Jesuit School of Theology

Jesuit School of Theology

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The Jesuit School of Theology was established in 1934, as Alma College. Located in Los Gatos, California, it was founded to serve the needs of two Jesuit provinces, California and Oregon.In February 1969, the school relocated to Berkeley, California, to become one of the member schools of the Graduate Theological Union and placing it in close proximity to the University of California Berkeley. The Board of Trustees voted to change the name of Alma College to the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, in June of 1969.Today, the school is one of only two Jesuit theological centers in the United States operated by the Society of Jesus. Aware of its own unique geographical and demographic location, the Jesuit School intends to be an international center for the study of theology and ministry, and has students from all over the world.The Jesuit School is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, the American Association of Theological Schools, and by the Vatican Congregation of Catholic Education as an Ecclesiastical Faculty of Theology.Today's church requires leaders who are capable of working with different cultures. At the Jesuit School of Theology, students come from more than 40 countries to learn how to minister to various constituencies across the globe.

The Jesuit School of Philosophy and Theology offers two undergraduate courses, philosophy and theology, and two graduate courses, philosophy (master's degree) and theology (master's degree and doctorate). Theology is also offered as a specialization course.

FAJE is maintained by the civil nonprofit and philanthropic Jesuit Education Association and Social Assistance (AJEAS) based in Belo Horizonte, through its subsidiary, the Vocational Technical Institute of St. Ignatius. It grew out of the Faculty of Philosophy created in 1941 in Nova Friburgo and was transferred to São Paulo in 1966, then to Rio de Janeiro in 1975 and finally to Belo Horizonte in 1982. The Faculty of Theology was founded in São Leopoldo in 1949, where it remained until being moved to Belo Horizonte, forming with the Faculty of Philosophy a single educational center for Jesuits from both Brazil and abroad. It is also open to students of the diocesan clergy, religious congregations, and lay men and women. The Vatican Congregation for Catholic Education approved on 5 December 1983 the Statutes of the CES for four years and on 25 July 1989 definitively ratified its approval. [2]

Scholar Commons

The Jesuit School of Theology of Santa Clara University (JST-SCU) is a theological school faithful to the intellectual tradition and the apostolic priority of the Society of Jesus: reverent and critical service of the faith that does justice. As such, JST-SCU shares Santa Clara’s strategic commitment to a Jesuit education grounded in an engaged pedagogy for the formation of leaders of competence, conscience, and compassion.

JST-SCU achieves its mission primarily through the academic, pastoral, and personal formation of Jesuits and other candidates for ministry, ordained and lay, in the Roman Catholic Church. As an Ecclesiastical Faculty of Theology, it prepares men and women to serve the Church as scholars and teachers. It fulfills this mission in the ecumenical and interfaith context of the nine-member Graduate Theological Union and the adjacent University of California at Berkeley.

The 9 Best Jesuit Colleges for Undergraduates

Below, we reveal our picks for the top nine Jesuit colleges in the US. Each school includes a ranking (remember that these are still somewhat subjective), information about the school, and links to the school's official website and our PrepScholar admissions page for it.

#1 (Tie): Boston College

A well-known liberal arts college, Boston College ranks highly on several best colleges lists and offers a vast array of more than 60 undergraduate majors.

Boston College maintains strong ties to its Jesuit roots and strives to share tenets of Catholicism with students of all faiths and backgrounds. The school offers a daily Catholic Mass service and regular talks and symposia on Catholicism. It also provides more than 200 options for student organizations.

The freshman retention rate at Boston College is particularly high at 95%.

  • Location: Chestnut Hill, MA
  • Acceptance Rate:27%
  • Popular Majors:Economics, biology, psychology

The very majestic-looking Georgetown University (Flapane/Wikimedia Commons)

#1 (Tie): Georgetown University

Ranked among the top 25 schools nationwide on several rankings lists, Georgetown is one of the most well-known and competitive Jesuit colleges in the US. Each year, more than 20,000 applicants vie for spots in Georgetown's freshman class—and less than 20% are successful.

In addition to being a highly prestigious research university, Georgetown is the oldest Jesuit college in the country. The school takes immense pride in its rich history and Jesuit roots.

Students can choose from more than 200 clubs, from religious and cultural groups to academic and social organizations. More than 60% of classes have fewer than 20 students, ensuring that all students receive ample individual attention and assistance.

Lastly, the school has a 96% freshman retention rate—one of the highest among Jesuit colleges.

  • Location: Washington, DC
  • Acceptance Rate:14%
  • Popular Majors:Social sciences, business, marketing

#3 (Tie): College of the Holy Cross

College of the Holy Cross is a small college located in the vibrant college town of Worcester (about 45 minutes from Boston). With more than a dozen schools in the area, Worcester offers Holy Cross students tons of dining, nightlife, and recreational options. Even on campus, students have access to numerous activities, including more than 100 student clubs.

Holy Cross has a predominantly Catholic student body, though students of all faiths are welcome. Every year, the school presents opportunities to participate in spiritual retreats and other religious events.

Holy Cross is also the only Jesuit school that caters specifically to undergraduates (meaning that there are no graduate programs). So if you're looking for a college that focuses on undergraduate education, this could be a great choice for you.

Its student/faculty ratio is 10:1—one of the best ratios of Jesuit colleges. Around 60% of all Holy Cross classes have fewer than 20 students, so you can rest assured you'll get ample attention and guidance in your studies.

Holy Cross currently has an extremely impressive freshman retention rate of 96%.

  • Location: Worcester, MA
  • Acceptance Rate:34%
  • Popular Majors:Foreign languages, English, psychology

#3 (Tie): Saint Louis University

Saint Louis University was founded in 1818 and is the second-oldest Jesuit college in the US. Open to students of all faiths, SLU offers approximately 90 majors and academic programs—more than most Jesuit colleges do—as well as tons of extracurricular opportunities, including more than 150 clubs and 20 sororities and fraternities. SLU's Campus Ministry organizes multiple mission trips and retreats throughout the school year as well.

As a Jesuit college, SLU is committed to aiding the community. Each year, SLU students contribute more than one million hours of community service. The school also has an overseas campus in Madrid, where students can study for all four years or just a semester.

Of all Jesuit colleges, SLU offers the lowest student/faculty ratio at 9:1, and around 47% of its classes contain fewer than 20 students. SLU has a high freshman retention rate of 90%.

  • Location: St. Louis, MO
  • Acceptance Rate:58%
  • Popular Majors:Health business parks, recreation, leisure, and fitness studies

DuBourg Hall at Saint Louis University

#5: Santa Clara University

Based an hour outside of San Francisco in Silicon Valley, Santa Clara University has a very high 95% freshman retention rate and more than 50 undergraduate majors.

Founded in 1851 by the Society of Jesus, SCU closely follows the traditional Jesuit principles of ethics and social justice, and offers a Jesuit School of Theology. Additionally, the college strongly emphasizes sustainability and was named a top Green College in 2018 by The Princeton Review.

Many of SCU's 500+ professors are renowned Fulbright scholars, famous authors and poets, and successful scientists. What is perhaps most impressive about SCU, however, is that its graduates hold the honor of having the highest median salary of any Jesuit college: $65,200.

  • Location: Santa Clara, CA
  • Acceptance Rate:49%
  • Popular Majors:Business, engineering, communication

#6: Loyola Marymount University

The biggest Catholic university on the West Coast, Loyola Marymount University houses more than 6,500 undergraduates, as well as seven schools that specialize in fields such as education, law, and business administration.

With about 150 student organizations, including almost 15 Greek chapters, LMU provides easy access to recreational and employment opportunities in Los Angeles, where regional offices for companies such as YouTube, Buzzfeed, and Google are based.

LMU is proud of its diversity its student body contains not only representatives from almost every US state but also international students from numerous countries, such as Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. LMU has a student/faculty ratio of 10:1, with more than 50% of its classes containing fewer than 20 students.

The freshman retention rate is fairly high at 90%. What's more, 99% of graduates are currently employed, volunteering, or attending graduate school.

  • Location: Los Angeles, CA
  • Acceptance Rate:44%
  • Popular Majors:Visual and performing arts, marketing, journalism

#7: Gonzaga University

Located less than half a mile from downtown Spokane, Gonzaga University is an absolute haven for those interested in outdoor activities and sports. More than 60% of its students participate in intramural sports clubs, and its successful men's basketball team is one of the university's most highly valued sports teams. Moreover, students can run or walk on the 37-mile-long Spokane River Centennial Trail or enjoy a leisurely day at the 100-acre Riverfront Park.

Gonzaga offers more than 60 undergraduate majors. Its School of Law is one of three law schools in Washington State and has produced several state Supreme Court justices.

The college adheres to Jesuit traditions by working together with Bishop White Seminary to provide theology courses to students interested in becoming priests. Its freshman retention rate is very high at 94%.

  • Location: Spokane, WA
  • Acceptance Rate:62%
  • Popular Majors:Business, engineering, psychology

The main entrance of Gonzaga University (SCUMATT/Wikimedia Commons)

#8: Fordham University

Based in the vibrant and urban New York City, Fordham University offers a ton of extracurricular, intellectual, and spiritual opportunities for students across three campuses: Rose Hill, Lincoln Center, and Westchester.

