We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Steel Pan History and Development
Steel pans (steel drums)were created on the Caribbean island of Trinidad in the 1930s, but steel pan history can be traced back to the enslaved Africans who were brought to the islands during the 1700s.
They carried with them elements of their African culture including the playing of hand drums. These drums became the main percussion instruments in the annual Trinidadian carnival festivities.
In 1877, the ruling British government banned the playing of drums in an effort to suppress aspects of Carnival which were considered offensive. Bamboo stamping tubes were used to replace the hand drums as they produced sounds comparable to the hand drum when they were pounded on the ground.
These tubes were played in ensembles called tamboo bamboo bands.
Non-traditional instruments like scrap metal, metal containers, graters and dustbins were also used in tamboo bamboo bands. However, by the 1930’s these metal instruments dominated the tamboo bamboo bands. The bamboo tubes were eventually abandoned and replaced by the metal instruments.
These early metal pan bands were a rustic combination of a wide variety of metallic containers and kitchen utensils which were struck with open hands, fists or sticks.
The metal pan players discovered that the raised areas of the metal containers made a different sound to those areas that were flat. Through experimentation, coincidence, trial and error, and ingenuity on the part of numerous innovators, the metal pan bands evolved into the steel pan family of instruments.
As the pan makers knowledge and technique improved, so did the sound of the instrument.
For audio clips of vintage and contemporary steelbands click here.
STEEL PAN INNOVATORS
Several innovators throughout steel pan history have made significant contributions to the development of the instrument.
- Winston ‘Spree’ Simon - is credited with creating the first ‘melody pan’ which carried eight pitches. This was the first pan that could accommodate an entire melody.
He was also the first to sink the surface of a pan into its now characteristic concave shape (this allowed for more pitches to be placed on the playing surface).
Mr. Williams is also credited with being one of the first in steel pan history to use large 55 gallon drums as starting material for the pans, a tradition that continues to this day.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STEEL PAN
Despite the achievements and hard work of the innovators, modern day steel pans still have a few limitations.
- Most have a limited range compared to other instruments (approximately 11/2 octaves)
Steel pan is a work in progress. Pan makers around the world are constantly investigating ways to improve and refine the instrument.
SOCIAL ACCPETANCE OF STEEL PAN
When steel pans first emerged in the 1930’s they were not taken seriously. The instruments and their creators were looked down on by the upper class of Trinidad society because they were made and played by persons from the ghettos.
Also, criminal elements had an unfortunate love of steel band music. Performances of rival bands often ended in violence and steel pans were considered the instruments of hooligans!
Time and exposure eventually eroded this stigma and the steel pan is now the national instrument of the republic of Trinidad and Tobago and a source of great pride for its citizens. Steel pan and its innovators are now held in high regard by persons of all levels of society in Trinidad and Tobago.
The Pan-African Congresses, 1900-1945
In the nearly half century between 1900 and 1945, various political leaders and intellectuals from Europe, North America, and Africa met six times to discuss colonial control of Africa and develop strategies for eventual African political liberation. In the article that follows, historian Saheed Adejumobi describes the goals and objectives of these six Pan African Congresses and assesses their impact on Africa.
Pan-Africanist ideals emerged in the late nineteenth century in response to European colonization and exploitation of the African continent. Pan-Africanist philosophy held that slavery and colonialism depended on and encouraged negative, unfounded categorizations of the race, culture, and values of African people. These destructive beliefs in turn gave birth to intensified forms of racism, the likes of which Pan-Africanism sought to eliminate.
As a broader political concept, Pan-Africanism’s roots lie in the collective experiences of African descendants in the New World. Africa assumed greater significance for some blacks in the New World for two primary reasons. First, the increasing futility of their campaign for racial equality in the United States led some African Americans to demand voluntary repatriation to Africa. Next, for the first time the term Africans, which had often been used by racists as a derogatory description, became a source of pride for early black nationalists. Hence, through the conscious elevation of their African identity, black activists in America and the rest of the world began to reclaim the rights previously denied them by Western societies.
In 1897, Henry Sylvester-Williams, a West Indian Barrister, formed the African Association in London, England to encourage Pan-African unity especially throughout the British colonies. Sylvester-Williams, who had links with West African dignitaries, believed that Africans and those of African descent living in the Diaspora needed a forum to address their common problems. In 1900, Sylvester-Williams organized the first Pan-African meeting in collaboration with several black leaders representing various countries of the African Diaspora. For the first time, opponents of colonialism and racism gathered for an international meeting. The conference, held in London, attracted global attention, placing the word “Pan-African” in the lexicon of international affairs and making it part of the standard vocabulary of black intellectuals.
The initial meeting featured thirty delegates, mainly from England and the West Indies, but attracted only a few Africans and African Americans. Among them was black America’s leading intellectual, W.E.B. DuBois, who was to become the torchbearer of subsequent Pan-African conferences, or congresses as they later came to be called. Conference participants read papers on a variety of topics, including the social, political, and economic conditions of blacks in the Diaspora the importance of independent nations governed by people of African descent, such as Ethiopia, Haiti, and Liberia the legacy of slavery and European imperialism the role of Africa in world history and the impact of Christianity on the African continent. Perhaps of even greater significance was the formation of two committees. One group, chaired by DuBois, drafted an address “To the Nations of the World,” demanding moderate reforms for colonial Africa.
