Tigress IV - History

Tigress IV  - History

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Tigress IV

(Motorized Yawl: t. 24 (gross); l. 66', b. 15'3", dr.
4'3"; s. 7 mph.; cpl. 8; a. 1 1-pdr., 1 mg.)

The fourth Tigress—a yawl built in 1906 at Bridgeport, Conn., by W. A. Robinson—was inspected by the Navy on 26 June 1917 as a potential section patrol craft in the 7th Naval District. Though never purchased by the Navy, she was chartered temporarily, armed, and manned by naval reservists. The yawl was placed in commission on 18 August 1917 and operated in the vicinity of Tampa, Fla., through the end of World War I. After hostilities ended, she was returned to her owner.

Faberge Tigress

I admit it. At least half the reason I love Fabergé Tigress is its packaging. Although Tigress’s boxes and bottles evolved with time, most of them featured tiger stripe somewhere. My favorite packaging has tiger stripe inside the box, and the stripes are edged in gold against an orange-brown background so rich it’s almost red. The Norma Desmond in me aches for a dressing room papered in it. Faux tiger fur wraps Tigress’s wooden cap — the perfect complement to its topaz-tinted juice. And the fonts! Over the years, Fabergé ran the gamut of glamorous lettering for Tigress. I like the curly font that looks like it should be advertising poodle trims.

Fabergé released it in 1938, but in my mind Tigress isn’t late 1930s or even Norma Desmond’s long lost 1920s. It’s forever 1970s, when Fabergé ruled the drugstore shelves with Brut, Babe, and a line of earth-toned nail polishes my mother loved. Tigress’s palette blended well with harvest gold appliances, too. When I imagine a woman with a long, sandy shag and bell bottomed pants emerging from a Gran Torino, she’s wearing Tigress. She and her mustachioed honey are off to share fondue and tequila sunrises while Seals and Crofts churns in the eight-track tape deck.

And what does she smell like? (Besides ethyl gasoline and Virginia Slims, that is.) She wafts a beguiling blend of amber, vanilla, wood, spice, light musk, and a touch of moss lightened by rose. A top dressing of lavender keeps Tigress from smelling too much like a scented candle. Her sillage is noticeable, but not strong enough to impregnate the shag carpeting. Toward the end of the evening, when her honey is trying to lure her to the waterbed, her Tigress is, if anything, even more captivating. The amber shimmers against the cinnamon-inflected wood.

Our 1970s woman knows good value and depends on Tigress cologne to last a full eight hours. (Also because she knows good value she says no to the waterbed. After all, at work an accountant has been giving her the eye. He has a bottle of Chivas Regal in his desk drawer and a closet full of three-piece suits — not all of them double knit polyester, either.) Given Tigress cologne’s long life, Tigress extrait must wear for weeks. Please comment if you've tried it.

Really, Tigress isn’t anything strikingly original, but that doesn’t mean it isn’t wonderful. Are barbecue potato chips original? No, but when you have a hankering for them, nothing else will do. Tigress is the same. If you find yourself hungry for a warm, woody, sweet, spicy fragrance that is easy to wear and not as cloying as it sounds, Tigress satisfies. And, of course, if you get the itch to feather your hair and craft macramé owls — well, Tigress is a must.

Over the years, Tigress changed hands many times, and the fragrance has changed, too. Tigress’s major reformulations happened in the early 1980s when Fabergé’s longtime owner sold the company, and reportedly again in the past few years when Fragrances of France bought the rights to Fabergé, Woodhue and Aphrodisia. (I haven’t smelled this latest version, but it’s easy to suss out in its “fresh” looking, non-tiger striped packaging.) This review is of a bottle I’d peg from the 1960s, judging from its packaging.

The good news is that Tigress was so popular in its Fabergé days that bottles practically clutter yard sales, thrift stores, and even antiques malls. There’s no reason a canny shopper should pay more than five dollars for a bottle of vintage Fabergé Tigress cologne. If you can't easily find a bottle of vintage Tigress, Stetson by Stetson is a good, if less spicy and less lasting, dupe. But then you'd miss out on the fabulous bottle.

Black History Highlight: Sanité Bélair, The Tigress of Haiti

Sanité Bélair (born Suzanne Bélair), was a Haitian freedom fighter and revolutionary, and one of the few female soldiers who fought during the Haitian Revolution. Sanité, whom Dessalines described as “a tigress,” is formally recognized by the Haitian Government as a National Heroine of Haiti. In 2004, she was featured on the 10 gourde banknote of the Haitian gourde for the “Bicentennial of Haiti” Commemorative series. She was the only woman depicted in the series, and the second woman ever (after Catherine Flon) to be depicted on a Haitian banknote.