Fordham espouses traditional Jesuit principles, including the promotion of ethics, excellence in teaching, and student care. It has more than 70 undergraduate majors and is well known for its highly ranked School of Law. Students may also use the esteemed Louis Calder Center to conduct environmental and biological research.

Although Fordham doesn't have a Greek system, it offers more than 180 student clubs at its Rose Hill and Lincoln Center campuses. The freshman retention rate is very high at 91%.

  • Location: New York City, NY
  • Acceptance Rate:46%
  • Popular Majors:Economics, business administration and management, finance

#9: Loyola University Chicago

One of the biggest Jesuit colleges in the US, Loyola University Chicago currently houses nearly 12,000 undergraduates and 11 colleges. In total, it offers undergraduates more than 80 majors to choose from, with several of these focusing on interdisciplinary coursework.

Outside of classes, Loyola Chicago participates in more than a dozen NCAA Division I sports. It also provides students with more than 250 clubs—one of the largest arrays of any Jesuit college.

Based in Chicago, Loyola Chicago gives ample chances for internships, careers, entertainment, and volunteering. As a Jesuit institution, it also encourages all students to participate in service projects and events. Students can even earn academic credit for certain volunteer efforts.

The freshman retention rate is high at 84%.

  • Location: Chicago, IL
  • Acceptance Rate:67%
  • Popular Majors:Health, marketing, social sciences


This list includes four-year colleges and universities operated by the Society of Jesus. The currently listed total on this page is 189 colleges and universities. Paul Grendler has authored a history of Jesuit schools and universities from 1548 to 1773. In it, he notes that the Jesuits had established over 700 colleges and universities across Europe by 1749, with another hundred in the rest of the world, but in the aftermath of the Jesuit suppressions of the 18th and 19th centuries, all these schools were closed. The following schools were established in the post-suppression period. [1] Secondary schools, along with sixth forms, are contained in the listing following this one. The listings are in alphabetical order by country.


The Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada (ATS) is a membership organization of more than 270 graduate schools that conduct postbaccalaureate professional and academic degree programs to educate persons for the practice of ministry and for teaching and research in the theological disciplines. The Commission on Accrediting of ATS accredits the schools and approves the degree programs they offer.

The ATS membership welcomes schools in the Christian and Jewish faiths, and includes the full range of Christian denominations—including schools in mainline and evangelical Protestant and Roman Catholic and Orthodox traditions—as well as multidenominational and nondenominational schools. Schools representing other faiths and other organizations interested in theological education may become Affiliates of ATS.

In addition, ATS offers educational events and other resources designed to assist member schools with identification of best practices, development of peer networks, production of research, and exploration of data. See upcoming event offerings below or search under Resources in the main menu above.

Featured Resources

Lilly Endowment Inc. announced that it will make available $87.5 million in grant funding to ATS-accredited schools this year.

As we enter almost a full of year of living through the COVID-19 pandemic, I have good news to share about The Association of Theological Schools. These past eleven months have been challenging but in the middle of those challenges, ATS schools have met them with resiliency, adaptability, and creativity.

As of early December, 98% of ATS schools have reported their enrollment data for fall 2020. In terms of a year-over-year comparison by school, 54% of ATS schools had enrollment increases and 46% of ATS schools had enrollment decreases. This is positive news for ATS schools!

ATS surveyed member schools to seek information about their responses to COVID-19. Although financial implications were not the emphasis of the survey, the responses certainly indicated that financial concerns were at the forefront of school leadership.


The campus, situated within a historic park in the Sachsenhausen district of Frankfurt, contains the classroom building, the office building (Lindenhaus), the academic library, the college restaurant (Mensa), the major seminary, the college church, and the Jesuit community.

The campus hosts as well two institutions founded by the German Bishops' Conference: the "Institute for Global Church and Mission (IWM)" and an Institute for Christian-Muslim relations ("Cibedo"). Its library, with more than 12,000 volumes, stands out as the largest library for Christian-Muslim dialogue in Germany. [1] The main college library, which incorporated the collections of various Jesuit libraries and holds nearly 500,000 volumes, is known for its rich collection of Jesuit-related literature. [2]

In the interdiocesan major seminary, 30 seminarians of several German dioceses, mainly of Limburg, Hamburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, are studying for the Roman Catholic priesthood. 20 post-graduate students, mostly priests, from all over the world are living in the same seminary, pursuing doctoral or licentiate programs.

The school was founded in 1926 by the Society of Jesus as an academic seminary for training candidates to the priesthood, initially only for the Diocese of Limburg, but soon for other German dioceses as well. Until 1951 the school was exclusively an (inter-)diocesan seminary, led by Jesuits. From 1951 until 1975, the school included two parallel institutions: the "Philosophical-Theological Academy" for diocesan candidates and the "Theological Faculty S.J." for Jesuit students. In 1976, the school began admitting lay theology students (male and female), and these quickly formed the majority of students. [3]

In 1986, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, since 13 March 2013 Pope Francis, spent a few months at the Sankt Georgen PTH to consult with professors on a dissertation project, however he has not further pursued the project. [4]

The 1993 college church and the 2005 classroom building are both notable works of modern architecture.

In 2009 the Institute for Global Church and Mission (IWM) (German: Institut für Weltkirche und Mission) was founded. In 2010–2017, IWM students ran the Student Initiative Rahel, which organised the financing of scholarships for disadvantaged young people in Adigrat, northern Ethiopia.


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Jesuit, member of the Society of Jesus (S.J.), a Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, noted for its educational, missionary, and charitable works. The order has been regarded by many as the principal agent of the Counter-Reformation and was later a leading force in modernizing the church.

The order grew out of the activity of Ignatius, a Spanish soldier who experienced a religious conversion during a period of convalescence from a wound received in battle. After a period of intense prayer, he composed the Spiritual Exercises, a guidebook to convert the heart and mind to a closer following of Jesus Christ. On August 15, 1534, at Paris, six young men who had met him at the University of Paris and made a retreat according to the Spiritual Exercises joined him in vows of poverty, chastity, and a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. If this last promise did not prove possible, as it did not, they vowed to accept any apostolic work requested by the pope. In 1539 Ignatius drafted the first outline of the order’s organization, which Pope Paul III approved on September 27, 1540.

The society introduced several innovations in the form of the religious life. Among these were the discontinuance of many medieval practices—such as regular penances or fasts obligatory on all, a common uniform, and the choral recitation of the liturgical office—in the interest of greater mobility and adaptability. Other innovations included a highly centralized form of authority with life tenure for the head of the order, probation lasting many years before final vows, gradation of members, and lack of a female branch. Particular emphasis was laid upon the virtue of obedience, including special obedience to the pope. Emphasis was also placed upon flexibility, a condition that allowed Jesuits to become involved in a great variety of ministries and missionary endeavours in all parts of the world.

The society grew rapidly, and it quickly assumed a prominent role in the Counter-Reformation defense and revival of Catholicism. Almost from the beginning, education and scholarship became the society’s principal work. The early Jesuits, however, also produced preachers and catechists who devoted themselves to the care of the young, the sick, prisoners, prostitutes, and soldiers they also were often called upon to undertake the controversial task of confessor to many of the royal and ruling families of Europe. The society entered the foreign mission field within months of its founding as Ignatius sent St. Francis Xavier, his most gifted companion, and three others to the East. More Jesuits were to be involved in missionary work than in any other activity, save education. By the time of Ignatius’s death in 1556, about 1,000 Jesuits were already working throughout Europe and in Asia, Africa, and the New World. By 1626 the number of Jesuits was 15,544, and in 1749 the total was 22,589.

The society encountered an important controversy centred on the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who worked as a missionary in China in the late 16th and the early 17th century. Decades of scholarly research into Buddhist and Confucian thought had prepared Ricci to attach the Roman Catholic understanding of the Christian faith to the deepest spiritual apprehensions of the Chinese religious tradition. The veneration of Confucius, the great Chinese religious and philosophical leader, and the religious honours paid to ancestors were to be seen not as elements of paganism to be rejected out of hand but as rituals of Chinese society that could be adapted to Christian purposes. Although Ricci’s apostolic labours won him many converts in China, they also aroused the suspicion of many in the West that the distinctiveness of Christianity was being compromised. The suspicion did not assert itself officially until long after Ricci’s death, but, when it did, the outcome was a condemnation of the so-called Chinese rites by Pope Clement XI in 1704 and 1715 and by Pope Benedict XIV in 1742. Ancestor veneration and Confucian devotion were said to be an inseparable element of traditional Chinese religion and hence incompatible with Christian worship and doctrine.

Among the repercussions of the controversy over Chinese rites was an intensification of the resentment directed against the Jesuits. Their preeminent position among the religious orders and their championship of the pope exposed them to hostility, and by the middle of the 18th century a variety of adversaries, both lay and clerical, were seeking to destroy the order. The opposition can be traced to several reasons, primarily perhaps to the anticlerical and antipapal spirit of the times. Hostility to the Jesuits was further inspired by their defense of the indigenous populations of the Americas against abuses committed by Spanish and Portuguese colonizers and by the strength of the order, which was regarded as an impediment to the establishment of absolute monarchist rule.

