman rhapsodized, “It remains a haunting, indelible experience that got me as close to Birdsville as I ever expect to get.”

In June 1974 at the Reading Air Show in Penn­sylvania, Bede unleashed a three-jet aerobatic team of BD-5Js that upstaged the Blue Angels with, among other stunts, quadruple vertical snap-rolls. That day may have been the zenith of Bede hype, the last gasp of fantasy before reality started to set in.

That same month, Burt Rutan resigned. “I didn’t want to be around when he went bankrupt and the lawsuits started,” Rutan says now.

The engine woes continued. Bede worked closely with Hirth to build an engine specifically for the BD-5, but the underlying problem was that airplanes are different than snowmobiles. “We broke every part of the engine on the test stand,” Les Berven later admitted. “Rings, cylinders, pistons, bearings, crankshafts. Everything went at one time or the other.”

At about the same time, the ever upbeat (delusional? lying?) Jim Bede wrote in “Bede News,” Vol. 1 No. 3, “We have completed all testing of the BD-5.”

By the summer of 1974, a new prototype of the prop-driven plane, N503BD, was finally deemed ready to be flown by journalists, although the engine had to be pull-started by hand like a lawnmower and would stop dead if the plane encountered turbulence. I was lucky (?) enough to be invited, despite my meager 400 hours flying time.

The Bede’s Hirth engine required a pull-start like a lawn mower. (BD Aero)

Slipping into the tiny cockpit, I felt as if I were pulling on an aluminum body suit (or perhaps climbing into a coffin). Instead of the normal control wheel or stick, there was a tiny joystick control on the right armrest—just like the YF-16, the revolutionary new Air Force fighter prototype that had recently made its first flight.

I lack the words to describe the half-hour of giddy dream fulfillment that followed. N503BD was extremely stable, yet responsive to a flick of the wrist. I indeed felt as if I were soaring among the birds, albeit at only 170 mph, not 270. Forty-five years later, it still rates as the peak moment of my flying career.

Not long after my flight, Hirth went bankrupt. At that point it dawned on me that my dream might never be realized. I’d been plugging away in my barn workshop for almost two years, and had a beautiful set of wings, a fuselage shell and a vertical stabilizer. But many of the kit parts and materials—including, of course, the engine—had not been delivered.

With his cash flow dwindling, Bede turned his focus to the FAA-certified airplane, leaving us homebuilders feeling abandoned. Worse, he was also spending money—our money—developing two new projects, the BD-6 and BD-7. A new engine from the Japanese manufacturer Xenoah was tested, with the usual results: many promises, no reality.

By mid-1976, I had concluded the BD-5 was doomed, and sold my partially completed kit. I’d put $3,500 and 400 hours of labor into the project, but felt lucky to get $1,500 for it. (I recently heard from the fellow who bought it the pieces remain in his basement, untouched to this day.) Looking back, I had probably done no more than 10 percent of the work to complete the job. Even with all the parts, it’s now obvious I lacked the skills and determination to ever finish it.

In November 1976, the 503 prototype was destroyed in a crash. Bede Aircraft Corp. was by then a dead company walking. Having burned through some $7 million in kit payments and $2.7 million in production model deposits, it had no money left to build a new prototype, produce kit parts, find an engine or pursue FAA certification of the BD-5D. Multiple attempts to secure financing foundered, and bankruptcy mercifully arrived in 1979. Accused of fraud by the Federal Trade Commission, Bede signed a consent decree promising to not accept money for any aircraft project for a period of 10 years.

The jet-powered BD-5J proved to be the most reliable of the Bede family, with about a dozen of the 25 built still flying. (Connor Madison)

(Ten years later, almost to the day, Bede announced the BD-10, intended to be the world’s first supersonic homebuilt. Five examples were built and three crashed, killing their pilots. None ever got close to supersonic speeds. In 1995 Bede began taking deposits for the BD-12, a two-seat version of the BD-5 with a standard aircraft engine. It crashed on its first flight attempt. Jim Bede died of natural causes in 2015.)

In the four decades since Bede’s bankruptcy, an estimated 150-200 determined and resourceful BD-5 builders have managed to complete and fly improvised planes. BD-5s have flown with Honda Civic, Volkswagen and Subaru engines Mercury outboards Wankels Rotaxes and even an updated version of the accursed two-cylinder Hirth that seems to run just fine. There was a turbo­prop version, powered by a gas generator from a Chinook helicopter. Perhaps 50 BD-5s are currently airworthy worldwide.

Almost as many have crashed and killed their pilots. The Aviation Safety Institute database shows a total of 25 fatal BD-5 crashes—12-15 percent of all BD-5s that ever flew. Many occurred on the first flight of newly finished aircraft, with engine failures and subsequent stalls a common thread. Of the first four homebuilt BD-5As, a version with shorter wings, three crashed and killed their builders on their first takeoffs. The fourth survived long enough to crash on its first landing.

