Civil war breaks out in Nigeria

Civil war breaks out in Nigeria

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Five weeks after its secession from Nigeria, the breakaway Republic of Biafra is attacked by Nigerian government forces.

In 1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain. Six years later, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria’s oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu and other non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising several states of Nigeria.

After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out in July 1967. Ojukwu’s forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria’s superior military strength gradually reduced Biafran territory. The state lost its oil fields–its main source of revenue–and without the funds to import food, an estimated one million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. On January 11, 1970, Nigerian forces captured the provincial capital of Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Ojukwu was forced to flee to the Ivory Coast. Four days later, Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.

Editorial: We are at a breaking point in America. The uncomfortable question: what would a modern civil war look like?

Every morning, I wake up, rollover, and grab my phone. I first check to see if I have any text messages, check my work email, then my personal email, check the weather, and then open social media. Because I don’t have cable television at home, I don’t have access to local or national news channels.

I rely heavily on social media and news apps to provide me with current news reports. It seems these days that the desire to open my social media apps is lessening. Every day the screen is filled with anger, outrage, and vitriol. I started keeping a list of specific topics for a few days, just to see if there was a trend.

Fifteen. That is fifteen different buzzwords that the people I follow, both friends and family, as well as major news channels, posted about on a daily basis. I won’t give you a comprehensive list, however, I’m sure if you were to keep track, our lists would look quite similar.

Here are a few of the words I can guarantee you that will pop up on my newsfeed daily: racism, police, COVID-19, BLM, ANTIFA, media, social media, Trump, and socialism.

Being bombarded daily by so much vitriol and polarization, it’s no wonder our country is so divided. There are the Haves vs. the Have Nots, Whites vs. Blacks (or everyone else), Far Left vs. Far Right, CNN vs. Fox News. We were once a country that was so proud to be united so blindingly patriotic. Sadly, we have lost our “ism” – our Americanism.

Americanism is the philosophy that identifies the traditional moral character and sense of life that is wholly unique to the people of the USA. We have ceased, it seems, to be the United States of America and we have become two separate Americas. Sound familiar?

We were once two separate Americas. Divided not only geographically as the North and the South, but politically and philosophically. That division came to a head during the Civil War.

Is that where our country is heading again, to another Civil War?

Are we as a nation that polarized?

According to the Georgetown Institute of Politics and Public Service Battle Ground Civility Poll, 70% of voters believe the US is on the edge of a Civil War. Voters believe the root cause to be that the political culture has become far too “uncivil”, lacking focus on solutions and placing blame, and is too eager to “stand up” to the other side. However, politics are not solely to blame.

Traditional news outlets and social media have created a culture that has allowed groupthink and digital bubbles. Groupthink is a common social psychological problem that is associated with group decision making. These groups are oftentimes made up of individuals who hold the same values and have similar life experiences as each other.

Groupthink and digital bubbles “amp up moral and emotional messages while organizing people into digital communities based on tribal conflicts.” Within our digital communities, we are reassured on a daily basis that our thoughts and feelings are appropriate.

When our beliefs are challenged, we seek out confirmation bias. Meaning we are searching for information that reaffirms our beliefs or values because it is easier to listen to groups or individuals who validate our own world views.

You experience this when you comment on a social media post with a differing opinion and are immediately bombarded with, “Where’s your data?” or “Cite your source.” If you provide concrete data, you may hear, “Everyone knows that is bias media.”

So, if we truly are on the edge of another Civil War, what will that look like? Will it be two distinct sides, separate militaries battling?

Those who have the most troops and firepower wins and the winner gets to restructure America?

That was the 1864 US Civil War and that was history. A modern-day civil war is going to look vastly different.

According to Foreign Policy, a modern-day civil war is going to consist of a diverse web of small actors that pop up in ideologically and economically marginalized communities. These cunning actors will feed on the suffering and fear of these communities.

They will become guerrillas, insurgents, rebel factions, and proxies. They will use conflicts that are composed of racial, religious, or economics and build on these crises. They will claim that their push for violence is the only solution.

They may focus on a tactic called Coordinated Disruption a hybrid warfare focused on Homeland conflicts.

“Contemporary homeland conflicts would likely self-compose with numerous dynamic factions, organized by digital tools around ideological and affinity networks. It would likely be a patchwork of affiliated insurgency groups and their counterparts engaging in light skirmishes along the overlapping edges of their networks, mixed with occasional high-value terror attacks against soft and hard targets.”

They will use their digital networks to rile up support to commit violence against their targets.

If you have read to this point, then just pause for a moment to let that soak in.

What comes to mind when you think back to what you are seeing on your social media feeds daily? Racism, police, COVID-19, BLM, ANTIFA, media, social media, Trump, and socialism.

Andrew Young, a well-known Civil Rights Activist who marched shoulder to shoulder with the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr., received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and served as US Ambassador to the United Nations, has thrown his support behind the BLM and had something to say about the Black Lives Matter movement.

“Honestly, I don’t know who the Black Lives Matter is. I don’t know who the leaders are. In fact, I don’t know if they have any leaders.”

Wow. A well-known activist who fought for civil rights with such a man as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. has thrown his support behind a cause that he knows nothing about, and that is frightening.

However, what is truly terrifying is that the millions of supporters who have done the exact same thing. Have you been to the BLM website? Have you read their list of demands? Do they align with your own moral compass and how you envision your life and future?

If you have not read them, I encourage you to do so.

BLM is not a spiritual movement. It doesn’t call for equality for African Americans. BLM is an extremist organization whose leaders are self-proclaimed anarchists: Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi.

According to Patrisse Cullors in a 2015 interview:

“Myself and Alicia, in particular, are trained organizers. We are trained Marxists.”

As for Opal Tometi, she is close personal friends with Nicolas Maduro, Venezuela’s Marxist dictator. If you are not familiar with the reign of terror of Dictator Maduro, please read up.

According to Mike Gonzalez and Andrew Olivastro of the Heritage Foundation:

“The goals of the Black Lives Matter organization go far beyond what most people think. But they’re hiding in plain sight, there for the world to see, if only we read beyond the slogans and innocuous-sounding media accounts of the movement.”

If a modern-day civil war is going to consist of a diverse web of small actors that pop up in ideologically and economically marginalized communities, consisting of cunning global actors, feeding on the suffering and fear of these communities, and become guerrillas, rebel factions, proxies, and insurgents that will use conflicts that are composed of racial, religious, or economics, and will claim that their push for violence is the only solution, does this mean our Modern-Day Civil War has already begun?