The Portuguese crown expelled the Jesuits in 1759, France made them illegal in 1764, and Spain and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies took other repressive action in 1767. Opponents of the Society of Jesus achieved their greatest success when they took their case to Rome. Although Pope Clement XIII refused to act against the Jesuits, his successor, Pope Clement XIV, issued a brief abolishing the order in 1773. The society’s corporate existence was maintained in Russia, where political circumstances—notably the opposition of Catherine II the Great—prevented the canonical execution of the suppression. The demand that the Jesuits take up their former work became so insistent that in 1814 Pope Pius VII reestablished the society. Meanwhile, however, the suppression of the Jesuits had done serious damage to the missions and the educational program of the church at a time when both enterprises were under great pressure.

After the society was restored, the Jesuits grew to be the largest order of male religious. Work in education on all levels continued to involve more Jesuits than any other activity, while the number of Jesuits working in the mission fields, especially in Asia and Africa, exceeded that of any other religious order. They were involved in a broad and complex list of activities, including the field of communications, social work, ecumenism, human rights, and even politics. In 1968 the Jesuit superior general, Father Pedro Arrupe, refocused the order with “a preferential option for the poor,” and the Jesuit ranks experienced a rise in the popularity of liberation theology, which holds that ministry should include involvement in the political struggle of the poor. This ideology influenced a number of Jesuit leaders in Latin America in the late 20th century, some of whom were met with violence and death because of their activism, and brought the order into conflict with Pope John Paul II, who sought to curb the movement with the appointment of conservative prelates in Latin America. In 2013 Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina became Pope Francis, the first Jesuit to be elected pope.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.

Jesuit School of Theology - History



Casey Beaumier, S.J., is the director of the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies. He holds a Ph.D. in United States religious history from Boston College and focused his dissertation on the development of Jesuit education in the 20th century. At Boston College, Fr. Beaumier teaches in the Capstone Program and lives in Fenwick Hall, where he serves as mentor and spiritual director for students, seminarians, women religious, and priests. In addition to directing the Institute, Fr. Beaumier also serves as Vice President and University Secretary.

Seth Meehan, Ph.D., is the associate director at the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies. He received his bachelor's degree in theology from Georgetown University and his master's and doctorate degrees in history from Boston College. His work has appeared in publications such as The New York Times, Catholic Historical Review, Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu, Theological Studies, and Boston College Magazine, where he is a contributing editor. His scholarship has been recognized with awards from the American Catholic Historical Association, the Catholic Library Association, and other organizations. Currently, he is writing a biography of a nineteenth-century Jesuit, John McElroy, and editing a volume on a second, Salvatore Brandi.

Matt Schweitzer is the associate director at the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies. He received his bachelor's degree in economics from Boston College. After several years working in the investment services sector at State Street Bank, he decided to pursue a career within the nonprofit world, spurred on by his participation in the 19 th annotation of the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius. He first worked as a financial consultant within the Archdiocese of Boston, then Director of Finance and Operations at two Catholic parishes and schools, and most recently, as Assistant Controller at Saint Anselm College. At the Institute, he oversees strategic planning, marketing, financial and administrative leadership, and fundraising, among other areas, to assist in the development and promotion of the programs offered by the Institute. He has deep regard for Society of Jesus and Catholic education and is passionate about furthering the work of the Society through the mission of the Institute.

Claude Pavur, S.J., an associate editor, specializes in the translation of Latin documents relating to the Society of Jesus. His graduate degrees are in scripture, philosophy, and classics. At the Institute he has produced English editions of the famous Jesuit plan of studies from 1599 (the Ratio Studiorum, 2005), Ribadeneira's life of Ignatius (2014), and the Latin texts in the first Jesuit pedagogy reader (2016). His recent overview of the historiography of Jesuit pedagogy is available at Brill's Jesuit Historiography Online. Other interests of his include Jesuit education and formation, classical humanism, and Latin pedagogy. He has been a member of the Society of Jesus since 1973.

Taiga Guterres is the assistant director of the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies for marketing and programming, where he promotes the Institute's publications, events, and mission through print and online advertisement. He also serves as the project manager for the Ever to Excel program. Taiga has over 10 years of experience working with the Society of Jesus and is currently pursuing an M.A. in Theology & Ministry and an M.S.W. from Boston College. His research interests include the cross-section of culture and spirituality, the history and spirituality of Pedro Arrupe, and Ignatian leadership.

Virginia Greeley is the fiscal and operations administrator at the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies. She has a background in publishing and has worked at Boston College since 2008. Greeley holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Northeastern University and is pursuing an M.A. in English from Boston College. Her other research interests include theology and literature.

Research Scholars

Cristiano Casalini, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor and Endowed Chair in Jesuit Pedagogy and Educational History, and a Research Scholar with the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies at Boston College. He teaches History of Jesuit Pedagogy, Social Justice in Jesuit Contexts, and Philosophy of Education. Casalini’s field of research is mainly early modern education and especially Jesuit education. He has worked on critical texts and commentaries of 16th and 17th century classics of education, especially in and around the Jesuit order. He is currently working of editing educational writings and documents as produced by Jesuit during the early modern period. He recently edited a collective volume on Jesuit Philosophy on the Eve of Modernity (Leiden-Boston, 2019). He also provided with Claude Pavur the first volume of a series devoted to the history of Jesuit pedagogy, entitled Jesuit Pedagogy. A Reader (1540–1616) (Boston: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2016). He also wrote a book on the Cursus Conimbricensis and the education at the Jesuit college of Coimbra (Rome: Anicia, 2012 and, in Portuguese, Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, 2015 in English, New York: Routledge, 2017), which was awarded with the Prémio Joaquím de Carvalho, 2016. Casalini serves as editor-in-chief of a series published by Brill on History of Early Modern Educational Thought.

Barton T. Geger, S.J., is a research scholar at the Institute for Advanced Jesuit Studies, Assistant Professor of the Practice at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College, and general editor of Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits. He holds an M.A. in philosophy from Saint Louis University, a M.Th. in Systematic Theology from Heythrop College, an STL in historical theology from (then) Weston Jesuit School of Theology, and a doctorate in sacred theology from Universidad Pontificia Comillas in Madrid. He writes on Ignatian spirituality and early Jesuit history. His essays include "Ten Things That St. Ignatius Never Said or Did" and “What Magis Really Means and Why It Matters.” He currently edits new editions of the Jesuit Constitutions and of the "Autobiography" of St. Ignatius Loyola.

Affiliated Scholars

Emanuele Colombo Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Catholic Studies at DePaul University. Emanuele was 2018 fellow at the Institute, and now as an affiliated scholar he continues to develop the Digital Indipetae Database where letters written by Jesuits to the Superior General of the Society of Jesus to apply for the missions overseas can accessed for scholarly research.

Emanuele created the Jesuit Studies Café, informal online conversations, hosted at the Insitute, with the world's preeminent scholars working on the history, spirituality, and educational heritage of the Society of Jesus.

Eugenio Menegon Ph.D., came to the Institute as an Associate Professor of History at Boston University and having directed the university's Center for the Study of Asia. He used his fellowship to study the daily life and political networking of European residents (especially Jesuits of the French and Portuguese missions) at the Qing court in Beijing during the 17th-18th centuries. His personal website is available at:

Andrew Barrette received his Ph.D. in 2018 from Southern Illinois University Carbondale, where he finished his dissertation, The Origin of the Question: The Structure and Emergence of Questioning in Edmund Husserl’s Work, under the direction of Anthony Steinbock. He is in the process of preparing a manuscript on similar themes in Husserl’s method which means to ground his future work in phenomenological ethics.

Barrette is currently a Visiting Professor of Philosophy in the Philosophy Department at Boston College and a collaborating fellow of the Lonergan Institute and Institute of Advanced Jesuit Studies. At the Institute, Barrette is researching Jesuits in Leuven at the turn to the 20th century, focusing especially on Joseph Maréchal and Pierre Scheuer. Along with editing some of their work, he aims to show the enduring significance of how they engaged, understood, and influenced philosophical and theological traditions. To this end, Barrette highlights how their method emphasizes a charitable approach to interpretation. From this, he aims to prepare further research into the missionary and ecumenical work of the students of this school.

2020 - 2021 Research Fellows

Fr. Christopher Collins, S.J. is an assistant professor of theological studies at saint Louis University. He spent the last five years serving as the chief mission officer at SLU. He is the author of The Word Made Love: The Dialogical Theology of Joseph Ratzinger/ Benedict XVI (Liturgical Press, 2013) and 3 Moments of the Day: Praying with the Heart of Jesus (Ave Maria Press, 2014). He is currently working on a book on discernment of spirits in the Ignatian tradition for Ave Maria Press as well as a collected works of John Kavanaugh, S.J.

Rev. Robert S. Gerlich, S.J. obtained his B.A. degree in Philosophy from St. Louis University (1972), M.A. in European History from Saint Louis University (1977) Bakkalaureat in Catholic Theology from Hochschule Sankt Georgen, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (1980) and Ph.D in Modern European History from Saint Louis University (1987). Prior to coming to Loyola in 1989, Fr. Gerlich was a member of the editorial and research staff of the Encyclopedia of Jesuit History project under the direction of the Jesuit Historical Institute in Rome, Italy (1987-1988). From 1989 to the present, he has been an associate professor of history at Loyola University New Orleans. He is spending the Fall Semester 2020, at the Institute, where he is translating and evaluating a new biography of St. Ignatius by Enrique García Hernán for possible publication.