The address implored the United States and the imperial European nations to “acknowledge and protect the rights of people of African descent” and to respect the integrity and independence of “the free Negro States of Abyssinia, Liberia, Haiti, etc.” The address, signed by committee chairman DuBois as well as its president Bishop Alexander Walters, its vice president Henry B. Brown, and its general secretary Sylvester-Williams, was published and sent to Queen Victoria of England. The second committee planned for the formation of a permanent Pan-African association in London with branches overseas. Despite these ambitious plans, the appeals of conference participants made little or no impression on the European imperial powers who controlled the political and economic destiny of Africa.
It was not until after World War I that DuBois revived the Pan-African congresses. Following the war, European and American politicians gathered for a peace conference in Versailles, France. DuBois, who attended the conference as a special representative of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), appealed to President Woodrow Wilson. In a letter to Wilson, he urged the American government to initiate a comprehensive study of the treatment of black soldiers. Moreover, DuBois expressed hope that the peace treaty would address “the future of Africa” and grant self-determination to the colonized peoples. President Wilson subsequently released a Fourteen Point memorandum, which suggested the formation a League of Nations and called for “an absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based on the principle that the interests of the population must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government.” Although historians have questioned the impact DuBois’s request had on Wilson’s Fourteen Point memorandum, it was apparent that the loudest voice on behalf of oppressed blacks in the New World and colonized Africa belonged to the participants of the Pan-African Congress.
Galvanized by the gathering of world leaders and the discussion of colonial Africa’s future, DuBois proposed the formation of a Pan-African Congress. In 1919, as the Versailles Peace Treaty deliberations ran their course, DuBois, with the support of Blaise Diagne, a member of the French Parliament from the West African colony of Senegal, and funding from African American civil rights and fraternal organizations such as the NAACP, the Elks, and the Masons, convened a Pan-African Congress in Paris. The Congress, attended by approximately sixty representatives from sixteen nations, protectorates, and colonies, however, was more “pan” than African since most of the delegates had little, if any, first-hand knowledge of the African continent. Prominent American attendees included black members of the NAACP such as John Hope, president of Morehouse College, and Addie W. Hunton, who had served with black troops in France under the auspices of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), as well as white NAACP members, such as the Columbia University professor Joel Spingarn, the socialist William English Walling, and the socialist muckraking author Charles Edward Russell. Among the other delegates from the United States were Roscoe Conklin Simmons, a well-known black orator Rayford W. Logan, who had served with the U.S. Army in France black women’s rights activist Ida Gibbs Hunt and Dr. George Jackson, a black American missionary in the Congo.
Conference participants adopted a resolution calling for the drafting of a code of law “for the international protection of the natives of Africa.” Other demands called for direct supervision of colonies by the League of Nations to prevent economic exploitation by foreign nations to abolish slavery and capital punishment of colonial subjects who worked on the plantations of European colonial powers in Africa, especially in the Belgian Congo and to insist on colonial peoples’ right to education. Moreover, the gathering stressed the need for further congress meetings and suggested the creation of an international quarterly, the Black Review, which was to be published in several languages. While congress attendees insisted that African natives should be allowed eventually to participate in their own government, they did not demand African self-determination. Despite the moderate nature of the demands, the European and American powers represented at the Versailles Peace Conference remained noncommittal.
The Pan-African Congress reconvened in London in August 1921 and a month later in Brussels, Belgium. Both meetings featured representatives from the Americas, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa who echoed earlier Pan-Africanist reformist ideas, denouncing imperialism in Africa and racism in the United States. Moreover, the delegates demanded local self-government for colonial subjects and DuBois stressed the need for increased interracial contacts between members of the black intelligentsia and those concerned about the political and economic status of colonial peoples.
In 1923, the Pan-African Congress met in two separate sessions in London and in Lisbon, Portugal. Noted European intellectuals such as H.G. Wells and Harold Laski attended the London session. Several members of previous meetings participated in the deliberations that addressed the conditions of the African Diaspora as well as the global exploitation of black workers. While some scholars argue that the 1921 and 1923 congresses were effective only in keeping alive the idea of an oppressed people trying to abolish the yoke of discrimination, others claim that the international gatherings laid the foundation for the struggle that ultimately led to the political emancipation of the African continent.
Delegates reconvened for a fifth Pan-African Congress in New York in 1927. The congress featured 208 delegates from twenty-two American states and ten foreign countries. Africa, however, was represented only sparsely by delegates from the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The small number of African delegates was due in part to travel restrictions that the British and French colonial powers imposed on those interested in attending the congress, in an effort to inhibit further Pan-African gatherings. Most of the delegates were black Americans and many of them were women. The congress was primarily financed by Addie W. Hunton and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, an interracial organization that had been founded in 1919 by opponents of World War I. Similar to previous Pan-African congresses, participants discussed the status and conditions of black people throughout the world.