More Than 1,800 Prisoners Are Broken Out of Jail in Nigeria

Gunmen bearing machine guns and grenades stormed a prison in a restive part of southeast Nigeria many refer to as Biafra, letting loose any inmate who wanted out.

LAGOS, Nigeria — The Nigerian authorities say they are searching for about 1,800 inmates who escaped from a prison aided by heavily armed gunmen in the southeastern corner of the country, where anti-government separatists have long been active.

The authorities laid blame for the jailbreak on a rebel group that promotes the decades-old cause of secession for Nigeria’s southeastern corner, popularly known as Biafra.

“All is not well in the southeast,” said Emeka Umeagbalasi, a criminologist at the International Society for Civil Liberties and the Rule of Law in Nigeria, a good-governance advocacy group.

The escapes came as security has been declining in Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation, where kidnapping has become rife and the army has been deployed to respond to security threats, including terrorism and banditry, in almost every state.

Prison officials said that early on Monday morning, men armed with high-powered weapons including machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades arrived at a prison in Owerri, in southeastern Imo State. They exchanged fire with security personnel, according to prison officials, and then used explosives to blast their way into the prison yard.

One inmate died in the stampede that followed, officials said, and one police officer sustained a minor bullet wound to the shoulder. Officers repelled an attack on the armory at the prison, according to Frank Mba, a police spokesman.

Nigeria’s security services have launched a search operation to recapture the inmates, whose number was put at 1,844. It is not yet known how many of them were convicts and how many were just awaiting trial. Justice is often slow in Nigeria, with people spending years in jail before their cases are heard.

“I am worried that some criminals were set free,” said Kelechi Njoku, a hotelier and resident of Owerri whose hotel is about five miles from the prison. “But not all of them are criminals. There are thousands awaiting trials.”

A few prisoners were trickling back into custody, accompanied by their relatives or lawyers, Francis Enobore, a spokesman for the prison system in Nigeria, said in a WhatsApp exchange. Thirty-five inmates refused to leave when the jailbreak happened, he said.

The police said that the attackers were members of the Indigenous People of Biafra, a secessionist group that has been banned in Nigeria since 2017 and is designated as a “militant terrorist organization” by the government.

But a spokesman for the Indigenous People of Biafra denied that the group — or its paramilitary wing, the Eastern Security Network — were involved.

“E.S.N. is in the bush chasing terrorists and have no business with the said attacks,” the spokesman, Emma Powerful, said in a statement. “It is not our mandate to attack security personnel or prison facilities.”

Escaped inmates who return voluntarily will not be charged with unlawful escape, the minister of interior, Rauf Aregbesola, said on a visit to the prison. Prison officials said in a statement that they were “appealing to the good citizens of Imo State and indeed Nigerians to volunteer useful intelligence that will facilitate the recovery effort.”

They said all officers at other prisons should “remain vigilant at this trying moment in our history,” suggesting concern about further prison breaks.

Visiting the prison on Tuesday, Nigeria’s inspector-general of police, Mohammed Adamu, took a belligerent tone, instructing his officers to “never spare” bandits, in an apparent reference to the gunmen who attacked the prison.

“Deal with them ruthlessly,” local journalists reported Mr. Adamu as saying. “Unleash your full arsenal on them. The law is behind you.”

But while he was visiting Owerri, Mr. Adamu was fired as police chief by the Nigerian president, Muhammadu Buhari. It was a month before his tenure was set to end, and the reasons for the dismissal were unclear.

It has been 51 years since the end of the Nigerian civil war in which people of the eastern region broke away from the rest of the country. Biafra, the state they created, came to an end when its leaders surrendered after 30 months of fighting.

But the Biafran dream is alive and well.

It is nurtured by Nnamdi Kanu, the leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra, a populist figure who peddles conspiracy theories — including one that the Nigerian president died and was replaced by a body double. Nevertheless, Mr. Kanu has managed to amass a huge following.

Biafra’s enduring popularity — and the group’s — is attributable in part to the rampant police abuses that a generation of Nigerians rose up against last fall, under the banner of the #EndSARS movement.

Young people in southeastern states have for years complained of arbitrary arrests, torture and killings at the hands of the security forces, who are usually drawn from other regions of Nigeria. Convinced that Biafra should be a separate country, many residents of the southeast say the heavy military presence in the region is reminiscent of an occupying foreign army.

The prison break is part of a pattern of attacks on national security forces. Six police stations were razed and 10 police officers killed in the southeast by gunmen over two weeks starting in late February, according to local media reports.

“With the way things are going, in two years’ time Nigeria may be able to play host to 30 to 40 insurgency groups, because government is pushing the people to the wall,” said Mr. Umeagbalasi, the criminologist.

Ben Ezeamalu reported from Lagos, Nigeria, and Ruth Maclean from Dakar, Senegal.

10 facts about the Biafran war: Nigerian civil war.

It has been estimated that over a million people were killed during the bloodiest war Nigeria as a nation has ever experienced. The Biafran war as it is popularly called, was the war fought between the secessionist republic of Biafra and Nigeria. Basically, Nigerians from the south eastern part of Nigeria decided to split from the rest of Nigeria. They did this for reasons that will be discussed later in this article. However, many years have passed since this civil war took place, but some Igbo’s today are still agitating for a new Biafra. Is this a good Idea? well I’ll leave you to answer that question, but first, lets look a bit more into what caused all this tension in the first place. Here are the top ten facts about the Nigerian civil war I think you should know about.


1.Sir Hugh Clifford a British colonial administrator, once described Nigeria as ” a collection of Independent native states, separated from one another by great distances, difference of history and traditions. Difference in ethnological, racial, tribal, political , social and religious barriers”. Some may say that Sir Hugh Clifford was right.

In the year 1914 ,the British amalgamated two regions in an area that they named “Nigeria“. It was divided into two parts the northern and southern protectorates. They did this for better ease of administration. However ,they disregarded the fact that these regions had different customs, religions, values and political systems. Maybe they knew the conflict this would cause and just didn’t care. One could speculate that they were more vested in their personal interests.

Sir Hugh Clifford

2. By the time Nigeria got her independence from Britain, Igbo’s made up 60-70% of the population in the south east region. Yorubas made up 75% in the south west. Hausa-Fulani made up 65% in the northern part of Nigeria. You see, these three predominant groups had different systems both religious, political and cultural. The Yorubas had a political system run by their Obas. This system allowed for the social mobility of the yorubas. The yorubas were among the first to open themselves up to western values and education. They made up the first classes of Civil servants, Lawyers, Doctors and a myriad of other professions at that time.