Sonia Isidori received her Ph. D. in 2017 at the University of Naples “L’Orientale” (Naples, Italy), where her dissertation explored the relationship between the Society of Jesus in the Viceroyalty of Peru and the local Inquisition of Lima (1568-1615). She holds a two-semester fellowship at the Institute. While at the Institute, she will study the Litterae indipetae, written during the generalate of Muzio Vitelleschi (1615-1645). Her research will contribute to the Digital Indipetae Database.

Louise Rice is Associate Professor of Art History at New York University. With a Ph.D. from Columbia University, she specializes in the art and architecture of seventeenth-century Italy and has a particular interest in the history of prints and print culture. Her publications include The Altars and Altarpieces of New St. Peter's. Outfitting the Basilica, 1621-1666 (Cambridge University Press, 1997) and, with Joseph Connors, Specchio di Roma barocca. Una guida inedita del XVII secolo (Edizioni dell'Elefante, 1991), as well as numerous essays, articles and reviews on aspects of Roman baroque art and culture.

While at the Institute, Rice is preparing a typological and cultural history of Roman thesis prints and the festive academic context for which they were made. Thesis prints, or "conclusions" as they were usually called in the seventeenth-century, are elaborate dedicatory images commissioned to decorate the thesis broadsheets of students undergoing a public academic defense at a college or university. The genre originated and saw its finest flowering in the schools run by the Jesuits, and as one might expect under the circumstances, it is characterized by highly inventive, intricate, and entertaining iconography. By providing an introduction to this little understood and largely neglected category of printed image, Rice aims to make accessible a veritable goldmine of visual and poetic material of potential interest not only to art historians but to scholars in a wide range of disciplines, including literature, music, and science.


The story of Jesuit engagement in systematic theology is rich in characters and standpoints there has been research at the foundations of the Christian faith as well as explorations of new areas. This essay has focused on publications, but all of the theologians mentioned above were also involved in teaching. The questions that others ask out of their own engagement with their environment and with people they serve have always motivated further theological reflection and proposals for solutions. The way Jesuit theologians confronted these questions was often inspired by their spiritual background and a particular world-view, shaped by “God’s immediacy, […] sacramentally incarnated in the flesh of Jesus and in the visible Church.” 115 This demanded that at some times Jesuits were defending the more orthodox positions at other times their theologians heard a call to search out new paths. Regardless, Jesuit theology has been marked by humanism, 116 which includes several aspects: the orientation towards “helping souls,” the focus on the human being as an instrument of the divine, and the integration of history into theology as its necessary foundation. These few, very general shared characteristics are certainly not enough to constitute a uniform Jesuit theology. 117 Unity of opinions was seen as necessary in the debates during the drafting of the Ratio studiorum , but over the centuries, because of a true engagement with and adaptation to the situation into which God places humanity at a certain time, plurality has for all intents and purposes emerged as a principle of Jesuit systematic theology.


^ Back to text 1. The author wishes to thank Jack Nuelle for assistance in research and Joseph Appleyard, S.J., for his editorial review of the manuscript.

^ Back to text 2. Robert Brunet et al., “Teología,” in Diccionario histórico de la Compañía de Jesús , vol. 4 (Rome: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu, 2001), 3720–77.

^ Back to text 3. This article and the provided literature focus exclusively on topics of systematic theology. Biographical works on the theologians mentioned in this article are not included in the references insofar as they can be found in the Diccionario histórico de la Compañía de Jesús .

^ Back to text 4. Michel Fédou, Les théologiens jésuites: Un courant uniforme? (Brussels: Lessius, 2014).

^ Back to text 5. Cándido Pozo, “San Ignacio de Loyola y la teología,” Archivo teológico granadino 53 (1990): 5–47.

^ Back to text 6. “Ignatius the Theologian ” (1959) and “Ignatius and the Ascetic Tradition of the Fathers” (1942), in Hugo Rahner, Ignatius the Theologian , trans. Michael Barry (New York: Herder and Herder, 1968), 1–31, 32–52.

^ Back to text 7. Rainer Carls, Ignatius av Loyolas teologiska profil: Mellan riddarväsen, renässans och reformation (Skellefteå: Artos, 2013).

^ Back to text 8. Santiago Madrigal Terrazas, Eclesialidad, reforma y misión: El legado teológico de Ignacio de Loyola, Pedro Fabro y Francisco de Javier (Madrid: Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 2008), 57–139.

^ Back to text 9. On theology in particular, see the Eleventh Rule: SpEx 363. Gill K. Goulding, A Church of Passion and Hope: The Formation of Ecclesial Disposition from Ignatius Loyola to Pope Francis and the New Evangelization (London: Bloomsbury, 2016), 19–109 Madrigal, Eclesialidad , 105–39 Alfons Knoll, “Derselbe Geist”: Eine Untersuchung zum Kirchenverständnis in der Theologie der ersten Jesuiten (Paderborn: Bonifatius, 2007), 107–19.

^ Back to text 10. Pierre-Antoine Fabre, “The Writings of Ignatius of Loyola as Seminal Text,” in Companion to Ignatius of Loyola: Life, Writings, Spirituality, Influence , ed. Robert A. Maryks (Leiden: Brill, 2014), 103–22.

^ Back to text 11. “The Christology of the Spiritual Exercises ” (1962), in: Rahner, Ignatius the Theologian , 53–135.

^ Back to text 12. Const. 351 366 446 464–466. Pozo, “San Ignacio de Loyola y la Teología,” 20–29 Fédou, Théologiens jésuites , 9–18.

^ Back to text 13. Antonio M. de Aldama, An Introductory Commentary on the Constitutions , trans. Aloysius J. Owen (St. Louis, MO: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1989), 164–78.

^ Back to text 14. William V. Bangert, Jerome Nadal, S.J. 1507–1580: Tracking the First Generation of Jesuits , ed. Thomas M. McCoog (Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press, 1992), 43–55 for Nadal’s work on Jesuit identity construction with these ideals, see Ignacio Ramos Riera, Jerónimo Nadal (1507–1580) und der “verschriftlichte” Ignatius: Die Konstruktion einer individuellen und kollektiven Identität (Leiden: Brill, 2015). Despite its title, Ruiz Jurado’s detailed, recent biography does not provide Nadal’s theological profile: Manuel Ruiz Jurado, Jerónimo Nadal: El teólogo de la gracia de la vocación (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2011).

^ Back to text 15. Jos E. Vercruysse, “‘Melanchthon, qui modestior videri voluit…’: Die ersten Jesuiten und Melanchthon,” in Der Theologe Melanchthon , ed. Günter Frank (Stuttgart: Thorbecke, 2000), 393–409.

^ Back to text 16. Klaus Schatz, “Deutschland und die Reformation in der Sicht Peter Fabers,” in Die Zeit ist der Bote Gottes: Der heilige Peter Faber SJ und sein Wirken in Mainz , ed. Christoph Nebgen (Würzburg: Echter, 2014), 29–46 Jos Vercruysse, “‘In Wahrheit lieben …’: Peter Faber und die lutherische Reformation,” Geist und Leben 89, no. 1 (2016): 82–90.

^ Back to text 17. Ignacio Iparraguirre, “Carácter teológico y litúrgico de la espiritualidad del Bto. Fabro,” Manresa 19, no. 1 (1947): 31–41.

^ Back to text 18. Michel de Certeau, “Introduction,” in Pierre Favre, Mémorial (Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 1960), 18–26.

^ Back to text 19. Niccolo Steiner, “Laínez und das Konzil von Trient: Ein Überblick,” in Diego Laínez (1512–1565) and His Generalate , ed. Paul Oberholzer (Rome: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu, 2015), 467–526 Steiner, Diego Laínez und Alfonso Salmerón: Zwei Jesuitentheologen auf dem Tridentinum ihr Beitrag zur Eucharistie- und Messopferthematik , in preparation for publication in 2017 for ecclesiology, see Knoll, Derselbe Geist .

^ Back to text 20. Karlheinz Diez, Christus und seine Kirche: Zum Kirchenverständnis des Petrus Canisius (Paderborn: Bonifatius, 1987), 364–73 Diez, “Petrus Canisius als Theologe,” in Petrus Canisius – Reformer der Kirche: Festschrift zum 400 Todestag des zweiten Apostels Deutschlands , ed. Julius Oswald and Peter Rummel (Augsburg: Sankt Ulrich, 1996), 178–93.

^ Back to text 21. Hilmar M. Pabel, “Peter Canisius and the ‘Truly Catholic’ Augustine,” Theological Studies 71, no. 4 (2010): 903–25 Pabel, “Praise and Blame: Peter Canisius’s Ambivalent Assessment of Erasmus,” in The Reception of Erasmus in the Early Modern Period , ed. Karl Enenkel (Leiden: Brill, 2013), 129–59 Pabel, “Peter Canisius and the Protestants: A Model of Ecumenical Dialogue?,” Journal of Jesuit Studies 1, no. 3 (2014): 373–99 (doi: 10.1163/22141332-00103002).

^ Back to text 22. Klaus Schatz, “Franz Xaver und die Herausforderung der nicht-christlichen Religionen,” in Sendung – Eroberung – Begegnung: Franz Xaver, die Gesellschaft Jesu und die katholische Weltkirche im Zeitalter des Barock , ed. Johannes Meier (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2005), 99–117.

