Articles

Statute of Labourers Act

Statute of Labourers Act



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The Black Death lasted for three years in England. Historians estimate that between 30% and 50% of the English population died from the disease. This dramatic loss in population led to great changes taking place. Fields were left unsown and unreaped. Those who had not died of the plague were in danger of dying from starvation.

Food shortages also resulted in much higher prices. The peasants, needing extra money to feed their families, demanded higher wages. The landowners, desperately short of labour, often agreed to these wage demands. The landowners were worried that if they refused, their workers would run away and find an employer who was willing to pay these higher wages.

In 1348, Ralph, Earl of Stafford, and John Giffard were paying their farm labourers one pence a day. By 1350 they were forced to increase it to two pence a day. Other local landowners were paying three pence a day. John Giffard warned the Earl of Stafford that there was a danger that the serfs would leave Yalding in an effort to obtain higher wages.

Landowners like the Earl of Stafford complained to Edward III about having to pay these higher wages. The landowners were also worried about the peasants roaming the country searching for better job opportunities. In 1351, Parliament decided to pass the Statute of Labourers Act. This law made it illegal for employers to pay wages above the level offered in 1346.

Some employers, who were desperately short of workers tended to ignore the law. This was especially true of those employers living in towns. Some freemen who had skills in great demand, such as carpenters and masons, began to leave their villages. Serfs became angry when they heard of the wages that people were earning in towns. Some serfs even ran away to towns in an effort to obtain higher wages. Large numbers of serfs went to London. Most of these serfs could only find unskilled manual work. By 1360 over 40,000 people were living in London.

If the serfs were caught they were taken back to their village and punished. It was difficult for the lords of the manor to punish them too harshly. Execution, imprisonment and mutilation only made the labour shortage worse, therefore the courts were more likely to punish the serfs by a fine. Sometimes runaway serfs were branded on the forehead. The rest of the serfs' tithing group were also fined for not stopping him or her from running away.

That every man and woman of our kingdom of England... who is able bodied and below the age of sixty years, not living by trade nor carrying on a fixed craft or land of his own... shall be bound to take only the wages... that were paid in the twentieth year of our reign of King Edward III (1346).

(B) John Gower, owned a large farm in Kent (c. 1360)

The shepherd and the cowman demand more wages now than the bailiff They work little, dress and feed like their betters, and ruin stares us in the face.

(C) Henry Knighton, Chronicle (c. 1355)

The king sent notice into counties of the realm that labourers should not receive more than they had in the past... But the labourers paid no notice to the king's orders... If anyone wanted to hire them he was obliged to give them whatever they asked, and so he had a choice, either to lose his crops or satisfy their greed.

(D) William Langland, Piers Ploughman (c. 1365)

Working men curse the king and all his parliament... that makes such laws to keep the labourer down.

(E) J. F. C. Harrison, The Common People (1984)

If a serf dwelt unclaimed for a year and a day in a town, and was received into the community or guild of that town as a citizen, he was thereby made free.

1. Give as many reasons as you can why labourers demanded higher wages in 1350.

2. Give as many reasons as you can why landowners paid higher wages in 1350.

3. Read paragraphs 3 and 4 and source A. (a) What was the Statute of Labourers Act? (b) Why did Parliament pass the Statute of Labourers Act?

4. Read paragraph 5 and source E. Why did towns grow in size after 1350?

5. Read sources B, C and D. Did these men agree or disagree with the Statute of Labourers' Act?

6. Write a debate between John Gower and William Langland on the Statute of Labourers' Act.


Statute labour

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Statute labour, unpaid work on public projects that is required by law. Under the Roman Empire, certain classes of the population owed personal services to the state or to private proprietors—for example, labour in lieu of taxes for the upkeep of roads, bridges, and dikes unpaid labour by coloni (tenant farmers) and freedmen on the estates of landed proprietors and labour requisitioned for the maintenance of the postal systems of various regions. The feudal system of corvée—regular work that vassals owed their lord—developed from this Roman tradition. (The term corvée, meaning contribution, is now often used synonymously with statute labour.)

Similar labour obligations have existed in other parts of the world. In Japan the system of imposing compulsory labour on the farmers was incorporated in the tax system in the 7th century. The Egyptians used the corvée for centuries to obtain labour to remove the mud left at the bottom of the canals by the rising of the Nile River. In various times and places the corvée has been used when money payment did not provide sufficient labour for public projects. In wartime the corvée was sometimes used to augment regular troops in auxiliary capacities.

The corvée differs from forced labour in being a general and periodic short-term obligation forced labour is usually prescribed for a long or indefinite period as a method of punishment or of discrimination.


The Black Death & Homelessness

Homeless law as such has its roots in the mid-fourteenth century. Its conception lies in the Black Death and the social upheaval it left in its wake. Its birth is the Statute of Cambridge of 1388.

The aftermath of the Black Death left a severe labour shortage. Workers sensed their value and demanded (and frequently received) higher wages. The landed employers were not thrilled by this new dynamic and in response introduced a number of acts to force people to work and to keep wages at their old level. Enforcement of these reactive acts was patchy and in reality did little to stop labourers continuing to move to areas where wages were still high and the law overlooked.

One such response was the 1349 Ordinance of Labourers Act, which explicitly stated that everyone under 60 must work (or go to prison), and that wages must not be higher than the pre-plague levels. It also made it an offence (with threat of imprisonment) to give money to any able-bodied beggars who could (or should) be working instead. Uneven and heavy-handed enforcement of this and subsequent mandates became a key factor in precipitating the peasant&rsquos revolt of 1381.

1388: The Statute of Cambridge

In 1388, a piece of legislation came into force, the demands of which may sound strangely familiar. The Statute of Cambridge placed restrictions on the movement of all labourers and beggars. If they wanted help, they could receive it only from their local &lsquohundred' the locality to which they had a settled connection. Able-bodied labourers could only move to another area with explicit permission. In addition to this, relief was restricted to the 'impotent poor': people who were destitute through no fault of their own. Such persons were forbidden from moving at all and responsibility for housing was placed upon that person's local area.

It is interesting to see that right here we have the beginning of the concepts of local connection, priority need and intentionality, right back in 1388. They never go away.

Unlike other areas of law which focus on more utilitarian subjects, homeless law is an expression of very fundamental and instinctive ways of dealing with social situations do you really need my help: because it's effort and costly for me to help you do you deserve it: because I don't want to spend my effort on freeloaders and are you part of my tribe: because if you are, it might help me, if not, why should I help you?

Over the next two hundred years, various Acts were introduced, each focussing on ways to restrict the free movement of the poor and each making further distinctions between the 'deserving' and the 'undeserving' poor. The former of were to be treated charitably: though only within their local area. The latter, defined as the idle, vagabonds, beggars and vagrants, were subject to imprisonment, branding, servitude and forced labour. The giving of alms to such people was often also subject to condemnation if not outright punishment.

An example is the 1494 Vagabonds and Beggars Act, which stated: &ldquoVagabonds, idle and suspected persons shall be set in the stocks for three days and three nights and have none other sustenance but bread and water and then shall be put out of Town". Idleness, those who could work but who were deemed to be choosing not to work, was in effect, treated as a crime.


Statute of Labourers Act - History

Edward by the grace of God etc. to the reverend father in Christ William, by the same grace archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England, greeting. Because a great part of the people and especially of the, workmen and servants has now died in that pestilence, some, seeing the straights of the masters and the scarcity of servants, are not willing to serve unless they receive excessive wages, and others, rather than through labour to gain their living, prefer to beg in idleness: We, considering the grave inconveniences which might come from the lack especially of ploughmen and such labourers, have held deliberation and treaty concerning this with the prelates and nobles and other learned men sitting by us by whose consentient counsel we have seen fit to ordain: that every man and woman of our kingdom of England, of whatever condition, whether bond or free, who is able bodied and below the age of sixty years, not living from trade nor carrying on a fixed craft, nor having of his own the means of living, or land of his own with regard to the cultivation of which he might occupy himself, and not serving another,if he, considering his station, be sought after to serve in a suitable service, he shall be bound to serve him who has seen fit so to seek after him and he shall take only the wages liveries, meed or salary which, in the places where he sought to serve, were accustomed to be paid in the twentieth year of our reign of England, or the five or six common years next preceding. Provided, that in thus retaining their service, the lords are preferred before others of their bondsmen or their land tenants: so, nevertheless that such lords thus retain as many as shall be necessary and not more and if any man or woman, being thus sought after in service, will not do this, the fact being proven by two faithful men before the sheriffs or the bailiffs of our lord the king, or the constables of the town where this happens to be done,-straightway through them, or some one of them, he shall be taken and sent to the next jail, and there he shall remain in strict custody until he shall find surety for serving in the aforesaid form.

And if a reaper or mower, or other workman or servant, of whatever standing or condition he be, who is retained in the service of any one, do depart from the said service before the end of the term agreed, without permission or reasonable cause, he shall undergo the penalty of imprisonment, and let no one, under the same penalty, presume to receive or retain such a one in his service. Let no one, moreover, pay or permit to be paid to any one more wages, livery, meed or salary than was customary as has been said nor let any one in any other manner exact or receive them, under penalty of paying to him who feels himself aggrieved from this, double the sum that has thus been paid or promised, exacted or received and if such person be not willing to prosecute, then it (the sum) is to be given to any one of the people who shall prosecute in this matter and such prosecution shall take place in the court of the lord of the place where such case shall happen. And if the lords of the towns or manors presume of themselves or through their servants in any way to act contrary to this our present ordinance, then in the Counties, Wapentakes and Trithings suit shall be brought against them in the aforesaid form for the triple penalty (of the sum) thus promised or paid by them or the servants and if perchance, prior to the present ordinance any one shall have covenanted with any one thus to serve for more wages, he shall not be bound by reason of the said covenant to pay more than at another time was wont to be paid to such person nay, under the aforesaid penalty he shall not presume to pay more.

Likewise saddlers, skinners, white-tawers, cordwainers, tailors, smiths, carpenters, masons, tilers, shipwrights, carters and all other artisans and labourers shall not take for their labour and handiwork more than what, in the places where they happen to labour, was customarily paid to such persons in the said twentieth year and in the other common years preceding, as has been said and if any man take more, he shall be committed to the nearest jail in the manner aforesaid.

Likewise let butchers, fishmongers, hostlers, brewers, bakers, pullers and all other vendors of any victuals, be bound to sell such victuals for a reasonable price, having regard for the price at which such victuals are sold in the adjoining places: so that such vendors may have moderate gains, not excessive, according as the distance of the places from which such victuals are carried may seem reasonably to require and if any one sell such victuals in another manner, and be convicted of it in the aforesaid way, he shall pay the double of that which he received to the party injured, or in default of him, to another who shall be willing to prosecute in this behalf and the mayor and bailiffs of the cities and Burroughs, merchant towns and others, and of the maritime ports and places shall have power to enquire concerning each and every one who shall in any way err against this, and to levy the aforesaid penalty for the benefit of those at whose suit such delinquents shall have been convicted and in case that the same mayor and bailiffs shall neglect to carry out the aforesaid, and shall be convicted of this before justices to be assigned by us, then the same mayor and bailiffs shall be compelled through the same justices, to pay to such wronged person or to another prosecuting in his place, the treble of the thing thus sold, and nevertheless, on our part too, they shall be grievously punished.

And because many sound beggars do refuse to labour so long as they can live from begging alms, giving themselves up to idleness and sins, and, at times, to robbery and other crimes-let no one, under the aforesaid pain of imprisonment presume, under colour of piety or alms to give anything to such as can very well labour, or to cherish them in their sloth, so that thus they may be compelled to labour for the necessaries of life.

Henderson's Note

The Statute of Labourers, was issued after the great plague of the Black Death, which raged in Europe from 1347 to 1349. The same fields remained to be tilled, the same manual labour to be performed but a large proportion of the labourers had died, and the rest could command what wages they pleased. Edward III, to stop this evil, issued this rather Draconian decree.


The Sierra Leone Web

The Finance Act, 2021 [No. 1 of 2021]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxes, to give effect to the financial proposals of the Government and to provide for other related matters for the financial year 2021.

The Appropriation Act, 2021 [No. 2 of 2021]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2021 and for other related matters.

The Independent Commission for Peace and National Cohesion Act, 2021 [No. 3 of 2021]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Independent Commission for Peace and National Cohesion to confer on the Commission the power to take measures to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts to build, promote and maintain sustainable peace in Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.

The National Disaster Management Agency Act, 2020 [No. 3 of 2020]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the National Disaster Management Agency to manage disasters and similar emergencies throughout Sierra Leone, to establish offices of the Agency throughout Sierra Leone, to establish national, regional, district and chiefdom disaster management committees, to establish a National Disaster Management Fund to provide finances for the prevention and management of disasters and similar emergencies throughout Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.

The Public Order (Amendment) Act, 2020 [No. 4 of 2020]
Being an Act to amend the Public Order Act, 1965 (Act No. 46 of 1965) by repealing Part V which deals with defamatory and seditious libel.
Amends the Public Order Act, 1965.

The Independent Media Commision Act, 2020 [No. 5 of 2020]
Being an Act to provide for the continuation of the Independent Media Commission, to provide for the registration and regulation of mass media institutions in Sierra Leone licensing institutions engaged in radio, television or direct to home digital satellite service broadcasting and registration of persons and institutions engaged in the publication of newspapers, magazines in Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Independent Media Commission Act, 2000.