The Igbo’s as well had a political system where the Eze’s and Obi’s allowed for both men and women to participate in decision making. The Igbo’s welcomed western missionaries and values with open arms. They embraced the Christian religion and western education in droves. The most wealthy Igbo’s would send their sons to Britain to get a higher education. The Hausa- Fulani on the other hand were more conservative. They had an authoritarian system of Emirs who ruled them. They didn’t embrace British imperialism, religion or education but stuck to their conservative values.

Pre colonial Igbos

3. By 1960 it was estimated that the northern part of Nigeria was the most underdeveloped compared to the south east and south western states. There was a 2% literacy rate in the North, compared to the east which had a 19.2% literacy rate. The south west had a higher literacy rate out of the other two, because they were the first to embrace western education and values. Some Igbo’s looking for more wages and opportunities left their homeland and settled in other parts of Nigeria. They made up the tradesmen,civil servants etc in the north and south.

The political landscape after Nigeria’s independence was riddled with all sorts of things like malpractices, corruption and unfair elections by the ruling elites . The northerners also had a sweet spot in the political landscape at that time. In order to maintain law and order, the first coup was initiated. This coup was headed by Major Nzeogwu. Most if not all of the senior military and political officers killed were from the northern and western regions. This and other factors led to the collapse of the first republic. The northerners enraged, saw this as a conspiracy of the easterners to take away the leadership role from them and eliminate northern leaders.

Major Nzeogwu Leader of the first military coup.

4. Aguiyi Ironsi took over power from the senate president of the first republic, Nwafor Orizu. this made Aguiyi the first acting military president of Nigeria. However, Aguiyi failed to punish those who were involved in the coup. This further incited hatred and resentment from the northerners. So it was no surprise when a counter coup was staged by military officers from the north on the 29th of July, 1966. The aim of this was to met out vengeance on the easterners and the break up of the country. This coup saw to the death of Aguiyi Ironsi and other senior officers of eastern origin. Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon the then chief of staff of the Nigerian army became the new military head of state.

Aguiyi Ironsi

5. This coup however gave rise to even worse and horrific killings. Easterners who lived in the north were killed, their goods and properties looted. It was estimated that a hundred thousand Igbo’s were murdered on northern soil. Most Igbo’s were killed in their houses, offices, schools,etc. Lt col. Yakubu Gowon addressed this issue in a national broadcast saying, “I receive complaints daily that up till now Easterners living in the North are being killed and molested and their property looted. It appears that it is going beyond reason and is now at a point of recklessness and irresponsibility.”

Easterners started fleeing back to their homelands for safety. Attempts were made to lighten the situation, but the Igbo’s felt more and more marginalised. This all got to its peak when finally General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu announced the break away of the eastern region from the rest of Nigeria.

Odumegwu Ojukwu

6. When Biafra was declared on May 30, 1967 only five other nations recognised it as an independent nation. These countries were Haiti, Tanzania, Zambia, Gabon and Cote d’ Ivoire. Biafra also established its own bank, the bank of Biafra. The Biafran currency became accessible on the 25th of January, 1968. Not only that, they also had their own national anthem called “The land of the rising sun”. This national anthem was written by Nnamdi Azikiwe.

Biafra was made up of mostly Igbo’s, but it also included other tribes like Efik, Ibibio, Eket, Annang, Ijaw and Ejagham tribes.

Biafran five pound note.

7. The areas that made up Biafra had the most oil which prior had been a source of revenue for the Nigerian government. The federal government unwilling to lose this resource, declared war on Biafra without warning. On the 6th of July, 1967 Nigerian federal troops made their way into Biafra in two columns. They first and foremost occupied oil blocs in port- Harcourt. They also went ahead to place a shipping ban of oil from the Biafran territory. Biafra was trading oil with shell bp using oil tankers and were collecting royalties worth 250,000 pounds. The federal government got whim of this and included oil tankers in the ban. The federal government asked shell-Bp to stop their operations in Biafra.

Nigerian federal troops during an operation against Biafra

8. As the war progressed, the biafran coastline was also completely surrounded by Nigerian federal troops. Goods and services couldn’t enter into Biafra. This made it difficult for the Biafran populace to feed themselves. Famine was the order of the day coupled with malnutrition. Prior to the blockade placed by the Nigerian government, the main source of protein for easterners was dried fish which was imported from Norway. This was supplemented with local poultry and livestock. However, these local sources were rapidly becoming scarce in supply and the national diet was now almost 100% starch based. This led to a condition known as kwashiorkor among the malnourished and starving populace.

This sad case led to an outcry within the international communities especially from the year 1968. Christian networks and organisations spread awareness of the situation. Non governmental organisations rose up to support and send relief materials and food to the starving Biafran populace.

A starving biafran population

9. Biafran forces made some progress initially in the war, but Nigerian military gradually took over the biafran territory. Also the Nigerian government had more backing from powerful allies The British wishing to maintain their hold on the oil being exported from Nigeria, took sides with the federal government. This decision was made after the blockade was placed on shipping lines by the federal government in Biafra. Not only that, shell-bp was advised by the British government to give in to the pressures of the Nigerian government when they were ordered to stop doing business with the Biafrans.

The British had predicted that the federal government had a greater chance of winning the war, and taking sides with the losing team didn’t seem to be to their advantage in the long run. So, Britain supplied arms and intelligence to the Nigerian military. Russia was also an ally,United States, Egypt, Syria and Algeria. Biafran republic also had their allies which included France, Israel, Portugal, Spain, South Africa and Zimbabwe.

International protests against the war.

10. On January 11, 1970, Owerri the provincial capital of Biafra was captured by the Nigerian military. Odumegwu Ojukwu on seeing the biafran dream coming to an end fled to the Ivory Coast with his immediate family. He handed over the administration of Biafra to the commander of the biafran army, Major General Phillip Effiong. Few days later Biafra surrendered to Nigeria and ceased to exist as an independent nation.

History has a funny way of teaching us lessons and also if not checked we may repeat its mistakes. Looking through the genesis and root of the biafran war, it makes me wonder if Nigeria should have even been formed in the first place. Were the Igbo’s only paying a price for the careless coup carried out by Major Nzeogwu? A coup where it seemed like the northerners were a prime target and the easterners in political office at the time spared? Could the hate killings of the easterners in the north be justified? Years after the war are we as Nigerians stronger together or are the tensions still the same? I will leave you to ponder and answer these questions. I look forward to your comments and contributions on all you have just read in the comment section below.