^ Back to text 23. Ilaria Morali, “ Gratia ed infidelitas nella teologia di Francisco de Toledo e Francisco Suárez al tempo delle grandi missioni gesuitiche,” Studia missionalia 55 (2006): 99–150.

^ Back to text 24. Anita Mancia, “La controversia con i protestanti e i programmi degli studi teologici nella Compagnia di Gesù 1547–1599,” Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu 54 (1985): 3–43, 209–266 Mancia, “Il concetto di ‘dottrina’ fra gli Esercizi Spirituali (1539) e la Ratio studiorum (1599),” Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu 61 (1992): 3–70. See also John W. Padberg, “Development of the Ratio Studiorum,” in The Jesuit Ratio Studiorum : 400th Anniversary Perspectives , ed. Vincent J. Duminuco (New York: Fordham University Press, 2000), 80–100.

^ Back to text 25. RS 174–179. The RS includes a detailed catalog of matters to be treated, following the structure of Aquinas’s Summa theologiae with modifications. The point of this list is not to specify positions that Jesuits must hold.

^ Back to text 26. Markus Friedrich, “Einheit und soziale Kohärenz: Debatten um die Homogenität von doctrina im Jesuitenorden um 1600,” in Vera Doctrina: Zur Begriffsgeschichte der Lehre von Augustinus bis Descartes , ed. Philippe Büttgen et al. (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009), 297–324 Antonella Romano, “Pratiques d’enseignement et orthodoxie intellectuelle en milieu jésuite (deuxième moitié du XVIe siècle),” in Orthodoxie, christianisme, histoire , ed. Susanna Elm, Éric Rebillard, and Antonella Romano (Rome: École française de Rome, 2000), 241–60.

^ Back to text 27. Cristiano Casalini and Claude Pavur, eds., Jesuit Pedagogy, 1540–1616: A Reader (Chestnut Hill, MA: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2016), 233–42 cf. the statements of Diego Ledesma from c. 1574 (223–32) and Juan Maldonado from c. 1573 (317–24).

^ Back to text 28. Ulrich G. Leinsle, “ Delectus opinionum : Traditionsbildung durch Auswahl in der frühen Jesuitentheologie,” in Im Spannungsfeld von Tradition und Innovation , ed. Georg Schmuttermayr et al. (Regensburg: Pustet, 1997), 159–75.

^ Back to text 29. Sven K. Knebel, “Salamanca und sein Ambiente: Ein Repertorium zur Jesuitenscholastik des 17. Jahrhunderts,” in Die Ordnung der Praxis: Neue Studien zur spanischen Spätscholastik , ed. Frank Grunert and Kurt Seelmann (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2001), 429–58 Jacob Schmutz, Scholasticon , (accessed December 5, 2016).

^ Back to text 30. Dominique Bertrand, “The Society of Jesus and the Church Fathers in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century,” in The Reception of the Church Fathers in the West: From the Carolingians to the Maurists , ed. Irena Backus, trans. A. Bevan, vol. 2 (Leiden: Brill, 1997), 889–950 Hermann Josef Sieben, “Von der Kontroverse zur Zusammenarbeit in der Res publica literaria (1546–1643): Jesuitenpatristik von Petrus Canisius bis Fronton du Duc,” in Petrus Canisius SJ (1521–1597): Humanist und Europäer , ed. Rainer Berndt (Berlin: Akademie, 2000), 169–201.

^ Back to text 31. José Ignacio Tellechea Idígoras, “Metodología teológica de Maldonado,” Scriptorium Victoriense 1, no. 2 (1954): 183–255 Inos Biffi, “La figura della teologia in Juan de Maldonado: Tra rinnovamento e fedeltà,” in Figure moderne della teologia nei secoli XV–XVII , ed. Inos Biffi and Costante Marabelli (Milan: Jaca, 2007), 137–55, both with references to earlier studies.

^ Back to text 32. Paul Schmitt, La réforme catholique: Le combat de Maldonat (1534–1583) (Paris: Beauchesne, 1985).

^ Back to text 33. Jean Céard, “Calvin et le calvinisme selon le jésuite Maldonat,” in Calvin insolite , ed. Franco Giacone (Paris: Garnier, 2012), 267–76 José Ignacio Tellechea Idígoras, La Inmaculada Concepción en la controversia del P. Maldonado, S.J. con la Sorbona (Vitoria: Editorial del Seminario, 1958).

^ Back to text 34. Only biographical sketches exist so far: Antolín Álvarez Torres, “Gregorio de Valencia,” in La filosofía española en Castilla y León: De los orígenes al Siglo de Oro , ed. Maximiliano Fartos Martínez and Lorenzo Velázquez Campo (Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid, 1997), 393–411 Cristóbal de Castro and José Hellín, “Vida inédita del P. Gabriel Vázquez,” ed. M. Ramírez, Archivo teológico granadino 37 (1974): 227–44. For details on primary sources, generally see Carlos Sommervogel, ed., Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus , 11 and 2 suppl. vols. (Brussels: Schepens, 1890) Diccionario histórico de la Compañía de Jesús , 4 vols. (Rome: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu, 2001). Many of the early prints have been digitized and are available through the HathiTrust library ( or the Internet Archive (

^ Back to text 35. Wilhelm Hentrich, “Gregor von Valencia und die Erneuerung der deutschen Scholastik im 16. Jahrhundert,” in Philosophia perennis: Abhandlungen zu ihrer Vergangenheit und Gegenwart , ed. Fritz-Joachim von Rintelen, vol. 1 (Regensburg: Habbel, 1930), 293–307.

^ Back to text 36. Wilhelm Hentrich, Gregor von Valencia und der Molinismus: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Prämolinismus mit Benützung ungedruckter Quellen (Innsbruck: Rauch, 1928) José Espasa, “Relación entre la fe infusa y la adquirida en Gregorio de Valencia,” Archivo teológico granadino 8 (1945): 99–123.

^ Back to text 37. José Arturo Domínguez Asensio, “La obra eclesiológica de Gregorio de Valencia,” Anthologica annua 33 (1986): 11–157 Domínguez Asensio, “‘De efficacia sacramentorum novae legis:’ La causalidad sacramental en la obra polémica de Gregorio de Valencia,” Archivo teológico granadino 61 (1998): 5–40 Lothar Lies, Origenes’ Eucharistielehre im Streit der Konfessionen: Die Auslegungsgeschichte seit der Reformation (Innsbruck: Tyrolia, 1985), 176–87 Pastor Gutiérrez Vega, El bautismo de los niños en Gregorio de Valencia: Una visión postridentina del problema (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1984).

^ Back to text 38. For a bibliography, see Thomas Marschler, “Vázquez, Gabriel,” in Thomistenlexikon , ed. David Berger and Jörgen Vijgen (Bonn: Nova & Vetera, 2006), 690–94.

^ Back to text 39. Luis Maldonado, El comentario de Gabriel Vázquez a la “Quaestio I” de la Summa en la perspectiva de la problemática contemporánea planteada en torno a la esencia de la teología (Vitoria: Eset, 1964).

^ Back to text 40. Sven K. Knebel, “Scientia media: Ein diskursarchäologischer Leitfaden durch das 17. Jahrhundert,” Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte 34 (1991): 262–94.

^ Back to text 41. William Lane Craig, Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom: The Coherence of Theism Omniscience (Leiden: Brill, 1991).

^ Back to text 42. Example for an analytical defense of Molina’s theory: Thomas P. Flint, Divine Providence: The Molinist Account (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998).

^ Back to text 43. Matthias Kaufmann and Alexander Aichele, eds., A Companion to Luis de Molina (Leiden: Brill, 2014).

^ Back to text 44. Cándido Pozo, “La teoría del progreso dogmático en Luis de Molina S.I.,” Archivo teológico granadino 24 (1961): 5–13.

^ Back to text 45. José Arturo Domínguez Asensio, “La eclesiología en los comentarios de Molina a la ‘Secunda Secundae’,” Archivo teológico granadino 50 (1987): 5–110.

^ Back to text 46. The Digital Library of the Catholic Reformation , (accessed December 5, 2016) Sydney Penner, Suárez in Latin Onlin, (accessed December 5, 2016). In the DLCR, there are also theological works of Molina and of Pétau, who will be treated in the following chapter.

^ Back to text 47. Anita Mancia, “Bibliografia sistematica e commentata degli studi sull’opera Bellarminiana dal 1900 al 1990,” in Roberto Bellarmino, arcivescovo di Capua, teologo e pastore della riforma cattolica , ed. Gustavo Galeota, vol. 2 (Capua: Istituto superiore di scienze religiose, 1990), 805–72 Jean-Paul Coujou, Bibliografía suareciana (Pamplona: Universidad de Navarra, 2010) Jacob Schmutz and Sydney Penner, Bibliography of Works on Francisco Suárez, 1850–present , (accessed December 5, 2016).