The Supplementary Appropriation Act, 2020 [No. 6 of 2020]
Being an Act to make revisions and supplementary provision for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2020.

The Consumer Protection Act, 2020 [No. 7 of 2020]
Being an Act to provide for the protection and promotion of the interests of consumers to provide for the establishment of the National Consumer Protection Commission and for other related matters.

The Cybercrime Act, 2020
Being an Act to provide for the prevention of the abusive use of computer systems to provide for the timely and effective collection of electronic evidence for the purpose of investigation and prosecution of cybercrime to provide for the protection of Critical National Information Infrastructure to provide for facilitation of international cooperation in dealing with cybercrime matters and to provide for other related matters.

The Appropriation Act, 2019 [No. 1 of 2019]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2019 and for other related matters.

The Anti-Money Laundering and Combating of Financing of Terrorism (Amendment) Act, 2019 [No. 3 of 2019]
Being an Act to amend the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating of Financing of Terrorism Act, 2012 and to provide for other related matters.

The Bank of Sierra Leone Act, 2019 [No. 5 of 2019]
Being an Act to continue in existence the Bank of Sierra Leone to act as banker, adviser and fiscal agent and to support the general economic policy of the Government of Sierra Leone, to provide for the maintenance of price stability and stable financial system, to provide for the formulation and implementation of monetary policy and prudence standards and to provide for other related matters.

The Banking Act, 2019 [No. 6 of 2019]
Being an Act to provide for the licensing of persons carrying on banking business, the regulation and supervision of banking activities, financial holding companies and subsidiaries, the protection of depositors and to provide for other related matters.

The National Electricity (Amendment) Act, 2018 [No. 3 of 2018]
Being an Act to amend the National Electricity Act, 2011, to make provision for the Electricity Generation and Transmission Company and Electricity Distribution and Supply Authority to enter into agreements with third parties jointly or otherwise, to provide for the establishment of collection account instruments for the Company and Authority and to provide for other related matters.

The Supplementary Appropriation Act, 2018
Being an Act to make supplementary provisions for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2018.

The Extractive Industries Revenue Act, 2018
Being an Act to provide for and coordinate various taxes and charges on extractive industries, the regulation of fiscal aspects of extractive industry agreements, and for other related matters.

The Finance (Amendment) Act, 2018 [No. 12 of 2018]
Being an Act to amend the provisions of the Finance Acts of 2008, 2017 and 2018 and for other related matters.

Supplementary Appropriation Act, 2018 [No. 13 of 2018]
Being an Act to make supplementary provisions for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2018.

The Finance Act, 2017 [No. 1 of 2017]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxes for the year 2017 and for other related matters.

The Local Government (Amendment) Act, 2017 [No. 2 of 2017]
Being an Act to amend the Local Government Act, 2004 to provide for the addition of new Districts created under the Provinces (Administrative Division) Order, 2017 and other related matters.
Amends the Local Government Act, 2004.

The Sierra Leone Water Company Act, 2017 [No. 4 of 2017]
Being an Act to provide for the continuance in existence of the Sierra Leone Water Company, to provide for a more efficient and effective management of community and rural water supply systems in specified areas, to provide for the facilitation of water related sanitation and delivery in Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Sierra Leone Water Company, 2001.

The National Water Resources Management Agency Act, 2017 [No. 5 of 2017]
Being an Act to provide for the equitable, beneficial, efficient, and sustainable use and management of the country's water resources to establish a National Water Resources Management Agency to provide a Water Basin Management Board and Water Catchment Area Management Committees for the management of the water resources and for other related matters.

The Guma Valley Water Company Act, 2017 [No. 6 of 2017]
Being an Act to provide for the continuance in existence of the Guma Valley Water Company, to provide for the sustainable supply of water for public and private purposes and to provide for other related matters.

The Sierra Leone Peace Keeping and Law Enforcement Academy Act, 2017 [No. 7 of 2017]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Sierra Leone Peace Keeping and Law Enforcement Academy and to provide for other related matters.

The Sierra Leone Meteorological Agency Act, 2017 [No. 8 of 2017]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Meteorological Agency in place of the Department of Meteorology and to provide for other related matters.

The Fiscal Management and Control Act, 2017 [No. 9 of 2017]
Being an Act to provide for direction to agencies of Government to transfer revenues or other monies received by the agencies into the Consolidated Fund and for other related matters.

The National Medical Supplies Agency Act, 2017 [No. 11 of 2017]
Being an Act to repeal and replace the National Pharmaceutical Procurement Unit Act, 2012 to establish the National Medical Supplies Agency as a public service agency responsible for the procurement, warehousing and distribution of drugs and medical supplies in a transparent and cost-effective manner for and on behalf of all public institutions throughout Sierra Leone.
Repeals the National Pharmaceutical Procurement Unit Act, 2012.

The Public Procurement Act, 2016 [No. 1 of 2016]
Being an Act to make provision for the continuance in existence of the National Public Procurement Authority, to further regulate and harmonise public procurement processes in the public service, to decentralize public procurement to procuring entities, to promote economic development, including capacity building in the field of public procurement by ensuring value for money in public expenditures and the participation in public procurement by qualified suppliers, contractors, consultants and other qualified providers of goods, works and services and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Public Procurement Act, 2004 (Act No. 14 of 2004).

The Sierra Leone Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency Act, 2016 [No. 2 of 2016]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency, to create a conducive environment within which Small and Medium Enterprises can thrive and operate, to provide for Sierra Leone's fiscal, monetary and banking policy, trade and industry, technology, marketing, infrastructural and institutional development, and for other related matters.

The Sierra Leone Local Content Agency Act, 2016 [No. 3 of 2016]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Local Content Agency to provide for the development of Sierra Leone local content in a range of sectors of the economy such as industrial, manufacturing, mining, petroleum, marine resources, agriculture, transportation, maritime, aviation, hotel and tourism, procurement of goods and services public works, construction and energy sectors to promote the ownership and control of productive sectors in the economy by citizens of Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.

The National Youth Service Act, 2016 [No. 4 of 2016]
Being an Act to establish the National Youth Service and to provide for other related matters.

The Sierra Leone Council for Postgraduate Colleges of Health Specialties Act, 2016 [No. 5 of 2016]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Council for Postgraduate Colleges of Health Specialties to supervise and coordinate the training of postgraduate health specialists and to provide for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2016 [No. 6 of 2016]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxes, duties and excise and for other related matters.

The National Social Security and Insurance Trust (Amendment) Act, 2016 [No. 7 of 2016]
Being an Act to amend the National Social Security and Insurance Trust Act, 2001 to provide for the appointment of two Deputy Director-Generals.
Amends the National Social Security and Insurance Trust Act, 2001.

The Teaching Hospitals Complex Administration Act, 2016 [No. 8 of 2016]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Teaching Hospitals Complex Administration responsible for the uniform administration of the Teaching Hospitals Complex specified in the schedule, to provide for the establishment of a Teaching Hospitals Complex Administration Board which shall be the governing body of the Administration, to provide for the discipline of trainees and staff by the Teaching Hospitals Complex and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals certain Schedules of the Hospital Boards Act, 2003 (No. 6 of 2003).

The Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority (Amendment) Act, 2016 [No. 9 of 2016]
Being an Act to amend the Sierra Leone Road Safety Act, 1996 to provide for the substitution of the words: "Traffic Warden Corps" by the words "Road Safety Corps" and for other related matters.
Amends the Sierra Leone Road Safety Authority Act, 1996 (No. 4 of 1996).

The Constitution of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 2016 [No. 10 of 2016]
Being an Act to amend the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991 to provide for the use of the existing register of voters for bye-elections where the register of voters has not been reviewed or revised in accordance with subsection (8) of section 38.
Amends the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991 (Act No. 6 of 1991).

The Local Government (Amendment) Act, 2016 [No. 11 of 2016]
Being an Act to amend the Local Government Act, 2004 to provide for the postponement of local council elections and for other related matters.
Amends the Local Government Act, 2004 [No. 1 of 2004]

The Insurance Act, 2016 [No. 12 of 2016]
Being an Act to continue in existence the Sierra Leone Insurance Commission and to regulate the business of insurance in Sierra Leone.
Repeals the Insurance Act, 2000.

The Public Financial Management Act, 2016 [No. 13 of 2016]
Being an Act to make provision for the prudent, efficient, effective, and transparent management, and use of public financial resources and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Government Budgeting and Accountability Act, 2005 (Act No. 17 of 2005).

The National Civil Registration Act, 2016 [No. 14 of 2016]
Being an Act to provide for the amendment and consolidation of the laws relating to the compulsory registration of citizens and non-citizens resident in Sierra Leone, to provide for the issuance of identity cards, to provide for the establishment of the National Civil Registration Authority responsible for the registration of births, adoptions, deaths, marriages, divorces and nullities throughout Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.

The Telecommunications (Amendment) Act, 2015 [No. 1 of 2015]
Being an Act to terminate the monopoly enjoyed by Sierra Leone Telecommunications Company in the operation of the international gateway and for other related matters.
Amends the Telecommunications Act, 2006.

The Legal Practitioners (Amendment) Act, 2015 [No. 2 of 2015]
Being an Act to amend the Legal Practitioners Act, 2000.
Amends the Legal Practitioners Act, 2000.

The National Commission for Social Action (Amendment) Act, 2015 [No. 3 of 2015]
Being an Act to amend the National Commission for Social Action Act, 2001.
Amends the National Commission for Social Action Act, 2001.

The Local Courts (Amendment) Act, 2014 [No. 1 of 2014]
Being an Act to Amend the Local Courts Act, 2011
Amends the Local Courts Act, 2011.

The Petroleum (Exploration and Production) (Amendment) Act, 2014 [No. 2 of 2014]
Being an Act to amend the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act, 2011.
Amends the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act, 2011.

The Petroleum Regulatory Act, 2014 [No. 3 of 2014]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Petroleum Regulatory Agency to license and regulate the efficient importation, storage, transportation and distribution of petroleum so as to ensure its regular availability to consumers at reasonable prices and to provide for other related matters.
Amends the Petroleum Act, Cap. 236.

The Audit Service Act, 2014 [No. 4 of 2014]
Being an Act to make provision for the continuance of the existence of the Audit Service as an autonomous body with authority to ensure greater accountability in the receipt, disbursement and control of public funds, to promote greater efficiency and effectiveness in the use of public funds and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Audit Service Act, 1998.

The Sierra Leone Correctional Service Act, 2014 [No. 5 of 2014]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Correctional Service, to introduce provisions for the organization and management of correctional centres and for other related matters.
Repeals the Prisons Act, 1960.

The Universities (Amendment) Act, 2014 [No. 6 of 2014]
Being an Act to amend the Universities Act for the purpose of establishing the Ernest Bai Koroma University of Science and Technology.
Amends the Universities Act, 2005.

The Polytechnics (Amendment) Act, 2014 [No. 7 of 2014]
Being an Act to amend the Polytechnics Act, 2001.
Amends the Polytechnics Act, 2001.

The Trade Marks Act, 2014 [No. 8 of 2014]
Being an Act to make provision for the protection, registration and regulation of trade marks, trade names, and for other related matters.
Repeals the Trade Marks Act, Cap. 244 and the Merchandise Marks Act, Cap. 245.

The Companies Act, 2014 [No. 9 of 2014]
Being an Act to amend the Companies Act, 2009.
Amends the Companies Act, 2009.

The Public Health Amendment Act, 2014 [No. 10 of 2014]
Being an Act to amend the Public Health Act, 1960.
Amends the Public Health Act, 1960.

The Public Private Partnership Act, 2014 [No. 11 of 2014]
Being an Act to promote, facilitate and streamline conclusion and implementation of public private partnership agreements by a contracting authority to establish a Public Private Partnership Unit to establish private partner selection procedures in PPP Agreements and to provide for matters incidental thereto.
Amends the National Public Procurement Act, 2004.

The Supplementary Appropriation Act, 2014 [No. 12 of 2014]
Being an Act to make supplementary provision for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2014.

The Borrowers and Lenders Act, 2014 [No. 13 of 2014]
Being an Act to provide the legal framework for credit agreements, to improve standards of disclosure of information in credit agreements, to prohibit certain practices, and promote consistency in the enforcement of credit agreements and to provide for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2015 [No. 15 of 2014]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxes for the year 2015 and for other related matters.

The Road Transport Authority (Amendment) Act, 2014 [No. 16 of 2014]
Being an Act to amend the Road Transport Authority Act, 1996.
Amends the Road Transport Authority Act, 1996.

The Sierra Leone Produce Marketing Act (Repeal) Act, 2013 [No. 1 of 2013]
Being an Act to repeal the Sierra Leone Produce Marketing Act, to dissolve the Sierra Leone Produce Marketing Board, to vest the property of the Board in the Sierra Leone Produce Marketing Company Limited and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Produce Marketing Act, Cap 229, and dissolves the Produce Marketing Board.

The Right to Access Information Act, 2013 [No. 2 of 2013]
Being an Act to provide for the disclosure of information held by public authorities or by persons providing services for them and to provide for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2013 [No. 3 of 2013]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxes for the year 2013 and for other related matters.

The Constitution of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 2013 [No. 5 of 2013]
Being an Act to amend the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991.
Amends the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991.

The Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone Agreement (Ratification) Act, 2011 [No. 1 of 2012]
Being an Act to ratify the agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone on the Establishment of Residual Court for Sierra Leone signed on the 11th August, 2010 and for other related matters.