STRANGE FACT: Did you know? That a 20 year old student called Bruce Mayork stood in front of the United Nations on the 3rd of June, 1969 and set himself on fire? This was his own way of protesting against the war. No surprise he died while carrying out this act. Would you say he was brave or stupid to do this?

Nigeria Is Haunted by Its Civil War

The conflict’s legacy continues to hold the country captive, half a century later.

Mr. Siollun is a Nigerian historian.

LAGOS, Nigeria — Fifty years ago, on Jan. 15, Nigeria’s civil war ended. Fought between the country’s southeast region, which seceded and called itself Biafra, and the rest of the country, which Britain supported and armed, the war was brutal. Over a million people died during three years of conflict. After being starved into submission by a blockade, the Biafrans surrendered and their leaders promised to be “loyal Nigerian citizens.”

Half a century later, the war’s legacy continues to hold Nigeria captive. It simultaneously brings the country together and pushes it apart.

In the early aftermath of the war, the country appeared to be unified. Despite the war’s shocking human tragedy, reconciliation was remarkably rapid. War and partition ironically created a consensus: The country, now united, should never be allowed to break apart again. The government declared a general amnesty for wartime combatants, refused to punish either those who led the secession or those who suppressed it and did not give medals to any soldiers who fought in the so-called Brothers’ War.

The country was re-engineered to prevent another secession. To find a way for Nigeria’s more than 250 ethnic groups to live together peacefully, the country was split into 36 states, most of which coincided with the location of a major ethnic group. The federal government, whose power was increased, provided the states with funds — which created a financial deterrent against secession.

Postwar leaders found another way of building national unity: the concept of “federal character.” A new Constitution required the composition and conduct of government to “reflect the federal character of Nigeria.” Its purpose was to ensure that no ethnic group would monopolize leadership of the government or be excluded from national economic and political opportunities. Still in place today, it in effect operates as one of the world’s biggest affirmative action schemes. Nigerian law even bans political parties if they adopt names, logos or mottoes with ethnic, geographic or religious connotations, or if their membership does not satisfy constitutional diversity requirements.

But these efforts to ensure national unity, however well intentioned, froze Nigeria in time-bound assumptions about what the country should look like. The postwar desire to prevent another secession generated a near obsessive ethnic micromanaging of national life — and created a nation that exists almost simply to share money and jobs. “Federal character” became the most controversial two words in Nigeria’s Constitution. An ethnic quota regulates almost every facet of public life: Admission to the government and the Civil Service, schools and universities, the military and the police is decided by regional origin.

Rather than working as a glue for unity, the fixation on ethnic sharing of national opportunities and resources made Nigerians more aware of their ethnic differences. Resentment rose in parts of the country badly served by the quota system. The irony is plain: To prevent the recurrence of a war fought at least partly on ethnic lines — Biafra was populated mainly by the Igbo ethnic group — Nigeria’s rulers solidified ethnic identities.

What’s more, instead of ensuring the country’s unity, the postwar settlement generated conflict. For much of the past 20 years, Nigeria’s military has been engaged in fighting insurgencies in the north and south of the country. The long-running insurgency in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, in the country’s south, has indirect links to the postwar settlement. By controlling revenues from the country’s lucrative petroleum industry and requiring them to be shared nationwide, the federal government stripped control from local communities.

The postwar settlement created another profound division: between Nigeria’s people and their political leaders. For much of the past 50 years, Nigeria has been governed by the soldiers who won the war. For three decades, the form of rule was direct: Nigeria was under military dictatorship. But the passage to democracy, undertaken in 1999, did not dispel the military’s hold on the country. Military rulers were reluctant to cede power to, or accept the demands of, civilian opposition groups that called for national restructuring and the devolution of power to state governments. Instead, the generals engineered what the civilian opposition criticized as an “army arrangement” and ceded power to one of their own — the retired general Olusegun Obasanjo, to whom the Biafran Army surrendered in 1970.

The generals’ reluctance to dismantle the postwar system mummified Nigeria, ushering in a kind of gerontocracy. In a country whose population is overwhelmingly young — two-thirds are under 30 — the distorting effects of such generational asymmetry cannot be understated. Even now, the officers of the civil war continue to rule the country. Muhammadu Buhari, a 77-year-old retired major general, is Nigeria’s current president.

Causes of the Civil War

Causes for the outbreak of Civil War existed in plenty and one of the most prominent among them was the prevalence of slavery in the United States during this period. While the economy of the Northern states was driven by industries, the same was driven by agriculture in the Southern states. The Southern states were in favor of slavery, as they needed slaves to work as laborers on their fields. When the Federal government decided to end the unethical practice, it was strongly opposed by the politicians from the Southern states. At the end of the day, both sides were at the loggerheads with Northern states accusing the slave states of being a threat to the democracy, and the Southern states accusing the free states of attacking their culture.

In the meanwhile, the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln became the President of the United States by defeating the nominee of the Southern faction, John C. Breckinridge by a huge margin. Lincoln’s pro-abolition stance had always been a threat for the Southern states, so his election came as a major blow for them. Adding to the woes was the decision of the slave state of Kansas, which declared itself a free state and joined the Union. In a brave attempt, the Southern states decided to secede from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America under the leadership of Jefferson Davis. When the first seven states declared the secession on March 4, 1861, the Federal government questioned its legality and labeled it a rebellion, which prompted four more states to join them.

The economic divide between the Northern states and Southern states was also a factor in the Civil War. The people from Southern slave states always thought that the Federal government was biased towards the Northern states. When the legality of secession was questioned, it just added fuel to the fire. The actual War began when the Confederate forces attacked a U.S. military installation in South Carolina. What followed was a brutal period of four years, wherein millions of Americans, especially youth in the age group of 20 – 30, lost their lives.

Flashback: 6 July in History of Nigeria: Civil War Broke Out, Events Leading to It

On 6 July 1967, the Biafra War erupted. It lasted more than two years, claiming over 600,000 lives. Emeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu was the leader on the Biafran side. The war broke out when he launched a rebellion to form a separate country as a result of the pogrom in the North against his people.

Has Nigeria learnt from history? The story is presented here again (the first was in TheNEWS in 2016) to set agenda for the government and the governed. May Nigeria never experience such again!