I’ve always been puzzled by this rash of fatal crashes. The plane I piloted was easy to fly, with dead-on pitch stability. Its stalls were gentle and predictable, with instant recovery when back-pressure on the stick was released. Yet the same plane I flew, N503BD, later stalled and crashed. I still don’t get it.

Perhaps poor workmanship degraded the flying qualities of some customer-built planes. And most homebuilt BD-5s, with their bulkier engines, were much heavier than the factory prototypes, which increased stall speeds. The heavier engines may also have caused center-of-gravity problems the BD-5’s safe CG envelope was literally a matter of inches. But one thing is clear: An amateur pilot with less recent practice in flying than building has no business in the cockpit for the first flight of a homemade airplane with a kludged-together engine. That’s a job for a professional test pilot—and a very brave one at that.

The BD-5J is perhaps best known for its cameo in the 1986 James Bond film Octopussy. (MGM United Artists)

The BD-5J, with its more reliable jet engine, has been by far the most successful Micro. (Who can forget James Bond’s miraculous jet escape in Octopussy?) About 25 BD-5Js have flown over the years, mostly as aerial stunt planes for purveyors of liquid refreshment. A dozen or so Microjets are currently active.

Surprisingly, pilots newly smitten with BD-5 fever can still pursue their fantasies. A company called BD-Micro Technologies, in Siletz, Ore., has decades of BD-5 experience and a stockpile of original Bede kit parts. It makes all the missing pieces (with many design improvements) and has set up construction tooling and jigs. An aspiring BD-5 builder can today, after writing a check for about $90,000 and putting in 200-300 hours of supervised hands-on labor at BD-Micro’s production facility, fly away in a new, Hirth-powered BD-5 that’s way better than the original.

David Noland is a former editor at Air Progress and Aviation Consumer magazines now drifting into semi-retirement. He currently flies only in his imagination. For more information on BD-Micro Technologies, see

This feature originally appeared in the May 2020 issue of Aviation History. To subscribe, click here!

The Creation of the Modern Drum Set

The earliest drumming traditions started on the continent of Africa. However, the drum kit itself is an American invention. During the 1840s, drummers in marching bands as well as musical theatre companies in Europe and America would use a variety of individual hand percussion instruments. In order to cover more roles, by about the 1860s, bands started to experiment with multiple percussion instruments, combining them into what was then known as a trap set.

A technique known as double drumming was developed so that a drummer could play the bass drum and snare with sticks while using a pedal to control the cymbals. This pedal ended up influencing the creation of the original hi-hat, but at the time, it was known as the low boy.

Eventually bass drum pedals were developed, which allowed drummers to stand and play with their feet, keeping both of their hands free to play other instruments. During the early 1900s companies like Gretsch, Ludwig, and Slingerland began developing commercially marketable drum set equipment, from pedals to snare drums, brushes, and even entire kits. And, as drum equipment developed, so did the music.

Originally double drumming was a technique used to simulate the marching band sound of having two separate players playing both the bass drum and the snare drum. These simple marching beats would become more and more syncopated, due to the increasing influence and popularity of African and Caribbean rhythms. The music that developed in the American South (New Orleans particularly) — ragtime and early jazz — was an amalgamation of both European and African cultures, traditional marching melodies, and blues-influenced harmonies combined with rhythms from the East, which had already made their way into second lines.

With new styles of music becoming associated with parties and nightlife, as opposed to the classical concert hall, the drum kit began to earn a constant place on the band stage.

As the modern drum set began to take shape, various other percussion instruments were added to the arsenal. Tom-tom drums were based on the traditional, cylindrically-shaped tuned drums of China and Japan. And early drum sets often contained woodblocks, small cymbals, and an array of other percussion instruments that could be used to make special effects for musical theatre or silent movies.

Drum sets from the 1920s also frequently included beautiful paintings, as signatures of the companies and artisans that manufactured them.

In 1929, a Turkish immigrant named Avedis Zildjian III continued his family’s cymbal manufacturing tradition, which had begun in 1618 in Constantinople, by setting up the first mainstream cymbal company in America. Founded in Quincy, Massachusetts, the Zildjian Cymbal Company went on to invent the most popular cymbal types used today, including the crash, ride, splash, sizzle, and hi-hats.

But their company really lucked out with the start of World War II. The increase in military bands meant that the Zildjian Company received war funds from the US Government to produce cymbals for the army and navy, while they continued to produce their mainstream cymbals. Copper and tin were both heavily rationed and regulated by the War Production Board, and Zildjan was one of only a handful of artisanal metal manufacturing companies to receive military support, though they had to reduce their master metalsmith staff to just three men.

Throughout the 1930s and 󈧬s, Avedis made friends with all the popular drummers of the time, including Gene Krupa, Chick Webb, “Papa” Jo Jones, and eventually Buddy Rich. These drummers not only marketed the company’s product but helped Avedis design cymbals that would actual change the way drummers played the drums. After he created thin ride cymbals, swing drummers began to move time-keeping away from the snare drum, which had been standard in earlier marching styles. Innovative changes such as this would kick start the next era of drumming.