^ Back to text 48. Thomas Löhr, Die Lehre Robert Bellarmins vom allgemeinen Konzil (Limburg, 1986) Thomas Dietrich, Die Theologie der Kirche bei Robert Bellarmin (1542–1621): Systematische Voraussetzungen des Kontroverstheologen (Paderborn: Bonifatius, 1999). More recent reprisals of these topics: Dietrich, “Eine Versammlung von Menschen? Bellarmins Kirchenbild in seinen katechetischen Schriften,” in Theologie aus dem Geist des Humanismus , ed. Hilary A. Mooney, Karlheinz Ruhstorfer, and Viola Tenge-Wolf (Freiburg: Herder, 2010), 42–56 Christian D. Washburn, “St. Robert Bellarmine on the Infallibility of General Councils of the Church,” Annuarium historiae conciliorum 42 (2010): 171–92 Anselm Schubert, “Bellarmin und die lutherische Ekklesiologie des konfessionellen Zeitalters,” Evangelische Theologie 75, no. 2 (2015): 135–51.

^ Back to text 49. Manfred Biersack, Initia Bellarminiana: Die Prädestinationslehre bei Robert Bellarmin SJ bis zu seinen Löwener Vorlesungen 1570–1576 (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1989) Ervin J. Alácsi, The Christological Thought of St. Robert Bellarmine: A Selective Study in Light of the Sixteenth-Century Christological Controversies (Budapest, 2009) Yilun Cai, “Desiderium naturale vivendi [ sic ] Deum in Robert Bellarmine’s Commentary on Summa theologiae,” Gregorianum 95, no. 3 (2014): 511–34.

^ Back to text 50. For an overview, see Robert L. Fastiggi, “Francisco Suárez as Dogmatic Theologian,” in A Companion to Francisco Suárez , ed. Victor M. Salas and Robert L. Fastiggi (Leiden: Brill, 2015), 148–63.

^ Back to text 51. Thomas Marschler, Die spekulative Trinitätslehre des Francisco Suárez S.J. in ihrem philosophisch-theologischen Kontext (Münster: Aschendorff, 2007).

^ Back to text 52. Philipp Kaiser, Die gott-menschliche Einigung in Christus als Problem der spekulativen Theologie seit der Scholastik (Munich: Hueber, 1968), 94–156 Francisco María Aguilera González, El concepto de teología en el Padre Francisco Suárez (1947 repr., Mexico City: Universidad Iberoamericana, 2000).

^ Back to text 53. Eleuterio Elorduy, La predestinación en Suárez: Controversias con Vázquez, Salas y Lesio (Granada: Facultad Teológica Granadina, 1947).

^ Back to text 54. Christoph Binninger, “Die pneumatologisch-anthropologischen Ansätze in der Trinitätslehre des Dionysius Petavius und ihr Einfluss auf die ‘Römische Schule’ um Carlo Passaglia und Johann Baptist Franzelin,” Münchener theologische Zeitschrift 62, no. 4 (2011): 343–55.

^ Back to text 55. Leo Karrer, Die historisch-positive Methode des Theologen Dionysius Petavius (Munich: Hueber, 1970) Ignace-Marcel Tshiamalenga Ntumba-Mulemba, “La méthode théologique chez Denys Petau,” Ephemerides theologicae Lovanienses 48, no. 3 (1972): 427–78.

^ Back to text 56. Michael Hofmann, Theologie, Dogma und Dogmenentwicklung im theologischen Werk Denis Petau’s (Bern: Lang, 1976).

^ Back to text 57. For examples of such theologians, see Brunet et al., “Teología,” 3721 Fédou, Théologiens jésuites , 62–68 Ulrich L. Lehner, “Benedict Stattler (1728–1797): The Reinvention of Catholic Theology with the Help of Wolffian Metaphysics,” in Enlightenment and Catholicism in Europe: A Transnational History , ed. Jeffrey D. Burson and Ulrich L. Lehner (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2014), 167–90 Jeffrey D. Burson, “Distinctive Contours of Jesuit Enlightenment in France,” in Exploring Jesuit Distinctiveness: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Ways of Proceeding Within the Society of Jesus , ed. Robert A. Maryks (Leiden: Brill, 2016), 212–34.

^ Back to text 58. Title from the two nineteenth-century re-editions original title: Theologia dogmatica, polemica, scholastica et moralis. Klaus Schilling, Die Kirchenlehre der Theologia Wirceburgensis (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1969) Karl Josef Lesch, Neuorientierung der Theologie im 18. Jahrhundert in Würzburg und Bamberg (Würzburg: Echter, 1978), 121–27.

^ Back to text 59. This label has been introduced by Heribert Schauf, Die Einwohnung des Heiligen Geistes: Die Lehre von der nichtappropriierten Einwohnung des Heiligen Geistes als Beitrag zur Theologiegeschichte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der beiden Theologen Carl Passaglia und Clemens Schrader (Freiburg: Herder, 1941) questioned by Peter Walter, “Carlo Passaglia: Auf dem Weg zur Communio-Ekklesiologie,” in Theologen des 19. Jahrhunderts: Eine Einführung , ed. Peter Neuner and Gunther Wenz (Darmstadt: WBG, 2002), 165–82. An excellent introduction to the Roman School and to further developments of Jesuit theology in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: Karl Heinz Neufeld, “Jesuitentheologie im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert,” in Ignatianisch: Eigenart und Methode der Gesellschaft Jesu , ed. Michael Sievernich and Günter Switek (Freiburg: Herder, 1990), 425–43.

^ Back to text 60. Walter Kasper, Die Lehre von der Tradition in der Römischen Schule (1962 repr., Freiburg: Herder, 2011).

^ Back to text 61. C. Michael Shea, “Father Giovanni Perrone and Doctrinal Development in Rome: An Overlooked Legacy of Newman’s Essay on Development,” Journal for the History of Modern Theology 20, no. 1 (2013): 85–116.

^ Back to text 62. Peter Walter, Die Frage der Glaubensbegründung aus innerer Erfahrung auf dem I. Vatikanum: Die Stellungnahme des Konzils vor dem Hintergrund der zeitgenössischen römischen Theologie (Mainz: Grünewald, 1980).

^ Back to text 63. Domenico Massimino, “Franzelin e l’ecclesiologia del Vaticano I,” Ho theológos 9, no. 1 (1991): 61–100 Massimino, “L’apporto del Franzelin alla stesura della Pastor aeternus e al dibattito sull’infallibilità,” Ho theológos 9, no. 2 (1991): 157–94.

^ Back to text 64. Gianluca Carlin, L’ecclesiologia di Carlo Passaglia (1812–1887) (Münster: Lit, 2001).

^ Back to text 65. Konrad Deufel, Kirche und Tradition: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der theologischen Wende im 19. Jahrhundert am Beispiel des kirchlich-theologischen Kampfprogramms P. Joseph Kleutgens S.J. (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1976) Peter Walter, “Zu einem neuen Buch über Joseph Kleutgen SJ: Fragen, Berichtigungen, Ergänzungen,” Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 100 (1978): 318–56 (warning against historical inaccuracies in Deufel’s book) Walter, “‘Für die eine katholische Wahrheit ohne Menschenfurcht zu kämpfen:’ Briefe Joseph Kleutgens an den Mainzer Theologen Christoph Moufang aus den Jahren 1863–1866,” in Bücherzensur – Kurie – Katholizismus und Moderne (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2000), 271–307 Elke Pahud de Mortanges, Philosophie und kirchliche Autorität: Der Fall Jakob Frohschammer vor der römischen Indexkongregation (1855–1864) (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2005), 226–52 Peter Henrici, “Matteo Liberatore und Joseph Kleutgen, zwei Pioniere der Neuscholastik,” Gregorianum 91, no. 4 (2010): 768–89.

^ Back to text 66. Oliver J. Wiertz, Begründeter Glaube? Rationale Glaubensverantwortung auf der Basis der analytischen Theologie und Erkenntnistheorie (Mainz: Grünewald, 2003), 21–171 from a different perspective: Walter, Frage der Glaubensbegründung , 117–31.

^ Back to text 67. Hubert Wolf, Die Nonnen von Sant’Ambrogio: Eine wahre Geschichte (Munich: Beck, 2013).

^ Back to text 68. A source of names and events: Oliver P. Rafferty, “The Thomistic Revival and the Relationship between the Jesuits and the Papacy, 1878–1914,” Theological Studies 75, no. 4 (2014): 746–73.

^ Back to text 69. Claus Arnold, “Die römische Indexkongregation und Alfred Loisy am Anfang der Modernismuskrise (1893–1903): Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung von Thomas Esser O.P. und einem Gutachten von P. Louis Billot S.J.,” Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte 96, no. 3–4 (2001): 290–332 Jesús Villagrasa, “Origine, natura e prima ricezione delle ‘XXIV tesi tomistiche’ alla luce della controversia tra neotomismo e suarezismo,” Divinitas 49 (2006): 341–82.

^ Back to text 70. Alberto Cozzi, La centralità di Cristo nella teologia di L. Billot (1846–1931) (Milan: Glossa, 1999) Ireneusz Korzeniowski, Fede e atto di fede in Louis Billot: Una ricognizione storico-teologica (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1998).