British secret files on Nigeria’s first bloody coup, path to Biafra

Damola Awoyokun, an engineer and historian has perused hitherto hidden dispatches from British diplomats and intelligence officers on Nigeria’s first coup—a very bloody one—executed by Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu and Emmanuel Arinze Ifeajuna on 15 January 1966. The coup in which political leaders and military officers of northern Nigeria extraction were majorly killed triggered a counter-coup and eventually declaration of Biafra and a civil war. TheNEWS today shares the rare insight into the bloody event of 15 January 1966 and we believe it may serve as a good lesson as the drums of war are being sounded in some parts of our country

It was a soundless morning, dark, pulsating, starless. The harmattan spiked the 2am air with prickly cold and fog. With his finger to the trigger, the 28-year-old Major Patrick Chukwuma Nzeogwu addressed the soldiers from Charlie Company of the 3rd Infantry Battalion and some Nigerian Military Training College (NMTC) personnel. They were armed with fury, submachine guns, knives, grenades, torchlights, rocket launchers. Nzeogwu reeled about how the politicians had dragged the country to the cliff of fall and kicked it down into a worst-case scenario. He reeled about nepotism, large scale looting of public wealth, persistent poverty of the people, the yearnings of millions hollowed out by afflictions, the epidemic of insecurities, the Tiv riots, the Western Region’s daily bloodletting, the country’s tireless race to the bottom instead of high up to the plane of regard.

He pointed to Sardauna’s residence right behind him as the ultimate symbol of the filth Nigeria had become. His fellow soldiers were stunned. They did not know they had been turned into reluctant rebels. They thought this was supposed to be another night’s training exercise the brigade high command had approved for them which they started two weeks previously. Nzeogwu then asked the soldiers to concentrate on how to be necessary and to feel proud that they were the ones called upon to rescue the nation, to show the way, to be the new founding fathers of a better Nigeria. In other words, like Homer’s Illiad, he was asking them not to see the epic bloodbath that was about to start as an outbreak of evil, but their generous contribution to the redemption and welfare of the nation.

They Charged Forward

Four hours earlier around 10 o’clock, the last lights in the Sardauna’s household had gone out. They were expected to wake by 4am to eat suhur, the predawn meal to begin the fast. Ramadan started on 23rd December 1965. A week earlier, the Prime Minister Mallam Tafawa Balewa Abubakar met the Queen and the British Prime Minister Harold Wilson. He had invited all the Commonwealth Prime Ministers for a special meeting in Lagos from 11- 12 January to resolve Rhodesian crises. It was the first of its kind outside London. On 19 December, he went to the small village of Arondizuogu in Orlu for the commissioning of his trade minister, Dr Ozumba Mbadiwe’s Palace of the People. Built by Italian contractors, it was a three-storey affair resplendent with blue terrazzo walls, swimming pool and a fountain, grand conference halls and event rooms, red carpet and gilt chairs. All these in a village where most houses were still born of mud and thatched roofs.

Since the first tarred roads were constructed in 1890s in Lagos, and the first dual carriage way in Nigeria – Queen Elizabeth Road – appeared in 1956 in Ibadan, no road in Arondizuogu or in Orlu had ever been graced with bitumen before. Yet Mbadiwe situated the grand palace there as a source of pride for his people. At the commissioning ceremony, the Eastern Premier, Dr Okpara never saw the project as a white elephant planted by megalomania and watered by corruption, rather he hailed the project as “a great achievement for one of the priests of pragmatic socialism to have been so clever to accommodate this building within the context of pragmatic African socialism.” The press placed the value of the house at least half a million pounds. Mbadiwe said it was “at most £40,000.” After the commissioning, Abubakar then proceeded to his farm in Bauchi for his annual leave. On Tuesday 4th of January, he joined the retinue of well-wishers in Kaduna airport to bid farewell to his in-law and godfather, the Sardauna, who was going to Saudi Arabia to perform Umra, a lesser hajj, in the company of 184 other state-sponsored pilgrims. The cost of the one-week pilgrimage to the government was around £17,000.

That morning, The New Nigerian newspaper wrote an unprecedentedly scathing editorial laying the blame for the region’s financial woes and lack of development on Sardauna inefficiencies and ineptitude and asked him to “put his house in order.” When Nzeogwu read the editorial, he went straight to the paper’s newsroom and demanded to see the writer. He was in his uniform and his eyes were red. No one knew him nor had seen his face before. The staff did not know what to make of his demand. The expatriate managing editor Charles Sharp then stepped forward. Nzeogwu shook his hands and said the content and tone of the editorial reflected their thinking in the army and they had resolved to put that house in order. The newsroom did not understand what he meant until the morning of the January 15. The paper was the first to publish for the world the picture of Sardauna’s house still smouldering in the flames of Nzeogwu.

So, what would a second Civil War look like?

I asked you, the readers, for your opinions on what a Civil War would look like if it erupted in American.

With the incendiary situation going on across the country, there&rsquos been a great deal of talk about the potential of civil war erupting in America.

IF such a terrible thing would occur, how do you think it would happen? How do you believe we&rsquod all be affected? What would you foresee?

This is all speculation, of course, but share your thoughts in the comments below.

Of course, this is all speculative, but there are some pretty interesting answers. Here&rsquos what you all had to say:

&hellipthe cities would be hit hard, outlying areas will become balkanized&hellipand as far as &lsquoit&rsquo happening, it started with &lsquothe resistance&rsquo&hellipjust hasn&rsquot gone hot yet. And PS it won&rsquot be a civil war, when it goes hot it will be along the lines of race and economics, nothing like the Civil War which was a federal vs state issue (control).

Note: Balkanization is defined as the &ldquofragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.&rdquo (source)

I see it starting in the streets of the South. Then the National Guard gets sent in, then local militias build to fight the National Guard. Civil unrest runs amuck. People flee the Southern states, going north and west. Seeds of hate growing in their hearts against the government for allowing this to happen. Groups are gathering in homes to discuss the next step. Hoarding of food and gas begins. Desperation sets in. Peopllosese faith in government both local, state, and federal. The reality sets in we are vulnerable to Russia, China, Isis, fear and despair over take the people. They cry out in the streets, camps are set up for our protection and to provide for us.

I wonder what it would be fought over&hellip.where would the lines be drawn? Racial? Political? Economics? Who will be fighting who? I think flat-out every man for himself anarchy is a more likely scenario than what we would consider a civil war.

This is what the government wants to happen so they can have Martial law, and throw the Constitution in the trash.

It&rsquoll be based on race, the easiest distinguisher for low information people with anger and a desire to fight. I&rsquom not sure how white people on the left would distinguish themselves as allies though, they&rsquoll probably get caught up in the carnage. The real question I have is: how long will TPTB allow the bloodshed before they implement the next phase of police state

If it really took off, if you don&rsquot live in a major city, I think the main effect you&rsquod feel is a shortage of goods. Truckloads of deliveries not being able to get safely to certain destinations would eventually just stop coming.