The financial crisis induced by the Great Depression and the military exigency generated by World War II necessitated the suspension of the Pan-African Congress for a period of eighteen years. In 1945, the organized movement was revived in Manchester, England. It is unclear whether DuBois or George Padmore, a West Indian Marxist, provided the initiative for this meeting. Recognizing DuBois’s historic contribution to the Pan-African movement, delegates named him president of the 1945 congress. The Manchester meeting marked a turning point in the history of the gatherings. For the first time representatives of political parties from Africa and the West Indies attended the meetings. Moreover, the conservative credo of the forum gave way to radical social, political, and economic demands. Congress participants unequivocally demanded an end to colonialism in Africa and urged colonial subjects to use strikes and boycotts to end the continent’s social, economic, and political exploitation by colonial powers.
While previous Pan-African congresses had been controlled largely by black middle-class British and American intellectuals who had emphasized the amelioration of colonial conditions, the Manchester meeting was dominated by delegates from Africa and Africans working or studying in Britain. The new leadership attracted the support of workers, trade unionists, and a growing radical sector of the African student population. With fewer African American participants, delegates consisted mainly of an emerging crop of African intellectual and political leaders, who soon won fame, notoriety, and power in their various colonized countries.
The final declaration of the 1945 congress urged colonial and subject peoples of the world to unite and assert their rights to reject those seeking to control their destinies. Congress participants encouraged colonized Africans to elect their own governments, arguing that the gain of political power for colonial and subject peoples was a necessary prerequisite for complete social, economic, and political emancipation. This politically assertive stance was supported by a new generation of African American activists such as the actor and singer Paul Robeson, the minister and politician Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and the educator and political activist William A. Hunton Jr. who took an increasing interest in Africa.
While the Pan-African congresses lacked financial and political power, they helped to increase international awareness of racism and colonialism and laid the foundation for the political independence of African nations. African leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Nnamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria, and Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya were among several attendees of congresses who subsequently led their countries to political independence. In May 1963, the influence of these men helped galvanize the formation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), an association of independent African states and nationalist groups.
At the end of the 1930s and into the 1940s, the responsibility of female flight attendants grew. marginally: They cleaned the cabin, dusted, bolted down seats, restrained passengers from tossing garbage out of windows, and even helped fuel the planes. The functionality of uniforms improved as "restrained elegance" in the sky took hold: Take the 1944 TWA suit imagined by Hollywood fashion designer Howard Greer, which introduced the “blou-slip,” an undergarment in rayon and satin that didn't need constant tucking in. Noting uniforms as the industry progresses is important, says John Hill, assistant director of Aviation at San Francisco International Airport's SFO Museum, because they trace "quite vividly" the development of commercial aviation.
In 1945, flight attendants founded the present-day Association of Flight Attendants union, originally known as the Airline Stewardess Association, or "ALSA."
Pan American World Airways stewardesses in uniforms by Don Loper, 1959.
Courtesy SFO Museum/Terry J. Rice
Pan Timeline - History
“Pan Africanism can be said to have its origins in the struggles of the African people against enslavement and colonisation” Dr Tajudeen Abdul-Raheem (Pan Africanism: Politics, Economy and Social Change in the Twenty-first Century) And this struggle may be traced back to the first resistance on slave ships – rebellions and suicides – through the constant plantation and colonial uprisings and the “Back to Africa” movements of the nineteenth century.
However, it was in the twentieth century that Pan Africanism emerged as a distinct political movement initially formed and led by people from the Diaspora (people of African heritage living outside of the Continent). In 1900, the Trinindadian barrister – Henry Sylvester Williams – called a conference that took place in Westminster Hall, London to “protest stealing of lands in the colonies, racial discrimination and deal with other issues of interest to Blacks”.
This conference drafted a letter to the Queen of England and other European rulers appealing to them to fight racism and grant independence to their colonies. It was the African American scholar and writer, Dr W.E.B. Du Bois who convened the first Pan African Congress in 1919, in Paris, France. Again it demanded independence for African nations. Further congresses – essentially extended meetings of like-minded Africans searching for a way forward - were held in 1921 (London, Brussels, Paris), 1923 (London and Lisbon), 1927 (New York).
Each reiterated and refined the demands for rights and freedom and built support for the cause. However, perhaps the most significant was the 5th Congress held in Manchester in 1945. For the first time, a large number of Africans from the Continent were present and the meeting provided impetus and momentum for the numerous post-war independence movements.
This Congress also reserved the right of the colonised, once peaceful methods had been exhausted, to use force to take forward their struggle for self-determination. Just over a decade later in 1958, Kwame Nkrumah, first leader of independent Ghana called a meeting in the capital city, Accra, of all the independent African states – Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Liberia, Morocco and Ethiopia – in order that they should recommit themselves to supporting independence for the rest of the Continent.
By 1963, there were 31 independent nations. Some were agitating for immediate Continental political union while others favoured slower steps towards unity.