The Anti Money Laundering and Combating of Financing of Terrorism Act, 2012 [No. 2 of 2012]
Being an Act to provide for the criminalization of money laundering and financing of terrorism, the establishment of structures to implement this and for other related matters.

The National Minerals Agency Act, 2012 [No. 3 of 2012]
Being an Act to establish the National Minerals Agency to promote the development of the minerals sector by effectively and efficiently managing the administration and regulation of mineral rights and minerals trading in Sierra Leone, including geological survey and data collection activities to establish a National Minerals Agency Board to provide technical and other support to the agency and to provide for other related matters.

The Public Elections Act, 2012 [No. 4 of 2012]
Being an Act to consolidate and amend the law on public elections, to make provision supplementary to sections 32 and 33 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone with respect to the Electoral Commission and for other related matters.

The Postal Services Regulatory Agency Act, 2012 [No. 5 of 2012]
Being an Act to establish the Postal Services Regulatory Agency as a body corporate, to license and regulate the operation of postal services throughout Sierra Leone, to establish a Postal Services Regulatory Agency Board and to provide for other related matters.

The Legal Aid Act, 2012 [No. 6 of 2012]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Legal Aid Board, to provide accessible, affordable, credible and sustainable legal aid services to indigent persons and for other related matters.

The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act, 2012 [No. 7 of 2012]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority to exercise regulatory and supervisory control for the beneficial and peaceful uses of radioactive substances and their applications, including licensing, inspection and enforcement throughout Sierra Leone to provide adequate protection to the public, workers and the environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation to provide for Sierra Leone to meet its obligations under relevant international treaties, in particular, the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Agreement between Sierra Leone and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Non-Proliferation Treaty to provide for the establishment of the Radiation Protection Board as the governing body of the Authority and for other related matters.

The National Pharmaceutical Procurement Unit Act, 2012 [No. 8 of 2012]
Being an Act to establish the National Pharmaceutical Procurement Unit as an autonomous body responsible for the procurement, storage, distribution and management of drugs and medical supplies, for and on behalf of all public health facilities throughout Sierra Leone, to establish a National Pharmaceutical Procurement Unit Board and to provide for other related matters.

The Arms and Ammunition Act, 2012 [No. 9 of 2012]
Being an Act to repeal and replace the Arms and Ammunition Act, 1955, to provide for the control of the transfer of small arms and light weapons, their ammunitions and other related materials from, to or through Sierra Leone to provide for the regulation of the manufacture of small arms and light weapons, to provide for institutional and operational capacities to regulate possession and use of small arms and light weapons within Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.

The Patents and Industrial Designs Act, 2012 [No. 10 of 2012]
Being an Act to provide for the promotion of inventive and innovative activity and facilitate the acquisition of technology through the grant and regulation of patents and industrial designs and for other related matters.

The National Protected Area Authority and Conservation Trust Fund Act, 2012 [No. 11 of 2012]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the National Protected Area Authority and Conservation Trust Fund, to promote biodiversity conservation, wildlife management, research, to provide for the sale of ecosystems services in the National Protected Areas and to provide for other related matters.

The Sexual Offences Act, 2012 [No. 12 of 2012]
Being an Act to consolidate with amendments the law relating to sexual offences.

The Sierra Leone National Carrier Agreement Ratification Act, 2012 [No. 13 of 2012]
Being an Act to ratify the Joint Venture Agreement relating to the setting up and operations of Sierra Leone National Carrier Limited to grant to Sierra Leone National Carrier Limited the status of the sole National Carrier of the Republic of Sierra Leone, to reserve to Sierra Leone National Carrier Limited the right to perform at its discretion the maritime transportation of forty per cent of the total value of cargo exported out of, and imported into, Sierra Leone, whether they be utilised or in bulk, dry or liquid, including the provision of FPSOs and FSOs.

The Geneva Conventions Act, 2012 [No. 14 of 2012]
Being an Act to give effect to the Geneva Conventions done at Geneva on 12th August 1949 and to the Protocols additional to those Conventions done at Geneva on 8th June 1977 and for other related purposes.

The Sierra Leone Red Cross Society Act, 2012 [No. 15 of 2012]
Being an Act to continue in existence the Sierra Leone Red Cross Society and to provide for other related matters.

Statutes Relating to Land Law in Sierra Leone
No. 37 (1961), No.18 (1963), Cap. 116, Cap. 117, Cap. 122, No. 15 (1961), No. 61 (1962), No. 11 (1965), No. 18 (1976), No. 29 (1972), No. 48 (1962) - Cap. 120, Cap. 66, No. 56 (1961), No. 10 (1964), Cap. 77 - PN No. 76 (1964), Cap. 77 - PN No. 75 (1964), Cap. 124, No. 19 (1946) - Cap. 81, No. 3 (2001), Decree No. 7 (1968), No. 30 (1966), Cap. 128, No. 11 (1950), Cap. 255, Cap. 256

The Sierra Leone Teaching Service Commission Act, 2011 [No. 1 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Sierra Leone Teaching Service Commission to manage the affairs of teachers in order to improve their professional status and economic wellbeing and for other related matters.
Amends the Education Act, 2004 (No. 2 of 2004)

The Public Debt Management Act, 2011 [No. 2 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide for the management of the public debt of Sierra Leone and for other related matters.

The Persons With Disability Act, 2011 [No. 3 of 2011]
Being an Act to establish the National Commission for Persons with Disability, to prohibit discrimination against persons with disability, achieve equalization of opportunities for persons with disability and to provide for other related matters.

The Credit Reference Act, 2011 [No. 4 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide a framework for the establishment of credit reference bureaus, to establish the conditions for credit reporting and to provide for other related matters.

The Sierra Leone Health Service Commission Act, 2011 [No. 5 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Sierra Leone Health Service Commission to assist the Ministry responsible for health in the delivery of affordable and improved healthcare services to the people of Sierra Leone and for other related matters.

The Government Budgeting and Accountability (Amendment) Act, 2011 [No. 6 of 2011]
Being an Act to amend the Government Budgeting and Accountability Act, 2005.

The Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act, 2011 [No. 7 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide for the management of petroleum operations, to regulate and promote petroleum exploration, development and production to regulate the licensing and participation of commercial entities in petroleum operations to provide for proper supervision of petroleum operations, to promote the participation of Sierra Leoneans in the petroleum industry to provide for efficient and safe petroleum operations to provide for an open, transparent and competitive process of licensing and for other related matters.
Amended by the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) (Amendment) Act, 2014.

The Copy Right Act, 2011 [No. 8 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide for the protection of copyright in Sierra Leone and for other related matters.

The Customs Act, 2011 [No. 9 of 2011]
Being an Act to modernise and simplify the laws relating to customs and the prohibition and control of importation and exportation of certain goods and to provide for related matters.

The Local Courts Act, 2011 [No. 10 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment and operation of Local Courts, the administration of justice in the provinces and for other related matters.
Amended by the Local Courts (Amendment) Act, 2014.

The National HIV and AIDS Commission Act, 2011 [No. 11 of 2011]
Being an Act to establish the National HIV and AIDS Commission to be making policies for the prevention, management and control of HIV and AIDS, to provide for the treatment, counseling, support and care of persons infected with, affected by or at risk of HIV and AIDS and for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2011 [No. 12 of 2011]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxation for the year 2011 and for other related matters.

The Sierra Leone Electricity and Water Regulatory Commission Act, 2011 [No. 13 of 2011]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Electricity and Water Regulatory Commission to regulate the provision of electricity and water services and to provide for other related matters.

The Anti-Money Laundering and Combating of Financing of Terrorism Act, 2011
Being an Act to provide for the criminalization of money laundering and financing of terrorism, the establishment of structures to implement this and for other related matters.

The Bank of Sierra Leone Act, 2011 [No. 15 of 2011]
Being an Act to continue in existence the Bank of Sierra Leone, and to provide for other related matters.

The National Electricity Act, 2011 [No. 16 of 2011]
Being an Act to incorporate the Electricity Generation and Transmission Company and to establish the Electricity Generation and Supply Authority and to provide for other related matters.

The Legal Practitioners (Code of Conduct) Rules, 2010
Statutory Instrument of The Legal Practitioners Act, 2000 (No. 15 of 2000)

The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation Act, 2009 [No. 1 of 2010]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation and to provide for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2010 [No. 2 of 2010]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxation for the year 2010 and for other related matters.

The Road Maintenance Fund Administration Act, 2010 [No. 3 of 2010]
Being an Act to establish a Road Maintenance Fund and an administration for financing the maintenance of the core road network and to provide for other related matters.

The Sierra Leone Roads Authority (Amendment) Act, 2010 [No. 4 of 2010]
Being an Act to amend the Sierra Leone Roads Authority Act, 1992.
Amends the Sierra Leone Roads Authority Act, 1992

Weights and Measures Act, 2010 [No. 5 of 2010]
Being an Act to repeal and replace the Weights and Measures Act, 1961, to authorise and validate the use of the metric system of measurements based on the International System of Units, to provide for the comparison and verification of weights and measures and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Weights and Measures Act, 1961 (Act No. 22 of 1961)

The Sierra Leone National Commission on Small Arms Act, 2010 [No. 6 of 2010]
Being an Act to establish a National Commission for the control of the proliferation and the illicit circulation of small arms and light weapons, their ammunitions and other related materials and to provide for other related matters.

The Public Private Partnership, 2010
Being an Act to promote and facilitate the implementation of public-private partnership transactions for infrastructure projects and social sector service projects to establish a Public-Private Partnership Council and a Public-Private Partnership Unit and to provide for matters incidental thereto.

The Registration of Customary Marriage and Divorce Act, 2009 [No. 1 of 2009]
Being an Act to provide for the registration of customary marriages and divorces and for other related matters.
Supersedes the Registration of Customary Marriage and Divorce Act, 2007 [No. 24 of 2007]

The Appropriation Act, 2009 [No. 2 of 2009]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2009.

The Payment Systems Act, 2009 [No. 3 of 2009]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment, operation, designation and supervision of electronic and other payments, clearing and settlement systems, the rights and obligations of transacting and intermediating parties and for other related matters.

The Home Mortgage Finance Act, 2009 [No. 4 of 2009]
Being an Act to regulate home mortgage financing and institutions, which carry on home mortgage financing and to provide for other related matters.

The Companies Act, 2009 [No. 5 of 2009]
Being an Act to provide for the registration and registration of companies and for other related matters.
Repeals the Companies Act [Cap. 249]. Amended by the Companies Act, 2009.

The Goods and Services Tax Act, 2009 [No. 6 of 2009]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition of a broadbased tax on the consumption of goods and services in Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Entertainment Tax Act, 1971 the Restaurant Food Act, 1989 the External Telecommunications Act, 1995 the Sales Tax Act, 1995. Amends the Development of Tourism Act, 1990.

The Bankruptcy Act, 2009 [No. 7 of 2009]
Being an Act to provide for declaring as bankrupt any person who cannot pay his debts of a specified amount and to disqualify him from holding certain elective and public offices or from practising any regulated profession and for other related matters.

The Telecommunications (Amendment) Act, 2009 [No. 8 of 2009]
Being an Act to amend the Telecommunications Act, 2006.
Amends the Telecommunications Act, 2006.

The Chieftaincy Act, 2009 [No. 10 of 2009]
Being an Act to provide for the qualification, election, powers, functions and removal of a person as Paramount Chief and for other matters connected with chieftaincy.
Amends Cap.60.

The Mines and Minerals Act, 2009 [No. 12 of 2009]
Being an Act to consolidate and amend the law on mines and minerals to promote local and foreign investment in the mining sector by introducing new and improved provisions for exploration, mine development and marketing of minerals and mineral secondary processing for the benefit of the people of Sierra Leone to ensure that management of the mineral sector is transparent and accountable in accordance with international best practice to promote improved employment practices in the mining sector to improve the welfare of communities adversely affected by mining to introduce measures to reduce the harmful effects of mining activities on the environment and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Mines and Minerals Act, 1994. Repeals the Commission for the Management of Strategic Resources, National Reconstruction and Development Act, 1999.

The National Youth Commission Act, 2009
Being an Act to establish the National Youth Commission, to empower the youth to develop their potential, creativity and skills for national development and for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2009
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxation for the year 2009 and for other related matters.

The Medical Practitioners and Dental Surgeons (Amendment) Act, 2008 [No. 1 of 2008]
Being an Act to amend the Medical Practitioners and Dental Surgeons Act, 1994.
Amends the Medical Practitioners and Dental Surgeons Act, 1997 (No. 12 of 1994)

The Civil Aviation Act, 2008 [No. 2 of 2008]

The Appropriation Act, 2008 [No. 3 of 2008]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2008.
Repeals the National Registration Act, 1974 (No. 20 of 1974).

The National Registration Act, 2008 [No. 4 of 2008]
Being an Act to provide for the compulsory registration of citizens and non citizens resident in Sierra Leone and the issue of Identity Cards to such persons and for the use of public bodies and to provide for other related matters.

The Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Act, 2008 [No. 5 of 2008]
Being an Act to amend the Merchant Shipping Act, 2003 so as to provide for the licensing of shipping agents and the regulation of their activities and for other related matters.
Amends the Merchant Shipping Act, 2003 [No. 3 of 2003]

The Bumbuna Watershed Authority and the Bumbuna Conservation Area Act, 2008 [No. 6 of 2008]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Bumbuna Watershed Management Authority, to coordinate sustainable land use and agriculture programmes in an environmentally compatible manner in the Bumbuna Watershed, to promote environmental management and biodiversity conservation in the Bumbuna Conservation Area, in order to address environmental and social needs associated with the operation of the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Dam, including, the physical protection and sustainability of the Bumbuna reservoir and to provide for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2008 [No. 7 of 2008]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxation for the year 2008 and for other related matters.
Amends the Finance Act, 2007 [No. 22 of 2007]

The National Commission for Social Action (Amendment) Act, 2008 [No. 8 of 2008]
Being an Act to amend the National Commission for Social Action Act, 2001.
Amends the National Commission for Social Action Act, 2001 (No. 13 of 2001)

The Constitution of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 2008 [No. 9 of 2008]
Being an Act to amend the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991 so as to grant the Anti-Corruption Commission the power to prosecute offences involving corruption.
Amends the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991 [No. 6 of 1991]

The National Drugs Control Act, 2008 [No. 10 of 2008]
Being an Act to establish the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency to provide for the control of and prevention of abuse of narcotic drugs to implement provisions of International Drug Control Conventions, and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Dangerous Drugs Act [Cap. 154]. Amended by No. 10 of 2008.

The Environment Agency Protection Act, 2008 [No. 11 of 2008]
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Environment Protection Agency, to provide for the effective protection of the environment and for other related matters.
Repeals the Environment Protection Act, 2000 [No. 2 of 2000]

The Anti-Corruption Act, 2008 *searchable [No. 12 of 2008]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of an independent Anti- Corruption Commission for the prevention, investigation, prosecution and punishment of corruption and corrupt practices and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Anti-Corruption Act, 2000.

The National Drugs Control (Amendment) Act, 2008 [No. 13 of 2008]
Being An Act to amend the National Drugs Control Act, 2008
Amends the National Drugs Control Act, 2008 [No. 10 of 2008]

The Diamond Cutting and Polishing Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 2 of 2007]
Being an Act to provide for the control of diamond cutting and polishing, the licensing of diamond cutters and polishers, to define the rights and duties of a licensee and for other matters connected therewith.

The Sierra Leone Investment and Export Promotion Agency Act, 2007 [No. 3 of 2007] *searchable
Being an Act to establish the Sierra Leone Investment and Export Promotion Agency to promote investments and exports and for other unrelated matters.

The Other Financial Services (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 4 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Other Financial Services Act, 2001 so as to provide for the establishment and operation of stock exchanges.
Amends the Other Financial Services Act, 2001.

The Road Traffic Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 5 of 2007]
Being an Act to consolidate, with amendments, the law relating to road traffic and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Road Traffic Act, 1964 (No. 62 of 1964).

The Refugees Protection Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 6 of 2007]
Being an Act to provide for the recognition and protection of refugees to enable effect to be given within Sierra Leone to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, done at Geneva on the 28th July, 1951, to the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees of the 31st January, 1967 and to the OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, done at Addis Ababa on the 10th September, 1969 and to provide for other related matters.

The Child Rights Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 7 of 2007]
Being an Act to provide for the promotion of the rights of the child compatible with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20th November, 1989, and its Optional Protocols of 8th September, 2000 and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, and for other related matters.
Repeals the Corporal Punishment Act. Amends the Protection of Women and Girls Act (Cap 30). Amends the Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act (Cap. 31). Amends the Children and Young Persons Act (Cap. 44). Amends the Muslim Marriage Act (Cap. 96). Amends the Armed Forces of Sierra Leone Act, 1961 (No. 34 of 1961). Amends the Interpretation Act, 1971 (No. 8 of 1971).

The Prevention and Control of HIV and AIDS Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 8 of 2007]
Being an Act to provide for the prevention, management and control of HIV and AIDS, for the treatment, counseling, support and care of persons infected with, affected by or at risk of HIV and AIDS infection and for other related matters.

The Finance Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 9 of 2007]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxes and for other related matters.
Amends the Income Tax Act, 2000 (No. 8 of 2000). Amends the Restaurant Food Tax Act, 1989 (No. 6 of 1989. Amends the External Telecommunications Act, 1995 (No. 2 of 1995). Amends the Sales Tax Act, 1995 (No. 5 of 1995). Amends the Finance Act, 2006 (No. 7 of 2006). Amends the National Revenue Authority Act, 2002 (No. 11 of 2002). Amends the Cargo (Clearing and Forwarding) Act, 1994 (No. 5 of 1994).

The Fisheries (Management and Development) (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 10 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Fisheries (Management and Development) Act, 1994.
Amends No. 19 of 1994.

The Telecommunications (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No.11 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Telecommunications Act, 2006.
Amends No. 9 of 2006.

The Pharmacy and Drugs (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 12 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Pharmacy and Drugs Act, 2001.
Amends No. 12 of 2001.

The Hospital Boards (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 13 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Hospital Boards Act, 2003.
Amends No. 6 of 2003.

The Sierra Leone Maritime Administration (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 14 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Sierra Leone Maritime Administration Act, 2000.
Amends No. 11 of 2000.

The Electoral Laws (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 15 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Electoral Laws Act, 2002.
Amends No. 2 of 2002.

General Law (Business Start-up) (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 16 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend certain enactments in order to eliminate barriers to the expeditious establishment, growth and development of business in Sierra Leone.
Amends the Exchange Control Act (Cap. 265). Amends the Legal Practitioners Act, 2000 (No. 15 of 2000). Amends the Non-Citizens (Registration, Immigration and Expulsion) Act, 1965 (No. 15 of 1965).

The Development Learning Centre Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 17 of 2007]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the Development Learning Centre to provide cost effective alternative to traditional forms of meetings, conferences and courses enabling managers, professionals and decision-makers in both the public and private sectors, as well as students and researchers to connect with their counterparts and others around the world and for other related matters.

The Registration of Business Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 18 of 2007]
Being an Act to consolidate the law on the registration of businesses and business names and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Business Names Registration Act (Cap. 257). Repeals the Business Registration Act, 1983 (No. 13 of 1983).

The Independent Media Commission (Amendment) Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 19 of 2007]
Being an Act to amend the Independent Media Commission Act, 2000.
Amends the Independent Media Commission Act, 2000 (No. 12 of 2000).

The Domestic Violence Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 20 of 2007]
Being an Act to suppress domestic violence, to provide protection for the victims of domestic violence and to provide for other related matters.

The Devolution of Estates Act, 2007 *searchable [No. 21 of 2007]
Being an Act to provide for surviving spouses, children, parents, relatives and other dependants of testate and intestate persons and to provide for other related matters.
Amends the Christian Marriage Act. Amends the Muslim Marriage Act. Amends the Administration of Estates Act.

The High Court Rules, 2007 *searchable
In exercise of the powers conferred on it by section 145 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991, the Rules of Court Committee hereby makes the following Rules.

The Financial Management Regulations, 2007
In exercise of the powers conferred upon him by section 82 of the Government Budgeting and Accountability Act, 2005, the Minister of Finance hereby makes the following Regulations.

The Courts (Amendment) Act, 2006 *searchable [No. 2 of 2006]
Being an Act to amend the Courts Act, 1965
Amends the Courts Act, 1965.

The Independent Media Commission (Amendment) Act, 2006 [No. 3 of 2006] *searchable
Being an Act to amend the Independent Media Commission Act, 2000
Amends the Independent Media Commission Act, 2000.

The National Power Authority (Amendment) Act, 2006 *searchable [No. 4 of 2006]
Being an Act to amend the National Power Authority Act, 1982.
Amends the National Power Authority Act, 1982.

The Administration of Estates (Amendment) Act, 2006 *searchable [No. 5 of 2006]
Being an Act to amend the Administration of Estates Act, Cap. 45
Amends the Administration of Estates Act.

The Income Tax (Amendment) Act, 2006 *searchable [No. 6 of 2006]
Being an Act to amend the Income Tax Act, 2000.
Amends the Income Tax Act, 2000.

The Finance Act, 2006 *searchable [No. 7 of 2006]
Being an Act to provide for the imposition and alteration of taxation and for other related matters.
Amends the Income Tax Act, 2000, the Sales Tax Act, 1995 and the Government Budgeting and Accountability Act, 2005

The Appropriation Act, 2006 *searchable [No. 8 of 2006]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2006.

The Telecommunications Act, 2006 *searchable [No. 9 of 2006]
Being an Act to establish the National Telecommunications Commission and to provide for the licensing and regulation of telecommunications operators and for the promotion of universal access to basic telecommunication services, fair competition for the benefit of investors in, and the users of telecommunication networks and services, to improve the national, regional and global integration of Sierra Leone in telecommunications and to provide for other related matters.
Amended by the Telecommunications (Amendment) Act, 2015.

The Sierra Leone Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2006 [No. 10 of 2006] *searchable
Being an Act to amend the Sierra Leone Citizenship Act, 1973 so as to grant the right of dual citizenship and citizenship by birth directly through the mother.
Superseded by Act No. 11 of 2006.

The Sierra Leone Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2006 [No. 11 of 2006] *searchable
Being an Act to amend the Sierra Leone Citizenship Act, 1973 so as to grant the right of dual citizenship and citizenship by birth directly through the mother.
Amends the Sierra Leone Citizenship Act, 1973.

The Legal Practitioners (Amendment) Act, 2005 *searchable [No. 2 of 2005]
Being an Act to amend the Legal Practitioners Act, 2000.
Amends the Legal Practitioners Act, 2000.

The Government Budgeting and Accountability Act, 2005 *searchable [No. 3 of 2005]
Being an Act to secure transparency and accountability in the appropriation, control and management of the finances and other financial resources of Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Public Budgeting and Accounting Act, 1992 [No. 1 of 1992].

The Appropriation Act, 2005 *searchable [No. 4 of 2005]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2005.

The Anti-Money Laundering Act, 2005 [No. 5 of 2005]
Being an Act to suppress money laundering and to provide for other related matters.
Superseded by Act 6 of 2005.

The Anti-Money Laundering Act, 2005 *searchable [No. 6 of 2005]
Being an Act to suppress money laundering and to provide for other related matters.

The Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2005 *searchable [No. 7 of 2005]
Being an Act to suppress the trafficking in person and to provide for other related matters.

The Income Tax (Amendment) Act, 2005 *searchable [No. 8 of 2005]
Being an Act to amend the Income Tax Act, 2000.
Amends the Income Tax Act, 2000.

The Local Government Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 1 of 2004]
Being an Act to consolidate with amendments, the law on local government, and to provide for the decentralisation and devolution of functions, powers and services to local councils and for other matters connected therewith.
Repeals the Rural Areas Act (Cap. 75), the Sherbro Urban District Council Act (Cap. 76), the District Councils Act (Cap. 79), the Bo Town Council Act (Cap. 80), the Townships Act (Cap. 295), the City Council of Freetown (Validation and Confirmation of Acts) Act, 1960, the Local Authorities (Audit) Act, 1964, the Local Authorities (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1965, the Local Authorities (Warrants for Rates) Act, 1966 and the Freetown Municipality Act, 1973. Amended by the Local Government (Amendment) Act, 2016 (No. 11 of 2016).

The Education Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 2 of 2004]
Being an Act to reform the education system, including provision for pre-primary education, technical and vocational training, adult and non-formal education and the role of universities and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Education Act, 1964.

The External Telecommunications Tax (Amendment) Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 3 of 2004]
Being an Act to amend the External Telecommunications Tax Act, 1995.
Amends the External Telecommunications Tax Act, 1995.

The Appropriation Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 5 of 2004]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2004.

The Income Tax (Amendment) Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 6 of 2004]
Being an Act to amend the Income Tax Act, 2000.
Amends the Income Tax Act, 2000.

The Mines and Minerals (Amendment) Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 7 of 2004]
Being an Act to amend the Mines and Minerals Act, 1994.
Amends the Mines and Minerals Act, 1994.

The Public Health (Amendment) Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 8 of 2004]
Being an Act to amend the Public Health Act, 1960, to upgrade and denominate fines in leones.
Amends the Public Health Act, 1960.

The Human Rights Commission of Sierra Leone Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 9 of 2004]
Being an Act to establish a commission for the protection and promotion of human rights in Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.
Amends the National Commission for Democracy and Human Rights Act, 1994.

The Investment Promotion Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 10 of 2004]
Being an Act to promote and attract private investment both domestic and foreign for the development of production and value added activities, to improve exports and provide employment opportunities, and generally to create an environment conducive to private investment and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Non-Citizens (Trade and Business) Act, 1969.

The Payroll Tax (Amendment) Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 11 of 2004]
Being an Act to amend the Pay-Roll tax Act, 1972.
Amends the Pay-Roll Tax Act, 1972.

The Entertainment Tax (Amendment) Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 12 of 2004]
Being an Act to amend the Entertainment Tax Act, 1971
Amends the Entertainment Tax Act, 1971.

The Legal Practitioners (Amendment) Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 13 of 2004]
Being an Act to amend the Legal Practitioners Act, 2000.
Amends the Legal Practitioners Act, 2000.

The Public Procurement Act, 2004 *searchable [No. 14 of 2004]
Being an Act to establish the National Public Procurement Authority, to regulate and harmonise public procurement processes in the public service, to decentralise public procurement to procuring entities, to promote economic development, including capacity building in the field of public procurement by ensuring value for money in public expenditures and the participation in public procurement by qualified suppliers, contractors, consultants and other qualified providers of goods, works and services and to provide for other related matters.
Repealed by the Public Procurement Act, 2016 (No. 1 of 2016).

The Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 2003 *searchable [No. 2 of 2003]
Being an Act to amend the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone Act, 1961.
Amends the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone Act, 1961.

The Merchant Shipping Act, 2003 *searchable [No. 3 of 2003]
Being an Act to consolidate with amendments the laws relating to the registration of ships, the regulation of shipping, the maintenance of safety at sea and the marine environment and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Merchant Shipping (Fees) Act, the Unseaworthy Ships Act, the Shipping Casualties, Wrecks and Salvage Act, the Shipwrecked Passengers Act, the African Labourers (Employment at Sea) Act, the Carriage of Deck Passengers Act, 1961, the Carriage of Deck Passengers (Amendment) Act, 1962, the Waterways Act, 1964 and the Registration of Shipping Act, 1965. Modifies the Ports Act, 1964. Amended by No. 3 of 2008.

The State Salaries, Pensions, Gratuities and Other Benefits Act, 2003 *searchable [No. 4 of 2003]
Being an Act to provide for the salaries, pensions, gratuities and other benefits of the President, Vice President, Members of Parliament, Ministers, Deputy Ministers, Judges, Chairman and members of the Electoral Commission and for other matters connected therewith.
Repeals the State Salaries, Pensions, Gratuities and Other Benefits Act, 2001.

The Road Transport Authority (Amendment) Act, 2003 [No. 5 of 2003]
Being an Act to amend the Road Transport Authority Act, 1996.
Amends the Road Transport Authority Act, 1996.

The Hospital Boards Act, 2003 [No. 6 of 2003]
Being an Act to establish Hospital Boards for the better management of specified hospitals and the provision of efficient medical care in the Western Area and all districts of Sierra Leone and to provide for other related matters.
Certain Schedules repealed by the Teaching Hospitals Complex Administration Act, 2016 (No. 8 of 2016).

National Electoral Commission Act, 2002 *searchable [No. 1 of 2002]
Being an Act to make provision supplementary to sections 32 and 33 of the Constitution with respect to the National Electoral Commission.

The Electoral Laws Act, 2002 *searchable [No. 2 of 2002]
Repeals the Franchise and Electoral Registration Act, 1995 the Electoral Provisions Act, 1995 and the Presidential Elections Act, 1995. Amended 2002 (No. 5 of 2002).

The Political Parties Act, 2002 [No. 3 of 2002]
Being an Act to establish the Political Parties Registration Commission for the registration and regulation of the conduct of political parties in accordance with sections 34 and 35 of the Constitution and to provide for related matters.
Repeals the Political Parties Act, 1995 and the Political Parties (Regulation of Conduct) Act, 1995. Amended 2002 (No. 6 of 2002).

The Sierra Rutile Agreement (Ratification) Act, 2002 [No. 4 of 2002]
Being an Act to ratify and confirm an agreement made for and on behalf of the Government of the Republic of Sierra Leone of the one part and by Sierra Rutile Limited of the other part.

The Electoral Laws (Amendment) Act, 2002 [No. 5 of 2002]
Being an Act to amend the Electoral Laws Act, 2002
Amends the Electoral Laws Act, 2002.

The Political Parties (Amendment) Act, 2002 [No. 6 of 2002]
Being an Act to amend the Political Parties Act, 2002
Amends the Political Parties Act, 2002.

The Special Court Agreement, 2002 (Ratification) Act, 2002 [No. 7 of 2002]
Being an Act to ratify an Agreement between the Government of Sierra Leone of the one part and the United Nations of the other part signed on 16th January, 2002 for the establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, to provide for the implementation of the Agreement and for other related matters. [Superseded by Act No. 9 of 2002].

The Appropriations Act, 2002 [No. 8 of 2002]
Being an Act to authorise expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2002.

The Special Court Agreement, 2002 (Ratification) Act, 2002 [No. 9 of 2002]
Being an Act to ratify an Agreement between the Government of Sierra Leone of the one part and the United Nations of the other part signed on 16th January, 2002 for the establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, to provide for the implementation of the Agreement and for other related matters.

The National Security and Central Intelligence Act, 2002 [No. 10 of 2002]
Being an Act to provide for the internal and external security of Sierra Leone and for other related matters.

The National Revenue Authority Act, 2002 [No. 11 of 2002]
Being an Act to establish the National Revenue Authority as a central body for the assessment and collection of national revenue, to provide for the administration and enforcement of specified laws, to make consequential amendments to certain laws relating to revenue and to provide for other related matters.
Amends the Income Tax Act, 2000.

The National Commission for Privatisation Act, 2002 [No. 12 of 2002]
Being an Act to establish the National Commission for Privatisation to be responsible for the privatisation and reform of public enterprises to amend certain laws relating to public enterprises and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Public Enterprises (Reform) Act, 1993 and the Public Enterprises (Reform) (Amendment) Act, 1993.

The Statistics Act, 2002 [No. 13 of 2002]
Being an Act to establish Statistics Sierra Leone as a body corporate for the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of official and other statistics and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Statistics Act, 1963.

The Census Act, 2002 [No. 14 of 2002]
Being an Act to provide for the taking of census from time to time and for other related matters.
Repeals the Census Act, 1963.

The Appropriation Act, 2001 [No. 2 of 2001]
Being an Act to provide for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2001.

The Town and Country Planning (Amendment) Act, 2001 [No. 3 of 2001]
Being an Act to amend the Town and Country Planning Act.
Amends the Town and Country Planning Act.

The National Social Security and Insurance Trust Act, 2001 [No. 4 of 2001]
Being an Act to establish the National Social Security and Insurance Trust and a social security scheme to provide retirement and other benefits to meet the contingency needs of workers and their dependants and to provide for other related matters.
Cancelled by Act. No. 5 of 2001.

The National Social Security and Insurance Trust Act, 2001 [No. 5 of 2001]
Being an Act to establish the National Social Security and Insurance Trust and a social security scheme to provide retirement and other benefits to meet the contingency needs of workers and their dependants and to provide for other related matters.
Cancels Act No. 4 of 2001. Amended by the National Social Security and Insurance (Amendment) Act, 2016 (No. 7 of 2016).

The Sierra Leone Water Company Act, 2001 [No. 6 of 2001]
Being an Act to incorporate the Sierra Leone Water Company, to provide for the supply of water in specified areas and for other related matters.

The Other Financial Services Act, 2001 [No. 7 of 2001]
Being an Act to make provision for the licensing, regulation and supervision of institutions carrying on financial activities other than banking and for related matters.
Amended by No. 4 of 2007.

The Tertiary Education Commission Act, 2001 [No. 8 of 2001]
Being an Act to establish the Tertiary Education Commission for the development of tertiary education in Sierra Leone and to provide for other matters connected therewith.

The Polytechnics Act, 2001 [No. 9 of 2001]
Being an Act to establish polytechnic institutions, to establish corresponding polytechnic councils and to make provision for the management and supervision of polytechnic institutions throughout Sierra Leone and for other matters connected therewith.
Amended by the Polytechnics (Amendment) Act, 2001.

The National Council for Technical, Vocational and Other Awards Act, 2001 [No. 10 of 2001]
Being an Act to establish the National Council for Technical, Vocational and other Academic Awards for the evaluation and certification of certain academic courses and programmes and to provide for certain related matters.

The Petroleum Exploration and Production Act, 2001 *searchable [No. 11 of 2001]
Being an Act to provide for the terms and conditions of petroleum exploration and production agreements and for other related matters.
Repeals the The Mining (Mineral Oil) Act.

The Pharmacy and Drugs Act, 2001 [No. 12 of 2001]
Being an Act to regulate the profession of pharmacy to control the supply, manufacture, storage and transportation of drugs, including nutritional agents and cosmetics and to provide for other matters related thereto.
Repeals the Pharmacy and Drugs Act, 1988, but Orders, Rules, Notices or Regulations under that Act remain in effect.

The National Commission for Social Action Act, 2001 [No. 13 of 2001]
Being an Act to establish a national commission for reconstruction and sustainable development activities and to provide for other related matters.
Amended by the National Commission for Social Action (Amendment) Act, 2015.

The Protection from Radiation Act, 2001 [No. 14 of 2001]
Being an Act to protect the public and workers from dangers resulting from the use of devices or materials capable of producing ionizing radiation and for other related purposes.

The Constitution of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 2001 *searchable [No. 15 of 2001]
Being an Act to amend the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991.
Amends the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991.

The Environment Protection Act, 2000 [No. 2 of 2000]
Being an Act to provide for the effective protection of the environment, the administrative machinery to ensure such protection and for other related matters.
Repealed by No. 11 of 2008.

The Bank of Sierra Leone Act, 2000 [No. 3 of 2000]
Being an Act to continue in existence the Bank of Sierra Leone, to ensure monetary stability and to provide for other related matters.
Repeals the Bank of Sierra Leone Act, 1963 (No. 6 of 1963).

The Truth and Reconciliation Act, 2000 *searchable [No. 4 of 2000]
Being an Act to establish the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in line with Article XXVI of the Lome Peace Agreement and to provide for related matters.

The Insurance Act, 2000 [No. 5 of 2000]
Being an Act to establish the National Insurance Commission and to regulate the business of insurance in Sierra Leone.
Repeals the Insurance Act, 1971 (No. 12 of 1971) and The Insurance Act (Commencement) Order, 1972 (P.N. 67 of 1972). Repealed by the Insurance Act, 2016 (No. 12 of 2016).

The Civil Marriage (Amendment) Act, 2000 [No. 6 of 2000]
Being an Act to amend the Civil Marriage Act.
Amends the Civil Marriage Act.

The Registration of Instruments (Amendment) Act, 2000 [No. 7 of 2000]
Being an Act to amend the Registration of Instruments Act.
Amends the Registration of Instruments Act.

The Income Tax Act, 2000 *searchable [No. 8 of 2000] Consolidated
Being an Act to consolidate, with amendments, the law relating to the taxation of incomes.
Repeals the Income Tax Act, the Surtax (Temporary Imposition) Act, 1968 (No. 14 of 1968), and the Income Tax (Clearance) Act, 1992 (No. 4 of 1992).

The Appropriation Act, 2000 [No. 9 of 2000]
Being an Act to provide for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 2000.

The Banking Act, 2000 [No. 10 of 2000]
Being an Act to provide for the licensing of persons carrying on deposit-taking business, the regulation of deposit-taking activities, the protection of depositors and to provide for related matters with a view to developing and promoting an efficient banking and financial system in Sierra Leone.
Repeals the Banking Act, 1970 (No. 11 of 1970).

The Sierra Leone Maritime Administration Act, 2000 [No. 11 of 2000]
Being an Act to establish an autonomous body for the registration of ships and other vessels, the licensing and safety of maritime personnel and for the regulation and development generally of maritime, coastal and inland water transport and for other matters connected therewith.

The Independent Media Commission Act, 2000 [No. 12 of 2000]
Being an Act to establish an autonomous body for the regulation of mass media institutions and for other matters connected therewith.
Repeals the Newspapers Act (Cap. 111). Amended by No. 16 of 2006.

The Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 2000 [No. 13 of 2000]
Being an Act to amend the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone Act, 1961.
Amends the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone Act, 1961.

State Proceedings Act, 2000 [No. 14 of 2000]
Being an Act to provide for the exercise of jurisdiction in respect of claims by or against the Government pursuant to the abolition by subsection (1) of section 133 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone of the petition of right process and for other matters connected therewith.
Repeals the Petitions of Right Act Amends the Courts Act, 1965.

The Legal Practitioners Act, 2000 [No. 15 of 2000]
Being an Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the admission, enrolment, practice and discipline of legal practitioners and to provide for matters incidental to or connected with the foregoing.
Repeals The Legal Practitioners Act (Cap. 11), The Legal Practitioners (Disciplinary Committee) Act (No. 51 of 1965), and amends The Council of Legal Education Act, 1989 (Act No. 1 of 1989). Amended by the Legal Practitioners (Amendment) Act, 2015.

The Appropriation Act, 1999 [No. 2 of 1999]
Being an Act to provide for the services of Sierra Leone for the year 1999.

The Lome Peace Agreement (Ratification) Act, 1999 [No. 3 of 1999]
Being an Act to ratify a Peace Agreement dated 7th July, 1999 and signed by the President in the name of Sierra Leone, of the one part, and the Leader of the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone, on the other part.

The Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone (Participation in Political and Democratic Process) Act, 1999 [No. 4 of 1999]
Being an Act to facilitate the transformation of the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone into a political movement and the assumption by members of the Front of any public offices assigned to them pursuant to the Lome Peace Agreement.

The Commission for the Management of Strategic Resources, National Reconstruction and development Act, 1999 [No. 5 of 1999]
Being an Act to establish a Commission to secure and monitor the legitimate exploitation of Sierra Leone's gold and diamonds, and other resources that are determined to be of strategic importance for national security and welfare as well as to cater for post-war rehabilitation and reconstruction, as provided for under Article XXVIII of the Lome Peace Agreement.
Repealed by No. 12 of 2009.

The Constitutional and Statutory Instruments Act, 1999 [No. 6 of 1999]
Being an Act to provide for the enactment and publication of subsidiary legislation by constitutional instrument or statutory instrument, as the case may be, and for other matters connected therewith.

The Audit Service Act, 1998 [No. 1 of 1998]
Being an Act to establish the Audit Service, the Audit Service Service Board, to make provision for strengthening the power of surcharge by the Auditor-General and for other matters connected with the foregoing.
Repealed by the Audit Service Act, 2014.