If this did go down I think it will be short lived. The government would turn off the communication systems and money supply to the country. The stock market will crash and the one-percenters will load up on shares and make billions once order is restored and the market rebounds.

A civil war totally manufactured by the media.

There is nothing left to hold civil society together. No shared values. No shared history. No shared worldview. In many places, not even a shared language. What we see now is the Balkanization of America. In essence, we as a people have already seceded from each other.

Here are the options
1. Nothing&rsquos gonna happen, well, except ALL statues will be removed, confederate, union, MLK, presidents, baseball players, even poor ole Elvis.
2. A lot more protests and more deaths.
3. North Korea drops an EMP and we thin the herd.

In a way I think it&rsquos already been going on for sometime. Internet trolling, hackers, some laws aren&rsquot really enforced.

The UN will get called in. One World Order implementation.

I think a financial crisis of sorts , most likely causing serious uproar. An outside source of the United States coming in to try to look like helpers , I think they get a lot of people to follow them then off more than half, I think they want the very young. Madness, looting, complete anarchy until people begin to fight back.

It&rsquos not just America, the civil divide is being pushed toward civil war in Europe and UK too!
The economic crash will be global as will the response&hellip
this is the endgame that has been coming a long time.
Expect microchipping of the population through FEMA camps for starving and preppers being shot for hoarding food.
Make sure your food is not all in one place, have multiple caches so if one or two are discovered it doesn&rsquot leave you with all the others queuing up for a loaf of bread and swiping your new microchip.

&hellipSomeone in our government will get the idea, if they haven&rsquot already, that the best way to bring us back together as a nation is to give us a common enemy. Then with the help of the Media, they will demonize this enemy to the point where we as Americans can no longer just sit idly by. All the sudden, all the other issues disappear and the US government is back in control of the hearts and minds of its people.

I think the polarization is so extreme and so deep-seated that the very best thing for the majority of people would be for the USA to split into 3 or 4 separate countries. I don&rsquot think we will have peace until this happens (if it ever happens). The alternative is likely to be extreme control by the government to a degree that none of us ever want to see or experience.

What will begin as a somewhat ideological war (Antifa versus the Alt-Right) will sooner or later devolve into an outright race war. At that time, Antifa will cease to exist (split up in ethnic gangs). The Whites in Antifa will be on their own, and not last very long&hellip The Alt-Right will continue to exist, although it might adopt a different name.

Since Whites own most of the land and ammunition, and are better trained and prepped, they will most likely win this race war.

I do not think it is likely that the race war will end soon. I&rsquom afraid it will continue until America is all-White. Once faced with an existential threat, people can do crazy things to make sure it can never ever happen again.

This could have as a consequence that not only North America becomes all-White, but South America too.

A similar process will happen in Europe. It is quite likely that the Europeans will not only drive Islam from their continent, but remove it from the globe completely and repopulate the entire Middle-East.

These Antifa provocateurs and Islamic terrorists are taking a terrible gamble. Their tactics either succeed (and the entire world turns Communist or Islamic), or it will be the eradication of all the people they represent.

I foresee a lot of guerrilla-type warfare. If Martial Law was instituted, I could easily imagine the Antifa types committing acts of vandalism, bombing things, holding up supply trucks. Sneak attacks with huge shocking impacts, like attacking children at a school or something. It would become dangerous for people to be in certain areas based on their race.

This could result in extreme violence against innocent non-combatants. Schools would shut down, public gathering areas like malls and markets could be targeted. Businesses would be unable to continue due to repeated vandalism. This would, in turn, affect the supply chain, which would increase theft as desperate hungry people did what they had to so they could feed their families.

This will be a race war, flames fanned by the likes of George Soros in order to destabilize the country. It&rsquos a Marxist agenda that separates black vs. white and causes problems where there were none before. Paid protesters, activist groups funded by billionaires, and the crushing of free speech through violent protests will all boil over into more division.

Confusion will occur because this won&rsquot be a clear-cut, North vs. South issue. The &ldquoenemy&rdquo would be hard to identify and easy to be mistaken for. How can you tell if someone is right-leaning or left-leaning?

United we stand&hellipdivided, billionaires make lots of money off our pain. Just like every other war, it all boils down to money and control.

I think we&rsquore already seeing civil war, courtesy of Bush, Obama, Trump and now people who want to further &lsquofundamentally change America&rsquo. The &lsquowar&rsquo is between those who think the American dream is so-called equality for all, free stuff like healthcare, maternity leave and cell phones (coz that&rsquos what our Founding Fathers intended &ndash NOT!) and those of us who want to retain Her glory, where Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness is all that matters. We won&rsquot see the death toll of the 1860&rsquos, but we&rsquoll see even more hatred, fear and division, combined with occasional attacks like Charlottesville. A nation divided cannot stand and sooner or later, whether

We won&rsquot see the death toll of the 1860&rsquos, but we&rsquoll see even more hatred, fear and division, combined with occasional attacks like Charlottesville. A nation divided cannot stand and sooner or later, whether it&rsquos a natural disaster, an external attack, financial crippling or just plain consequences of our action, there will be chaos, with FEAR being the biggest killer!

People keep talking about this one event&hellip

I think it&rsquoll be more of a slow and painful process, with serious consequences for our children&rsquos children worldwide! The Beacon on the Hill WILL go out, and the world will be plunged into darkness

Some ugly and terrifying pictures painted there&hellip

Thank you, Readers, as always, for your insight and participation.

Remote Causes of the Nigerian Civil War

The perceived reasons that brought about the civil unrest that saw many lives and properties lost were connected but not limited to the following:

1. Nepotism: This is the practice of favouring relatives only in terms of employment, contract awards, appointments, among others and this caused disunity and secession.
2. Imperialism: This means the strong nations needed to gain political and trade advantages over the poorer nations, and so this brought about disintegration in order to install their person in office which is seen as a sort of neo-colonialism.
3. Ethnic Chauvinism: The emphasis of one’s ethnic interest made nonsense of the national interest, and so oneness and unity in the country was difficult to come by.
4. Corruption: Politicians were so corrupt that they looted government treasury with impunity and this did not augur well for Nigeria’s unity
5. Political disorder: This occurred when politicians messed up the political atmosphere during the first Republic of Nigeria. This prompted the military to take over power from the civilians.

Basil Okoh


Another civil war in Nigeria has become imminent and inevitable. The reason for its inevitability is simply because Muhammadu Buhari, the Northern Nigeria Fulani oligarchs and the wider network of Fulani in Sub-Saharan Africa have concluded plans to adopt Nigeria as the homeland for all Fulani in Africa.