Emerging from the exchanges between the two camps, the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was formed in May, 1963. Throughout the twentieth century, cultural Pan Africanism weaved through the politcal narrative – the Harlem Renaissance, Francophone philosophies of Negritude, Afrocentrism, Rastafarianism and Hip Hop. Artists of African origin and heritage have found inspiration in and been drawn to exploring and communicating their connections with the Continent.
Post-independence, a new generation of African writers – such as Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka, Bessie Head gave voice to issues that could be recognised throughout the Continent (links to other pages from the key words here). The 6th Pan African Congress in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania in 1974 took place fuelled by the radical Black movements sweeping the Diaspora espousing militant Black pride and fighting white domination with Black separatist organisation.
The Congress was attended by 52 delegations from Africa, the Caribbean, the Americas, Britain and the Pacific. Disappointed by the OAU's lack of engagement with the Diaspora, this Congress restated the global unity of Black peoples struggling for liberation.
Inspired by the principles of self-reliance being instituted by the Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere, many hoped also to give concrete support to the new wave of independence movements in Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe and South Africa – but the Congress was unable to create clear structures to enable such action.
The 7th and last Congress in Kampala, Uganda in 1994 sort to rectify this by setting up a permanent organisational structure to carry forward decisions taken at the Congress meetings. Still, divisions and debates remained – was Pan Africanism a movement of the people or had it now been taken over by governments, were Black Africans of Sub-Saharan origin the only true Africans? Pan Africanism is no different from any other broad based and passionate political movement.
It contains diverse and sometimes opposing opinions about the best way to fulfill the common objective of the self-determination of Africa and African peoples around the world. The 7th Congress aimed to reconcile differences and create a wide and open coalition of all citizens of African countries and Diasporic people of African heritage who wished to commit themselves to the liberation of the Continent and the Diaspora.
There have been no further congresses but Pan Africanism remains a vital force in Continental and Diasporic culture and politics.
A Brief, Delightful History of the Bundt Pan
Bundts (or, at least, the confections that inspired them) may be generations-old Eastern European cakes, but the signature aluminum pan they&rsquore baked in is a modern innovation.
Bundts (or, at least, the confections that inspired them) may be generations-old Eastern European cakes, but the signature aluminum pan they’re baked in is a modern innovation. Bundt pans were invented by H. David Dalquist in 1950, and today we use them to make those classic cakes and also to roast up extra-crispy-skinned chicken.
Dalquist was the owner of Minnesota&aposs Nordic Ware company, and he cast the pan for the Minneapolis-based Hadassah Society (a group for Jewish women), which wanted to recreate traditional kugelhopf𠅊 dense, ring-shaped cake. Originally, he called his invention a bund pan, for the German word that translates to "bond" or "alliance." Why did he add the T? No one knows, though some speculate that Dalquist wanted to put some space between the name of his product and the German-American Bund, a pro-Nazi group. Others guess it was was for trademarking purposes.
Demand for the distinctly shaped aluminum cakes grew slowly after that initial order, but it wasn’t until 1966 when production really blew up—thanks to a Bundt cake placing second in the 17th annual Pillsbury Bake-Off. The gooey, chocolaty cake (called the Tunnel of Fudge Cake) inspired women around the country to try making their own Bundt cakes. Dalquist was inundated with orders and started making 30,000 Bundt pans a day. Today, more than 70 million households have a Bundt pan. Dalquist died in 2005 at the age of 86, still overseeing the production of his hit pan.
Experience an elevated take on the cake that made the Bundt pan famous with expert baker Matt Lewis’s Tunnel of Fudge Cake with Hazelnuts.
The rise and fall of Pan Am
Irene Kim: Pan Am was once the largest international airline in the US. In 1970 alone, it carried 11 million passengers to 86 countries worldwide. Pan Am is also known as the pioneer of multiple features of modern air travel, and it also holds cult status for its iconic aviation style. But after 60 years of flight and decades of financial turbulence, Pan Am went bust. So what happened?
Pan American Airways was founded by two US Air Force majors. It began as an airmail service between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba, in 1927 and was the United States' first scheduled international flight. Within a year, aviation visionary Juan Trippe took the controls, and Pan Am introduced its first passenger services to Havana. An ad campaign cosponsored by Pan Am and Bacardi successfully encouraged Americans to fly away from alcohol prohibition in the US to drink rum in the sun in Cuba. And Trippe quickly expanded Pan Am's network.
By 1930, Pan Am was flying routes through most of Central and South America. Crucially, it used a fleet of flying boats, or clippers, to land aircraft on the water at destinations that didn't have concrete runways for traditional planes. Since they flew seaplanes, Pan Am pilots wore sea captains' uniforms, a decision that still influences aviation uniforms today. And there were far more important innovations that Pan Am developed in its early days of flight.
David Slotnick: Everything from things we take for granted today, like air traffic control and different flight procedures, different ways of forecasting the weather, of flight planning. Pan Am was the first airline to fly around the world. They actually set a few different records about that. They were the first to fly from the US across the Pacific. It was really a lot. They launched this international service that really helped define what we have today as just regular air travel.