It is believed that Sanité Bélair was born in 1781, in what is now known as “L’Artibonite.” Bélair was born afranchi (free person of color), which was a social class of people, who were between those who were free whites and enslaved Black people, so she was better off than an Atlantian (enslaved Black), but still under the thumb of the ruling class. The affranchis (many of whom were mixed-race) of Saint Domingues had many restrictions but were allowed to receive some education, own land and participated in some of the entertainments with whites.

Bélair became a sergeant and later a lieutenant during the conflict with French troops of the Saint-Domingue expedition. Her exact reason for joining the rebel army is never explicitly stated but it is understood that she wanted to help Haiti claim its independence. She married Brigade commander and later General Charles Bélair, nephew of Toussaint Louverture. Together, she and her husband are responsible for the uprising of almost the entire enslaved population of L’Artibonite, against their enslavers.

According to C.L.R. James in The Black Jacobins, after the death of Toussaint L’Ouverture, Dessalines invited Charles Bélair to a meeting. Sanité went with her husband. Dessaline arrested them both and sent them to the French general, Leclerc. Another account, however, states that Dessalines did not personally nab the Bélairs, but after their capture, he wrote Leclerc that he had “undeniable evidence that Charles Bélair was the leader of the latest insurrection,” and asked that “Charles and his wife be punished.” Dessalines had considered Charles Bélair his rival for leadership of the Haiti revolution.

On October 5th, 1802, they received the death sentence Sanité was sentenced to death by decapitation, and Charles by firing squad. She refused to die by decapitation and demanded to be executed just like her husband, whom she just witnessed being executed by firing squad. He had calmly asked her to die bravely.

Reportedly, she walked to her death with bravery and defiance, refusing to wear a blindfold. She shouted to the Atlantians “Viv Libète anba esklavaj!”(“Liberty, no to slavery!”), who of course were forced to watch the scene, in an attempt to dispel the revolution idea. Their deaths, however, did not deter the revolutionaries, who continued fighting.

Rare glimpse of Siberian tigress wins Wildlife Photographer of the Year 2020

Selected from over 49,000 entries from around the world, the winners of the 2020 Wildlife Photographer of the Year competition have been announced.

The embrace by Sergey Gorshkov, Russia. With an expression of sheer ecstasy, a tigress hugs an ancient Manchurian fir, rubbing her cheek against bark to leave secretions from her scent glands. She is an Amur, or Siberian, tiger, here in the Land of the Leopard National Park, in the Russian Far East. The race – now regarded as the same subspecies as the Bengal tiger – is found only in this region, with a small number surviving over the border in China and possibly a few in North Korea. Hunted almost to extinction in the past century, the population is still threatened by poaching and logging, which also impacts their prey – mostly deer and wild boar, which are also hunted. But recent (unpublished) camera‑trap surveys indicate that greater protection may have resulted in a population of possibly 500–600 – an increase that it is hoped a future formal census may confirm. Nikon Z-7 + 50mm f1.8 lens 1/200 sec at f6.3 ISO 250 Cognisys camera-trap system.

Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of Cambridge, announced Sergey Gorshkov as this year’s Wildlife Photographer of the Year for his image, The Embrace, featuring an Amur tigress hugging an ancient Manchurian fir in the Russian Far East.

Amur, or Siberian, tigers are only found in this region and it took more than 11 months for the Russian photographer to capture this moment with hidden cameras.

Chair of the judging panel, renowned writer and editor, Rosamund ‘Roz’ Kidman Cox says, ‘It’s a scene like no other. A unique glimpse of an intimate moment deep in a magical forest.

Shafts of low winter sun highlight the ancient fir tree and the coat of the huge tigress as she grips the trunk in obvious ecstasy and inhales the scent of tiger on resin, leaving her own mark as her message. It’s also a story told in glorious colour and texture of the comeback of the Amur tiger, a symbol of the Russian wilderness.’

Dr Tim Littlewood, Natural History Museum’s Executive Director of Science and jury member, says ‘Hunted to the verge of extinction in the past century, the Amur population is still threatened by poaching and logging today.

The remarkable sight of the tigress immersed in her natural environment offers us hope, as recent reports suggest numbers are growing from dedicated conservation efforts. Through the unique emotive power of photography, we are reminded of the beauty of the natural world and our shared responsibility to protect it.'

The fox that got the goose by Liina Heikkinen, Finland. It was on a summer holiday in Helsinki that Liina, then aged 13, heard about a large fox family living in the city suburbs on the island of Lehtisaari. The island has both wooded areas and fox-friendly citizens, and the foxes are relatively unafraid of humans. So Liina and her father spent one long July day, without a hide, watching the two adults and their six large cubs, which were almost the size of their parents, though slimmer and lankier. In another month, the cubs would be able to fend for themselves, but in July they were only catching insects and earthworms and a few rodents, and the parents were still bringing food for them – larger prey than the more normal voles and mice. It was 7pm when the excitement began, with the vixen’s arrival with a barnacle goose. Feathers flew as the cubs began fighting over it. Nikon D4 + 28–300mm f3.5–5.6 lens 1/125 sec at f5.6 (-0.3 e/v) ISO 1600.