They have realised that the wandering and rootless lifestyle of cattle herding Fulani is no longer tenable in the twenty-first century. Fulani need to have land to call home and rear cattle and that land should be Nigeria. The indigenous peoples of Nigeria have vehemently and stridently opposed this diabolic plan and both sides are mobilising for war. The Fulani won't relent and the indigenous people will not give up their land.

The same Fulani Project, having failed so shamelessly and woefully in the Central Africa Republic, will not be allowed to fail this time as the Nigerian Fulani project is better funded with the massive creaming of the sovereign wealth of Nigeria through nationwide kidnapping for ransom by lower class Fulani and seizure of the reigns of Government and wealth by the elite Fulani.

Kidnapping and the seizure of the institutions of Government are all for the purpose of implanting Fulani into the mainstream and control of politics and the economy of Nigeria for the objective of funding the Fulani Project in Nigeria.

The Central Africa Republic (CAR) has gone through exact same experience that Nigeria is going through right now in the hands of the Fulani. The country has been run down by the killings and destitution wrought by rival gangs in the fight to destroy the chokehold the Fulani had on the politics and economy of their country. Although the Fulani hegemony over the CAR has been defeated, the street gangs that defeated the armed forces have turned on one another and themselves, unable to rise above petty gang warfare to rebuild their nation.

The Fulani have become a blight on Africa and it’s biggest country Nigeria. Unable to break out of its centuries old cow herding and wandering culture, it continues to pull down every nation wherever it has any populations. Some countries in West Africa, Ghana and their ancestral home Guinea, have mastered the brutal tactics of dealing with Fulani and the Fulani have learnt the bitter lesson by staying away from these countries.

In the CAR, the Fulani following the pattern of their ethnocentric politics, had seized control of the commanding heights of the country’s military and financial institutions, the foreign exchange trade, the mining and export of gold and above all the governing structures of Government. Mitchel Djotodia, a hare brained military officer and his Fulani faction seized power in a brazen coup by a demographic minority. All the non-Fulani military officers were flushed out of the forces, all the mineral deposits in the country were seized by Fulani merchants, non-Fulani traders were barred from trading in foreign exchange and the entire top echelon of the Civil Service were occupied by Fulani by as much as 83%.

France, the former colonial masters of CAR watched them do all these over the years and did not raise a protest. As in Nigeria, the Fulani were just 3% of the population of CAR, tucked in the desert recesses of the nation’s Northwest. No world or regional power raised a whimper even though the ethnic groups of the rich southern forest regions roiled. The Fulani went even beyond the provocative as they are doing now in Nigeria.

They started seizing ethnic lands, raiding churches and killing worshippers, the most brazen being the attack on Our Lady of Fatima Catholic Church in a town near Bangui the capital, where dozens of Catholic faithful were massacred during mass. The Fulani used their cattle bases allotted by Government to launch attacks and gun fights on the surrounding communities for robberies and ransom paying kidnaps as is happening now in Nigeria.

Again, as is happening in Nigeria today, the purpose of all the action of the Fulani was simple to transfer all wealth available in the CAR by all and every means and place it in the hands and control of the Fulani. It is the same play book guiding the actions and policies of the Buhari Government in Nigeria. The Fulani elite are raiding the Central Bank, buying dollars and other currencies at heavily discounted rates, other Fulani are raiding the NNPC, ploughing through the vaults and trading Nigerian crude for personal gain.

The educated wing are mowing down governing structures, taking forceful charge and control of all commanding heights of Government and the armed forces. The uneducated Fulani herdsmen are engaged in kidnapping for ransom and now primed to take over ethnic lands, spreading themselves across the nation in settlements acquired with public funds to terrorise indigenous populations.

It will be of great use to retell the story of CAR so as to have the understanding of how the youth of the country removed the yoke of unremitting oppression by the Fulani. The youth formed street gangs and committed to take on the army with all their vaunted training and intimidating and deadly weaponry. The youth had locally fabricated flint guns and machetes, while the army was menacing with their machine guns, grenade throwers and rocket launchers.

When the fight started on that fateful day in 2013 in Bangui, everyone expected a complete annihilation of youth on the streets but the youth took the fight straight to the Guard Brigade near the Presidential Palace.

By evening of the same day, soldiers bodies were seen littering the streets while some were cut to pieces. By night fall, the streets of Bangui had become the play ground and the killing field of the youth of Bangui. In three days of street fighting, the entire Presidential Guards of the army of the CAR was decimated, in disarray running to their ethnic base in the far north and President Djotodia, the Fulani tyrant had abdicated and run away from the Presidential Palace and Capital, Bangui.

Tyrants survive for only as long as the people live in fear and choose to tolerate them. The Buhari Government is counting on deploying the Nigerian armed forces against the many ethnicities where the RUGA will be sited, beginning with the minority groups.

Buhari's plan is to deploy Nigerian troops to subdue Nigerian people for the benefit of Fulani. Central Africa Republic provides a veritable lesson on how to deal with the unrelenting Fulani menace. The Niger Delta and Boko Haram if anything, have shown that the Nigeria army is not invincible in a fight with local forces. If anything, the Nigeria Army will likely disintegrate if made to fight in many fronts at once.

It is a known truth that the Fulani will not relent in their quest for the conquest of Nigeria until they have seized all sources of income and made everyone else subservient to their rule and hegemony.

The Fulani in Nigeria, in nearly a century of political and economic ascendancy have acquired so much power and money that it will defeat the purpose of such acquisition if they don’t deploy it for the very purpose for the grasp for power, which is the conquest of Nigeria for the overlordship of the Fulani. The final stage of the grand plan to subdue Nigeria for Fulani overlordship are afoot and Buhari and his people cannot back out now. So a war has to be fought to resolve matters.

Our people say that you don’t strip a woman naked just to start looking. Nigeria has been stripped naked and with the RUGA monstrosity on the works, the next thing is to start the deployment of troops to protect RUGA in their various locations of development.

It was bound to happen that the Fulani who have been taking so much out of Nigeria and have succeeded in binding Nigeria hand and foot politically and economically, will take the wrong step into the abyss one day. The logical culmination of all the rapaciousness would be the last ditch attempt at the ultimate land grab, to seize the lands belonging to indigenous communities and hand it over to Fulani.

Internecine war in different RUGA locations and different fronts is therefore inevitable. Communities will rage to keep their land or lose it to their eternal shame and regret. Communities, particularly in Igboland will rather choose to be annihilated than lose their land to a hostile and predatory People.