Kim: By 1958, Pan Am offered regular flights to every continent on the planet except Antarctica, giving itself the title of "The world's most experienced airline." Pan Am's modern fleet of pressurized aircraft could fly smoothly above turbulent weather, which provided a comfortable experience for passengers. Its lavish cabins were staffed by a multilingual, college-educated flight crew who served luxurious meals like steak, Champagne, and caviar.
Commercial: On October 26, 1958, Pan Am becomes the first American airline to fly jet aircraft. A Pan Am Boeing 707 streaks from New York to Paris in eight hours. The world enters the jet age.
Kim: The powerful new jet engines, which could fly nonstop over long distances, allowed Pan Am to introduce daily flights to London and Paris. And with the introduction of economy class, Pan Am opened the world of air travel to tourists, not just the rich and famous. In 1970, Pan Am carried 11 million customers over 20 billion miles. Thinking that air travel would only continue to grow, Pan Am invested half a billion dollars in a large fleet of Boeing 747 jetliners.
But this would turn out to be a big mistake.
In October 1973, the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries declared an oil embargo against nations, including the US, that were supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War. By the end of the embargo in March 1974, the price of oil had risen by more than 400%. This hit Pan Am harder than other airlines because of its exclusively long-haul flights, which required more fuel.
Slotnick: They were the launch customer for the Boeing 747. At the time, that was a great airplane for them to buy. That was the right choice, but the oil crisis really changed things for Pan Am. It was all of the sudden the wrong plane to have. It wasn't the most efficient. It was flying routes that really weren't selling that well because demand for travel was going down, and that was a very difficult time. But when they made the decision to buy the planes, who would've known?
Kim: While Pan Am's operating costs skyrocketed, the economy slowed, and America's appetite for international air travel greatly reduced, leaving Pan Am dangerously overcapacity, with huge, half-empty jets taking to the skies. As a result, between 1969 and 1976, Pan Am lost about $364 million and was estimated to be $1 billion in debt.
Pan Am had long hoped to add domestic flights within the US to its operation and even talked to a number of domestic operators, including American and United Airlines, to propose a merger. But rival airlines convinced the US Congress that Pan Am threatened to monopolize US aviation, and the Civil Aeronautics Board repeatedly denied Pan Am permission to operate domestically. But in 1978, the Airline Deregulation Act was passed into United States federal law, meaning the government could no longer control airline routes. Pan Am was now allowed to acquire a domestic system, and it hastily purchased National Airlines for $437 million.
Barnaby Conrad III: It cost a tremendous amount of money to acquire this particular airline, to get the routes. They obviously made a choice. They couldn't build from scratch. They needed to go out and buy something. You basically had two cultures going on: Pan Am, very worldly, sophisticated, international. Then you had National Airlines. They were sort of puddle jumpers. They were considered country pilots, so there was a mix of culture that didn't work there. Then you had different kind of aircraft, and so mechanics had never worked on certain airplanes. I think there was a mismatch there too, personnel, different airports. Just in general, it was really a small southern airline that was matching up with an international airline.
Kim: Within a year of the National Airlines purchase, Pan Am lost $18.9 million, even after selling its iconic Manhattan head office for $400 million. Pan Am continued to self-liquidate to offset its losses. In addition to trading its hotel chains, it sold its entire Pacific division to United Airlines.
But Pan Am still had a global reputation as the flagship US airline. However, this claim to fame would attract a devastating terrorist attack above the skies of Lockerbie, Scotland.
Kenny MacAskill: On the 21st of December, 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 took off from Heathrow. It was bound for New York. It was never scheduled to either touch down or land in Scotland. A bomb that had been placed on board accordingly blew up over a small town in the southwest of Scotland called Lockerbie. 259 people all aboard the plane were killed, passengers and crew, and 11 citizens in the small community of Lockerbie were also killed. Pan Am were held culpable and negligent in failing to have adequate security measures. You can have some sympathy for Pan Am, because their defense, if it was a defense at the time, was simply that they had carried out the normal security measures that the entire aviation industry did. But the courts took the view that that was inadequate. They had failed to properly secure the airplane, and as a consequence, a bag had got on board that shouldn't have been on board in the first place. But Pan Am, you can say, took the hit metaphorically as well as literally for an industry where security standards had not got up to speed.
Kim: The Lockerbie bombing cost Pan Am more than $350 million and proved to be the final blow to the once giant airline.
Just two years later, on January 8, 1991, Pan Am filed for bankruptcy.
After a bidding war, Delta Airlines purchased the majority of Pan Am for $1.4 billion, acquiring its European routes, its northeastern shuttle routes, 45 jets, its mini-hub in Frankfurt, Germany, and its flagship Pan Am Worldport terminal at JFK International Airport. Pan Am hoped to emerge from bankruptcy court, but after realizing it was losing $3 million per day, Delta stopped its cash advances. After failing to raise money from other sources, a phone call was made to Pan Am's head office on December 4, 1991. The message was: "Shut it down."