Liina Heikkinen was awarded the Young Wildlife Photographer of the Year 2020 for her dramatic image, The fox that got the goose. With feathers flying, the young fox is framed as it refuses to share the barnacle goose with its five sibling rivals. Liina is the youngest of a family of wildlife photographers and has spent much of her childhood immersed in nature in her homeland of Finland.

‘A sense of furtive drama and frantic urgency enlivens this image, drawing us into the frame. The sharp focus on the fox’s face leads us straight to where the action is. A great natural history moment captured perfectly,’ says Shekar Dattatri, wildlife filmmaker and jury member.

The two Grand Title winners were selected from 100 images, with all photos from both professional and amateur photographers judged anonymously by a panel of experts for their innovation, narrative and technical ability. The competition celebrated its fifty sixth year in 2020.

The winners and finalists will be displayed at the Wildlife Photographer of the Year exhibition at the Natural History Museum, London, UK, opening on 16 October 2020, before touring international ly to venues including Australia in the new year. L

The next Wildlife Photographer of the Year competition opens for entries on Monday 19 October 2020. You can see all the other category winners below.

Eleonora's gift by Alberto Fantoni, Italy Winner 2020, Rising Star Portfolio. On the steep cliffs of a Sardinian island, a male Eleonora’s falcon brings his mate food – a small migrant, probably a lark, snatched from the sky as it flew over the Mediterranean. These falcons – medium-sized hawks – choose to breed on cliffs and small islands along the Mediterranean coast in late summer, specifically to coincide with the mass autumn migration of small birds as they cross the sea on their way to Africa. Canon EOS 7D Mark II + 500mm f4.5 lens 1/2000 sec at f7.1 (+1 e/v) ISO 800 hide. Watching you watching them by Alex Badyaev, Russia/USA Winner 2020, Urban Wildlife What a treat for a biologist: the species you want to study chooses to nest right outside your window. The Cordilleran flycatcher is declining across western North America as the changing climate causes shrinkage of the riparian habitats (river and other freshwater corridors) along its migratory routes and on its wintering grounds in Mexico. It also happens to be very specific in its choice of nest site. In Montana’s Rocky Mountain Front, it typically nests in crevices and on canyon shelves. But one pair picked this remote research cabin instead, perhaps to avoid predation. Canon EOS 5D Mark IV + 17mm f4 lens 1/40 sec at f22 ISO 1600 Canon 430EX flash remote release. Perfect balance by Andrés Luis Dominguez Blanco, Spain Winner 2020, 10 years and under. In spring, the meadows near Andrés’ home in Ubrique, in Andalucia, Spain, are bright with flowers, Andrés had walked there a few days earlier and seen European stonechats hunting for insects, but they were on the far side of the meadow. He regularly sees and hears stonechats, their calls like two stones tapping together. They are widespread throughout central and southern Europe, some – such as those around Andrés’ home – resident year round, others overwintering in northern Africa. Andrés asked his dad to drive to the meadow and park so he could use the car as a hide, kneel on the back seat and, with his lens on the window sill, shoot through the open windows. Fujifilm X-H1 + XF 100–400mm f4.5–5.6 lens 1/50 sec at f5.6 ISO 800. A tale of two wasps by Frank Deschandol, France Winner 2020, Behaviour: Invertebrates This remarkable simultaneous framing of a red-banded sand wasp (left) and a cuckoo wasp, about to enter next-door nest holes, is the result of painstaking preparation. The female Hedychrum cuckoo wasp – just 6 millimetres long (less than 1/4 inch) – parasitizes the nests of certain solitary digger wasps, laying her eggs in her hosts’ burrows so that her larvae can feast on their eggs or larvae and then the food stores. The much larger red-banded sand wasp lays her eggs in her own burrow, which she provisions with caterpillars, one for each of her young to eat when they emerge. Canon EOS 5D Mark II + 100mm f2.8 lens + close-up 250D lens + reverse-mounted lens 5 sec at f13 ISO 160 customized high-speed shutter system six wireless flashes + Fresnel lenses Yongnuo wireless flash trigger Keyence infrared sensor + Meder Reed relay + amplifier Novoflex MagicBalance + home-made tripod. Out of the blue by Gabriel Eisenband, Colombia Winner 2020, Plants and Fungi It was Ritak’Uwa Blanco, the highest peak in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, that Gabriel had set out to photograph. Pitching his tent in the valley, he climbed up to photograph the snow-capped peak against the sunset. But it was the foreground of flowers that captured his attention. Sometimes known as white arnica, the plant is a member of the daisy family found only in Colombia. It flourishes in the high-altitude, herb-rich páramo habitat of the Andes, adapted to the extreme cold with a dense covering of woolly white ‘hair’ and ‘antifreeze’ proteins in its leaves. Nikon D300s + Nikon 10–24mm f3.5 lens at 11mm 30 sec at f22 ISO 200 Gitzo tripod. Life in the balance by Jaime Culebras, Spain Winner 2020, Behaviour: Amphibians and Reptiles A Manduriacu glass frog snacks on a spider in the foothills of the Andes, northwestern Ecuador. As big consumers of invertebrates, glass frogs play a key part in maintaining balanced ecosystems. That night, Jaime’s determination to share his passion for them had driven him to walk for four hours, in heavy rain, through the forest to reach the frogs’ streams in Manduriacu