The Birth of the First Aid Kit

A fateful conversation inspired the creation of Johnson & Johnson&rsquos First Aid Kit, which was released in 1888. Aboard a train heading to Colorado for vacation, company founder Robert Wood Johnson struck up a conversation with the Denver & Rio Grande Railway&rsquos chief surgeon. The doctor explained to Johnson the dangers of railroad construction and the lack of medical supplies to treat the unique industrial injuries that were often incurred great distances from hospitals. From this exchange, Johnson saw an opportunity to both advance the field of healthcare and build his young business. And from this modern need, the commercial First Aid Kit was born.


Railroad first aid demonstration, c. 1895.

Image courtesy: Johnson & Johnson Archives

Railroad construction during the 19th century brought workers to isolated regions in the American West, away from hospitals and traditional medical care. The First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869 and in the decades that followed, expansion continued at a fever pitch. Between 1880 and 1890, more than 70,000 miles of new tracks were laid. The frenzied construction in rural, rugged areas across the American West ensured accidents were common and, when disaster struck, it was often fatal. About 12,000 railroad workers and operators died each year. Not only was the cutting-edge machinery creating new injuries, but medical care on the frontier was virtually nonexistent. Additionally, working on steam locomotives was so dangerous that trains began carrying surgeons, and later, medical cars for treatment. In the 1880s, along the 1,300-mile stretch between St. Louis, Missouri, and El Paso, Texas, there was not one hospital. So it&rsquos no surprise that wounded workers frequently perished before help arrived.


Often the majority of railroad worker crews were immigrants hailing from China, Ireland, and Eastern Europe.

Image courtesy: Alfred A. Hart, Library of Congress

To fill the desperate need for adequate emergency care, railroad companies began employing their own doctors. Since there was no textbook for the injuries they encountered, these physicians had to learn surgery on the job and improvise trauma care along the way. They creatively dealt with new injuries, among the most common was &ldquocrushed limbs.&rdquo These men were often champions of new technology&mdashthey were early champions of Joseph Lister&rsquos sterile surgery. However, putting this theory into practice and keeping wounds germ-free proved challenging. Initially, few had operating rooms or antiseptic supplies. Even after the railway surgeons convinced companies to build hospitals and sterile environments in the West, death tolls remained high.


Among the first railroad company-built hospitals was the Denver & Rio Grande’s Hospital in Salida, Colorado, which opened in 1885.

Image courtesy: Salida Regional Library, Salida, Colorado

The missing links were educated first responders and antiseptic first aid supplies. On railroad construction sites, untrained laborers who knew little of basic hygiene, let alone wound care, were the first to take action when disaster struck. Naturally, they rushed to help, but their
attempts often did more harm than good&mdashexacerbating spinal injuries or introducing infection.

When Robert Wood Johnson heard about this problem, he had the idea of packaging Johnson & Johnson&rsquos sterile surgical products in boxes that could be kept with railway workers to treat injuries. Johnson wrote to top railway surgeons asking for their advice about what they needed in the kits. He then called upon Johnson & Johnson&rsquos scientific director, Fred Kilmer, to translate these needs into a product. Kilmer was a practiced pharmacist and scientist whose meticulous research on railroad medicine gave rise to Johnson & Johnson&rsquos inaugural First Aid Kit in 1888. Kilmer was a visionary in the field who saw the kits as a way to bridge the gap between injury and treatment. He understood the need not only for sterile supplies but also for the education of the public to ensure that injuries were treated&mdashnot intensified&mdashin the first minutes.


Originally, Johnson & Johnson manufactured First Aid Kits tailored to the unique needs of individual railroad companies.

Image courtesy: Johnson & Johnson Archives

The first kits were packed in durable wooden or metal boxes and equipped with a variety of existing Johnson & Johnson surgical products, including gauze, adhesive plasters, dressing, bandages, and sutures. Because they were tailored to the unique needs of railroad construction, they also necessitated the addition of new supplies.


Early Hand Book of First Aid.

Image courtesy: Johnson & Johnson Archives

However, Kilmer knew that the kits, themselves, were not enough. They needed to include explanation and training. Since its founding, Johnson & Johnson had prided itself on educating the public and spreading antiseptic methods of wound care first aid was another teaching opportunity. In 1901, Johnson & Johnson published the Hand Book of First Aid, the nation&rsquos first comprehensive, commercially available guide to first aid. The guide reached beyond the railroad and medical industries, teaching Americans about basic hygiene and emergency care. Through illustrations and common emergency scenarios, it showed readers how to use Johnson & Johnson products to save lives. But, this manual did more than educate it spurred a movement. In the years that followed, similar guides proliferated. As interest in emergency care took root, Johnson & Johnson&rsquos First Aid Kits became increasingly popular.


Though Johnson & Johnson didn’t invent the Esmarch bandage, the product was popularized in the company’s First Aid Kit. Directions were cleverly printed on the bandage itself so they could never be lost.