Conrad: Pan American Airways went bankrupt, and they shut down services. It broke people's hearts, really, not just the people that worked for the airline, but for many other people that flew it and knew it, and it was the flagship airline of America. Pan Am, this legendary airline with its legendary logo, was the second most recognized trademark in the world at the time. A group of friends of mine actually bought those trademarks, and, in fact, I was one of the investors in that group. We bought those trademarks. Unfortunately, Charles Cobb, who was the largest investor, wanted to start the airline again, and we said, "But it didn't work last time." We parted ways. He bought us out. He slapped the Pan Am globe on this airline, which is sort of like putting the Pan Am globe on a Greyhound bus. It lasted a couple of months, and it crashed. All the other attempts to do something else with the trademark have failed.
Kim: But Pan Am's legacy continues to be felt almost 30 years after its collapse. Its innovations remain the pillars of modern air travel. Its brand style has survived throughout the decades as an iconic mid-century fashion statement, with products featuring its sleek, retro logo still being sold. And the Pan Am lifestyle is still romanticized in TV and movies. But the airline itself remains grounded.
EDITOR'S NOTE: This video was originally published in February 2020.
Pan Timeline - History
This timeline is still in draft form. We hope to complete it in the not too distant future !
We welcome contributions, suggestions, or corrections from anyone who would like to
add to this Timeline.
Scientists who developed the model said the blood levels would be reached only after repeated exposure for more than six years. . DuPont has known that Little Hocking's wells were contaminated since at least 1984, court records show.
• DuPont, Summary of Toxicity Studies on Fluorocarbon Dispersing Agents in Dogs and Rats (1962) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Pathogenic Action Following Repeated Oral Administration of C8APFC
(FC-143) in Male CRCD Rats (2/9/62) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Pathogenic Action Following Single Oral Administration of C8APFC
(FC-143) in Male CRCD Rats (2/14/62) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Effect of Fluorocarbon Dispersing Agents on the Livers of Rats and Dogs (8/19/65) (Ref. 3)
• Clayton, W.J., The Mammalian Toxicology of Organic Compounds Containing Flourine (Pharmacology of Fluorides, (Frank A. Smith, Ed.) (1966) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Memo Re: Bioassay Results from the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences Concerning Toxicity of C-8 and Triton Discharges to Ohio River (10/18/66) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Acute Oral Test of APFO in Male CHRCD Rats (6/13/68) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Acute Inhalation Dust Toxicity of APFO in Rats (6/17/68) (Ref. 3)
1970 Chad Holliday joins DuPont as an engineer. (Ref. 1)
• Biosearch, Inc., Primary Eye Irritation Study - Rabbits (for 3M) (3/4/76) (Ref. 3)
• Biosearch, Inc., Primary Skin Imtation Study - Rabbits (for 3M) (3/4/76) (Ref. 3)
• Biosearch, inc., Acute oral Toxicity - Rats (for 3M) (3/4/76) (Ref. 3)
• BioneticsLitton., Ames Salmonella/Microsome Assay (for 3M) ( 12/20/77) (Ref. 3)
• 3M Env. Lab., IRDC 137-088 FM-3422/Monkey Tests (8/16/78) (Ref. 3)
• E.G. & G. Bionomics, Summary of Histopathological Examinations of Fathead Minnow Exposed to 78:03 (FC-143) for 30 days (for 3M) (9/78) (Ref. 3)
• Int'l Res. & Devel. Corp., 90-Day Subacute Rat Toxicity Study Fluorad FC- 143 (for 3M) (11/6/78) (Ref. 3)
• Int'l Res. & Devel. Corp., 90-Day Subacute Rhesus Monkey Toxicity Study
Fluorad FC-143 (For 3M) (11/10/78) (Ref. 3)
• Schneider, P. W., DuPont Haskell Lab. Memo Re: 3M's Fluorad Fluorochemical FC-143 Toxicity Studies (315179) (Ref. 3)
• Steiner, C.E., DuPont Memo Re: C-8 Communications Meeting - Outline, Talk & Charts (7/31/80) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Inhalation Subacute: APFO (Albino Male Rats) (7/20/79) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Skin Irritation Test on Rabbits: FC-143 (10/5/79) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Eye Irritation Test in Rabbits: FC-143 (10/5/79) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Skin Absorption LDSO-Rabbit and Rat: FC-143 (10/26/79) (Ref. 3)
• Ophaug, R.H. and Singer, L., Metabolic Handling of PFOA in Rats, 163
Proceedings of Soc. for Exp. Biol. Medic. 19-23 (1980) (Ref. 3)
• Griffith, F.D. and Long, J.E., Animal Toxicitv Studies with APFO, 41 Am. Ind.