Reserve. Sony ILCE-7M3 + 90mm f2.8 lens 1/100 sec at f16 ISO 320 Yongnuo flash + trigger softbox. Show Business by Kirsten Luce, USA Winner 2020, Wildlife Photojournalism: Single Image. One hand raised signalling the bear to stand, the other holding a rod, the trainer directs the ice-rink show. A wire muzzle stops the polar bear biting back, and blue safety netting surrounds the circus ring. It’s a shocking sight – not because of the massive predator towering over the petite woman in her ice-skating outfit but because of the uneven power dynamic expressed by the posture of the bear and the knowledge that it is not performing by choice. Canon EOS 5D Mark IV + 70–200mm f2.8 lens 1/500 sec at f4 ISO 2000. Etna's river of fire by Luciano Gaudenzio, Italy Winner 2020, Earth's Environments. From a great gash on the southern flank of Mount Etna, lava flows within a huge lava tunnel, re-emerging further down the slope as an incandescent red river, veiled in volcanic gases. To witness the scene, Luciano and his colleagues had trekked for several hours up the north side of the volcano, through stinking steam and over ash-covered chaotic rocky masses – the residues of past eruptions. A wall of heat marked the limit of their approach. Luciano describes the show that lay before him as hypnotic, the vent resembling ‘an open wound on the rough and wrinkled skin of a huge dinosaur’. Canon EOS 5D Mark III + 24mm f3.5 lens 1 sec at f16 ISO 320 Leofoto tripod + ball head. The pose by Mogens Trolle, Denmark Winner 2020, Animal Portraits. A young male proboscis monkey cocks his head slightly and closes his eyes. Unexpected pale blue eyelids now complement his immaculately groomed auburn hair. He poses for a few seconds as if in meditation. He is a wild visitor to the feeding station at Labuk Bay Proboscis Monkey Sanctuary in Sabah, Borneo – ‘the most laid-back character,’ says Mogens, who has been photographing primates worldwide for the past five years. Canon EOS-1D X + 500mm f4 lens 1/1000 sec at f7.1 ISO 1250 Manfrotto tripod + Benro gimbal head. Backroom business by Paul Hilton, UK/Australia Winner 2020, Wildlife Photojournalist Story Award. A young pig-tailed macaque is put on show chained to a wooden cage in Bali’s bird market, Indonesia. Its mother and the mothers of the other youngsters on show, would have been killed. Pig‑tailed macaques are energetic, social primates living in large troops in forests throughout Southeast Asia. As the forests are destroyed, they increasingly raid agricultural crops and are shot as pests. The babies are then sold into a life of solitary confinement as a pet, to a zoo or for biomedical research. Canon EOS-1Ds Mark II + 16–35mm lens at 16mm 1/10 sec at f3.2 ISO 1600. The last bite by Ripan Biswas, India Winner 2020, Wildlife Photographer of the Year Portfolio Award. These two ferocious predators don’t often meet. The giant riverine tiger beetle pursues prey on the ground, while weaver ants stay mostly in the trees – but if they do meet, both need to be wary. When an ant colony went hunting small insects on a dry river bed in Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India, a tiger beetle began to pick off some of the ants. Nikon D5200 + Tamron 90mm f2.8 lens 1/160 sec at f8 ISO 160 Viltrox ring flash. A mean mouthful by Sam Sloss, Italy/USA Winner 2020, 11-14 years old. On a diving holiday in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Sam stopped to watch the behaviour of a group of clownfishes as they swam with hectic and repeated patterns in and out and around their home, a magnificent anemone. Clownfish are highly territorial, living in small groups within an anemone. The anemone’s stinging tentacles protect the clownfish and their eggs from predators – a clownfish itself develops a special layer of mucus to avoid being stung. In return, the tenants feed on debris and parasites within the tentacles and aerate the water around them and may also deter anemone‑eating fish. Nikon D300 + 105mm f2.8 lens 1/250 sec at f18 ISO 200 Nauticam Housing + two INON Z-240 strobes. When mother says run by Shanyuan Li, China Winner 2020, Behaviour: Mammals This rare picture of a family of Pallas’s cats, or manuls, on the remote steppes of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau in northwest China is the result of six years’ work at high altitude. These small cats are normally solitary, hard to find and mostly active at dawn and dusk. Through long-term observation, Shanyuan knew his best chance to photograph them in daylight would be in August and September, when the kittens were a few months old and the mothers bolder and intent on caring for them. He tracked the family as they descended to about 3,800 metres (12,500 feet) in search of their favourite food – pikas (small, rabbit‑like mammals) – and set up his hide on the hill opposite their lair, an old marmot hole. Canon EOS-1D X Mark II + 800mm f5.6 lens 1/1250 sec at f11 ISO 640 Sirui tripod. The golden moment by Songda Cai, China Winner 2020, Under Water A tiny diamondback squid paralarva flits below in the blackness, stops hunting for an instant when caught in the light beam, gilds itself in shimmering gold and then moves gracefully out of the light. The beam was Songda’s, on a night‑dive over deep water, far off the coast of Anilao, in the Philippines. He never knows what he might encounter in this dark, silent world. All sorts of larvae and other tiny animals – zooplankton – migrate up from the depths under cover of night to feed on surface-dwelling phytoplankton, and after them come other predators. Nikon D850 + 60mm f2.8 lens 1/200 sec at f20 ISO 500 Seacam housing Seaflash 150D strobes Scubalamp lights.