Image courtesy: Johnson & Johnson Archives

Within a decade, first aid became the law&mdashall American workplaces with more than three employees were required to have basic medical supplies starting in 1910. Throughout the 20th century, First Aid Kits were expanded to meet new needs. They were customized for homes, schools, travelers and the workplace. And as technology advanced, Johnson & Johnson was there: in cars and on planes. From the late 19th century through today, Johnson & Johnson&rsquos First Aid Kits remain the standard in emergency care.

History of kites

It’s unclear when kites were invented. Many scholars believe that they were developed in China. Other evidence suggests that kites were used by cultures in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the South Pacific as fishing instruments made of natural materials like leaves and reeds. Anthropological evidence suggests that kites may have been independently developed in other areas, but these claims are not well documented.

In 450 BC, famous Chinese philosopher Mo-tse spent three years carefully crafting a wooden bird to fly on a tethered line. There is some debate on whether this reference is considered a kite.

The earliest written account of kite flying is in China in 200 BC, supporting China’s claim to the origin of the kite. The Chinese General Han Hsin of the Han Dynasty flew a kite over the walls of a city he was attacking to measure how far his army would have to tunnel to reach past the defenses.

By the 13 th Century, kite flying had spread by traders from China to Korea and across Asia to India and the Middle East. Each area developed a distinctive style of kite and cultural purpose for flying them.

Spread to Europe

In the late 13 th century, European explorer, Marco Polo, describes in his book (1295) kites and their man-lifting capabilities after seeing Chinese merchants using kites to determine whether a voyage would be prosperous or not.

Kite flying spread throughout Europe between 14 th and 15 th Centuries with mentions by Vasco da Gama, Giovanni Della Porta, and William Shakespeare.

Sailors also brought kites back from Japan and Malaysia in the 16th and 17th centuries. Kites were regarded as curiosities at first and had little impact on European culture.


In the 18th century, kites continued to increase in popularity among children. However, it was the use of kites by physicists and meteorologists that spurred the development of kites for scientific purposes. Some of the most famous are Alexander Wilson & Thomas Melville (U-Glasgow), who made the 1st recorded weather experiments using kites in 1749, Benjamin Franklin (USA), and De Romas (France) begin conducting electrical experiments with kites in 1752-3. It wasn’t until late in the 1800s that kites were used regularly for meteorological observation.

During the 19 th century, kites were used not only for scientific purposes like studying weather and understanding the atmosphere but for lifting (lifting objects like cameras, thermometers, and people) and traction (using kites to pull things like carriages).

One of the strangest uses of kite power was developed in 1822 by George Pocock, a U.K. schoolmaster. Pocock created a carriage pulled by a pair of arch-top kites. His “char-volant” was capable of speeds of up to 20 miles per hour. The kites were flown in tandem and steered by four independent lines. Since the road toll was based on the number of horses pulling a carriage, this horseless rig was ruled exempt from road tolls because no animals were used.

In 1903, Samuel Franklin Cody, using a train of his patented Cody Kites and a collapsible 14-foot canoe, crossed the English Channel from Calais France to Dover, England, in just under four hours.


Many of the experiments and developments during the 1800s led directly to the eventual development of the powered airplane and transatlantic wireless communications in the early 20 th century.

The Wright Brothers were skilled at kite flying, and it was their years of kite flying that directly led to the invention of their airplane. One day while flying box kites at Kitty Hawk, the brothers discovered that the kites provided enough lift to be able to lift a man off the ground.

In August of 1899, they built a biplane kite, also known as a warping kite. They discovered that by varying the position of the four lines attached near the kite’s extremities, they could simulate the twisting of the wings of a soaring bird. This twisting they called wing-warping lateral control, a method that was to characterize Wright’s airplane for years to come.

In 1901, Alexander Graham Bell developed a prototype of his tetrahedral kite, a three-dimensional rigid kite that, when connected together, can be built to any size without having to have thicker and stronger sticks as the kite grows bigger.

Bell’s tetrahedral kite would eventually be used to lift as much as 288 pounds and would be the basis of future powered “aerodromes.”


The invention of the powered airplane is not the end of the use of kites. During World War, I (1914-1918), the British, French, Italian, and Russian armies all had kite units for enemy observations and signal corps. In World War II (1939-1945), the U.S. Navy found uses for kites such as Harry Saul’s Barrage Kite (anti-aircraft), the Gibson-Girl Box Kite (air rescue), and Paul Garber’s Target Kite (target practice and aircraft recognition).


Since World War II, two kite innovations, Francis Rogallo’s flexi-wing (1948) and Domina Jalbert’s parafoil (1964) kites, have helped develop the modern hang-gliders and sports parachutes respectively.

Rogallo had originally invented the Flexi-wing (also referred to as the Rogallo wing) with the idea to create an aircraft that would be simple enough and inexpensive enough that anyone could have one. In 1952, he used the newly developed Mylar material and created the five-dollar toy “Flexikite.”