Hyg. ASSOC. J. 576-583 (1980) (Ref. 3)
• Riker Lab., Absorption of FC-143 in Rats After A Single Oral Dose (for 3M)
(1/17/80) (Ref. 3)
• 3M Env. Lab., Aquatic Toxicity Testing: FC- 143 (Fathead Minnows) (5/8/80) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskeil Lab., Skin Absorption LDSO-Female Rats: FC-143 (9/22/80) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Rat Skin Absorption Subacute Study With FC-143 (Male
CHR-CD Rats) ( I 0/10/80) (Ref. 3)
• 3M Env. Lab., Daphnid Bioassay: CS-2151 (2/5/81)
• 3M Env., Lab., Oral Rangefinder Study of T-2998COC (APFO) in Pregnant Rats (3/12/81)
• Univ. of Minn. (Env Pathology Lab), An Assay of Cell Transformation and Cytotoxicity in C3H 10T 1/2 Clonal Cell Line for the Test Chemical T-2942 COC (for 3M) (3/4/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Subacute Inhalation Toxicity of Pentadecafluorooctonoic Acid, Ammonium Salt in Rats (4/15/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Guinea Pigs (6/1/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Rats (6/1/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Mice (6/17/81)
• 3M Env. Lab, Acute Effect of CS-2 15 1 on Microbial Respiration (8/24/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral Acute Toxicity Comparison Test in Rats (9/29/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Rats (9/30/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Liver Weight Comparison in Castrated and Ovariectomized Rats vs. Normal Rats (10/7/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Mouse Feeding Study - 14 Day (10/26/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., APFO Blood Levels in the Female Rat (12/7/81)
• 3M Company, Oral Teratology Study of T-2998COC (C8FC-143) in Rats (as amended 12/15/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., The Effects of Dowex Ion Exchange Resin on the Toxicity of C-8 in Rats (12/31/81)
• 3M Env. Lab., Multi-Phase ExposureiRecovery Algal Assay Test Method (FC-143) (11/16/81)
Our history and trajectory
The first image of the Osito Bimbo® was drawn by Mrs. Anita Mata, who was inspired by the image of a bear she saw on a Christmas card received by Mr. Jaime Jorba. Alfonso Velasco modified the nose thus giving the character his first distinctive characteristic we all know and love today.
A couple of years later, the Osito underwent a slight modification. The illustration style became cleaner and more defined. Some red accents were added along with the B (from Bimbo®) on the chef's hat.
Taking advantage of the new printing processes, the character evolved to a full color version. His features became more rounded to help communicate and emphasize his tenderness and kind character.
The classic illustration style of the Osito evolved to a more linear version. For the first time he was seen on a frontal view, rather than a side view, letting his smile be seen by everyone!
A few years later, the Osito got a new look that was a mix of various styles of his predecessors. He regained the fluffiness and volume of the 1950's iteration along with some features that are now a trademark of how he looks today, such as his smile, eyelashes and nose as well as his tongue and paws.
By the mid 90's, the style of the Osito became more animated to make him more cheerful. The general outline resembles fur but the inside of the body remains clean, emphasizing only light and shadows on the body, chef's hat and apron. His eyes now display a blue iris, making them look more jovial.
A few years later, the Osito was modified to make him look younger, more like a cub. His proportions changed to represent his new age with his head noticeably larger than his predecessors.
Bimbo® has always been characterized as being in the vanguard of technological development and the Osito, as its spokesman, must be as well. He leaves his 2D and cartoonish appearance behind to join us in the 3D world!
A SPOKESMAN LIKE NO OTHER
Nowadays, Osito has recovered some features that were lost during his first transition to the 3D world, like the whiteness of his fur or the clearly distinctive blue iris in his eyes. His physique is leaner than predecessors but he keeps some rounded attributes in the ears, cheeks and paws.
An added benefit of these modifications is that they also help with the printing processes. As the main spokesman of the brand, his presence on every package is of the upmost importance!
In 1996, a group of investors, which included a former employee of Wagner, purchased the Wagner and Griswold cookware lines. This was known as the WagnerWare Corporation.
They continued manufacturing for another 3 years before closing their doors in Sidney in 1999. In 2000, the American Culinary Corporation purchased the rights, legacy, and remaining facilities of the Wagner and Griswold lines.
The former employee noted above is Peter Pike and is the President/CEO of the American Culinary Corporation. It is clear that Mr. Pike is dedicated to the legacy and quality of the Wagner and Griswold names.
PAGE 2 || PAGE 3 || PAGE 4
Are you interested in buying vintage cast iron?
Please check out my post on how I acquired my first piece of Wagner Cast Iron. It might be a different scenario than you think!
Curious about enameled cast iron? The pretty, colorful stuff – read my blog entry for some of the finer points of Enameled Cast Iron vs. Cast Iron.
PAGE 2 || PAGE 3 || PAGE 4
Here are some comments from our old blog:
SEPTEMBER 2, 2013 AT 8:23 AM
Why is that Wagner 1058 Skillet silver on the outside? (the top picture) It is one of the aluminum skillets? J
SEPTEMBER 3, 2013 AT 1:23 PM
It isn’t aluminum but is just the raw cast iron. It was actually covered, and I mean covered, with black, gunk-y, cracked seasoning. So I had no idea that the hammered finish was there. After a few hours with some oven cleaner the beautiful, hammered finish was exposed.
Thanks for the question.