Ten Medieval Warrior Women

While Joan of Arc is well-known as a woman who was involved in medieval warfare, there are many more examples of women who took up arms or commanded armies during the Middle Ages. Here is our list of ten medieval warrior women.

1. Joan of Arc

While her military career only lasted slightly longer than a year, Joan of Arc is one of the most well-known figures from the Middle Ages. A teenaged-peasant from north-east France, Joan began receiving visions from saints telling her to drive the English forces out of her country. In 1429, she was able to convince the French ruler Charles VII to give her an army to relieve the besieged city of Orleans, which Joan was able to do just after a few days. For the next few months Joan was able to lead French forces to several victories against the English, allowing Charles to be crowned at Reims. Her military career had a setback when she was unable to retake the city of Paris, and in May of 1430 she was captured during a small skirmish. A year later she would be tried and executed for heresy. Since then she has become a national symbol of France and canonized as a saint.

2. Matilda of Canossa

Known as ‘The Great Countess’, Matilda has perhaps the best record of any female military commander in the Middle Ages. As the Countess of Tuscany, she was a major force in Italy for over 40 years. As a supporter of the Papacy Matilda’s main opponent was Emperor Henry IV, and she commanded numerous campaigns against him. One of the writers from the time said of her:

Brave and ever watchful, she often tormented the perverse
Mightily she undertook terribly violent battles with the king
For she endured steadfastly through thirty years
Fighting day and night to quell the tempests of the kingdom.

3. Isabella of Castile

Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile made an effective team when it came to military matters. While Ferdinand did most of the commanding on the field, she oversaw the military administration. If necessary she would make an appearance among her troops – such as during the latter stages of a siege when she would arrive in full armour and rally her troops. At times she even took personal command of armies in the field and led successful sieges.

4. Caterina Sforza

The Countess of Forli once said “if I must lose because I am a woman, I want to lose like a man.” A bold Italian noblewoman, Caterina was heavily involved in the papal politics of the late 15th century. Although her defence against a Venetian attack earned her the nickname ‘The Tiger of Forli’, in 1499 Pope Alexander VI sent his son Cesare Borgia to conquer her lands. Although she led a stout defence of Forli, she was eventually captured and taken back to Rome as a trophy.

The Danish history Saxo Grammaticus included an account of how Ragnar Lodbrok went to war with the King of Sweden. During the battle a woman named Lagertha distinguished herself. Saxo Grammaticus relates that she was “a skilled Amazon, who, though a maiden, had the courage of a man, and fought in front among the bravest with her hair loose over her shoulders. All-marveled at her matchless deeds, for her locks flying down her back betrayed that she was a woman.” Ragnar was so impressed with her prowess that he married her, and in later tales she also fought in his battles. While some historians doubt the historical accuracy of this tale, there are are several accounts from the Viking Age of shieldmaidens and women warriors.

6. Khawlah bint al-Azwar

The sister of one of the leading Muslim commanders during the early Islamic conquests of the Middle East in the 7th century, on a few occasions she took up arms herself during battles, including leading a troop of women against the Byzantine army at the Battle of Yarmuk in 636.