^ Back to text 71. For the development of his thought, see Claus Arnold, Kleine Geschichte des Modernismus (Freiburg: Herder, 2007), 69–76 Andrew Pierce, “Crossbows, Bludgeons and Long-Range Rifles: Tyrrell and Newman and ‘The Intimate Connection between Methods and Their Results’,” in George Tyrrell and Catholic Modernism , ed. Oliver Rafferty (Dublin: Four Courts, 2010), 56–75 James C. Livingston, “George Tyrrell as ‘Modernist’: His Key Theological Principles and His Replies to His Anti-Modernist Critics,” in “In wilder zügelloser Jagd nach Neuem”: 100 Jahre Modernismus und Antimodernismus in der katholischen Kirche , ed. Hubert Wolf and Judith Schepers (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2009), 239–59.

^ Back to text 72. David F. Wells, The Prophetic Theology of George Tyrrell (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1981) David G. Schultenover, George Tyrrell: In Search of Catholicism (Shepherdstown, WV: Patmos, 1981) Ellen M. Leonard, George Tyrrell and the Catholic Tradition (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1982).

^ Back to text 73. Clara Ginther, “George Tyrrell: Eine Stimme aus einer missionarischen Kirche,” in “Blick zurück im Zorn?” Kreative Potentiale des Modernismusstreits , ed. Rainer Bucher et al. (Innsbruck: Tyrolia, 2009), 194–216 Anthony Maher, “Tyrrell’s Ecclesiology: Mysticism Contra Realpolitik,” in George Tyrrell and Catholic Modernism , ed. Oliver Rafferty (Dublin: Four Courts, 2010), 76–93.

^ Back to text 74. Robert N. St. Hilaire II., “Desire Divided: Nature and Grace in the Neo-Thomism of Pierre Rousselot ” (PhD diss., Harvard University, 2008).

^ Back to text 75. Erhard Kunz, Glaube – Gnade – Geschichte: Die Glaubenstheologie des Pierre Rousselot S.J. (Frankfurt am Main: Knecht, 1969) Davide Zordan, “Occhi della fede o luce della grazia? Note per ripensare l’atto di credere nel solco di Pierre Rousselot,” Rassegna di teologia 52 (2011): 103–17. Index of works on Rousselot’s theology: St. Hilaire II., “Desire Divided,” 245–47.

^ Back to text 76. John M. McDermott, “Sheehan, Rousselot, and Theological Method,” Gregorianum 68, no. 3–4 (1987): 705–17 Hans Boersma, Nouvelle théologie and Sacramental Ontology: A Return to Mystery (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 67–83.

^ Back to text 77. Emmanuel Tourpe, “Au principe de Surnaturel: Le thomisme de Pierre Rousselot (1879–1915),” Revue des sciences religieuses 77 (2003): 166–82 John M. McDermott, “De Lubac and Rousselot,” Gregorianum 78, no. 4 (1997): 735–59.

^ Back to text 78. Étienne Fouilloux, “Une ‘école de Fourvière’?,” Gregorianum 83, no. 3 (2002): 451–59 Jürgen Mettepenningen, Nouvelle Théologie – New Theology: Inheritor of Modernism, Precursor of Vatican II (London: T&T Clark, 2010) Gabriel Flynn and Paul D. Murray, eds., Ressourcement: A Movement for Renewal in Twentieth-Century Catholic Theology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 236–77.

^ Back to text 79. Rudolf Voderholzer, Meet Henri de Lubac: His Life and Work , trans. Michael J. Miller (San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press, 2008) David Grumett, De Lubac: A Guide for the Perplexed (London: T&T Clark, 2007). A provocative reading of Surnaturel in the light of Radical Orthodoxy: John Milbank, The Suspended Middle: Henri de Lubac and the Renewed Split in Modern Catholic Theology , 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2014).

^ Back to text 80. Georges Chantraine and Marie-Gabrielle Lemaire, Henri de Lubac , vol. 1–2, 4 (Paris: Cerf, 2007–).

^ Back to text 81. Jean-Pierre Wagner, La théologie fondamentale selon Henri de Lubac (Paris: Cerf, 1997) Jean-Dominique Durand, ed., Henri de Lubac: La rencontre au cœur de l’Église (Paris: Cerf, 2006).

^ Back to text 82. Two recent books on the internal structure of de Lubac’s theology: Dominik Arenz, Paradoxalität als Sakramentalität: Kirche nach der fundamentalen Theologie Henri de Lubacs (Innsbruck: Tyrolia, 2016) Joseph S. Flipper, Between Apocalypse and Eschaton: History and Eternity in Henri de Luba c (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2015).

^ Back to text 83. Manfred Lochbrunner, Hans Urs von Balthasar und seine Theologenkollegen: Sechs Beziehungsgeschichten (Würzburg: Echter, 2009), 18–146 (exchange of letters with Przywara). Thomas F. O’Meara, Erich Przywara, S.J.: His Theology and His World (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002).

^ Back to text 84. For the development and general structure of the theory, see Kenneth R. Oakes, “Three Themes in Przywara’s Early Theology,” Thomist 74 (2010): 283–310 Rafael Francisco Luciani Rivero, El misterio de la diferencia: Un estudio tipológico de la analogía como estructura originaria de la realidad en Tomás de Aquino, Erich Przywara y Hans Urs von Balthasar y su uso en teología trinitaria (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 2002).

^ Back to text 85. Christian Lagger, Dienst: Kenosis in Schöpfung und Kreuz bei Erich Przywara SJ (Innsbruck: Tyrolia, 2007) Peter Lüning, Der Mensch im Angesicht des Gekreuzigten. Untersuchungen zum Kreuzesverständnis von Erich Przywara, Karl Rahner, Jon Sobrino und Hans Urs von Balthasar (Münster: Aschendorff, 2007) Kenneth R. Oakes, “The Cross and the a nalogia e ntis in Erich Przywara,” in The Analogy of Being: Invention of the Antichrist or the Wisdom of God? , ed. Thomas Joseph White (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011), 147–71 Jonathan M. Ciraulo, “Divinization as Christification in Erich Przywara and John Zizioulas,” Modern Theology 32, no. 4 (2016): 479–503.

^ Back to text 86. Eva-Maria Faber, Kirche zwischen Identität und Differenz: Die ekklesiologischen Entwürfe von Romano Guardini und Erich Przywara (Würzburg: Echter, 1993) Aníbal Edwards, “Mariología, espíritu misionero y sentir con la Iglesia: Caras permanentes del legado de Erich Przywara S.J. (1889–1972),” Teología y vida 51, no. 3 (2010): 365–85.

^ Back to text 87. Martha Zechmeister, Gottes-Nacht: Erich Przywaras Weg negativer Theologie (Münster: Lit, 1997).

^ Back to text 88. Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, Karl Rahner, Bibliographie, (accessed December 5, 2016) Lonergan Research Institute Toronto, Lonergan Bibliography , (accessed December 5, 2016).

^ Back to text 89. Bernard Sesboüé, Karl Rahner (Paris: Cerf, 2001) Thomas F. O’Meara, God in the World: A Guide to Karl Rahner’s Theology (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2007) more critical: Karen Kilby, Karl Rahner: A Brief Introduction (New York: Crossroad, 2007).

^ Back to text 90. Andreas R. Batlogg, ed., Der Denkweg Karl Rahners: Quellen – Entwicklungen – Perspektiven (Mainz: Grünewald, 2003) Declan Marmion and Mary E. Hines, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Karl Rahner (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005) Giorgia Salatiello, ed., Karl Rahner: Percorsi di ricerca (Rome: Gregorian & Biblical Press, 2012).

^ Back to text 91. Bernd Jochen Hilberath and Bernhard Nitsche, “Transzendentale Theologie? Beobachtungen zur Rahner-Diskussion der letzten Jahre,” Theologische Quartalschrift 174, no. 4 (1994): 304–15 Nitsche, “Bilanz – Umbrüche – Desiderate: Rahner-Forschungsbericht 1995–2004/05,” Theologische Quartalschrift 185, no. 4 (2005): 303–19 186, no. 1 (2006): 50–65.

^ Back to text 92. Frederick E. Crowe, Lonergan (Collegeville. MN: Liturgical Press, 1992).

^ Back to text 93. Robert M. Doran, “Ignatian Themes in the Thought of Bernard Lonergan,” Toronto Journal of Theology 22, no. 1 (2006): 39–54.

^ Back to text 94. For an overview, see Giovanni B. Sala, “Lonergan, Bernard J.F.,” in Thomistenlexikon , eds. David Berger and Jörgen Vijgen (Bonn: Nova & Vetera, 2006), 388–99 Ulf Jonsson, “Bernard Lonergan und die Frage nach der Methode der Theologie,” in Große Denker des Jesuitenordens , ed. Janez Perčič and Johannes Herzgsell (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2016), 107–20 Pierrot Lambert, Bernard Lonergan: Introduction à sa vie et à son œuvre (Montréal: Guérin, 2008).

^ Back to text 95. Giovanni Caprile, “Vaticano II, Concilio,” in Diccionario histórico de la Compañía de Jesús , vol. 4, 3902–9 Santiago Madrigal Terrazas, Los jesuitas y el Concilio Vaticano II: Meditación histórica en el bicentenario de la restauración de la Compañía de Jesús (Madrid: Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 2014) for the German Jesuits, see Clemens Brodkorb, “Deutsche Jesuiten als Periti auf dem Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil,” in Erneuerung in Christus: Das Zweite Vatikanische Konzil (1962–1965) im Spiegel Münchener Kirchenarchive , ed. Andreas R. Batlogg, Clemens Brodkorb, and Peter Pfister (Regensburg: Schnell und Steiner, 2012), 143–76 for biographies and bibliographies see Michael Quisinsky and Peter Walter, eds., Personenlexikon zum Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil (Freiburg: Herder, 2012).