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Rogallo worked with NASA to utilize his design (renamed the Parawing) as an alternative recovery system for the Gemini space capsules. NASA ultimately went with round parachutes, but Rogallo’s design has inspired numerous hang-glider designs.

Another design developed during the 1960s was by Domina Jalbert, who invented a ram-air double-surfaced fully flexible airfoil. This invention would profoundly change kiting, parachuting, and hang-gliding. All parafoils owe their roots to Jalbert’s “Multi-cell Wing Type Aerial Device.”


Until the early 1600s, kites were typically used for the amusement of adults. But illustrations started emerging of kids playing with pear-shaped kites around 1618, and kites continued to increase in popularity among children until today.

In 1972, Peter Powell introduced a toy dual-line stunter, and the public began to fly kites not only for fun but also for sport. Millions of his kites were sold, and flying steerable kites became a craze in the mid-󈨊s. The popularity of all types of multiple-line kite flying today can be attributed directly to Powell’s development of a modern dual-line kite.

Enthusiasts experimented with new designs for the stunt kite, based in part on the work of Rogallo and Jalbert. These kites could fly precise maneuvers, go faster, or perform intricate tricks.

Being able to do precise maneuvers with a controllable kite gave birth to sport kite competitions. Starting in the early 1970s and continuing today, sport kite competitions are held all over the world. Kite pilots compete in areas of discipline such as ballet, precision, and also together as a team.

In the 1980s, sport kite development utilized new materials such as carbon/fiberglass tubes and rip-stop nylon. Two of the most influential kite developments during this time can be attributed to Don Tabor, who introduced the “Hawaiian” team kite in 1982, and Joseph Hadzicki, who developed and patented the quad-line controllable kite in 1988.


In the mid-1980s, the modern kite field began to transform with large themed kites and traction sports.

One of the most influential kitemakers and designers during this time is Peter Lynn of New Zealand. Starting in 1985, Peter began developing large inflatable theme kites and developing the first practical three-wheeled kite buggy. Along with his C-Quad single-skin semi-rigid traction kite, this helped launch a whole new traction sport such as buggy races and cross-country events. Peter Lynn has also been credited with producing the world’s largest kites numerous times.

Throughout the 1990s and continuing today, Kite Surfing has become a legitimate extreme sport. Combining kite flying and surfing skills, kite pilots take to the water with specifically designed airfoils that provide tremendous lift and enable their fliers to perform amazing acrobatics.

Use the Github pages to determine what changed in each release.

4.8.0 (Jan 24, 2020)

  • Pool layer was added to support APFS. NOTE: API is likely to change.
  • Limited APFS support added in libtsk and some of the command line tools.
    • Encryption support is not complete.
    • Blackbag Technologies submitted the initial PR. Basis Technology did some minor refactoring.
    • DB schema was updated to support pools
    • Added concept of JSON in Blackboard Attributes
    • Schema supports cascading deletes to enable data source deletion
    • Added Pool class and associated infrastructure
    • Added methods to support deleting data sources from database
    • Removed JavaFX as a dependency by refactoring the recently introduced timeline filtering classes.
    • Added attachment support to the blackboard helper package.

    4.7.0 (Oct 14, 2019)

    • DB schema was expanded to store tsk_events and related tables. Time-based data is automatically added when files and artifacts are created. Used by Autopsy timeline.
    • Logical Imager can save files as individual files instead of in VHD (saves space).
    • Removed PRIuOFF and other macros that caused problems with signed/unsigned printing. For example, TSK_OFF_T is a signed value and PRIuOFF would cause problems as it printed a negative number as a big positive number.

    4.6.7 (Aug 2, 2019)

    • First release of new logical imager tool
    • VHD image writer fixes for out of space scenarios
    • Expand Communications Manager API
    • Performance improvement for SleuthkitCase.addLocalFile()

    4.6.6 (Apr 26, 2019)

    • Acquisition deteails are set in DB for E01 files
    • Fix NTFS decompression issue (from Joe Sylve)
    • Image reading fix when cache fails (Joe Sylve)
    • Fix HFS+ issue with large catalog files (Joe Sylve)
    • Fix free memory issue in srch_strings (Derrick Karpo)
    • Fix so that local files can be relative
    • More Blackboard artifacts and attributes for web data
    • Added methods to CaseDbManager to enable checking for and modifying tables.
    • APIs to get and set acquisition details
    • Added methods to add volume and file systems to database
    • Added method to add LayoutFile for allocated files
    • Changed handling of JNI handles to better support multiple cases

    4.6.5 (Jan 15, 2019)

    • HFS boundary check fix
    • New artifacts and attributes defined
    • Fixed bug in SleuthkitCase.getContentById() for data sources
    • Fixed bug in that could allow reading past end of file
    • New fields for hash values and acquisition details in case database
    • Store "created schema version" in case database

    4.6.4 (Nov 9, 2018)

    • Increase max statements in database to prevent errors under load
    • Have a max timeout for SQLite retries

    4.6.3 (Oct 14, 2018)

    • Hashdb bug fixes for corrupt indexes and 0 hashes
    • New code for testing power of number in ExtX code
    • New class that allows generic database access
    • New methods that check for duplicate artifacts
    • Added caches for frequently used content
    • Added Examiner table
    • Tags are now associated with Examiners
    • Changed parent_path for logical files to be consistent with FS files.