7. Sichelgaita of Salerno

The wife of the Norman leader Robert Guiscard, Sichelgaita is best known for her role in rallying the fleeing Norman soldiers at the Battle of Dyrrachium in 1081. According to the Byzantine chronicler Anna Comnena, she confronted her fellow soldiers and urged them to stop fleeing. “As they continued to run, she grasped a long spear and charged at full gallop against them. It brought them to their senses and they went back to fight.” Another chronicler adds that she was wounded by an arrow during the battle, but the Normans were able to defeat the Byzantines. A further look at her career finds that she took part in and commanded sieges and was more involved in her husband’s military activities than was previously known.

8. Jeanne Hachette

In 1472 Charles the Bold led his Burgundian soldiers against the French town of Beauvais. When they made an attack against the town’s walls, the citizens of Beauvais, including the women fought them off in hand-to-hand combat. One lady, Jeanne Laisne, grabbed a small axe and fought off the Burgundian standard-bearer, which rallied the defenders. She was renamed Jeanne Hachette by her fellow citizens in honour of the victory.

9. Isabel of Conches

The Anglo-Norman historian Orderic Vitalis noted a feud between Isabel of Conches, wife of Ralph of Tosny and Helwise, Countess of Evreux, in the 1090s. He writes “Both the ladies who stirred up such bitter wars were persuasive, high-spirited, and beautiful they dominated their husbands an oppressed their vassals, whom they terrorized in various ways. But they were very different in character. Helwise on the one hand was clever and persuasive, but cruel and grasping whereas Isabel was generous, daring, and gay, and therefore lovable and estimable to those around her. In war she rode armed as a knight among the knights and she showed no less courage among the knights in hauberks and sergeants-at-arms than did the maid Camilla, the pride of Italy, among the troops of Turnus. She deserved comparison with Lampeto and Marpesia, Hippolyta and Penthesilea and the other warlike Amazon queens…”

10. Joanna of Flanders

Joanna was known for her defence of the town of Hennebont in Brittany, against Charles, Count of Blois. After he had captured and imprisoned Joanna’s husband, he marched against the town in 1342. Joanna led the defence of the town. The chronicler Jean le Bel writes that “the brave countess was armed and armored and rode on a large horse from street to street, rallying everyone and summoning them to join the defense. She had asked the women of the town, the nobles as well as the others, to bring stones to the walls and to throw these on the attackers, as well as pots filled with lime.” The key moment of the siege was when she led 300 men out of Hennebont and burned down the enemy camp. She gained the nickname ‘Fiery Joanna’ for this feat. Joanna was able to hold off the besiegers until English troops arrived and forced the Count of Blois to retreat. – read more about her in

‘The boldest and most remarkable feat ever performed by a woman’: Fiery Joanna and the Siege of Hennebont

There are many women who could be included on this list, including ones who defended castles or commanded forces. Some accounts, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine leading a troop of women during the Second Crusade, have been shown to be untrue or gross exaggerations made by medieval writers. Other tales, such as the story of Onorata Rodiani, who said to have disguised herself as a man and joined up with a mercenary company in the 15th century, are also hard to verify. There are also many accounts of unnamed women who took part in battles or sieges, such as the woman of Toulouse, who operated a siege machine that killed Simon de Montfort while he tried to attack the city during the Albigensian Crusade. Finally, one can mention the story of Big Margot, a lady who was the standard bearer for a Flemish army – she would be killed at the battle of Westrozebeke in 1382.

Some sources about women in medieval warfare:

Mary Elizabeth Ailes, “Camp Followers, Sutlers, and Soldiers’ Wives: Women in Early Modern Armies (c. 1450–c. 1650)”, A Companion to Women’s Military History (Brill, 2012)

Val Eads, “Sichelgaita of Salerno: Amazon or Trophy Wife? Journal of Medieval Military History, Vol.3 (2005)

Valerie Eads, “Means, Motive, Opportunity: Medieval Women and the Recourse to Arms” -Paper presented at The Twentieth Barnard Medieval & Renaissance Conference, “War and Peace in the Middle Ages & Renaissance,” December 2, 2006

Leszek Gardeła, “‘Warrior-women’ in Viking Age Scandinavia? A preliminary archaeological study, ” Analecta Archaeologica Ressoviensia: Funerary Archaeology (Archeologia Funeralna), Volume 8, Rzeszów (2013)

David J. Hay, The Military Leadership of Matilda of Canossa, 1046-1115 (Manchester University Press, 2010)

Elizabeth Lev, The Tigress of Forli: Renaissance Italy’s Most Courageous and Notorious Countess, Caterina Riario Sforza de’ Medici (Mariner Books, 2012)