The Appropriate Act, 1998 [No. 2 of 1998]
Being an Act to provide for the Service of Sierra Leone for the year 1998.

The Electoral Provisions (Amendment) Act, 1998 [No. 3 of 1998]
Being an Act to amend the Electoral Provisions Act.
Amends the Electoral Provisions Act (Act No. 16 of 1995)

The Bank of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 1998 [No. 4 of 1998]
Being an Act to amend the Bank of Sierra Leone Act, 1963, to change the Bank's financial year, so as to coincide with the financial year of the Government.

The Minimum Wage Act, 1997 [No. 1 of 1997]
Being an Act to establish a national minimum wage from time to time and to amend the Income Tax Act.
Amends the Income Tax Act.

The Ombudsman Act , 1997 [No. 2 of 1997]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of the office of the Ombudsman, to define his functions and for other matters connected therewith.

Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (Establishment of Office of Principal Liaison Officer) Decree, 1997 [AFRC Decree No. 3]
Being a Decree to make provision for the establishment of the office of Principal Liaison Officer.

Administration of Sierra Leone (Armed Forces Revolutionary Council) Proclamation (Amendment) Decree, 1997 [AFRC Decree No. 4]
Being a Decree to increase the membership of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council.

The Imposition of Curfew Decree, 1997 [AFRC Decree No. 5]
Being a Decree for the imposition of a Curfew.

The AFRC (Anti-Looting) Decree, 1997 [AFRC Decree No. 6]
Being a Decree to provide for the establishment, functions, powers and duties of an Anti-Looting Squad, to make provision for the protection of persons against harassment and intimidation and for other related matters.

The Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991 (Amendment) Decree, 1997 [AFRC Decree No. 7]
Being a Decree to amend the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991 and to provide for other related matters.

The National Unity and Reconciliation Act, 1996 [No. 1 of 1996]
Being an Act to establish a Commission to promote national unity and reconciliation and for other matters connected therewith.

The National Provisional Ruling Council Decrees (Repeal and Modification) Act, 1996 [No. 3 of 1996]
Being an Act to repeal, modify and incorporate certain National Provisional Ruling Council Decrees into the Laws of Sierra Leone and for other matters connected therewith.

The Road Transport Authority Act, 1996 [No. 4 of 1996]
Being an Act to provide for the establishment of an Authority for the regulation and development of the road transport industry, including the regulation and licensing of vehicles, the licensing of drivers, the prescription of routes for passenger and goods transportation and for other matters connected with the foregoing.
Amended by the Road Transport Authority (Amendment) Act, 2014. Amended by the Sierra Leone Road Transport Authority (Amendment) Act, 2016 (No. 9 of 2016).

The Electoral Laws (Abridgement of Nomination Requirements) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 1]
Being a Decree to alleviate the qualification requirements for the nomination of candidates for the presidential and parliamentary elections of 1996.

The Standards Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 2]
Being a Decree to provide for the standardization of commodities and products, to establish the Sierra Leone Standards Bureau and the National Standards Council and to provide for other related matters.

The Franchise and Electoral Registration (Suspension of Objection Provisions) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 3]
Being a Decree to suspend certain provisions of the Franchise and Electoral Registration Decree, 1995.

The Banking (Amendment) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 4]
Being a Decree to amend the Banking Act in order to increase the minimum paid-up capital, the capital adequacy ratio and other matters related to banking.

The Presidential Elections (Amendment) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 5]
Being a Decree to amend the Presidential Elections Decree, 1995

The Indemnity and Transition Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 6]
Being a Decree to grant indemnity to members of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone, the National Provisional Ruling Council and appointees of the National Provisional Ruling Council, to revoke the Proclamation establishing the National Provisional Ruling Council and for connected purposes.

The Public Budgeting and Accounting Act (Amendment) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 7]
Being a Decree to amend the Public Budgeting and Accounting Act to re-centralise the accounting system of Government.

The National Provisional Ruling Council (Appropriation) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 8]
Being a Decree to provide for the service of Sierra Leone for the year 1996.

The Pensions and Retiring Benefits of Presidents and Vice-Presidents Act (Amendment) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 9]
Being a Decree to amend the Pensions and Retiring Benefits of Presidents and Vice-Presidents Act, 1986.

The Indemnity and Transition (Amendment) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 10]
Being a Decree to amend the Indemnity and Transition Decree, 1996.

The Maritime Zones (Establishment) Decree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 11]
Being a Decree to establish the maritime zones of Sierra Leone in conformity with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 and for connected purposes.

The National Commission for Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Degree, 1996 [NPRC Decree No. 12]
Being a Decree to establish a Commission for the planning, co-ordination and implementation of programmes for the relief, rehabilitation and reintegration of persons and communities affected by conflict and natural and man-made disasters and other emergencies.

The Adoption Act, 1989 [No. 9 of 1989]
Being an Act to provide for the adoption of children in Sierra Leone and for connected purposes.

The Pensions and Retiring Benefits of Presidents and Vice-Presidents Act, 1986 [No. 2 of 1986]
Being an Act to make provision for the grant of pension and retiring benefits to a retired President in pursuance of subsection (5) of section 27 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1978 (Act No. 12 of 1978) and also to make provision for the grant of pension and other retiring benefits to retired Vice-Presidents and for other purposes incidental thereto.
Amends the Parliamentary Pensions Act, 1980.

The Sierra Leone Housing Corporation (Amendment) Act, 1986 [No. 3 of 1986]
Being an Act to amend the Sierra Leone Housing Corporation Act, 1982 (Act No. 5 of 1982).
Disapplies the Banking Act, 1970 (Act No. 11 of 1970) to the Corporation.

The Constitution (Amendment) (No. 2) Act, 1986 [No. 4 of 1986]
Being an Act to amend the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1978 (Act No. 12 of 1978)
Repeals Section 39 of the Constitution. Principal Act repealed by the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1991.

The Electoral Provisions (Amendment) Act, 1986 [No. 5 of 1986]
Being an Act to amend the Electoral Provisions Act, 1962 (Act No. 14 of 1962)
Repeals the Electoral Provisions Act, 1962 (Amendment) Decree, 1968 (NIC Decree No. 3 of 1968, and all the particulars in the First Schedule to the Laws (Adaptation) Act, 1972 (Act No. 29 of 1972) relating to the Electoral Provisions Act, 1962 (Act No. 14 of 1962).

The West Africa Health Examination Board Act, 1986 [No. 6 of 1986]
Being an Act to ratify and give effect in Sierra Leone to a Constitution establishing the West Africa Health Examination Board.

The Architects Act, 1986 [No. 7 of 1986]
Being an Act to make provision for the registration of Architects and the regulation of the practice of Architecture in Sierra Leone and for other purposes connected therewith.

The Exploration, Mining and Processing of Mineral Oil (Amendment No. 2) Agreement (1986) (Ratification) Act, 1986 [No. 8 of 1986]
Being an Act to ratify an Agreement made between the Government of Sierra Leone of the first part and Amoco Sierra Leone Exploration Company of the second part for the exploration, mining and processing of mineral oil in Sierra Leone and for other matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

The Chiefdom Treasuries (Amendment) Act, 1975 [No. 6 of 1975]
Amends the Chiefdom Treasuries Act (Cap. 62)

The Local Courts (Amendment) Act, 1975 [No. 7 of 1975]
Amends the Local Courts Act, 1963 (No. 20 of 1963)

The Freetown Municipality (Amendment) Act, 1975 [No. 8 of 1975]
Amends the Freetown Municipality Act, 1973 (No. 20 of 1973)

The Unlawful Interference with Civil Aviation Act, 1974 [No. 1 of 1974]
Being an Act to make provisions with the view to ratification, on behalf of Sierra Leone of, and to give effect to, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on 23rd September 1971.

The Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft Act, 1974 [No. 2 of 1974]
Being an Act to make provisions with the view to ratification on behalf of Sierra Leone of, and to give effect to, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft signed at The Hague on 16th December, 1970.

The Factories Act, 1974 [No. 3 of 1974]
Being an Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to factories.
Repeals the Machinery (Safe Working and Inspection) Act.

The 1973/74 Supplementary Appropriation Act, 1974 [No. 4 of 1974]
Being an Act to make supplementary provision for the service of Sierra Leone for the year 1973/74.

The Cargo (Clearing and Forwarding) Act, 1974 [No. 5 of 1974]
Being an Act to regulate and make provision for the control of the clearing and forwarding of all sea and aircraft cargo in and out of Sierra Leone and for matters ancillary thereto.

The Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 6 of 1974]
Amends the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1971. The Principal Act was repealed by the Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1978.

The 1974/75 Appropriation Act, 1974 [No. 7 of 1974]
Being an Act to provide for the service of Sierra Leone for the year 1974/75.

The Sierra Leone Military Forces (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 8 of 1974]
Amends the Sierra Leone Military Forces Act, 1961.

The Bank of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 9 of 1974]
Amends the Bank of Sierra Leone Act, 1963 as amended by the Bank of Sierra Leone (Amendment) Act, 1970.

The Electricity Corporation (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 10 of 1974]
Amends the Electricity Corporation Act, 1964.

The Extradition Act, 1974 [No. 11 of 1974]
Being an Act to Amend and Consolidate the Law relating to the Extradition of Criminals.
Repeals The Extradition Act, 1962.

The Chiefdom Councils (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 13 of 1974]
Being an Act to amend the Chiefdom Councils Act in order to vest certain powers in Chiefdom Councils.
Amends the Chiefdom Councils Act.

The Census (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 14 of 1974]
Amends the Census Act, 1963. Principal Act repealed by the Census Act, 2002.

The Passports (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 15 of 1974]
Amends the Passports Act, 1964.

The Pay-Roll Tax (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 16 of 1974]
Amends the Pay-Roll Tax Act, 1972.

The Arms and Ammunition (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 17 of 1974]
Being an Act to provide for more drastic penalties for the unlawful possession of arms and ammunition.
Amends the Arms and Ammunition Act, 1955.

The Explosives (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 18 of 1974]
Being an Act to provide for more drastic penalties for the unlawful possession of explosives.
Amends the Explosives Act, 1955.

The Local Courts (Amendment) Act, 1974 [No. 19 of 1974]
Amends the Local Courts Act, 1963.

The Bayer Preussag Agreement 1973 (Ratification) Act, 1974 [No. 21 of 1974]
Being an Act to ratify and confirm an agreement made for and on behalf of the Government of Sierra Leone (hereinafter referred to as the Government) of the one part and the Bayer Preussag Companies (hereinafter referred to as the Companies) of the other part.

The Local Courts (Amendment) Act, 1966 [No. 28 of 1966]
Amends the Local Courts Act, 1963.

The Non-Citizens (Interests in Land) Act, 1966 [No. 30 of 1966]
Repeals the Land Protection (Development) Act, 1962.

The Non-Citizens (Registration, Immigration and Expulsion) Act, 1965 [No. 21 of 1965]
An act to consolidate and amend the Immigration and Restriction Act, the Aliens Registration Act, the Lodgers (Registration in Hotels) Act and the Expulsion Act, 1963 (Cap. 86 - Cap. 85 - Cap. 74 - Act No. 35 of 1963.)
Repeals the Lodgers (Registration in Hotels) Act [Cap. 74], the Aliens Registration Act [Cap. 85], the Immigration Restriction Act [Cap. 86] and the Expulsion Act, 1963 [No. 35 of 1963]

The Local Courts (Amendment) Act, 1965 [No. 29 of 1965]
Amends the Local Courts Act, 1963.

The Criminal Procedures Act, 1965 *searchable [No. 32 of 1965]
Being an Act to Criminal Procedure.
Repeals the Criminal Procedure Act, the Jurors and Assessors Act, subsection (3) of section 3 of the Treason and State Offences Act, 1963, section 27 of the Police Act, 1964 and section 23 of the House of Representatives Powers and Privileges Act. Amends the Prisons Act, 1961.

The Public Order Act, 1965 [No. 46 of 1965] *searchable
Being an Act to Consolidate and Amend the Law Relating to Public Order.
Amends the House of Reps Powers and Privileges Act (Cap. 4) The Sedition Act (Cap. 29) The Summary Conviction Offences Act (Cap. 37) The Processions Act (Cap. 73 ) The Trade Disputes (Declaration of Law Act) (Cap. 222, ) The Electoral Provisions Act, 1962 (No. 14 of 1962) The Police Act, 1964 (No. 7 of 1964). The Emergency Powers Act, 1962 (No. 70 of 1962), The Prevention of Crime Act (No. 24 of 1963) The Libel Act, 1792 (32 Geo. 3 c. 60) The United Kingdom Seditious Meetings Act, 1817 (57 Geo. 3 c. 19) The Criminal Libel Act, 1819 (60 Geo. 3 & 1 Geo. 4 c 8) The United Kingdom Libel Act, 1843 (6 & 7 Vic c. 96) The Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act, 1875 (38 & 39 Vic c. 86).

The Local Courts Act, 1963 [No. 20 of 1963]
an Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the Local Courts, to provide for the extension of their jurisdiction and for the hearing of appeals from such courts and to make certain incidental and consequential provisions for the administration of justice in the provinces.
Repeals the Native Courts Act (Cap. 8) Amends the Courts Act (Cap. 7). Amended 1965 (No. 29 of 1965), 1966 (No. 28 of 1966), and 1974 (No. 19 of 1974). Repealed by the Local Courts Act, 2011 (No. 10 of 2011).