    4.6.2 (Aug 8, 2018)

    • Various compiler warning fixes
    • Added small delay into image writer to not starve other threads
    • Added more locking to ensure that handles were not closed while other threads were using them.
    • Added APIs to support more queries by data source
    • Added memory-based caching when detecting if an object has children or not.

    4.6.1 (May 8, 2018)

    • Lots of bounds checking fixes from Google's fuzzing tests. Thanks Google.
    • Cleanup and fixes from uckelman-sf and others
    • PostgreSQL, libvhdi, & libvmdk are supported for Linux / OS X
    • Fixed display of NTFS GUID in istat - report from Eric Zimmerman.
    • NTFS istat shows details about all FILE_NAME attributes, not just the first. report from Eric Zimmerman.
    • Reports can be URLs
    • Reports are Content
    • Added APIs for graph view of communications
    • JNI library is extracted to name with user name in it to avoid conflicts
    • Database Version upgraded from to 8.0 because Reports are now Content

    4.6.0 (Feb 21, 2018)

    • New Communications related Java classes and database tables.
    • Java build updates for Autopsy Linux build
    • Blackboard artifacts are now Content objects in Java and part of tsk_objects table in database.
    • Increased cache sizes.
    • Lots of bounds checking fixes from Google's fuzzing tests. Thanks Google.
    • HFS fix from uckelman-sf.

    4.5.0 (Oct 15, 2017)

    • Support for LZVN compressed HFS files (from Joel Uckelman)
    • Use sector size from E01 (helps with 4k sector sizes)
    • More specific version number of DB schema
    • New Local Directory type in DB to differentiate with Virtual Directories
    • All blackboard artifacts in DB are now 'content'. Attachments can now be children of their parent message.
    • Added extension as a column in tsk_files table.
    • Faster resolving of HFS hard links
    • Lots of fixes from Google Fuzzing efforts.

    4.4.2 (Aug 7, 2017)

    • usnjls tool for NTFS USN log (from noxdafox)
    • Added index to mime type column in DB
    • Use local SQLite3 if it exists (from uckelman-sf)
    • Blackboard Artifacts have a shortDescription metho
    • Fix for highest HFS+ inum lookup (from uckelman-sf)
    • Fix ISO9660 crash
    • various performance fixes and added thread safety checks

    4.4.1 (May 30, 2017)

    • Can create a sparse VHD file when reading a local drive with new IMAGE_WRITER structure. Currently being used by Autopsy.
    • Lots of cleanup and fixes. Including memory leaks, unicode cleanup, missing NTFS files (in rare cases), really long folder structures and database inserts

    4.4.0 (Jan 18, 2017)

    • Compiling in Windows now uses Visual Studio 2015
    • tsk_loaddb now adds new files for slack space and JNI was upgraded accordingly.
    • Java API updates

    4.3.1 (Oct 25, 2016)

    • NTFS works on 4k sectors
    • Added support in Java to store local files in encoded form (XORed)
    • Added Java Account object into datamodel
    • Added notion of a review status to blackboard artifacts
    • Upgraded version of PostgreSQL
    • Various minor bug fixes

    4.3.0 (July 19, 2016)

    • PostgreSQL support (Windows only)
    • New Release_ NoLibs Visual Studio target
    • Support for virtual machine formats via libvmdk and libvhdi (Windows only)
    • Schema updates (data sources table, mime type, attributes store type)
    • tsk_img_open can take externally created TSK_IMG_INFO
    • Various minor bug fixes

    4.2.0 (Sep 16, 2015)

    • ExFAT support added
    • New database schema
    • New Sqlite hash database
    • Various bug fixes
    • NTFS pays more attention to sequence and loads metadata only if it matches.
    • Added secondary hash database index

    4.1.3 (Jan 25, 2014)

    • fixed bug that could crash UFS/ExtX in inode_lookup.
    • More bounds checking in ISO9660 code
    • Image layer bounds checking
    • Update version of SQLITE-JDBC
    • changed how java loads navite libraries
    • Config file for YAFFS2 spare area
    • New method in image layer to return names
    • Yaffs2 cleanup.
    • Escape all strings in SQLite database
    • SQlite code uses NTTFS sequence number to match parent IDs

    4.1.2 (Sep 25, 2013)

    4.1.1 (Sep 24, 2013)

    • FILE_NAME times in timelines
    • Cellebrite disk image auto-detect
    • 64-bit windows targets
    • Fixed bug with Sqlite code not using NTFS Sequence
    • Jar files have native libraries in them

    4.1.0 (Jun 17, 2013)