Fulani have no land in Nigeria because they are not indigenous to Nigeria. They are migrants into Nigeria. The decision by the Fulani to seize land by force in Nigeria can only lead to war in the many places where this seizure will happen. The people must resist as of necessity. They have done so in the Central Africa Republic and reduced the country to rubble and they will do it again in Nigeria.

Buhari will be compelled to deploy police and soldiers to defend the settlements and war will be declared everywhere there is a RUGA settlement in Nigeria. Fulani have no land to hold dear and protect in Nigeria. In fact, Fulani have no stake or investment in the project called Nigeria and will not care if Nigeria burns, in fact Fulani will be very willing to let Nigeria burn if the people are not willing to submit to their overlordship.

So they are minded to adopt a scorched earth policy to obliterate Nigeria. They have nothing to lose. They did it in CAR and they will do same in Nigeria. It will be the responsibility of the indigenous people of Nigeria to find common grounds to protect the land of their ancestral inheritance and prevent the Fulani from putting a knife on their unity and their need to bind themselves together in one nation, but they cannot do this without first containing the Fulani. Fulani will try to divide them.

Buhari and the Fulani oligarchs are counting strongly on deploying the armed forces to quell insurrections that will arise from this massive land grab, but that will be the Achilles heel of their grand plan. Once soldiers are armed to put down these insurrections, they will turn against their commanders to defend their communities. Nigerians should therefore await the great unravelling of their armed forces.

Do the Fulani have the firepower, the men and the capacity to fight? In the entire history of the Nigerian armed forces, the Hausa/Fulani officers and enlisted men have always been promoted far beyond their qualifications and competencies. The capacity to fight and man the different departments of modern warfare will be put to overwhelming test in any ensuing encounter.

The Fulani never fight an enemy in a frontal war. They attack isolated and undefended villages. In any direct confrontation, they run away. It was evident even in the battle of Bangui. Well armed Fulani soldiers could not take on street gangs with flint guns and machetes. It has also shown in the war against Boko Haram. The poor performance of commanders of their ethnic stock is a bad joke among soldiers in the front.

Hausa/Fulani soldier had to be sorted out and protected from slaughter by Boko Haram forces. This is not to talk of unending betrayals of their Christian colleagues and commanders in the battlefront.

Buhari, a Fulani irredentist, will use to his advantage and for the benifits of his agenda to divide, the ethnic and religious cleavages among the people of Nigeria. But the people aught to know that the Fulani are friends to no one and that a Fulani friend today can become an adversary tomorrow. You are only friend to Fulani for as long as you continue to serve a purpose in their overall plan.
Let the talk cease and the battle begin. @basilokoh.

Looming war that will consumed you and your family only..

Looming war that will consumed you and your family only..





And you wish and pray for that to happened in your generation?









My broda relax, Nigerians of nowadays enjoy their lives than going into any senseless war..

Some people might have evil agenda, but we citizens shouldn't allowed them.





The Nigerian Civil War, The Cause And How It Ended

The Nigerian Civil War started on 6 July 1967 and ended on 15 January 1970 the war was an ethnically based oil war fought between Nigeria’s government and the secessionist state of Biafra, which led to millions of lives lost, mostly of starvation.

Biafra represented the Biafran people’s nationalist aspirations, whose leadership felt they could no longer coexist with the Northern-dominated Nigerian federal government. The war resulted from political, economic, ethnic, cultural, and religious tensions that preceded Britain’s formal decolonization of Nigeria from 1960 to 1963. The UK and the Soviet Union were the Nigerian government’s main supporters, while France, Israel, and some other countries supported Biafra.

The Nigerian troops surrounded Biafra within a year, capturing the coastal oil facilities and the city of Port Harcourt. Within the two and half years of the war, there were about 100,000 overall military casualties, while between 500,000 and 2 million Biafran civilians died of starvation.

The Biafran War

Shortly after extending its blockade to include oil, the Nigerian government launched a “police action” to retake the secessionist territory. The war started in the early hours of 6 July 1967 when the Nigerian troops advanced in two columns into Biafra. The Biafra strategy had succeeded. The Nigerian government started the war the East defended itself. The Nigerian Army offensive was through the north of Biafra led by Colonel Mohammed Shuwa, and the local military units were formed as the 1st Infantry Division. The division was led mostly by northern officers. After facing unexpectedly fierce resistance and high casualties, the right-hand Nigerian column advanced on the town of Nsukka, which fail on 14 July, while the left-hand column made for Garkem, which was captured on 12 July.

What Caused the Nigerian Civil War?

The Immediate causes of the war in 1966 included ethnoreligious riots in Northern Nigeria, a military coup, a counter-coup, and Igbo’s persecution in Northern Nigeria. Also, control over the lucrative oil production in the Niger Delta played a vital role. Still, the primary cause, as reflected in a statement made by the Igbo Eastern Military Governor, Lieutenant Colonel Chukuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, was inter-ethnic domination, as he was quoted to have said: “The brutal and planned annihilation of officers of Eastern Nigeria origin had cast serious doubt as to whether they could ever sincerely live together as members of a nation.”

End Of The Biafran War

With increased British support, the Nigerian federal forces launched their final offensive against the Biafrans on 23 December 1969, with a major thrust by the 3rd Marine Commando Division. The division was commanded by Col. Olusegun Obasanjo, which succeeded in splitting the Biafran enclave into two by the end of the year. The final Nigerian offensive, named “Operation Tail-Wind,” was launched on 7 January 1970 with the 3rd Marine Commando Division attacking, and supported by the 1st Infantry Division to the north and the 2nd Infantry Division to the south. The Biafran towns of Owerri fell on 9 January, and Uli on 11 January. A few days earlier, Col. Chuckwuemeka Ojukwu fled into exile by plane to Ivory Coast, leaving his deputy Philip Effiong to handle the details of the surrender to General Yakubu Gowon of the Nigerian Federal Army on 13 January 1970. The surrender paper was signed on 14 January 1970 in Lagos and thus came the end of the civil war and renunciation of secession.
The fighting ended a few days later, with the Nigerian forces advancing into the remaining Biafran-held territories met with little resistance.

When the war ended, Gen. Gowon said, “The tragic chapter of violence is just ended. We are at the dawn of national reconciliation. Once again, we have an opportunity to build a new nation. My dear compatriots, we must pay homage to the fallen, to the heroes who have made the supreme sacrifice that we may be able to build a nation, great in justice, fair trade, and industry.”

Watch the video: After the Nigeria vs Biafra Civil War (June 2022).