^ Back to text 96. For Augustin Bea, Otto Semmelroth, Henri de Lubac, and John Courtney Murray, see the section “The Jesuits and Vatican II,” in Massimo Faggioli and Andrea Vicini, eds., The Legacy of Vatican II (New York: Paulist Press, 2015), 185–272.

^ Back to text 97. Santiago Madrigal Terrazas, “Die Aufzeichnungen über die Kirchenkonstitution Lumen gentium im Konzilstagebuch des Frankfurter Theologen Otto Semmelroth SJ,” in Das Zweite Vatikanische Konzil: Impulse und Perspektiven , ed. Dirk Ansorge (Münster: Aschendorff, 2013), 103–40 Dennis M. Doyle, “Otto Semmelroth and the Advance of the Church as Sacrament at Vatican II,” Theological Studies 76, no. 1 (2015): 65–86.

^ Back to text 98. Santiago Madrigal Terrazas, “El Vaticano II en el Diario de Sebastián Tromp,” Razón y fe 260 (2009): 265–82 Stefano Alberto, “Corpus suum mystice constituit” (LG 7): La chiesa corpo mistico di Cristo nel primo capitolo della “Lumen gentium” Storia del testo dalla “Mystici corporis” al Vaticano II con riferimenti alla attività conciliare del P. Sebastiaan Tromp S.J. (Regensburg: Pustet, 1996) Heribert Schauf, “Zur Textgeschichte grundlegender Aussagen aus ‘Lumen Gentium’ über das Bischofskollegium,” Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht 141, no. 1 (1972): 5–147.

^ Back to text 99. Jared Wicks, “Pieter Smulders and Dei Verbum ,” Gregorianum 82, no. 2 (2001): 241–97 82, no. 3 (2001): 559–93 83, no. 2 (2002): 225–67 85, no. 2 (2004): 242–77 86, no. 1 (2005): 92–134.

^ Back to text 100. Michael A. Fahey and José Escalera, “Ecumenismo,” in Diccionario histórico de la Compañía de Jesús , vol. 2, 1193–1201 important additions regarding German-speaking Jesuits: Karl Heinz Neufeld, “Jesuiten und Ökumene: Zur Geschichte eines Verhältnisses,” in Die Entdeckung der Ökumene: Zur Beteiligung der katholischen Kirche an der ökumenischen Bewegung , ed. Jörg Ernesti and Wolfgang Thönissen (Paderborn: Bonifatius, 2008), 81–94 focusing on the institutional collaboration: Jos E. Vercruysse, “Jesuit Contribution to Church Unity: A Historical Overview,” Centrum Ignatianum spiritualitatis 20, no. 1 (1989): 15–41.

^ Back to text 101. Afonso Murad, “Juan Luis Segundo’s Place in Latin American Theology,” trans. Jesús Castillo Coronado, Louvain Studies 22, no. 3 (1997): 245–62 for a socio-political in-depth analysis of different Jesuit stances towards liberation theology, see Malik Tahar Chaouch, “La Compañía de Jesús y la teología de la liberación: Convergencias y divisiones sociopolíticas del catolicismo contemporáneo en América Latina,” Historia y grafía 29 (2007): 95–129.

^ Back to text 102. Marilyn Sunderman, Humanization in the Christology of Juan Luis Segundo (San Francisco, CA: International Scholars Publications, 1996), including a discussion of Segundo’s life, writings, theological methods, and his reinterpretation of the Spiritual Exercises Matthew Tennant, “The Existential Dimension of Juan Luis Segundo’s Ecclesiology,” Ecclesiology 12, no. 2 (2016): 183–96. A refutation of Horacio Bojorge’s fundamental critique of Segundo’s thought: Félix-Alejandro Pastor, “Arcani disciplina: Sobre el pensamiento teológico de Juan Luis Segundo,” Gregorianum 83, no. 3 (2002): 545–58.

^ Back to text 103. Patrick W. Carey, Avery Cardinal Dulles, SJ: A Model Theologian, 1918–2008 (New York: Paulist Press, 2010).

^ Back to text 104. Ross A. Shecterle, The Theology of Revelation of Avery Dulles, 1980–1994: Symbolic Mediation (Lewiston, NY: Mellen University Press, 1996) Christian Lutz, Theologie in der Kirche: Eine Untersuchung der methodologischen Grundlagen der Theologie und des Verständnisses der Katholizität der Kirche bei Avery Kardinal Dulles und bei Leo Kardinal Scheffczyk (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2010).

^ Back to text 105. Jean-Pol Gallez, La théologie comme science herméneutique de la tradition de foi: Une lecture de Dieu qui vient à l’homme de Joseph Moingt (Leuven: Peeters, 2015), with index of works on Moingt’s theology (focused on French publications): ibid., 464–66 on his method of narrative theology: Margit Eckholt, “‘Der Mensch, der von Gott kam’: Zur Suche nach einer Grundlegung systematischer Christologie bei Joseph Moingt Einführung: ‘Théologie du récit’ als Antwort auf die bleibende Herausforderung der Theologie durch die Geschichte,” Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 124, no. 2 (2002): 177–89.

^ Back to text 106. Theresia Hainthaler, “Le Cardinal Alois Grillmeier: Renouveau de la christologie,” in Les Pères de l’Église aux sources de l’Europe , ed. Dominique Gonnet and Michel Stavrou (Paris: Cerf, 2014), 121–46 Michael Slusser, “The Personal Identity of Jesus Christ: Alois Grillmeier’s Contribution to Its Conceptualisation,” in Christians Shaping Identity from the Roman Empire to Byzantium , ed. Geoffrey D. Dunn and Wendy Mayer (Leiden: Brill, 2015), 409–25.

^ Back to text 107. Theresia Hainthaler, “‘Jesus Christus ist der Herr’ (Phil 2,11): Zum Werk von Alois Kardinal Grillmeier S.J. (1910–1998),” Theologie und Philosophie 74, no. 1 (1999): 84–96.

^ Back to text 108. Leo Bakker et al., La teologia di Piet Schoonenberg , ed. Rosino Gibellini, trans. Enrico ten Kortenaar (Brescia: Queriniana, 1973) Alfred Kaiser, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Christologie “von unten”: Der christologische Neuansatz “von unten” bei Piet Schoonenberg und dessen Weiterführung mit Blick auf Nikolaus von Kues (Münster: Aschendorff, 1992) Birgit Blankenberg, Gottes Geist in der Theologie Piet Schoonenbergs (Mainz: Grünewald, 2000) discussing the development of his theology: Herwi Rikhof, “De weg van de theologie bij Piet Schoonenberg,” Bijdragen 73, no. 4 (2012): 353–70.

^ Back to text 109. Mettepenningen, Nouvelle Théologie , 126–37 for an up-to-date bibliography of primary and secondary sources, see Mettepenningen, “Schoonenberg, Piet,” in Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon , vol. 30 (Nordhausen: Bautz, 2009), 1297–1300.

^ Back to text 110. Kevin F. Burke, The Ground Beneath the Cross: The Theology of Ignacio Ellacuría (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000) for Ellacuría’s sources and reception, see Kevin F. Burke and Robert Lassalle-Klein, eds., Love That Produces Hope: The Thought of Ignacio Ellacuría (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2006).

^ Back to text 111. Francisco de Aquino Júnior, Theologie als Einsicht in die Gottesherrschaft: Die Methode der Befreiungstheologie nach Ignacio Ellacuría , trans. Monika Ottermann (Regensburg: Pustet, 2014) Rodolfo Cardenal, “Itinerario intelectual de Ignacio Ellacuría,” in Ignacio Ellacuría: Intelectual, filósofo y teólogo (Valencia: ADG-N, 2012), 11–29 Martin Maier, “La influencia de Karl Rahner en la teología de Ignacio Ellacuría,” Revista latinoamericana de teología 39 (1996): 233–55 44 (1998): 163–87.

^ Back to text 112. J. Matthew Ashley, Kevin F. Burke, and Rodolfo Cardenal, eds., A Grammar of Justice: The Legacy of Ignacio Ellacuría (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2014) Gabriele Fadini, Ignacio Ellacuría (Brescia: Morcelliana, 2012).

^ Back to text 113. Gerald O’Collins, “Jacques Dupuis: The Ongoing Debate,” Theological Studies 74, no. 3 (2013): 632–54. A critical discussion of his theology of religions: Alexander Löffler, Religionstheologie auf dem Prüfstand: Jacques Dupuis im Dialog mit dem Zen-Meister Thich Nhat Hanh und dem Dalai Lama (Würzburg: Echter, 2010), 23–92.

^ Back to text 114. Daniel Kendall and Gerald O’Collins, eds., In Many and Diverse Ways: In Honor of Jacques Dupuis (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2003).

^ Back to text 115. Avery Dulles, Saint Ignatius and the Jesuit Theological Tradition (St. Louis, MO: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1982), 16.

^ Back to text 116. Michael J. Buckley, The Catholic University as Promise and Project: Reflections in a Jesuit Idiom (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1998), 74–102.

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