    • Added YAFFS2 support (patch from viaForensics).
    • Added Ext4 support (patch from kfairbanks)
    • Added Linux and MAC support.
    • Added L01 support.
    • Added APIs to find files by name, path and extension.
    • Removed deprecated TskFile::getAttributes methods.
    • moved code around for AutoBuild tool support.
    • added DerivedFile datamodel support
    • added a public method to Content to add ability to close() its tsk handle before the object is gc'd
    • added faster skip() and random seek support to ReadContentInputStream
    • refactored datamodel by pushing common methods up to AbstractFile
    • fixed minor memory leaks
    • improved regression testing framework for java bindings datamodel

    4.0.2 (Feb 4, 2013)

    • Fixed fcat to work on NTFS files (still doesn't support ADS though).
    • Fixed HFS+ support in tsk_loaddb / SQLite -- root directory was not added.
    • NTFS code now looks at all MFT entries when listing directory contents. It used to only look at unallocated entries for orphan files. This fixes an image that had allocated files missing from the directory b-tree.
    • NTFS code uses sequence number when searching MFT entries for all files.
    • Libewf detection code change to support v2 API more reliably (ID: 3596212).
    • NTFS $SII code could crash in rare cases if $SDS was multiple of block size.
    • Added new API to TskImgDB that returns the base name of an image.
    • Numerous performance improvements to framework.
    • Removed requirement in framework to specify module extension in pipeline configuration file.
    • Added blackboard artifacts to represent both operating system and network service user accounts.
    • More methods to query files
    • Methods to get current directory when being added to DB.
    • Modified class structure a bit
    • More lazy loading for children / parents.
    • Better exception throwing from C++

    4.0.1 (Nov 13, 2012)

    Contains minor new features and bug fixes.

    • More DOS partition types are displayed.
    • Added fcat tool that takes in file name and exports content (equivalent to using ifind and icat together).
    • performance improvements with FAT code (maps and dir_add)
    • performance improvements with NTFS code (maps)
    • added AONLY flag to block_walk
    • Updated blkls and blkcalc to use AONLY flag -- MUCH faster.
    • Fixed mactime issue where it could choose the wrong timezone that did not follow daylight savings times.
    • Fixed file size of alternate data streams in framework.
    • Incorporated memory leak fixes and raw device fixes from ADF Solutions.

    4.0.0 (Oct 2, 2012)

    This is the first non-beta release of 4.0, which added the framework and lots of other bug fixes and features. See the history notes for the beta release below for the full list of new things since 3.2.3. New things in this release from the beta include:

    • Better FAT orphan file hunting and loop detection.
    • Better error reporting in TskAuto
    • Updated HFS+ code from ATC-NY
    • New mactime -y argument to use ISO8601 format
    • Framework has new EXIF module and minor updates.
    • tsk_analyzeimg can do carving with scalplel.

    4.0.0 (beta 1: May 30, 2012)

    This release adds the new analysis framework, C++ classes, Java bindings, and other things that make it easier to build end-to-end forensics systems.

    • Framework with first set of basic modules (hash calculation, hash lookup, entropy calculation, RegRipper, ZIP file extraction, extraction via name signatures, etc.) -- Windows-only
    • Multithreaded support
    • C++ wrapper classes
    • JNI bindings and data model classes
    • All non-set times are displayed as 0 instead of 1970.
    • Support for libewf v2
    • Only first file in split or E01 needs to be specified.
    • EnCase Hashset support in hash tools.
    • New table schema for loaddb database that supports more data types (carved, local files, etc.).
    • .

    3.2.3 (Oct 7, 2011)

    This release has some minor bug fixes and features. New features include:

    • Only need to specify first E01 file in a set of files
    • Added -d option to tsk_recover
    • DOS partitions are loaded even if an extended partition fails

    3.2.2 (June 10, 2011)

    This release has some minor bug fixes. New features include:

    • ISO9660 directory processing
    • FAT deleted file detection
    • FAT deleted name cleanup

    3.2.1 (Feb 27, 2011)

    This release has some minor bug fixes. New features include:

    • SQLite DB contains a dummy entry if there is no volume system.
    • The build directory can be different from the source directory when building on Unix.
    • fls arguments
    • Compile errors with pthreads on some Linux systems
    • Different FAT directory entry checking
    • mingw compile errors
    • mactime CSV output surrounds file name in quotes

    3.2.0 (Oct 28, 2010)

    This release has new features and bug fixes. Thanks to Anthony Lawrence for help with the new features. New features include:

    • New tsk_recover tool that extracts files from an image to a local directory.
    • New tsk_loaddb tool that dumps file system metadata to SQLite database.
    • New tsk_getimes tool that collects MAC time data on all file systems (equivalent to fls -m on a series of volumes)
    • New tsk_comparedir tool that compares a directory to an image to detect rootkits.
    • New C++ TskAuto class that makes it easier to create automated tools that analyze all files.
    • Name cleanup out of libraries and into tools.
    • img_cat -e and -s flags.
    • Changed how default NTFS $Data attribute is named.
    • HFS+ Case sensitive flag in fsstat.
    • FAT performance
    • Crash fix for corrupt NTFS file
    • Adding attribute runs on fragmented files with multiple attributes of the same type.