SEPTEMBER 17, 2013 AT 7:12 PM
How much is a Wagner Ware 1060 A worth?
SEPTEMBER 23, 2013 AT 5:02 PM
how much is a fat free fryer worth 12 or 121/2 inch with ridges.
SEPTEMBER 25, 2013 AT 10:22 AM
It depends a lot on the condition but it could be from $50 – $170++. Check out eBay periodically to get a good idea. Also, is that one of the deep versions?
SEPTEMBER 25, 2013 AT 8:45 PM
is more like 11 inchs. is 2 inchs deep. good condition. does wagner make lids. would like to buy a lid.
SEPTEMBER 30, 2013 AT 6:26 PM
See the 3.2 Quart Lodge LCC3 Cast Iron Combo Cooker at AmazonHi Diane! Thanks for stopping by here again.
I think you could have a nice piece on your hands! What are the markings on the bottom? Can you tell me the labeling and lettering? Wagner does have lids and you’d have to watch eBay for a week or two to find the right one for you. The prices range from about $9 – over $50. Let me know if you need help locating a suitable lid.
SEPTEMBER 25, 2013 AT 8:54 PM
says 11 3/8 is the size and 2 inchs deep. does wagner make lids?
SEPTEMBER 25, 2013 AT 11:39 PM
i have my mothers corn bread pan, wagner c heavy. believe from 1950′s any information about it.
SEPTEMBER 25, 2013 AT 11:53 PM
what is older wagner ware or wagner. i have a wagner fat free fryer and corn bread pan. think the corn bread pan c is from the 1950′s
SEPTEMBER 30, 2013 AT 6:32 PM
Hey Diane! Nice to see you back here. Can you tell me what is written on the bottom of the cornbread pan? That’s super cool that you have it. What is your standard cornbread recipe?
SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 AT 8:13 PM
My dad has a Wagner 1891 original cast iron tea pot that is rustled or deteriorated inside Frm yrs of keeping water in it on their wood burning stove. Is it possible to clean the inside and is it of any value?
SEPTEMBER 30, 2013 AT 6:46 PM
Hi Margaret! Thanks for coming by.
Well, you can clean the inside but it will definitely take some work. Review some of the processes here. There’s another step after the oven cleaner sessions where you treat the rusted area with a 50/50 mix of vinegar and water. The acid of the vinegar helps to remove the rust.
However, the kettle might not be a “collectible” though it will probably hold some sentimental value. So, in the 1990s the company that owned the Wagner name started to make “The Wagner’s 1891 Original Cast Iron” series in commemoration of the original cast iron company. The bottom line is that if the tea pot says “1891 Original” then, against logic, the cast iron piece is probably only about 20 years old. Anyway, let me know about what the bottom of the tea pot says.
JULY 13, 2014 AT 8:22 PM
I inherited my grandmothers deep skillet which looks just like the one at the top of this site. However when trying to clean it up and put in the oven to season it the sheen turned to a thick glue like substance. I’ve no idea how to clean it. It doesn’t scrape out easily at all
OCTOBER 3, 2013 AT 12:33 AM
I’ve always favored cast iron, and particularly Wagner or Griswold because they had smooth finishes to cook on. Easier to care for too. The “L” word while they have a fine line-up are too rough. I miss the craftsmanship. Thanks for a great site. Now to find steel skillets.
OCTOBER 7, 2013 AT 12:01 PM
Hi Greg, Thanks for coming by… You have precisely described the way I found Wagner and Griswold. I had a small set of Lodge cookware that I assembled over the last few years and they were just so rough. I eventually sanded down the interior of the pans and skillets to smooth them out. It’s remarkable how nice the Lodge pans are after sanded them. You got it right – a craftsman used to sand each one of the pieces of cookware down. The difference is really something.
What’s your prize piece of cast iron cookware?
OCTOBER 3, 2013 AT 12:40 AM
Margaret’s cleaning question reminded me of something I did 20 years ago. I had a dutch oven that was seriously deteriorated with thick rust to boot. I worked at a place that had a shot peening machine. I put the oven in it and in minutes shot peening cleaned the oven to bare clean metal ready for a wash and seasoning. I tried for 2 days to clean it before that. We still use it to this day.
OCTOBER 7, 2013 AT 11:05 AM
Looking for a polished inside cast iron skillet that has handle with opposing loop on other side. My first one 10 to 10 1/8 inches was a Wagner and was stolen! Ugh. I like the ease of two hand pick up with the loop. Know where I could find one. I still have the lid from my old one, but if one is available with lid – I could always use an extra lid.
OCTOBER 7, 2013 AT 12:09 PM
Hi Jill – Oh, no. Sorry to hear about the theft.
eBay is the place to go for vintage cast iron since eBay is kind of like a consolidation of all the garage & estate sales across the country. There is a huge range of prices and quality. Try a search like “wagner 10 inch skillet” or “wagner #8 skillet” and you should have 10 or more results. Monitor for a couple weeks and if you’re savvy, you can set up an email alert to send you a message when new items are listed that meet your criteria.
Let me know if you have any other questions. Thanks!