Sierra Leone Independence Act, 1961 [Cap. 169]
an Act to make provision for, and in connection with, the attainment by Sierra Leone of fully responsible status within the Commonwealth.

Transfer of Defence Lands Ordinance, 1961 [No. 8 of 1961]
An ordinance to transfer to and vest in the Government of Sierra Leone all lands in the colony at present vested in or held by the Admiralty, the Air Ministry and the War Department.

Crown Lands (Amendment) Act, 1961 [No. 37 of 1961]
An Act to amend the Crown Lands Ordinance, 1960.
Amends the Crown Lands Ordinance, 1960.

The Crown Lands Ordinance, 1960 [No. 19 of 1960]
Being an Act to provide for the criminalization of money laundering and financing of terrorism, the establishment of structures to implement this and for other related matters.

© 1996-2019 Sierra Leone Web

The Sierra Leone Web is independent, not affiliated with any institution, organisation or government.


The Statute of Anne: The First Copyright Statute

In 1709 British parliament enacted the Statute of Anne short title: Copyright Act 1709 8 Anne c.21 long title: An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned. Named after Anne, Queen of Great Britain, this was the first copyright statute in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the first full-fledged copyright statute in the world. It was enacted in the regnal year 1709 to 1710, and entered into force on April 10, 1710.

The Statute of Anne granted publishers of books legal protection for 14 years with the commencement of the statute. It also granted 21 years of protection for any book already in print. At the expiration of the first 14 year copyright term the copyright re-vested in its author, if he or she were still alive, for a further term of 14 years.

"The statute determined that the 'copy' was the 'sole liberty of printing and reprinting' a book and this liberty could be infringed by any person who printed, reprinted or imported the book without consent. Those infringing copyright had to pay a fine of one penny for every sheet of the book, one moiety of which went to the author, the other to the Crown. In today&rsquos terms this was a considerable fine. In addition the book in question was to be destroyed. Leaving in place the existing system of registration, the statute specified that action against infringement could only be brought if the title had been entered in the register at the Stationers' Company before publication. The formal requirements of registration enabled users to locate the owners of copyrighted works. The requirement for copies of published books to be deposited in university libraries ensured that there was public access to copyrighted works.

"The statute was the first to recognise the legal right of authorship, but it did not provide a coherent understanding of authorship or authors' rights. While the statute established the author as legal owner, and so providing the basis for the development of authors' copyright, it also provided a 21 year copyright term to books already in print. At the end of the 21 years granted by the statute the concept of literary property was still a booksellers' rather than an author' concern, as most authors continued to sell their works outright to booksellers. Given that the statute primarily intended to encourage public learning and to regulate the book trade, any benefits for authors in the statute were incidental. Throughout the 18th century, at the encouragement of the booksellers, rather than the authors, an understanding emerged that copyright originated in author's rights to the product of his labour. Thus it was argued that the primary purpose of copyright was to protect authors' rights, not the policy goal of encouraging public learning" (Wikipedia article on Statute of Anne, accessed 08-06-2011).

In February 2014 a digital facsimile of the original UK Parliament manuscript copy of the act was available from Primary Sources on Copyright at this link.


Statute of Labourers Act - History

1857 Matrimonial Causes Act provided for divorce through the law courts. Previously divorce required a private Act of Parliament. (external link to Spartacus schoolnet)

The Lunacy (Districts Courts) Act 1858 (Act 35 of 1858).

The Indian Lunatic Asylums Act 1858 (Act 36 of 1858).

25 + 26 Victoria c. 86 1862 Chancery Lunatics Act
"Lord Westbury's Chancery Lunatics Act"
The official short title is Lunacy Regulation Act 1862
Royal Assent 7.8.1862
section 23: "The Lord Chancellor may, if he shall think fit, on a petition presented to him for that purpose, order annuities, not exceeding one half of their respective salaries, to be paid to the present medical visitors or either of them, in case they or either of them shall be desirous of retiring from the offices held by them, they having already attained the respective ages of seventy-eight and eighty-one years, and having served as such medical visitors for twenty-eight and twenty years respectively"

25 + 26 Victoria c. 111 1862 Lunacy Amendment Act
Amongst other things (see boarders) , appears to have aimed at the movement of chronic patients out of crowded asylums into workhouses to make room for others. It gave the Lunacy Commission power to order the transfer of lunatics from workhouses to asylums at the same time as giving local asylum visitors and poor law guardians the power to provide for a limited number of chronic lunatics in workhouses. (Hodgkinson, R. 1967 p.586)

1869: John Stuart Mill's The Subjection of Women published.

A series of Acts between 1870 and 1918 made education free and compulsory for children from five years old to ten, then to eleven, then to fourteen

1870 Elementary Education Act
1876 Education Act
1880 Elementary Education Act
1890 Elementary Education Act
1893 Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act
1893 Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act
1899 Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act (1893) Amendment Act
1899 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act
1914 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act
1918 Education Act

33 + 34 Victoria c.93 1870 Married Woman's Property Act An Act to amend the Law relating to the Property of Married Women Royal Assent 9.8.1870. First breach in the institution of coverture [See Blackstone ] (Coverture is the legal convention that a married woman, being assumed to be under the protection of her husband, was without legal existence). The Act gave women the right to possess their own earnings after marriage. [Note how coverture put married women in the same category respecting property as children and lunatics]

51+52 Victoria, c.41 1888 Local Government Act
County and County Borough Councils were created to take over local administration (apart from justice) from the justices of the peace . Amongst other matters, they became responsible for asylums under the lunacy and county asylums Acts. The Act introduced local democracy at county level, in that the councillors were elected by ratepayers. Unmarried women who were ratepayers were allowed to vote. The Act came into effect in 1889 (April?).

53 Victoria c. 5 1890 Lunacy Act
An Act to consolidate certain of the Enactments respecting Lunatics.
Twelve parts, containing 342 sections, plus Schedules. 172 pages.
Royal Assent 29.3.1890.
Entirely a consolidation Act, but it incorporated changes to the law introduced by the 1889 Lunatics Law Amendment Act , which I have outlined under the 1888 Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill )
Repealed by 1959 Mental Health Act

This Act was taken through Parliament following a conference (at Preston) of Lancashire County and the fifteen Lancashire County Boroughs. It defined the membership of the new Lancashire Asylums Board and the formula for levying the rate precept. It sets no significant boundaries to the Board's work beyond its responsibilities under the Lunacy and Idiots Acts. Due to Lancashire's special provision, some subsequent Public Acts (such as the Asylums Officers' Superannuation Act, 1909 and the Housing Act, 1936), required special clauses legislating for Lancashire. (Information from Bob Hayes 22.12.2003)

section 1: "A school authority..may..make such arrangements..for ascertaining (a) what children in their district, not being imbecile, and not being merely dull or backward, are defective, that is to say, what children by reason of mental or physical defect are incapable of receiving proper benefit from..instruction in the ordinary..schools

3 + 4 George 5 c.28 1913 Mental Deficiency Act "An Act to make further and better provision for the care of Feeble-minded and other Mentally Defective Persons and to amend the Lunacy Acts"
Royal Assent 15.8.1913
Repealed by 1959 Mental Health Act
Analysis based on Jones, K. 1960 pages 67-71 Section one defined grades of mental defect . section two defined who would be "subject to be dealt with". Sections 3+4 dealt with medical certificates and orders required to place in an institution or under statutory guardianship. Sections 5+6 with the duration and effect of orders. Sections 21 to 26 established the Board of Control as the central authority and defined its membership and functions. Sections 27 to 33 required all County and County Borough Councils to establish a Mental Deficiency Committee for ascertaining all the people in the area needing to be dealt with, providing and maintaining suitable institutions, providing care for mental defectives in the community. Section 61 transferred the powers and duties of the Lunacy Commission to the Board of Control.
Section 71 [Interpretation] defined a certified institution .
Section 72 [Short title, extent and commencement] Act shall not extend to Scotland and Ireland. To come into operation 1.4.1914 except as respects the Board of Control and appointment of its secretary, officers and servants, which parts came into operation 1.11.1913.

Established a common franchise for parliamentary and local government elections. The Act enabled men over 21 to vote (exceptions, see below).

Women were allowed to qualify if they were local government voters, or the wives of local government voters provided that they were over 30. (Women over the age of 30 who were householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of property with an annual rent of £5 or graduates of British universities). -

It means "occupation as owner or tenant or by virtue of an office service or employment or as a lodger in a room or rooms let unfurnished". (Fraser)

By section one: "A man shall be entitled to be registered as a parliamentary elector for a constituency (other than a university constituency) if he is of full age and not subject to any legal incapacity and has the requisite residence qualification or requisite business premises qualification."

Section 41 (Interpretation)

"A person who is an inmate or patient in any prison, lunatic asylum, workhouse, poorhouse, or any other similar institution shall not by reason thereof be treated as resident therein for any purpose of this Act."

"The following are legally incapacitated from being registered under this section: A peer of the United Kingdom, or of Scotland, or of Ireland not actually elected and serving for a constituency in Great Britain a person holding any one of certain offices an infant an alien an idiot a lunatic who is not in a lucid interval an imbecile who is not compos mentis a person convicted of treason or felony and sentenced to death or penal servitude or imprisonment, either with hard labour or exceeding twelve months. " [and a long list of people convicted of offences such as corruption]. "a conscientious objector who is incapacitated during the war and for five years thereafter by section 9 (2) of the present Act".

It was to be lawful for the Crown to make Orders in Council to transfer powers from other departments to the Minister of Health. Specified amongst these were all or any of the powers and duties under the enactments relating to lunacy and mental deficiency. By the Ministry of Health (Lunacy and Mental Deficiency, Transfer of Powers) Order, 1920 (S.R.O. 809) most of the powers of the Home Secretary in regard to lunacy and mental deficiency were transferred to the Minister of Health.

The General Nursing Councils were to compile and maintain a Register of qualified nurses, and to act as the disciplinary authority of the profession. The General Nursing Council later became responsibile for advising, inspecting, or approving training courses, schools and syllabuses for State Registered Nurses (SRN) in England and Wales.

Section 55.-(1) A local education authority shall, with the approval of the Board of Education, make arrangements for ascertaining -

(a) what children in their area, not being imbecile, and not being merely dull or backward, are defective, that is to say, what children by reason of mental or physical defect are incapable of receiving proper benefit from the instruction in the ordinary public elementary schools, but are not incapable by reason of that defect of receiving benefit from instruction in such special classes or schools as under this Part of this Act may be provided for defective children and

(b) what children in their area are epileptic children, that is to say, what children, not being idiots or imbeciles, are unfit by reason of severe epilepsy to attend the ordinary public elementary schools.
.
(3) For the purpose of ascertaining whether a child is defective or epileptic within the meaning of this section, a certificate to that effect by a duly qualified medical practitioner approved by the Board of Education shall be required in each case
.
The certificate shall be in such form as may be prescribed by the Board of Education.
.
56.-(1) Where a local education authority have ascertained that there are in their area defective or epileptic children, they may, and in the case of defective or epileptic children over the age of seven shall, make provision for the education of those children by establishing schools certified by the Board of Education for such children, or in the case of epileptic children over the age of seven or of defective children, either by establishing such schools or by either of the following means:-

(a) By classes in public elementary schools certified by the Board of Education as special classes for such children or

(b) By boarding out, subject to the regulations of the Board, any such child in a house conveniently near to a special class or school certified by the Board for such children.

1922 Infanticide Act: (amended 1938 ) created the offence of infanticide in the case of a woman who caused the death of a child under twelve months while:

Previously the possible verdicts were murder or manslaughter.

Section one substitutes new definitions for those in section one of the 1913 Act . These avoid the use of the expression "from birth or from an early age" . The new definition was: "Mental defectiveness means a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind existing before the age of 18 years, whether arising from inherent causes or induced by disease or injury."

20+21 George 5, c.23 1930 Mental Treatment Act
Royal Assent 10.7.1930
Repealed by 1959 Mental Health Act
The British Journal of Nursing , in January 1930 , summarised the bill as it left the House of Lords:

The Mental Treatment Bill

Earl Russell's Mental Treatment Bill has passed its third reading in the House of Lords.

"An Act to amend the Lunacy Acts, 1890 to 1922, and such of the provisions of the Mental Deficiency Acts, 1913 to 1927, as relate to the constitution and organisation of the work of the Board of Control, the exercise of the powers of the Board and the protection of persons putting those Acts into operation."

It includes some important provisions.

It provides for the reception of voluntary boarders, and for treatment without certification of persons temporarily incapable of volition, under certain safeguards :-

(i) In an institution provided by a local authority or
(ii) In a registered hospital Or
(iii) In any such other institution, hospital or nursing home as may be approved by the Board of Control for the reception of such temporary patients or
(iv) With the consent of the Board of Control, in single care.

Provision is made for the re-organisation of the Board of Control, which it is proposed shall consist of the chairman (who shall be a paid commissioner) and not more than four other commissioners, all of whom shall be paid commissioners.

Of the members of the Board of Control other than the chairman one at least shall be a legal commissioner, one at least shall be a medical commissioner, and one at least shall be a woman.

The members of the Board of Control shall be styled senior commissioners and shall be appointed by His Majesty on the recommendation, as regards the legal commissioners, of the Lord Chancellor and, as respects the other commissioners, on the recommendation of the Minister of Health, and shall hold office during His Majesty's pleasure.