Christoph T. Maier, “The Roles of Women in the Crusade Movement: A Survey.” Journal of Medieval History, Vol. 30, no. 1 (2004)

J. F. Verbruggen, “Women in Medieval Armies.” Journal of Medieval Military History, Vol. 4 (2006)

Edward’s struggle with Warwick

Edward at this time showed little promise. He owed his throne largely to his cousin Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, who was in the first years of Edward’s reign the most powerful man in England. Warwick crushed Lancastrian resistance in the far north of England between 1462 and 1464 and conducted England’s diplomacy. Edward, however, was winning many friends (especially in London) by his comeliness and charm and was determined to assert his independence. On May 1, 1464, he secretly married a young widow, Elizabeth Woodville, of no great rank, offending Warwick and other Yorkist nobles who were planning to marry him to a French princess. By showering favours on Elizabeth’s two sons by her first husband and on her five brothers and her seven sisters, Edward began to build up a group of magnates who would be a counterpoise to the Nevilles. Gradually Warwick lost all influence at court, and when he was negotiating an alliance with France, Edward humiliated him by revealing that he had already concluded an alliance (1467) with France’s enemy Burgundy. Edward’s sister Margaret was married in July 1468 with great pomp to Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and the brothers-in-law planned a joint invasion of France.

Warwick, in a countermove encouraged by Louis XI of France, seized Edward and made him a prisoner in July 1469. But Edward had by now too many supporters (especially in London) for him to be kept under tutelage for long. He regained his freedom in October Warwick fled to France, allied himself with the Lancastrians and with Louis, and invaded England in September 1470.

Surprised, Edward fled with a few faithful supporters to the Netherlands in October. Aided by Charles of Burgundy, he and his brother, Richard, duke of Gloucester, returned to England in March 1471. Taking London, he defeated and killed Warwick at Barnet on April 14. On the same day, Queen Margaret (Henry VI’s wife) belatedly landed in Dorset from France with her only son, Edward, prince of Wales. Her advisers hoped to gain Lancastrian support in Wales, and it became a race for time between Edward IV’s forces and hers as to whether she could get there before he overtook her. At Tewkesbury, after some remarkable forced marches (one of more than 40 miles at a stretch), he caught up with her army on May 4. There he won another crushing victory. Nearly all the remaining Lancastrian leaders were killed on the field or executed afterward, and, after murdering Henry (May 21–22) and repelling an attack on London, Edward was secure for the remainder of his life.

The Greatest Maritime Disaster in U.S. History

The boiler explosion of the Mississippi River Steamboat Sultana on April 27, 1865 caused one of the 100 deadliest fires ever and claimed more lives than the Titanic. The disaster was overlooked at the time because it occurred just weeks after Lee&rsquos surrender and President Lincoln&rsquos assassination, with most news outlets covering the end of the Civil War, Lincoln&rsquos funeral train, and the hunt for John Wilkes Booth. Also, since the steamship was carrying Union POWs returning home to Midwestern states, the Army and East Coast newspapers were not eager to publicize it.

The loss of an estimated 1500&ndash1900 lives on the Sultana created public demand for safer and stronger boilers, and new legislation efforts began. Those involved in steam power also noticed that huge loss of life due to common boiler explosions, happening as often as every four days in the 1850s, could be prevented if safety improvements were made as larger boilers were being built. The first insurance companies were formed, offering inspections and financial incentives for participating.

A Combination of Causes

The two year-old Sultana was a 260-foot-long, wooden-hulled, twin side-wheel steamer with high-pressure tubular boilers powering two steam engines. The four interconnected boilers were each 18 feet long and 46 inches in diameter, lighter and smaller, but producing more steam than typical steamship boilers of the time. The ship carried the latest safety equipment, including a safety pressure gauge that opened when boiler pressure reached 150 psi.

The ship left New Orleans and traveled for 48 hours to Vicksburg with one boiler bulging and leaking. The captain was short of funds, and rather than waiting three to four days for a replacement boiler, its leak was repaired hastily and poorly, riveting a replacement patch thinner than the original boiler wall.

The privately owned Sultana had been contracted by the government to transport recently released POWs up the Mississippi, and high prices were paid for each officer and enlisted man. The captain, eager to carry this valuable cargo, allowed as many as 2300 soldiers aboard in Vicksburg, more than five times its passenger capacity of 376. They departed hastily and top-heavy. The ship could handle the weight, but not with this distribution, and not with a leaky boiler.

Two days later, after a stop in Memphis and another leak repair, the boiler finally gave way while struggling against an abnormally strong current. Three of the ship&rsquos four boilers burst from an overpressure of steam, producing the effect of an explosion, tearing the nearby furnaces, and scattering hot coals on the midship and the hundreds of soldiers sleeping there. Fire consumed the wrecked ship, and most of those aboard were killed.