    3.1.3 (July 2, 2010)

    This release has some bug fixes:

    3.1.2 (May 23, 2010)

    This release has some bug fixes:

    • FAT performance
    • Reading errors
    • ifind not stopping
    • mmls -B display error

    3.1.1 (Mar 31, 2010)

    This release has some bug fixes:

    3.1.0 (Jan 13, 2010)

    This long overdue release adds new features and has many bug fixes. New features include:

    First Aid Kit

    While it may seem hard to comprehend, the common First Aid Kit we take for granted in this modern-day age of advanced medicine and technology surprisingly can trace its roots to the railroad industry.

    The founder of the Johnson & Johnson Company worked with the Denver & Rio Grande to establish a new product that would greatly improve the health of workers constructing the railroad through the backcountry of Colorado.

    As it turns out the idea proved so successful that it led to an entire line of kits being sold by Johnson, not only used by railroads but also across other industries and the general public, as well.

    Throughout the early 20th century the First Aid Kit was the common method of treating less-severe injuries and led to the development of the classic Band-Aid brand of adhesive bandages.  

    It's always interesting how fate and timing can lead to new discovers and important products.

    Take, for example, the First Aid Kit. During the late 1880s Johnson & Johnson founder Robert Wood Johnson was headed west through the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to enjoy a relaxing vacation at a cattle ranch.

    To get there he took the then-Denver & Rio Grande Railway (D&RG), which was in the midst of major construction. The railroad had been established in only 1870 and its original owners envisioned a system that would connect Mexico with Denver.

    However, funding never materialized and new ownership under the notorious tycoon Jay Gould saw its future change. 

    Railroads In The 19th Century

    Gould's plan was to see the D&RG build west across the Rockies and reach the growing urban center of Salt Lake City (the system eventually grew into the Denver & Rio Grand Western that operated across Utah, Colorado, and northern New Mexico).

    During Johnson's trip over the railroad he met one of the company's surgeons, which were typically general practitioners with some surgical experience.

    As the two began talking they realized that each could help the other the surgeon needed quality, sterile equipment in which to have available for patients (a difficult proposition when most railroad construction was miles from the nearest hospital and injuries are frequent and sometimes severe) while Johnson came to understand that he had a great opportunity to develop a new product that would fill a great need. 

    After the two spoke at length Johnson drafted several letters during the spring of 1888, sending them to railroad surgeons all over the country inquiring as to what kind of medical supplies they would need in the field, if available at a moment's notice.

    Part of Johnson's letter read: "We are about to get up a railway emergency case, and wish to make one that will be of real service in the field it is intended for…

    it is our wish to get suggestions from practical railroad surgeons. We already have them from one of two of the surgeons of the largest western railroads.

    After gathering this data Johnson & Johnson began offering what was known as the "Railway Station And Factory Supply Case" in 1890, a type of First Aid Kit placed in heavy duty metal boxes that was meant for use by station agents and factory workers.

    An advertisement for the product described what it was used for (proclaiming that it could not only treat minor injuries but also "a number of serious accidents") and the supplies it held, which included everything from cotton swabs and bandages to mercury tablets and rubber adhesive plaster.

    A few years later in 1901 the company began publishing First Aid Manuals, which were included within the kits offering detailed information on how someone could properly treat a long list of different injuries while the waited for doctors to arrive.

    When introducing the manual the company had this to say about it:

    "To all who are interested in first aid work we recommend Johnson & Johnson's First Aid Manual, a volume handsomely bound in blue cloth and decorated in red and gold.

    It contains one hundred and twenty pages and over one hundred illustrations, some in two colors, describing almost every imaginable accident that can occur, and advising best treatment, with especial warning of what not to attempt. 

    This valuable work is edited by Fred B. Kilmer, Ph. C., and is contributed to by eminent surgeons who have had long experience in railroad, mining, factory, police and ambulance service, both in this country and abroad."

    By the late 19th century Johnson & Johnson was becoming a major supplier of medical kits for an increasing number of railroads (many of which had their company names/logos placed on the exterior of the metal kits).

    In 1897 it had its own exhibit at the National Association of Railway Surgeons' annual convention in Chicago and by the early 20th century First Aid Kits could be found not only in the railroad industry but also early automobiles (the Autokit) and airplanes (the Aerokit).

    As the years passed the kit became more diversified, advanced, and easier to use particularly for the general public (such as the introduction of Band-Aid brand adhesive bandages in 1920).

    It is rather amazing that an everyday product many of us now take for granted has a history that began in the railroad industry (and can still be found as common items located within locomotives, company vehicles, terminals, and virtually any place else workers are out in the field).

    Watch the video: This Is The Kit live from Old Granada Studios (August 2022).