The Board may make rules prescribing the books and records to be kept in any institution, hospital, nursing- home or house which receives any patient under this Act or any boarder under this Act or any local Act and prescribing in relation to such institutions, hospitals, homes or houses any of the other matters with respect to which rules map be made under subsection (I) of section 335 of the principal Act.

It is also provided that Asylums provided or to be provided under the Lunacy Acts, 1890 to 1922, by any local authority in England shall hereafter be called, and are in this Act referred to as, mental hospitals.

The Bill is Mental Treatment (No. 60) H.L. Price 6d.
Obtainable from His Majesty's Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, London, W.C., or through any bookseller.

7+8 George 6, c.31 1944 Education Act An Act to reform the law relating to education in England and Wales. [Royal Assent 3.8.1944]
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1944/31/pdfs/ukpga_19440031_en.pdf
Elementary schools would be replaced by infant and junior schools for primary education. Secondary education would be provided free for all children in grammar, technical or secondary modern schools. Selection for these would be by an examination taken at 11 (the "eleven-plus exam."). school leaving age to be raised to 15 (implemented 1947) and then to 16 (implemented 1973). Free school milk, subsidised meals and free medical and dental inspections would be provided for all children in state schools.

Local education authorities would ascertain all handicapped children in their area. They could provide special education for those aged 2 to 5 and would have to do so for those aged between 5 and 16 years. (Michael Warren)

Section 119:. Parts 1 and 5 to come into operation on its passing. Parts 2 and 4 to come into operation on 1.4.1945 and Part 3 to come into operation on such date after the said first day of April as His Majesty may by Order in Council appoint for the commencement of that Part.

PART 1: CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION.
Section.
1. Appointment of Minister in charge of education and establishment of Ministry of Education.
2. Transfer of property and functions to Minister and construction of Acts and documents.
3. Seal and acts of Minister.
4. Central Advisory Councils.
5. Annual report to Parliament.

PART 2: THE STATUTORY SYSTEM OF EDUCATION.

Primary and Secondary Education of pupils requiring Special Educational Treatment.

Section 33: Education of pupils requiring special educational treatment

1. The Minister shall make regulations defining the several categories of pupils requiring special educational treatment and making provision as to the special metods appropriate for the education of pupils of each category.

(2) The arrangements made by a local education authority for the special educational treatment of pupils of any such category shall, so far as is practicable, provide for the education of pupils in whose case the disability is serious in special schools appropriate for that category, but where that is impracticable, or where the disability is not serious, the arrangements may provide for the giving of such education in any school maintained or assisted by the local education authority.

(3) The Minister may by regulations make provision as to the requirements to be complied with by any school as a condition of approval of the school as a special school, and as to the withdrawal of approval from any school which fails to comply with requirements so prescribed, and, notwithstanding that the provisions of this Act requiring local education authorities to have regard to the need for securing that primary and secondary education are provided in separate schools do not apply with respect to special schools, such regulations may impose requirements as to the organisation of any special school as a primary school or as a secondary school.

Section 34. Duty of local education authorities to ascertain what children require special educational treatment.

34.-(1) It shall be the duty of every local education authority to ascertain what children in their area require special educational treatment and for the purpose of fulfilling that duty any officer of a local education authority authorised in that behalf by the authority may by notice in writing served upon the parent of any child who has attained the age of two years require him to submit the child for examination by a medical officer of the authority for advice as to whether the child is suffering from any disability of mind or body and as to the nature and extent of any such disability.
.
(4) If, after considering the advice given with respect to any child by a medical officer in consequence of any such medical examination as aforesaid and any reports or information which the local education authority are able to obtain from teachers or other persons with respect to the ability and aptitude of the child, the authority decide that the child requires special educational treatment, they shall give to the parent notice of their decision and shall provide such treatment for the child.

--(1) If it appears to the local education authority that any child in their area who has attained the age of two years is suffering from a disability of mind of such a nature or to an extent as to make him incapable of receiving education at school, it shall be the duty of the authority by notice in writing served upon the parent of the child to require the parent to submit him for examination by a medical officer of the authority.

(4) For the purposes of this section, a child shall be deemed to be suffering from a disability of mind of such a nature and extent as to make him incapable of receiving education at school not only if the nature and extent of his disability are such as to make him incapable of receiving education, but also if they are such as to make it inexpedient that he should be educated in association with other children either in his own interests or in theirs.


The Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020

The Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020 was introduced in Lok Sabha on 19 September 2020 and was passed on 22 September 2020. The Bill was passed in Rajya Sabha on 23 September 2020. It received Presidential assent on 28 September 2020.

1- Aim: The code aims to consolidate and amend the laws regulating the occupational safety, health and working conditions of the persons employed in an establishment.

2- Laws Replaced: The Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020 replaces 13 existing Laws: (a) The Factories Act, 1948 (b) The Mines Act, 1952 (c) The Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act, 1986 (d) The Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 (e) The Plantations Labour Act, 1951 (f) The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 (g) The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 (h) The Working Journalist and other News Paper Employees (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1955 (i) The Working Journalists (Fixation of rates of wages) Act, 1958 (j) The Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961 (k) The Sales Promotion Employees (Condition of Service) Act, 1976 (l) The Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966 (m) The Cine-Workers and Cinema Theatre Workers Act, 1981.

3- Factory: It is a premise where at least 20 employees work for a process with power and 40 employees work for a process without power.

4- Establishments engaged in hazardous activity: The Code will be applicable to all the establishments where any hazardous activity is carried out regardless of the number of workers.

5- Working Hours: No worker in any establishment will work for more than 8 hours a day and 6 days a week.

6- Overtime: In the case of overtime, the employee is entitled to overtime compensation (at least twice the normal wages). It will also be applicable to a small establishment having up to 10 workers.

7- Gender Discrimination: The Code prohibits discrimination based on gender and empowers the women workforce.

8- Women Employment: Women employed in all the establishments for all types of work will be able to work before 6 a.m. and beyond 7 p.m. subjected to their consent, safety, holidays and working hours.

If women are required for undertaking dangerous operations, the employer will provide adequate safeguards to them prior to their employment.

9- Rights of Transgenders: It is mandatory for all the establishments to provide washrooms, bathing places and locker rooms for male, female and transgender employees.

10- Rights of Contractual Workers: The Code prohibits contract labour in core activities except (i) the normal functioning of the establishment is such that the activity is ordinarily done through a contractor, (ii) the activities are such that they do not require full-time workers for the major portion of the day, or (iii) there is a sudden increase in the volume work in the core activity which needs to be completed in a specified time. This Code will be applicable to contract labour engaged through a contractor in the offices of the Central and State Governments (where the respective government is the principal employer).

11- Inter-state migrant workers and unorganized workers: Any person who went to another state and obtained employment there will be regarded as an inter-state migrant worker. Only those people who are earning maximum wages as notified by the Central Government will be considered as inter-state migrants.

The inter-state migrant workers are entitled to certain benefits such as (i) option to avail the benefits of the public distribution system either in the native state or the state of employment, (ii) availability of benefits available under the building and other construction cess fund in the state of employment, and (iii) insurance and provident fund benefits available to other workers in the same establishment.

The Central and State Governments will also maintain the details of the inter-state migrant workers in a portal.

12- Social Security Fund: For the welfare of unorganised workers, the Government will establish a Social Security Fund. The amount received from the composition of the offences under the Code will be credited to the Fund. It may also be funded by such other sources as may be prescribed by the Government.

13- ‘Spread over time’ introduced: On 19 November 2020, the Ministry of Labour and Employment proposed maximum 12 hours working in a day inclusive of intervals under the Occupational Safety, Health And Working Conditions Code, 2020. It also said that no worker should be required or allowed to work in an establishment for more than 48 hours in any week.

‘Spread over time’ refers to working hours plus the time for lunch and other breaks.


Involuntary Servitude, Forced Labor, And Sex Trafficking Statutes Enforced

A number of provisions in the U.S. Code target trafficking in persons, also known as involuntary servitude/slavery or forced labor. These provisions are contained in Chapter 77 of Title 18 and are sometimes referred to generally as Chapter 77 offenses. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 supplemented existing laws, primarily 18 U.S.C. § 1584 (Involuntary Servitude), and also provided new tools to combat trafficking. Key statutes are excerpted below.

Summary: Section 1581 of Title 18 makes it unlawful to hold a person in "debt servitude," or peonage, which is closely related to involuntary servitude. Section 1581 prohibits using force, the threat of force, or the threat of legal coercion to compel a person to work against his/her will. In addition, the victim's involuntary servitude must be tied to the payment of a debt.

18 U.S.C. § 1581

(a) Whoever holds or returns any person to a condition of peonage, or arrests any person with the intent of placing him in or returning him to a condition of peonage, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.

(b) Whoever obstructs, or attempts to obstruct, or in any way interferes with or prevents the enforcement of this section, shall be liable to the penalties prescribed in subsection (a).

Involuntary Servitude

Summary: Section 1584 of Title 18 makes it unlawful to hold a person in a condition of slavery, that is, a condition of compulsory service or labor against his/her will. A Section 1584 conviction requires that the victim be held against his/her will by actual force, threats of force, or threats of legal coercion. Section 1584 also prohibits compelling a person to work against his/her will by creating a "climate of fear" through the use of force, the threat of force, or the threat of legal coercion [i.e., If you don't work, I'll call the immigration officials.] which is sufficient to compel service against a person's will.

Whoever knowingly and willfully holds to involuntary servitude or sells into any condition of involuntary servitude, any other person for any term, or brings within the United States any person so held, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.

Forced Labor

Summary: Section 1589 of Title 18, which was passed as part of the TVPA, makes it unlawful to provide or obtain the labor or services of a person through one of three prohibited means. Congress enacted § 1589 in response to the Supreme Court’s decision in United States v. Kozminski, 487 U.S. 931 (1988), which interpreted § 1584 to require the use or threatened use of physical or legal coercion. Section 1589 broadens the definition of the kinds of coercion that might result in forced labor.

18 U.S.C. § 1589

Whoever knowingly provides or obtains the labor or services of a person--

(1) by threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint against, that person or another person

(2) by means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that, if the person did not perform such labor or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint or

(3) by means of the abuse or threatened abuse of law or the legal process,

shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.

Trafficking with Respect to Peonage, Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, or Forced Labor

Summary: Section 1590 makes it unlawful to recruit, harbor, transport, or broker persons for labor or services under conditions which violate any of the offenses contained in Chapter 77 of Title 18.

18 U.S.C. § 1590

Whoever knowingly recruits, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means, any person for labor or services in violation of this chapter shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.

Sex Trafficking of Children or by Force, Fraud, or Coercion

Summary: Section 1591 criminalizes sex trafficking, which is defined as causing a person to engage in a commercial sex act under certain statutorily enumerated conditions. A commercial sex act means any sex act, on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person. The specific conditions are the use of force, fraud, or coercion, or conduct involving persons under the age of 18. The punishment for conduct that either involves a victim who is under the age of 14 or involves force, fraud, or coercion is any term of years or life. The punishment for conduct that involves a victim between the ages of 14 and 18 is 40 years.

18 U.S.C. § 1591

Whoever knowingly--

(1) in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, recruits, entices, harbors, transports, provides, or obtains by any means a person or

(2) benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value, from participation in a venture which has engaged in an act described in violation of paragraph (1), knowing that force, fraud, or coercion described in subsection (c)(2) will be used to cause the person to engage in a commercial sex act, or that the person has not attained the age of 18 years and will be caused to engage in a commercial sex act, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).

Unlawful Conduct with Respect to Documents in Furtherance of Trafficking, Peonage, Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, or Forced Labor

Summary: Section 1592 makes it illegal to seize documents in order to force others to work. By expanding its coverage to false documents as well as official documents, § 1592 recognizes that victims are often immobilized by the withholding of whatever documents they possess, even if the documents are forged or fraudulent. Section 1592 expands the scope of federal trafficking statutes to reach those who prey on the vulnerabilities of immigrant victims by controlling their papers.

18 U.S.C. § 1592

(a) Whoever knowingly destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, or possesses any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person--

(1) in the course of a violation of section 1581, 1583, 1584, 1589, 1590, 1591, or 1594(a)

(2) with intent to violate section 1581, 1583, 1584, 1589, 1590, or 1591 or

(3) to prevent or restrict or to attempt to prevent or restrict, without lawful authority, the person's liberty to move or travel, in order to maintain the labor or services of that person, when the person is or has been a victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons, as defined in section 103 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.

(b) Subsection (a) does not apply to the conduct of a person who is or has been a victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons, as defined in section 103 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, if that conduct is caused by, or incident to, that trafficking.


I am an experienced information management professional based in Melbourne, Australia. I have had close to 40 years of practical working knowledge across the full spectrum of information, records and content management issues, and direct and practical experience with contemporary and emerging business and information and enterprise content management systems. My product knowledge includes SharePoint 2010/2013/Online and OneDrive (SharePoint Administrator), Office 365 (including as a Global Administrator), Yammer, Sway, TRIM Context (R6.2 & 7.1), ECM Documentum, Alfresco Share and other online systems. www.andrewwarland.com.au View All Posts

Interesting article. I enjoyed reading it. I do have one small critique. The following passage toward the beginning contains a subject-verb number agreement error:

“If anything, the origins of a set timeframe for (legal) actions can be traced to Roman Law but, again, the links with early English property law is not strong.”

Either “is” should be changed to “are,” or “links” should be changed to “link.” Thanks.