It is believed that the ship&rsquos rocking caused water to cascade out of the highest boilers and come in contact with the red-hot iron of under-filled boilers below. Intense steam suddenly developed, producing a surging effect like the firing of gunpowder in a mine.

At the time of the Sultana incident, some states had boiler construction standards, but with a steamship traveling through many states&rsquo waterways, jurisdiction was unclear. The Sultana explosion can be linked with many industry and legislation improvements including safety regulations and inspection services that improved how people work with them:

  • The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company was founded the following year in 1866.
  • Inspection standards for steamboats were strengthened.
  • Work began on legislation culminating in 1871 with a coherent and unified body of maritime safety laws, revised for vessels propelled in whole or in part by steam in 1874.
  • The Steamboat Inspection Service was created in 1871.
  • Hartford began supervising construction and installation of boilers in 1879, and produced a widely accepted boiler construction standard known as the "Uniform Steam Boiler Specifications&rdquo for all states to adopt.

The privately owned Sultana had been contracted by the government to transport recently released POWs up the Mississippi, and high prices were paid for each officer and enlisted man.


Kung Fu Panda

  • During the time when Tigress split kick two wooden board that fell on Po's head, Po sneakily picked up a piece of wooden board that Tigress broke, but suddenly dropped it when Shifu ordered him to do so. The piece was called the love chunk by the production team.
  • After Po defeats Tai Lung, and after the town cheers for him, she is the first of the Furious Five to bow to him, calling him "Master".
  • When Po found the Furious Five after the Furious Five's battle with Tai Lung, Po checked to see if the Furious Five were alive, the first he check on was Tigress.   

Kung Fu Panda 2

Kung Fu Panda Holiday

  • While visiting Po and Mr. Ping for their holiday celebration, Tigress was the only one who said "Happy Holiday" right to Po.

Kung Fu Panda: Legends of Awesomeness

Another from the episode "Master Ping".

It should be noted that Legends of Awesomeness are considered a different canon from the story of the films.

Battle of Jutland: May 31 to June 1, 1916

World War I’s biggest naval conflict, the Battle of Jutland off the coast of Denmark marks the first and only showdown between German and British battleships. After German forces attack the Royal Navy, 250 ships and 100,000 men take part in the bloody fight, with both sides losing thousands of lives and several ships. Although there is no clear victor, Britain is able to secure North Sea shipping lanes and continue a blockade of German ports. This blockade proves pivotal to the Allies eventually winning the war.

Henry IV (1367 - 1413)

Henry IV © The first of three monarchs from the house of Lancaster, Henry usurped the crown and successfully consolidated his power despite repeated uprisings.

Henry was born in Lancashire in April 1367. His parents were cousins, his father John of Gaunt, third surviving son of Edward III, his mother descended from Henry III. In 1377 Henry's cousin, Richard II became king. In 1386, Henry joined a group of opposition leaders - the lords appellants - who outlawed Richard's closest associates and forced the king to accept their counsel. In 1398, Richard took revenge, banishing Henry after he quarrelled with another member of the court. The following year, John of Gaunt died. Richard seized the family estates, depriving Henry of his inheritance and prompting him to invade England. He met little opposition, as many were horrified by the king's actions. Richard surrendered in August and Henry was crowned in October 1399, claiming that Richard had abdicated of his own free will.

Henry's first task was to consolidate his position. Most rebellions were quashed easily, but the revolt of the Welsh squire Owen Glendower in 1400 was more serious. In 1403, Glendower allied himself with Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and his son Henry, called Hotspur. Hotspur's brief uprising, Henry's most serious challenge, ended when he was killed in battle with the king's forces near Shrewsbury in July 1403.

Northumberland's subsequent rebellion in 1408 was quickly suppressed and was the last armed challenge to Henry's authority. However, he also had to fight off Scottish border raids and conflict with the French. To finance these activities, Henry was forced to rely on parliamentary grants. From 1401 to 1406 parliament repeatedly accused him of fiscal mismanagement and gradually acquired new powers over royal expenditures and appointments.

As Henry's health deteriorated, a power struggle developed between his favourite, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, and a faction headed by Henry's half brothers and his son, Prince Henry. From 1408 to 1411 the government was dominated first by Archbishop Arundel and then Prince Henry. Argument raged over the best strategy to adopt in France, where civil war had erupted. Prince Henry wanted to resume war in France, but the king favoured peace. Uneasy relations between the prince and his father persisted until Henry IV's death in London on 20 March 1413.

Watch the video: Tigress Heartbreaking Backstory. Kung Fu Panda Explained (August 2022).